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Audrey M. Edmonson

Audrey M. Edmonson was born on January 27, 1953 in Miami, Florida. She graduated from Miami Jackson Senior High School in Miami, Florida in 1971. Edmonson earned her A.A. degree in psychology from Miami Dade College in 1991, and her B.A. degree in psychology from Florida International University in 1994. Edmonson received her dual M.S. degree in marriage family therapy and mental health counseling from Barry University in 1997.

In 1997, she was elected as a councilperson to the Village of El Portal City Council in Florida. In 1999, she was elected mayor of the Village of El Portal, Florida and became the city’s second African American mayor. During the same year, Edmonson began working as a trust specialist in the Miami Dade Public School system. Edmonson was re-elected three successive terms and became the municipality's first mayor to be elected by residents rather than by the members of the Village Council. Under her leadership, the Village hired its first Village Manager. In 2005, when she was elected as commissioner for the 3rd District on the Miami-Dade County Commission. She was re-elected three more times and in 2010 and 2016, she was elected to serve as vice chair. In 2018, Edmonson was elected to serve as president of the Miami-Dade County Commission.

Edmonson was chairwoman of the Housing and Social Services Committee and the Building Safer Neighborhoods Sub-Committee. She also served as vice chairwoman of the Transportation and Public Works Committee and the Chairman’s Policy Council, and as a member of the Youth Crime Task Force. She served as the vice chairwoman of the Miami Dade Expressway Authority (MDX) Board of Directors. Edmonson was appointed to the Miami-Dade County HIV/AIDS “Getting to Zero” Task Force and served as Chairwoman of the Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) I-395 Signature Bridge-Aesthetic Steering Committee. She also serves on the Miami-Dade Economic Advocacy Trust and the Public Health Trust nominating councils, the Public Health Trust/Miami-Dade Annual Operating Agreement Committee, the Jackson Health System Obligation Bond Citizens’ Advisory Committee and the County Advisory Task Force for the Byrne Criminal Justice Innovation Program Planning and Implementation Project which is referred locally as Project PEACE: People Engaged and Advocating for Community Empowerment. Vice Chairwoman Edmonson serves as the Vice Chair of the International Trade Consortium Board.

In addition to her work as a city commissioner, Edmonson was also involved in many different community organizations. She was a member of the Top Ladies of Distinction, Inc. and the Links, Incorporated. She also helped create the Miami Children’s Initiative in 2006, where she served as a board member. Edmonson served as a board member for the Frost Science Museum, the JMH Citizen’s Advisory Board, and the JMH Nominating Committee. Edmonson was recognized for her community work by South Florida Magazine, which named her one of “South Florida’s 50 Most Powerful Black Professionals.”

Edmonson has two children, Dr. Ebony Nicole Dunn and Louis Ivory Edmonson and three grandchildren.

Audrey M. Edmonson was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on March 10, 2017.

Accession Number

A2017.035

Sex

Female

Interview Date

03/10/2017

Last Name

Edmonson

Maker Category
Schools

Barry University

Florida International University

Miami Dade College

Miami Jackson Senior High School

Georgia Jones-Ayers Middle School

Lenora Braynon Smith Elementary School

Liberty City Elementary School

First Name

Audrey

Birth City, State, Country

Miami

HM ID

EDM05

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Florida

Favorite Vacation Destination

Cape Town, South Africa

Favorite Quote

It's Not That You Can't Do Something It's How You Can Get It Done.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Florida

Birth Date

1/27/1953

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Miami

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Snapper

Short Description

Mayor and city commissioner Audrey M. Edmonson (1953 - ) was mayor of the Village of El Portal for six years before serving the Miami Dade Board of Commissioners for twelve years.

Employment

Miami Dade County

Village of El Portal

Miami Dade Schools

AT Services

Eastern Airlines

New Horizons Community Mental Health Center

Favorite Color

Purple

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Audrey M. Edmonson's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Audrey M. Edmonson lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Audrey M. Edmonson describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Audrey M. Edmonson talks about her mother's family in Nassau, Bahamas

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Audrey M. Edmonson describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Audrey M. Edmonson talks about her mother's marriages

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Audrey M. Edmonson describes her earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Audrey M. Edmonson describes the sights, sounds and smells of her childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Audrey M. Edmonson remembers her early neighborhood of Liberty City in Miami, Florida

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Audrey M. Edmonson talks about attending church and completing chores on the weekends

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Audrey M. Edmonson lists her siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Audrey M. Edmonson remembers transferring between elementary schools in Miami, Florida

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Audrey M. Edmonson recalls moving from Liberty City to a majority white neighborhood

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Audrey M. Edmonson remembers attending Allapattah Junior High School in Miami, Florida

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Audrey M. Edmonson talks about Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Audrey M. Edmonson recalls staging a sit-in to integrate her high school cheerleading team

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Audrey M. Edmonson describes her high school extracurricular activities

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Audrey M. Edmonson recalls becoming one of the first African American flight attendants at Eastern Air Lines

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Audrey M. Edmonson describes the process to become a flight attendant

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Audrey M. Edmonson recalls her experiences with racism as a flight attendant, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Audrey M. Edmonson recalls her experiences with racism as a flight attendant, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Audrey M. Edmonson talks about her career at Eastern Air Lines

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Audrey M. Edmonson talks about the social dynamics of being a flight attendant

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Audrey M. Edmonson remembers meeting her former husband, Louis Edmonson

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Audrey M. Edmonson describes her children

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Audrey M. Edmonson talks about the changes in reglations for a flight attendant at Eastern Air Lines

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Audrey M. Edmonson recalls starting her cleaning company, AT Services

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Audrey M. Edmonson talks about adopting her second child, Louis Ivory Edmonson

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Audrey M. Edmonson describes her college education

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Audrey M. Edmonson talks about her first involvement in political campaigns

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Audrey M. Edmonson describes her work with the New Horizons Community Mental Health Center in Miami, Florida

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$2

DAStory

3$6

DATitle
Audrey M. Edmonson recalls staging a sit-in to integrate her high school cheerleading team
Audrey M. Edmonson describes the process to become a flight attendant
Transcript
So, you say it was because of Dr. King [Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.] that they weren't allowed to do these things?$$No. It was because of Dr. King that we finally did something about this at Miami Edison High School [Miami Edison Senior High School, Miami, Florida]. We--$$This is after you moved to that school?$$Yeah. Only--I was at Edison for a year.$$Okay.$$Ninth grade.$$Okay.$$I'm in ninth grade now.$$Okay. Got it.$$So, I'm growing up a little bit.$$That's fine.$$(Laughter) So, what we did--$$And, this is the predominately white school--$$Yes.$$--where they're not allowing the girls to--$$Correct.$$--to participate.$$The boys were allowed to play in the sports.$$Okay.$$The girls were allowed to play sports. But, they did not choose any blacks who were--and we had a lot that went out for the cheerleaders and the, the Raiderettes, which are the swingettes or whatever you call them. And, it was another group of girls. So, we, we had to meet, they--how, I don't know how we pulled this off, you know, we were kids. We, it was secretly going out, a meeting was gonna be, and they gave us the address. And, I remember the, the girl's last name was White [ph.]. And, we went over to her home that night, and the word was, "Don't come unless you bring your parents with you." And, I was afraid but I knew I wanted to go to this meeting. So, I finally approached my mom [Florence Smith Downs] and I said, "Mom, they gonna have a meeting at a house tonight" (laughter). I say, "And, they say we can't come unless we bring our parents." And, she asked me, what was it about? And, I told her, you know, that--they didn't put any young ladies on the cheerleader squad, they didn't put any--and she says, "And, you're gonna meet over there about that?" She said, "That can be trouble." And, I said, "I know, but I wanna go. And, I can't go unless you go." She said no more. We got in the car later on that evening and we drove over there and I was shocked. She gave me my permission to do a sit-in. And, we did a sit-in the next day and it took the school by surprise. And, the media was there. So, they placed one, one young lady. They didn't have another, no type of competitive thing. They placed one young lady on the cheerleaders, one on the Raiderettes and one on the, the other group.$$So it worked.$$It worked. And, we sat there on the floor quietly. And, I remember (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) For how long?$$--the, the young lady's father was a doctor, and he's the one that really facilitated everything. And, he told us, no matter what, just sit there, don't open our mouths, and do not use any profane language, don't talk back, just sit there. And, that what we did.$$Do you remember how long you sat there?$$We had to have sat there for at least two hours because I think the superintendent, everybody came at--to the school. So, it was a big thing. It was in the news.$$They couldn't believe you were doing that.$$They couldn't believe we did that.$$Even though these things were happening across the country--$$And, we sat there and we blocked the office door, right in the hallway.$$And, how many of you were there?$$It had to be a good--because, now when we were at the house, it was only about thirty or forty of us. But, somehow when we did the sit-in, it had to have been a good fifty, sixty, I mean, it was triple the amount of us that were at the house.$$And, was everybody black?$$Um-hm, all black. I think the word got around. And, if you were black you came, and you sat.$$Were you afraid?$$No. I enjoyed it. You know, I was young. You know, nothing could happen to me. I was invincible.$Was that part of the interview process [for Eastern Air Lines], just your comfort on a plane?$$That could've been because that was discussed. They gave me a test. I took the test. That was, you know, the test I took, I couldn't believe the test, you know, it was, "Would you rather be a bishop or, or a cardinal?" And, you know, I remember things like that on this test that I took. And, I just took the test and then my last interview was before a panel and as they--at the end one of them said, "Audrey [HistoryMaker Audrey M. Edmonson], we think we're gonna take you on." And, back then, the things they did they wouldn't dare to now. Because the first interview I had to walk from one side of the room to the other side. So, they could see me walk. And, they asked me to stoop down. But, I did remember from home ec [home economics], you never bend (laughter). So, I did do it at the knees (laughter). So, I did remember some things.$$So, so it was, because, I mean, the original stewardesses as we, you know, see in movies and everything are (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Skinny.$$--skinny, fashionable--$$They weighed us every time we came in.$$Right. They did?$$Yeah. They had the scale right to the door.$$And, what did you have to (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) And, if you were on probation, you got weighed every trip.$$Why would you be on probation?$$Because you had a six months probationary period when you first started out.$$And, what did you have to weigh (simultaneous)?$$(Simultaneous) They could just let you go for no reason.$$What was the weight requirement?$$When I started, I was 5'7". I had to keep my weight under 126. I could not go over 126 pounds.$$And, were you, was that easy or difficult for you (simultaneous)?$$(Simultaneous) It was difficult. Because when they hired me I was 132 pounds. And, she asked me if I thought I could lose the weight by that very last interview. I wanted that job. I even--I used to even bite my nails. I stopped biting my nails. I lost the weight, and I was about 124 at that last interview.$$Just in the process of the interview. And, this is across what period of time?$$About a three month period.$$So, they needed, you needed to get to the 126 in order for them to hire you?$$Um-hm. I guess they wanted to see how motivated I was. Or, how much motivation I had. And, I had it.$$And, at this time it didn't, it didn't bother you that there were these kinds of requirements?$$No. Well, I didn't know any better. I even had to dye my hair because on my first interview, I think it was my first and second interview, I wore an Afro wig. So, at that time, and you'll see that (laughter), when you look at my pictures, at one point in time I was blonde (laughter). My hair was blonde underneath. So, they had no idea. So, when I came to, I think the second interview, I told her, I says, "Now, my hair is kind of blonde-ish." And, she was surprised 'cause she thought the wig was my hair. She says, "Well, what do you mean, blonde-ish?" And, I kind of did that little number to her. And, she says, "Well, are you willing to dye it black?" (Laughter) And I said, I said, "Yes, I'll dye it." I wanted this job. And, she says, "Now, what if we don't hire you? What if they decide they're not gonna hire you in the next interview?" I says, "Well, that's okay, I'll just dye it back blonde," (laughter). And, she gave a little chuckle and--$$So, for the third interview, you'd lost the weight, dyed you hair (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Third interview, lost the weight, stopped biting my nails, and dyed my hair.$$And, how were you wearing it? 'Cause now, you're not having on an Afro wig, what style are you wearing it?$$Shorter Afro.$$Okay. So, it was--so, they didn't mind the Afro?$$No. They did mind the Afros. Let me tell you what they did. As a matter of fact, in the class that I was in there were, we had three blacks. One was really not in the class, she was in the class ahead of us but she got sick so she finished out in our class. But, there were, we had two blacks in my class that went through. And, they brought us from all over the country. Both of us had Afros. For some reason they kind of liked her Afro. They didn't like mine. So, at the end of the class when they see that they're actually going to graduate you, they sent all of us to the, the beauty parlor. So, I'm sitting up there, I'm telling the girl how I want my hair. She says, "But, that's not what it says on the paper." And, this is, we were the first class that they actually sent to a black salon. They had been sending (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Oh, you're at a black salon, okay.$$--the black girls to the white salons. We were the first. They sent us to Supreme Wig and Beauty Supply [sic. Supreme Wig and Beauty Salon, Miami, Florida]. And, the girl stands there, and she's looking at it (laughter), she says, "Well, this is not what I'm supposed to do." I said, "What do you mean, this is not what you're supposed to be?" She says, "I'm supposed to relax your hair and cut it into a bob." And, that's what she did. She put a relaxer on my head.$$Had you ever had a relaxer?$$Yeah, I did have a relaxer back when I was in high school. I took up cosmetology. So, I played around--that's how I got the blonde hair, just playing around with my hair.$$So, again, you wanted the job. So, you're like--$$Yeah.$$I'll do it.$$I did it.

Ivan Yaeger

Inventor and nonprofit executive Ivan Yaeger was born on June 7, 1967 in Miami, Florida to Elliott Yaegar, Jr. and Ollie Yaegar. He attended Miami Shores Elementary School and North Miami Junior High School before he graduated from Miami Central Senior High School in 1984. Yaeger went on to earn his B.B.A. degree in business management and organization from the University of Miami in 1988.

While at the University of Miami, Yaeger filed his first patent for the Yaeger Prosthetic Arm, a prosthetic arm controlled through activating sensors on the human body. He also began the Yaeger Innovative Products Corporation in 1996 and became its chief executive officer. In 1991, Yaeger began working as a pupil advocate for AESOP, a mentoring program for minorities within Miami Dade Public Schools. Yaeger then founded the Yaeger Foundation, Inc. in 1995 which in 1997 started the Technology Leaders Initiative, a workshop program for students of all ages. During the same year, Yaegar became the corporate relations manager for INROADS, Inc. In 2000, Yaeger founded Yaeger Companies, which combined all of his previous endeavors under the name of one company. He gained national attention when he created prosthetic arms for an eleven-year-old named Diamond Excell, who was born without arms. Yaeger filed another patent in 2006, for a mechanical hand kit that was used in the Technology Leaders Initiative.

In addition to his work with the Yaeger Foundation, Yaeger also served his community through service on a variety of boards that included the Wellness Committee for Miami Dade Public Schools and the Miami Children’s Initiative.

Ivan and The Yaeger Arm have appeared in over one hundred broadcasts and publications such as The Today Show, National Medical Association Journal, M.I.T Inventor of the Week Archive, The Johns Hopkins Newsletter, Jet magazine, People magazine and the United States Patent & Trademark Office’s website and Minority Inventors: America’s Tapestry of Innovation video.

Yaeger has been recognized and honored for his innovations and community involvement many times. In 1992, he received the Father Surrogate of the Year Award from the Urban League. In 2002, the U.S. Patent Office named him as a distinguished innovator. He was also the recipient of the ICON Award in 2006 and the Distinguished Achievement Award in 2011. Yaeger was inducted into the Miami Dade Public Schools Hall of Fame in 2017.

Ivan Yaeger was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on March 10, 2017.

Accession Number

A2017.063

Sex

Male

Interview Date

03/10/2017

Last Name

Yaeger

Maker Category
Schools

Miami Shores Elementary School

North Miami Middle School

Archbishop Curley Notre Dame High School

Miami Central Senior High School

University of Miami

First Name

Ivan

Birth City, State, Country

Miami

HM ID

YAE01

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Florida

Favorite Vacation Destination

Palm Beach, Florida

Favorite Quote

If Your Mind Can Conceive It And Your Heart Believe It Then You Can Achieve It.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Florida

Birth Date

6/7/1967

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Miami

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Lobster

Short Description

Inventor and nonprofit executive Ivan Yaeger (1967 - ) invented the Yaeger Prosthetic Arm, and served as founder and CEO of Yaeger Companies and the Yaeger Foundation.

Employment

Y.I.P. Corporation

Miami Dade Public Schools

The Yaeger Foundation, Inc.

INROADS S. Florida, Inc.

The Yaeger Companies

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:875,21:1445,28:3155,54:5815,113:6480,132:14519,423:28618,537:29257,549:40016,706:43729,754:48357,905:68471,1442:69005,1450:69450,1470:78420,1513$0,0:1173,21:2277,62:2553,68:2829,74:3105,79:3657,88:4761,112:5175,119:6210,140:9724,267:18652,378:33342,667:37962,734:42847,982:69500,1263
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Ivan Yaeger's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Ivan Yaeger lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Ivan Yaeger describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Ivan Yaeger describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Ivan Yaeger talks about how his parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Ivan Yaeger describes his likeness to his father

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Ivan Yaeger lists his siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Ivan Yaeger describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Ivan Yaeger describes the sounds and smells of his childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Ivan Yaeger talks about his early awareness of race

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Ivan Yaeger recalls his early interest in engineering

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Ivan Yaeger remembers moving to Miami Shores, Florida

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Ivan Yaeger describes his early academic interests

Tape: 1 Story: 14 - Ivan Yaeger remembers learning about science from his father

Tape: 1 Story: 15 - Ivan Yaeger recalls the start of his interest in prosthetics

Tape: 1 Story: 16 - Ivan Yaeger remembers his favorite children's television shows

Tape: 1 Story: 17 - Ivan Yaeger recalls building his first prosthetic device

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Ivan Yaeger describes his first prosthetic arm invention

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Ivan Yaeger recalls his activities at Miami Central Senior High School in Miami, Florida

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Ivan Yaeger remembers graduating from Miami Central Senior High School

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Ivan Yaeger remembers securing his first patent for a prosthetic device

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Ivan Yaeger remembers founding the Yaeger Innovative Products Corporations

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Ivan Yaeger describes his education at the University of Miami

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Ivan Yaeger recalls his early success with the Yaeger Innovative Products Corporation

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Ivan Yaeger describes the Afrocentric Enhancement, Self-Esteem Opportunity Program

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Ivan Yaeger talks about The Yaeger Foundation

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Ivan Yaeger remembers working for INROADS, Inc.

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Ivan Yaeger remembers his mentees at INROADS, Inc.

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Ivan Yaeger describes his inventing process

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Ivan Yaeger remembers creating the Technology Leaders Initiative

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Ivan Yaeger talks about his corporate and academic partners

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Ivan Yaeger recalls founding The Yaeger Companies

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Ivan Yaeger remembers the Y2K scare

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Ivan Yaeger remembers creating prosthetic arms for Diamond Excell

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Ivan Yaeger describes the advancements in prosthetic technology

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Ivan Yaeger remembers the celebration for Diamond Excell's prosthetic arms

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Ivan Yaeger describes his Bionic/Robotic Hand Kit competition

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Ivan Yaeger talks about building Yeager Plaza in Miami, Florida

Tape: 3 Story: 12 - Ivan Yaeger describes his medical partnerships

Tape: 3 Story: 13 - Ivan Yaeger describes his plans for the future

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Ivan Yaeger talks about the future of prosthetic technology

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Ivan Yaeger describes his family's role in The Yaeger Companies

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Ivan Yaeger reflects upon his life

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Ivan Yaeger describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Ivan Yaeger describes about his family

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Ivan Yaeger talks about the importance of defying stereotypes

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Ivan Yaeger describes how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Ivan Yaeger narrates his photographs, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Ivan Yaeger narrates his photographs, pt. 2

DASession

1$1

DATape

1$3

DAStory

17$9

DATitle
Ivan Yaeger recalls building his first prosthetic device
Ivan Yaeger remembers the celebration for Diamond Excell's prosthetic arms
Transcript
Here you are, you're eleven years old when you decide that you're going to build a prosthetic arm. Now, how--so what was your--was your plan to make an arm that actually moved--$$Yes.$$--on its own?$$Absolutely.$$Okay.$$And, and I had so many remote control cars and other electronic toys and things that I figured I could take parts out of. So, I thought I was, you know, pretty well set to start experimenting and make this arm actually have articulated joints and operate electrically.$$Okay. So, what did you come up with? What, what was it like?$$This was an arm that had an electric elbow and hand, powered by batteries. And it had the grasping motion and the elbow flexion. And so, it was the basic movements of the, of the human arm, built with a lot of erector set parts, remote control car parts, and some things that were taken out of household appliances, and things that are around the house that I could get my hands on.$$All right. Did you have to replace those things at some point?$$There was that time of them coming over and finding out that something was taken apart. It was actually working before they left the room. So, I had, I had some moments of being in trouble, but after a while, they said, "We'll make a deal. We'll give you all the things that have broken. When they break, we'll give them to you, and you get some tools and you can, you can experiment." So, I, I was fortunate to end up with a box full of parts after a while that I was able to play around with.$$Okay.$Okay. Well, tell us about the, Diamond [Diamond Excell], you know, what, what actually happened and how did it really change her, her pro- prospects?$$It, it, to kind of--to give a little background of what happened to--when she received her arms, one of the things that she said when I asked her, "Well, what's the first thing you're going to do when you get your arms?" She said, "I'm going to hug my mom [Dalia Excell] for the first time with my own arms." And that was something that really drove us and inspired us, so we had a big celebration. It was her birthday, and the arms were her birthday present. She was going to go to seventh grade the following year. And so, reporters from around the world were there to watch this moment of what was considered impossible become possible. And over a hundred news outlets covered it. And whether she walked out and went to the, front of the, the room to the stage, and hugged her mom with her arms the first time. And so, that was an exciting moment. It was inspiration for both of us who worked on the project. It was seeing her face when that dream became reality. And, and for her to have a chance to know what it would be like to have upper limbs, which is something that we all take for granted.

Regina Jollivette Frazier

Pharmacist Regina Jollivette Frazier was born on September 30, 1943, in Miami, Florida to pharmacist Cyrus Martin Jollivette, who founded Liberty City’s Community Drug Store in 1948, and teacher Frances Reeves Jollivette Chambers, the youngest daughter of The Miami Times founder Henry E. S. Reeves. Frazier graduated valedictorian from Northwestern Senior High School in 1961, Frazier received her B.S. degree in pharmacy from Howard University in Washington, D.C., in 1966, and her M.B.A. degree from the University of Miami in 1983.

In 1968, Frazier accepted a pharmacist position at Peoples Drug and the National Association of Retired Teachers & American Association of Retired Persons Drug Service. In 1970, she returned to Miami as senior pharmacist for the University of Miami Hospital and Clinics. Three years later, Frazier was promoted to Director of Pharmacy, a position she held until she retired in 2007. As Director of Pharmacy, Frazier also served as a Preceptor for the University of Florida’s College of Pharmacy as well as a Clinical Field Instructor for Florida A&M University’s College of Pharmacy.

Frazier served on numerous boards, including the United Way of Miami-Dade, New World School of the Arts, National Coalition on Black Voter Participation, the Commonwealth Institute, YWCA of Greater Miami-Dade, of which she is a life member, Miami-Dade County Addiction Services, University of Miami Medical Sciences Subcommittee for the Protection of Human Subjects, and Breakthrough Miami. She was also chairperson of the Girl Scout Council of Tropical Florida, which awarded her the Thanks Badge, and the Miami-Dade County Zoning Appeals Board.

She joined The Links, Incorporated, in 1970, and served as National President from 1986 until 1990, and is the youngest person to hold the position. While National President, she chartered the organization’s first international chapter in Nassau, Bahamas. Frazier also holds membership in Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Inc., the Orange Bowl Committee, and the International Woman’s Forum.

Frazier was also active with the Association of Black Health-Systems Pharmacists, from which she received the Pharmacist of the Year award in 1990, the American Society of Health-Systems Pharmacists, and the National Pharmaceutical Association.

Frazier received numerous recognitions, including Florida Memorial College’s Sarah A. Blocker Meritorious Community Service Award; Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc., Beta Beta Lambda Chapter’s Distinguished Community Service Award; Women’s Committee of 100 Trail Blazer Award; Women in Communication’s Community Headliner Award; Bronze Medallion of The National Conference of Christians and Jews; Anti-Defamation League’s Woman of Achievement Award; In the Company of Women Award; United Way Starfish Award; Association of Black Health-System Pharmacists’ Meritorious Service Award; and Red Cross’s Sara Hopkins Woodruff Spectrum Award in Community Service.

She was also cited as one of Ebony magazine’s One Hundred Most Influential Black Americans from 1987 to 1990, and in 1988, as one of Dollars and Sense magazine’s selection of America’s Top 100 Black Business and Professional Women.

Frazier and her husband have three children: Ronald Eugene II, Robert Christophe, and Rozalynn Suzanne.

Regina Jollivette Frazier was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on March 8, 2017.

Accession Number

A2017.049

Sex

Female

Interview Date

03/08/2017

Last Name

Frazier

Maker Category
Middle Name

Jollivette

Occupation
Schools

Paul Laurence Dunbar Elementary School

Holy Redeemer Catholic School

Miami Northwestern Senior High School

University of Miami

Howard University

First Name

Regina

Birth City, State, Country

Miami

HM ID

FRA13

Favorite Season

Christmas

State

Florida

Favorite Vacation Destination

Anywhere International

Favorite Quote

Service Is The Price You Pay For The Space You Occupy.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Florida

Birth Date

9/30/1943

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Miami

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Lobster

Short Description

Pharmacist Regina Jollivette Frazier (1943 - ) worked at the University of Miami Hospitals and Clinics in the pharmacy department for thirty-seven years.

Employment

University of Miami Hospitals and Clinics

Peoples Drug

Favorite Color

Black

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Regina Jollivette Frazier's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Regina Jollivette Frazier lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Regina Jollivette Frazier describes her mother's family background, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Regina Jollivette Frazier describes her mother's family background, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Regina Jollivette Frazier describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Regina Jollivette Frazier talks about her father's education and career

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Regina Jollivette Frazier talks about how her parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Regina Jollivette Frazier describes her likeness to her mother

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Regina Jollivette Frazier lists her siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Regina Jollivette Frazier describes her earliest memory

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Regina Jollivette Frazier talks about the National Conference of Christians and Jews

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Regina Jollivette Frazier describes her communities in Miami, Florida

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Regina Jollivette Frazier describes the sights, sounds and smells of her childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Regina Jollivette Frazier remembers her parents' protectiveness

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Regina Jollivette Frazier describes the Holy Redeemer Catholic School in Miami, Florida

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Regina Jollivette Frazier remembers Miami Northwestern Senior High School in Miami, Florida

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Regina Jollivette Frazier remembers travelling through the segregated South

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Regina Jollivette Frazier recalls her teachers at Miami Northwestern Senior High School in Miami, Florida

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Regina Jollivette Frazier recalls her interest in journalism

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Regina Jollivette Frazier remembers her maternal grandfather, Henry E.S. Reeves

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Regina Jollivette Frazier remembers her family's famous guests

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Regina Jollivette Frazier talks about her decision to attend Howard University in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Regina Jollivette Frazier talks about the activism on campus at Howard University

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Regina Jollivette Frazier remembers the riots in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Regina Jollivette Frazier remembers her classmates at Howard University

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Regina Jollivette Frazier talks about her pharmacy internships

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Regina Jollivette Frazier remembers her professors at Howard University

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Regina Jollivette Frazier describes her graduation from Howard University

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Regina Jollivette Frazier remembers meeting her husband

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Regina Jollivette Frazier remembers joining the staff of the University of Miami Hospitals and Clinics

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Regina Jollivette Frazier describes her role as the pharmacy director of the University of Miami Hospital and Clinics

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Regina Jollivette Frazier talks about drug theft prevention

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Regina Jollivette Frazier describes the problems with pharmaceutical branding

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Regina Jollivette Frazier talks about the development of robotic prescriptions dispensary systems

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Regina Jollivette Frazier talks about her responsibilities and colleagues

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Regina Jollivette Frazier describes her membership in The Links

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Regina Jollivette Frazier talks about her national presidency of The Links, Incorporated

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Regina Jollivette Frazier describes 'Linkages and Legacies'

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Regina Jollivette Frazier talks about her volunteer work

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Regina Jollivette Frazier describes her efforts to improve relations between police and the community

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Regina Jollivette Frazier talks about the gentrification of Miami, Florida

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Regina Jollivette Frazier describes her current volunteer activities

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Regina Jollivette Frazier talks about her family

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Regina Jollivette Frazier reflects upon her career

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Regina Jollivette Frazier reflects upon the challenges of a pharmacy career

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Regina Jollivette Frazier reflects upon her life

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Regina Jollivette Frazier describes her concerns for the African American community

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Regina Jollivette Frazier talks about her children

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Regina Jollivette Frazier describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Regina Jollivette Frazier narrates her photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$4

DAStory

1$7

DATitle
Regina Jollivette Frazier describes her role as the pharmacy director of the University of Miami Hospital and Clinics
Regina Jollivette Frazier talks about her national presidency of The Links, Incorporated
Transcript
Okay, now what was your position when you came on in 1970?$$I was a staff pharmacist, I think. I'm saying I think because the university [University of Miami Hospital and Clinics, Miami, Florida] was terrific with titles you know. I think I went from staff pharmacist to senior pharmacist, from senior pharmacist to director of pharmacy and I guess I just wasn't creative enough over the years because at one time I opined to someone, I said, "Maybe if I change my title to grand exulted director of pharmacy, I could get more money."$$So you became--I have here that you became the director in '73 [1973], is that true?$$Yes.$$Okay.$$Right. I mean it was a big deal you know. The Miami Herald covered it. I was in my twenties and so.$$Okay. Okay. Well what were--what was the nature of what you had to do and, and--$$As director?$$Yeah, and the conditions that you worked in.$$Well, what I had to do was make sure the pharmacy [at National Children's Cardiac Hospital; UM Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, Miami, Florida] ran smoothly and that it met all of the legal requirements and that the drugs were there when they needed them. So it was, make it work.$$Okay so, so many people who are gonna be watching this have never been a pharmacist, can you just walk us through a typical day as a director of a big pharmacy like this for a hospital (simultaneous)?$$(Simultaneous) Well you know the thing is that every day is different. It was, when I started I was filling prescriptions when I--or drug orders. When I ended I hadn't been near filling an order in, in years so when I started the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations [Joint Commission] was just a joint commission on accreditation of hospitals and they had one sheet of paper, I think eight and a half by eleven, that wasn't even covered with writing and those were the requirements for hospital pharmacies. When I left there was a book about this thick okay, on the requirements so that's why there was something different every day. I also had the opportunity to serve on the IRB, which is the board, it's the investigational review board [institutional review board] that reviews proposed protocols for the institution that are testing drugs for possible entry into the market. There were just all kinds of things that you did. You know there was designing the pharmacy, there was hiring the staff, monitoring the staff, just whatever, whatever it took.$$So this is a hospital pharmacy--$$Yes.$$--and so the people--$$It had a hospital and it had clinics and it was, it concentrated on cancer therapy after, after a few years.$$Okay. And so how do you best design that, you said part of your job is designing the facility right?$$Well, one of the ways you do that is by attending the mid-year clinical which is held every December. When I went to my first mid-year clinical, I think it was maybe the seventh one they had. There were about maybe twenty five hundred people there. Now, this year was the fifty-first. I stopped going after, after I retired and they probably had twenty, twenty-five thousand people there. So it's the largest meeting in the world and so you get to hear all these speakers. You get to see all these exhibits you know and you get to one of the most important thing for me was the review of the joint commission new requirements so that I was right there knowing exactly what they were going to, to be reviewing when they came by and I never had a problem ever.$Tell us about what are the activities of The Links [The Links, Incorporated] and, and, you know what, what, what did you do, what was your agenda during your term?$$My agenda was to make the, the chain of friendship that encircled the globe not only figurative but literal, and to that end I charted the first international chapter in Nassau, the Bahamas. Subsequently I charted a second international chapter in Frankfurt [Germany]. That did not survive because it was related to the [U.S.] military people who were stationed in Germany and when that ended, people started coming back to the United States and we could not sustain the chap- not we, they could not sustain the chapter there because it was, it was operative for I would say 1990, 2000 at least twenty years I think. And then I had the great pleasure of inducting Leontyne Price as an honorary member. And during my presidency we had four program facets. We now have five, but we had the arts, services to you, national transcend services and international transcend services and our programs are built around those. So we had a program called Project L.E.A.D. High Expectations in which we collaborated with other organizations, national organizations like Sigma Pi Phi, Boule, like Jack and Jill of America [Jack and Jill of America, Inc.] for example and this was to stop--encourage kids not to take drugs you know it was a, it had a just say no component to it and we ran a pilot in, I forget how many cities, and at the time that was the largest grant we had. It would--ended up being about three quarters of a million dollars so those were big programming funds in those days.$$So where did the grant money come from?$$I knew you were gonna ask me that. I wanna think it was NIDA, which is the National Institute for Drug Abuse [sic. National Institute on Drug Abuse] under NIH.$$Okay, National Institute of Health [sic. National Institutes of Health], right okay--$$Um-hm.$$--okay.$$And that program is still going today.$$Okay.$$We call it one of our signature programs.$$Okay. So, now you were--you're president from '86 [1986] until when?$$Ninety [1990].$$Okay. So it's a four year term?$$Yes. Well actually at that--things change, you know the more things change, the more they remain the same, at that time it was a two year term and then I was reelected.$$Okay so it's two, two year terms, okay (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) Um-hm.

Carmen Lundy

Jazz singer, arranger and composer Carmen Lundy was born on November 1, 1954 in Miami, Florida. Her mother, Oveida, was the lead singer in a gospel group; her younger brother, Curtis Lundy, is a jazz bassist. Inspired by those around her, Lundy began playing the piano at age six, and started singing in her church choir at age twelve. She went on to attend the University of Miami, where she received her B.M. degree in studio music and jazz.

At the age of sixteen, Lundy began her professional career in Miami, then moved to New York City in 1978 where she worked with numerous Jazz veterans. The following year, she made her first appearance on an album with a group called Jasmine; and, in 1980, formed her own group, performing with pianists John Hicks and Onaje Gumbs. In 1985, Lundy released her first solo album, entitled Good Morning Kiss, which remained at the #3 spot on Billboard’s Jazz Chart for twenty-three weeks. Subsequent records included Night and Day, Self Portrait, Old Devil Moon, This Is Carmen Lundy, Jazz and the New Songbook: Live at the Madrid, Come Home, Solamente, Changes, and Soul To Soul, among others. In all, Lundy has released fourteen albums and has published over 100 songs. Her compositions have been recorded by such artists as Kenny Barron, Ernie Watts, Terri Lyne Carrington, and Regina Carter. In addition, Lundy and producer Elisabeth Oei launched the Afrasia Productions music label in 2005.

Lundy has taught master classes throughout the world, including Australia, Denmark, Russia, Japan, Switzerland, New York and Los Angeles, California, and at the Thelonious Monk Institute of Jazz, and for the Betty Carter's Jazz Ahead Program at The Kennedy Center in Washington, D.C. In addition to being a multi-instrumentalist, she has acted and played the lead role in Duke Ellington's Broadway musical, Sophisticated Ladies, and portrayed Billie Holiday in Lawrence Holder's They Were All Gardenias. Lundy is also a mixed media artist and painter, and her works have been exhibited in New York at The Jazz Gallery, and at The Jazz Bakery and Madrid Theatre in Los Angeles, California.

Throughout her career, Lundy’s music has been critically acclaimed by The New York Times, The Village Voice, The Los Angeles Times, Variety, The Washington Post, Jazz Times, Jazziz, Downbeat and Vanity Fair among many others. Miami-Dade County Office of the Mayor and Board of County Commissioners proclaimed January 25th “Carmen Lundy Day” and she received the keys to the City of Miami.

Lundy resides in Los Angeles, California.

Carmen Lundy was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on November 12, 2014.

Accession Number

A2014.256

Sex

Female

Interview Date

11/12/2014

Last Name

Lundy

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Latretta

Occupation
Schools

Frank C. Martin Elementary School

Richmond Heights Middle School

Miami Killian Senior High School

University of Miami

First Name

Carmen

Birth City, State, Country

Miami

HM ID

LUN01

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Florida

Favorite Vacation Destination

Fiji

Favorite Quote

The Good Die Young But The Great Live Forever.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

California

Birth Date

11/1/1954

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Los Angeles

Country

United States

Favorite Food

None

Short Description

Jazz singer Carmen Lundy (1954 - ) has recorded fourteen albums and published over 100 songs. She has also acted on stage and is an exhibited painter and co-founder of Afrasia Productions.

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:3198,19:4804,44:5169,49:6483,80:6848,86:21078,441:23814,503:31023,571:31428,577:32157,588:32805,597:33210,603:33534,608:33858,620:34506,629:34830,634:35559,644:37017,670:37422,675:38232,694:38556,699:42464,724:45306,744:45894,752:49324,806:49716,811:51382,829:59029,942:59431,950:61709,994:63049,1020:63652,1031:64054,1039:64322,1044:67940,1136:75518,1158:76890,1177:77380,1184:77968,1191:87575,1329:96042,1438:99842,1575:108882,1686:110622,1723:115254,1826:115584,1838:118940,1924:127846,2071:130182,2130:145104,2288:147004,2338:147384,2344:147992,2353:148676,2363:150424,2423:156646,2492:157598,2505:158414,2519:158686,2524:158958,2529:169534,2712:171154,2731:171478,2736:194558,3050:196306,3082:197218,3095:199726,3143:202006,3189:203602,3230:204970,3253:205350,3259:208718,3278:209066,3283:213416,3420:215740,3443$0,0:10638,163:13450,212:13982,220:16642,274:17554,288:33320,551:36400,620:38776,651:43050,667:47210,702:47620,708:47948,713:48276,718:49260,738:53746,784:70136,957:76900,1074:78250,1105:81432,1129:83926,1177:97502,1372:97972,1378:104274,1438:105022,1453:106042,1477:107130,1499:111404,1528:111716,1533:112262,1542:120812,1654:136365,1902:148136,2077:152588,2163:157033,2186:158195,2208:158776,2217:159191,2223:162530,2260:166190,2298:166575,2304:166883,2309:167422,2318:168115,2330:173110,2361
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Carmen Lundy's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Carmen Lundy lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Carmen Lundy talks about her maternal family ancestry

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Carmen Lundy talks about her maternal grandparents

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Carmen Lundy talks about Perrine, Florida and her grandparents' family market, barbershop and recreation center

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Carmen Lundy talks about her mother singing with the Apostolic Singers church choir

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Carmen Lundy describes her mother's background

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Carmen Lundy talks about her father's family background, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Carmen Lundy talks about her father's family background, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Carmen Lundy describes her parents' occupations

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Carmen Lundy talks about her family's reputation and relative wealth in the community of Perrine, Florida

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Carmen Lundy describes which parent she takes after most as well as her mother's character

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Carmen Lundy describesthe family her mother worked for and how that led to piano lessons and attending the University of Miami

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Carmen Lundy remembers visiting her father's second job at the University of Miami in Coral Gables, Florida

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Carmen Lundy describes getting lost when walking home alone

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Carmen Lundy describes her home life and her father's authoritarian parenting style

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Carmen Lundy describes her community in Perrine, Florida

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Carmen Lundy describes her siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Carmen Lundy talks about her experience at Miami Killian High School

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Carmen Lundy talks about her experience in the Miami Killian High School choral program and watching Barbara McNair perform on 'The Ed Sullivan Show'

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Carmen Lundy describes meeting Barbara McNair in Pasadena, California as an adult

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Carmen Lundy describes her introduction to secular music as well as what black people were on television in the 1960s

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Carmen Lundy talks about playing piano in the chorus and performing as the duo, Steph and Trett

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Carmen Lundy describes the musical influence of Aretha Franklin, Roberta Flack and others

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Carmen Lundy describes her introduction to jazz music and performing Roberta Flack's, 'Trying Times' in the Miami Killian Senior High School talent show

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Carmen Lundy explains how she she was accepted into the University of Miami in Coral Gables, Florida

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Carmen Lundy talks about her experience at the University of Miami in Coral Gables, Florida as an opera major

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Carmen Lundy talks about starting a singing group with classmate David Roitstein and singing with Michael and Randy Brecker of The Brecker Brothers

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Carmen Lundy talks about working at the Eden Rock Hotel on Miami Beach

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Carmen Lundy talks about switching from majoring in opera to majoring in jazz

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Carmen Lundy remembers sitting in with Thad Jones and Mel Lewis at the Village Vanguard in New York City

Tape: 3 Story: 12 - Carmen Lundy describes the Miami jazz scene in the 1970s

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Carmen Lundy remembers her introduction to Ella Fitzgerald

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Carmen Lundy talks about Stevie Wonder's influence

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Carmen Lundy describes taking class with jazz educator Vince Lawrence Maggio at the University of Miami in Coral Gables, Florida

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Carmen Lundy talks about Billie Holiday's legacy

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Carmen Lundy talks about her introduction to Latin Jazz, Mayra Casales and singing background vocals for Ray Barretto in 1979

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Carmen Lundy remembers her first apartment in New York City and being held at gunpoint by the person who subletted her the apartment

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Carmen Lundy remembers singing Friday nights at Jazzmania her first year in New York City

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Carmen Lundy talks about her relationship with conga player Carlos "Patato" Valdes and percussionist Mayra Casales

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Carmen Lundy talks about playing in a band with jazz pianist Walter Bishop, Jr.

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Carmen Lundy talks about recording her first record, 'Angelica,' with a group called Jasmine

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Carmen Lundy talks about putting a group together and working in New York's Greenwich Village

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Carmen Lundy talks about her relationships with pianists Onaje Allan Gumbs, Harry Whitaker and performing her own compositions

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Carmen Lundy talks about not being able to find work after the release of her first record, 'Good Morning Kiss,' in 1985, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Carmen Lundy talks about recording a demo tape for Columbia Records in 1984

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Carmen Lundy talks about her meeting with Columbia Records and losing her record deal, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Carmen Lundy talks about her meeting with Columbia Records and losing her record deal, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Carmen Lundy talks about the release of her record, 'Good Morning Kiss,' under the independent record label Black Hawk

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Carmen Lundy talks about not being able to find work after the release of her first record, 'Good Morning Kiss,' in 1985, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Carmen Lundy talks about being cast by HistoryMaker Donald McKayle in a European Broadway tour of 'Sophisticated Ladies,'

Tape: 5 Story: 11 - Carmen Lundy talks about her return from Europe to New York City in 1989 and recording the record, 'Night and Day,' with Sony Japan in 1986

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Carmen Lundy talks about an article written about her in The Village Voice

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Carmen Lundy remembers performing at Mikell's Jazz Club in New York City and the North Sea Jazz Festival in the Netherlands

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Carmen Lundy talks about being cast in a pilot special for CBS

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Carmen Lundy remembers performing in Los Angeles at The Red Sea and having to fight for compensation, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Carmen Lundy remembers performing in Los Angeles at The Red Sea and having to fight for compensation, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Carmen Lundy talks about becoming a visual artist

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Carmen Lundy talks about the physicality of her performances and how she stays in shape

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Carmen Lundy describes her songwriting process

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Carmen Lundy describes her songwriting process and the inspiration behind her song, 'Quiet Times'

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - Carmen Lundy describes writing 'Seventh Heaven,' after pianist Kenny Kirkland's death

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Carmen Lundy talks about the release of her albums, 'Self -Portrait' and 'Old Devil Moon'

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Carmen Lundy talks about Betty Carter's Jazz Ahead Program, pt.1

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Carmen Lundy remembers seeing jazz singer Betty Carter at the North Sea Jazz Festival

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Carmen Lundy talks about Betty Carter's Jazz Ahead Program, pt.2

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Carmen Lundy talks about young jazz musicians

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Carmen Lundy talks briefly about being signed to Justin Time Records

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Carmen Lundy talks about establishing her own label, Afrasia Productions, in 2004 and the release of 'Jazz & The New Songbook Live at the Madrid Theater'

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Carmen Lundy talks briefly about her collaborations with percussionist Mayra Casales and pianist Geri Allen

Tape: 7 Story: 9 - Carmen Lundy talks about a lack of appreciation for jazz artist's work, pt. 1

Tape: 7 Story: 10 - Carmen Lundy talks about a lack of appreciation for jazz artist's work, pt. 2

Tape: 7 Story: 11 - Carmen Lundy describes her single, 'Grace,' about the transatlantic slave trade with Simphiwe Dana, pt. 1

Tape: 7 Story: 12 - Carmen Lundy describes recording her single, 'Grace,' about the transatlantic slave trade with Simphiwe Dana, pt. 2

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Carmen Lundy describes recording her single, 'Grace,' about the transatlantic slave trade with Simphiwe Dana, pt. 3

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Carmen Lundy talks about the production of her album, 'Soul to Soul' and learning to play the guitar from bassist Chip Jackson

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Carmen Lundy talks about the production of her album, 'Soul to Soul' and artists Patrice Rushen and others

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - Carmen Lundy talks about playing the guitar onstage

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - Carmen Lundy talks about her upcoming projects

Tape: 8 Story: 6 - Carmen Lundy reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 8 Story: 7 - Carmen Lundy describes her hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 8 Story: 8 - Carmen Lundy talks about her marriage and attitudes toward same-sex marriages

Tape: 8 Story: 9 - Carmen Lundy talks about African Americans' current relationship to jazz

Tape: 8 Story: 10 - Carmen Lundy addresses racial prejudice in contemporary America

Tape: 9 Story: 1 - Carmen Lundy talks about her mother's approval and her father's disapproval of her career, pt. 1

Tape: 9 Story: 2 - Carmen Lundy talks about her mother's approval and her father's disapproval of her career, pt. 2

Tape: 9 Story: 3 - Carmen Lundy talks briefly about her work as a visual artist

Tape: 9 Story: 4 - Carmen Lundy describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 9 Story: 5 - Carmen Lundy narrates her photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$7

DAStory

7$12

DATitle
Carmen Lundy remembers singing Friday nights at Jazzmania her first year in New York City
Carmen Lundy describes recording her single, 'Grace,' about the transatlantic slave trade with Simphiwe Dana, pt. 2
Transcript
So now, this piano that I moved into in New York City [New York], follows me to every place I lived, until I left and moved to Los Angeles [California], that same piano, okay. So, that's the upside of the story, that's the upside. (Laughter)$$It's a roller coaster story, yeah.$$But anyway, we used to live--so now this is before all of this happens. We're like--Mayra [Casales] and I knew that the deal was that you've got to go out and hang out. So, two beautiful things happened to me while in my first year in New York, beautiful things. One, I got a gig singing every Friday and Saturday night with some of the greatest jazz musicians alive at that time in New York City. There was a club called Jazzmania on, the address was 14 23rd Street, Park Avenue South. And it was a loft, and you had to take five unforgivably long, steep, flights to get up to this loft. Mayra would schlep her conga drums up there, and I'd schlep myself with my charts, you know. So, the reason why I was able to be this lucky was because my friend, Bill Morgenstern, who I didn't mention to you, who mentored me all those years in Miami--the art dealer, jazz fanatic, historian, who was also a ballet dancer and loved the theater, and was originally from Brooklyn, New York--Bill Morgenstern had a brother, Mike [ph.], who had a jazz club called Jazzmania. And my best friend, Bill, called his brother and said, "My girl, Carmen, is coming to New York, and you've got to make sure she gets something. Do something, do something with her." He would say, "Do something for her," like that. So I got this little gig singing every Friday, fifty dollars, it was a fifty dollar gig. There's still fifty dollar gigs to this day in New York. I just can't believe it, but there are. Fifty dollars, I go in there. And there would be, one night there would be somebody like Jaki Byard. The next week it would be Walter Bishop, Jr. The next week, it would be Michael Carvin. The next week it would be Ronnie Mathews. The next week it would be Don Pullen. The next week it would be Kenny Barron, you know. And it was just on and on and on, these great musicians--Charlie Persip on drums. What, what! Stafford James on bass. Rashid--I mean it was so much--it would be-- John Hicks on piano. So, every weekend he would book different artists. I still have the newspaper articles. I still have the newspaper articles of all these people that I sang with. I did it for an entire year, for fifty-two weeks I sang every weekend with some great jazz pianist. Joe, what his name, Joe Carroll. Joe Carroll was a wonderful singer. A lot of people don't know about Joe Carroll, but he was a great--Eddie Jefferson, another great singer would come through. I sang with Al Harewood, who recorded with Betty Carter. Al Harewood was a left-handed drummer, so his right--you know, but his right cymbal would--most times as a singer, you're kind of hearing this, you know. But his right cymbal was over here. Interesting stuff. But that was my gig for an entire year, which is how I met Walter Bishop, Jr., which is how I ended up recording on one of his recordings. I sang this tune called, 'Valley Land,' and that's funny to me, even now, because Valley Land is about L.A., and I didn't know what L.A. was. L.A., you might as well have been telling me, you might as well be saying to me East Cabibia [ph.], I did not know. So, that was my first year.$So, something came up. "Well, you must do something together. You guys need to do something together." So I said, "Well, come into my studio. I'll show you my studio and show you what I'm working on." So, I started pulling all these tunes. And stupid me, I picked the most rhythmic things, because I'm thinking that would be the thing that she's [Simphiwe Dana]--I mean that was just so ignorant of me to do. So, I'm thinking--and then I thought, "And there's this tune that has been driving me nuts, I've got to play it for you. But before I play it for you, I just want to tell you what my inspiration is. My inspiration is that I did some research on the history of the hymn, and learned a great deal more about how this hymn came to be. And in doing so, I realized that John Newton was a slave trader," and blah, blah, blah, blah, blah, right? I'm telling them the whole thing. And she, after I tell her this story--because who doesn't know that hymn, right? So, she went, "I didn't know that." And then she says, "Do you have a pen and paper I can borrow from you?" So then she starts writing. "Where do you press record? Where do you press record?" She starts singing, and the levels--I mean, she's a little lady, lovely, tiny, little lady. And she started singing, and my levels went through the roof. "Wait, hold on, hold on. Wait, let me set these levels." So, she begins to sing, and then suddenly there's something, "We have walked for so long with our heads to the ground. We have died for so long with our heads under the boot (speaking Xhosa)." I don't know what she was saying, but I know it was Zulu or something, right.$$The Xhosa language.$$Xhosa language.$$Xhosa?$$Yes. So, she sings her little ditty, and I sing right into that, right? So, whatever she did, I just followed it up--something that had never even occurred to me melodically and lyrically; it just came out. And we got it on tape, we got the whole thing on tape. So, now we're so excited, you know, Elisabeth [Oie] comes in and Lupie [ph.] comes in, "Listen to what we've got." Elisabeth says, "Oh, my." So, I'm so excited, and she's so excited that this is--because now I realize she's singing from the South African perspective, and I'm singing from the African American perspective about this point in time in our history as a people. Wow, wow.

Capt. Winston Scott

NASA astronaut and U.S. Navy Captain Winston E. Scott was born on August 6, 1950 in Miami, Florida to Alston J. and Rubye L. Scott. He graduated from Coral Gables High School in 1968, received his B.A. degree in music from Florida State University in 1972 and his M.S. degree in aeronautical engineering with avionics from the U.S. Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, California.

Scott entered Naval Aviation Officer Candidate School in 1973 and was designated a Naval Aviator in 1974. As an aviator, Scott piloted the F-14 Tomcat, F/A-18 Hornet, and the A-7 Corsair. In 1988, Scott was assigned as deputy director and test pilot in the Tactical Aircraft Systems Department at the Naval Air Development Center in Warminster, Pennsylvania. Scott has logged over 6,000 hours of total flight time in more than 20 different aircraft and more than two-hundred shipboard landings.

In 1992, Scott was selected by NASA for astronaut training. He later served as a mission specialist on STS-72 Endeavour during its nine day mission from January 11, 1996 to July 20, 1996. Scott conducted one spacewalk to demonstrate and evaluate techniques later used in the assembly of the International Space Station. Scott returned to space on STS-87 Columbia during its sixteen day mission from November 19, 1997 to December 5, 1997 where he performed two spacewalks, including one that lasted over seven hours and involved the manual capture of a Spartan satellite. On the second spacewalk, Scott tested tools and procedures for future space station assembly. In 1999, Scott retired from NASA and the U.S. Navy to become Vice President for Student Affairs and Associate Dean of the Florida State University College of Engineering. In 2003, Scott became the executive director of the Florida Space Authority (FSA), an organization responsible for the development of space-related business in the State of Florida. The FSA also advised the state’s governor and legislature on matters related to space and aeronautics in the state. In 2006, Scott became Vice President and Deputy General Manager on the engineering and science contract at Johnson Space Center for Jacobs Engineering in Houston, Texas. Scott’s book, Reflections from Earth Orbit (2005), is a semi-autobiographical account of his experiences as a NASA astronaut.

Scott is a member of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, the National Naval Officers Association, the Naval Helicopter Association, the Naval Tailhook Association, and Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc. In 1998, U.S. Black Engineer and Information Technology magazine named Scott “U. S. Black Engineer of the Year.” Scott also received the American Institute of Aeronautics & Astronautics Achievement Award and two NASA Space Flight Medals. His military honors include the Defense Superior Service Medal, the Defense Meritorious Service Medal, and the National Defense Service Medal. Scott was awarded an Honorary Doctor of Humane Letters degree from Florida Atlantic University and an Honorary Doctorate of Engineering degree from Michigan State University.

NASA astronaut and U.S. Navy Captain Winston E. Scott was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on June 6, 2013.

Accession Number

A2013.138

Sex

Male

Interview Date

6/6/2013

Last Name

Scott

Maker Category
Organizations
Schools

Coral Gables High School

Florida State University

Naval Postgraduate School

Naval Aviation Officer Candidate School

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Winston

Birth City, State, Country

Miami

HM ID

SCO07

Favorite Season

Christmas

State

Florida

Favorite Vacation Destination

Anywhere

Favorite Quote

Luck is when opportunity meets preparation.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Florida

Birth Date

8/6/1950

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Melbourne

Country

United States

Favorite Food

All Food

Short Description

Astronaut and aircraft commander Capt. Winston Scott (1950 - ) served as a mission specialist on STS-72 in 1996 and STS-87 in 1997, and has logged a total of twenty-four days, fourteen hours and thirty-four minutes in space, including three spacewalks totaling nineteen hours and twenty-six minutes. As a naval aviator Scott accumulated more than 6,000 hours of flight time in more than 20 different aircraft.

Employment

United States Navy

Naval Aviation Depot

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)

Florida State University

Florida Space Authority

Jacobs Engineering

Favorite Color

Red

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Winston Scott's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Winston Scott lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Winston Scott describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Winston Scott talks about his mother's education

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Winston Scott describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Winston Scott talks about his father's occupations

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Winston Scott describes how his parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Winston Scott describes his parents' personalities and who he takes after

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Winston Scott talks about his siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Winston Scott talks about growing up in Coconut Grove, Miami, Florida

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Winston Scott describes segregation in Miami, Florida

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Winston Scott describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Winston Scott describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Winston Scott describes knowing current events as a child

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Winston Scott describes learning about the space program

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Winston Scott describes building things as a child

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Winston Scott describes his father's emphasis on education

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Winston Scott describes being involved in Boy Scouts

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Winston Scott talks about playing trumpet in junior high school

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Winston Scott talks about his family's involvement in church

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Winston Scott talks about the integration of his high school

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Winston Scott describes being involved in music during high school

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Winston Scott describes being accepted into Florida State University

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Winston Scott describes his time at Florida State University

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Winston Scott describes joining the U.S. Navy

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Winston Scott describes his time at the Naval Aviation Officer Candidate School

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Winston Scott talks about his Navy training

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Winston Scott describes his career as a Navy pilot

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Winston Scott talks about African American astronauts

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Winston Scott describes being selected to become an astronaut

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Winston Scott describes training for his first space flight

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Winston Scott talks about his first spaceflight

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Winston Scott describes launching into space

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Winston Scott describes the view of earth from space

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Winston Scott describes his space missions

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Winston Scott describes being in space on the Endeavor Space Shuttle

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Winston Scott describes a space shuttles' reentry into the atmosphere

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Winston Scott describes his space walks

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Winston Scott describes correcting a satellite's attitude by hand

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Winston Scott talks about the psychological screening of astronauts

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Winston Scott reflects on his career as an astronaut

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Winston Scott describes the food astronauts eat

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Winston Scott describes the physical consequences of being in space

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Winston Scott describes becoming a professor at Florida State University

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Winston Scott describes being the director of the Florida Space Authority

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Winston Scott talks about his memoir, 'Reflections from Earth's Orbit'

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Winston Scott talks about opportunities in the space program

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Winston Scott describes his position at the Florida Institute of Technology

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Winston Scott reflects on his legacy

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Winston Scott describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Winston Scott reflects upon his life

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Winston Scott talks about his family

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Winston Scott talks about the Florida Institute of Technology

Tape: 7 Story: 9 - Winston Scott talks about how he would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

1$4

DAStory

6$7

DATitle
Winston Scott talks about his father's occupations
Winston Scott talks about his first spaceflight
Transcript
So farming was the occupation-$$That's right.$$--up until the time that your--and your father [Alston James Scott] continued the, the tradition--(simultaneous).$$Well, my father grew up on the farm and then went off to a--he was drafted during World War II. He left Quitman [Georgia] and went to serve in the Army, he served two years. He was in the European theater in Germany and once his enlistment in the Army was up, he, of course, returned to the states and like a lot of people back then looked for jobs and as I understand it his sister, my aunt was living in Miami [Florida] at the time, she had gotten married and moved to Miami. She sent word to him if you come to Miami you can get work down here. He went down to Miami looking for a job and he first worked in the nursery business, you know, with a company that did landscaping and things like that but then, it's an interesting story, my father got on with the post office--he got hired with the post office down there after many trials and tribulations; that's a story in and of itself. But he became-- he and a guy named John Friar got hired that same day. They became the first two African Americans to carry mail in Miami. The jobs were segregated, blacks couldn't carry mail those jobs were reserved for whites but he was-- he and John Friar was the first two African Americans to carry mail in Miami. In fact, when he retired, thirty-seven years later he was the most senior black postman in the United States. And he was the number seven senior postman of all in the United States when he retired. I didn't know this until he retired and the mayor and the governor, everybody came and gave him all these accolades for him, they gave him all these awards and recognition with newspaper articles and I said, "Good God, I didn't know my dad did all of this". But he broke the color-- color barrier in carrying mail. Mail carrying, that's a good job, good profession.$$He had to be consistent, you know, and dependable, right?$$He had to be consistent, and dependable. Ever since the days of the pony express carrying mail and you know air mail, those were good solid jobs that anybody couldn't get. And like I say, they were segregated so I don't know if there was a union thing but they were segregated. And he was the first-- he and John Friar hired to carry mail.$$I imagine the government was compelled to bring on some black postman after awhile-- this is the kind of thing (simultaneous)--$$I don't know that and in talking to him and reading the accounts I don't think the government was compelled, I think just the, the local postmaster just needed people, just needed workers and he was of the mind that, "I don't care what color you are if you do a job, we need you." My father had stories to tell. When he first started carrying mail people were calling and complain that, "This N-word, I don't want him near my door carrying mail." And they would sic the dogs on him-- you know, they turn the dogs loose and go after him and so on. And it took him several tries to get hired because they would have him drive the trucks and Miami used little scooters. They had big trucks but they also used these motorized scooters that carry, you know, small--. The first few times people would say things like, "He didn't drive well, or he didn't handle the equipment right or he handled the equipment too rough." So finally he overcame all of that and got hired. He thought he was going to be hired temporarily just for the Christmas surge, all the extra mail during Christmas, he figured he would be fired after Christmas and that they would go to Cleveland, Ohio, I guess where they had lived before. But it turned out he wasn't fired, he stayed there and finished his career thirty-seven years later as a postman or thirty-nine years whatever it was. His total government time including Army was forty-one years but thirty-seven of that I think was with the post office.$$So, it wasn't easy being the first black--(simultaneous) (unclear).$$It wasn't easy--it's like being the first black of anything it wasn't easy at all. He had a lot of trials and tribulations, and again he never talked about this. I found out about it when he retired and they started giving him all these accolades and writing articles about him. It's kind of funny when you find out stuff like that about your parents that you never knew; you live with them and you never knew these things.$$Being a postman in those days was a, a very good job--(simultaneous) (unclear).$$Postman is a very good job, especially in the African American community. Like I said, it was a rock solid employment, you had to be dependable and you carried a certain amount of prestige. There is the government uniform, the post office was under the federal government at that time and so there wasn't very many of us doing those jobs; just like the police department, fire department. I'm old enough to remember when the first black motorcycle police officer was hired in Miami, I was a little kid but I remember it. You know, things like riding-- a motorcycle cop is a big deal; a police officer in general in those days, we don't think much of it now but we did back then. Bus driver--blacks couldn't be metro bus drivers for a long while, well you know this stuff but--.$$I'm glad you're saying it because this-- the audience that's watching this don't-- doesn't necessarily know this. Hopefully this will be around for hundreds of years.$$Hopefully it will be around for hundreds of years.$$And people will know.$$But, but those were some very good jobs and jobs that African Americans were not allowed to hold. So I remember when we had the first bus drivers in Miami and the first, well, police officers were mainly--the motorcycle squad I guess was kind of like the elite, at least they thought they were elite. So the first motorcycle cop was written up in 'The Miami Times' which was, of course, the all black newspaper there in Miami. So, those, those were some significant events for us.$Now, your first flight was on the Endeavor [Space Shuttle]?$$Endeavor, that's right. Nine days on the Endeavor.$$Is this 1996?$$In '96 [1996], that's right.$$How did things go? Did everything go perfectly?$$Everything went, everything went fine. I don't know if perfect is the right word but we had no real bad incidents happen. We got all of our mission accomplished. We had two space walks, we were, we had microgravity mission, so we grew crystals in space, plants in space, had laboratory animals in space. We deployed and retrieved the satellite, we retrieved the second satellite that was up there. We conducted two space walks where we tested tools and equipment for building the International Space Station. So we--. Every flight is jammed packed with hundreds of events and experiments and it all went real well. The space walks were particularly a big part of, of a, of any mission so those went real well too. On that flight, one of the things that I had to do that was really interesting was test out improvements to the space suit, because, again, we were preparing to build the International Space Station. It was going to be built in a location of space that was colder than we had been previously going. So NASA [National Aeronautic and Space Administration] had modified the suit and I was going to put the suit on, go outside and test those modifications to be sure to keep astronauts warm and safe in the extra cold environment of space. So that was one of the big important things that I did on my space walk. Space walk was six hours and fifty-- I think it was six hours and fifty-three minutes if I remember correctly on that one. And we did a whole bunch of other things on there also but this was one thing that was really, really important and kind of cool to do.

Evan Forde

Oceanographer Evan B. Forde was born on May 11, 1952 in Miami, Florida and received his early education in the Miami Public School System. Forde earned his B.A. degree in geology with an oceanography specialty and his M.A. degree in marine geology and geophysics from Columbia University in the City of New York.

In 1973, Forde became an oceanographer at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA) Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) in Miami, Florida. He was the first African American scientist to participate in research dives aboard a submersible and completed successful dive expeditions in several submarine canyons utilizing three of these vessels. Forde remains one of only a handful of African American oceanographers in the United States. Forde has conducted research in a number of oceanographic and meteorological disciplines and has been a versatile pioneer in scientific research. His current research includes using satellite sensors to observe and analyze atmospheric conditions related to improving hurricane forecasting and improving intensity prediction models.

Forde has also worked extensively in the area of science education. He created and taught a graduate level course on tropical meteorology for the University of Miami's INSTAR program for seven years. Forde also created and teaches an oceanography course for middle school students called Oceanographic Curriculum Empowering Achievement in Natural Sciences (OCEANS) that has been featured in nationally distributed periodicals and web sites. He originated and authored the “Science Corner” in Ebony Jr! magazine for three years, and later created a Severe Weather Poster for NOAA that was distributed nationally to fifty thousand teachers.

Forde has spoken to more than fifty thousand students during career days and other presentations. Forde has also been the subject of the museum exhibits, including the Great Explorations section of the Staten Island Children's Museum, and has been featured in numerous periodicals, text books and many other publications on prominent African American scientists. Forde has also served as a PTA President, Scoutmaster, youth basketball coach, Sunday School and youth church teacher, church webmaster, neighborhood Crime Watch chairman, official photographer for the South Florida Special Olympics and in numerous other roles that have fostered youth and improved his community.

Forde has a host of career and civic awards that include being named NOAA’s Environmental Research Laboratories EEO Outstanding Employee, South Florida’s Federal Employee of the Year (Service to the Community), a U.S. Congressional Commendation, NOAA Research Employee of the Year and in 2009 he had days named in his honor by both the City of North Miami and Miami-Dade County, Florida. In 2010, the Miami-Dade County School Board issued a proclamation honoring Forde’s contributions to students citing his ongoing efforts to enhance public education. Forde was named as the recipient of the NOAA Administrator (Under Secretary of Commerce) Award for 2011 for his outstanding communication of NOAA science, sharing the joy of science with students, and helping to foster a science-literate society.

Evan B. Forde was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on June 3, 2013.

Accession Number

A2013.137

Sex

Male

Interview Date

6/3/2013

Last Name

Forde

Maker Category
Middle Name

B.

Occupation
Organizations
Schools

Columbia University

Miami Carol City Senior High

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Evan

Birth City, State, Country

Miami

HM ID

FOR12

Favorite Season

Spring, Summer

State

Florida

Favorite Vacation Destination

Orlando, Florida

Favorite Quote

Aging Is Not For Sissies/ Be Gentle With Yourself, Enjoy Life/ Every Day Above Ground Is A Good One/ If You Don't Believe Me, Miss One-All From His Father.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Florida

Birth Date

5/11/1952

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Miami

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Lobster, Shrimp Tacos

Short Description

Oceanographer Evan Forde (1952 - ) became an oceanographer at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA) Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) in Miami, Florida in 1973. He was the first African American scientist to participate in research dives aboard a submersible and remains one of only a handful of African American oceanographers in the United States.

Employment

NOAA Center in Atmospheric Sciences

Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Evan Forde's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Evan Forde lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Evan Forde describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Evan Forde talks about his grandparents and mother

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Evan Forde describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Evan Forde talks about his father

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Evan Forde talks about his father's education

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Evan Forde describes his parents' personalities and who he takes after

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Evan Forde describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Evan Forde talks about his siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Evan Forde describes his family household

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Evan Forde talks about his father's involvement in the community

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Evan Forde talks about his father's knowledge of science

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Evan Forde talks about his the role of church and religion in his growing up

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Evan Forde talks about his elementary schools

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Evan Forde talks about the Boy Scouts and learning to play the trumpet

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Evan Forde talks about his father's positions at his junior-senior high school

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Evan Forde talks about his summer as a Boy Scout at Camp Sebring

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Evan Forde talks about his middle school physical education class

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Evan Forde talks about the integration of his high school

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Evan Forde describes when his house caught on fire

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Evan Forde describes quitting band in high school to join the football team

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Evan Forde describes getting football scholarships for college

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Evan Forde describes being on his high school football team

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Evan Forde talks about the college counseling he received at his high school

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Evan Forde describes attending Columbia University to study oceanography

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Evan Forde talks about the summer after his high school graduation

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Evan Forde describes getting a summer job at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Evan Forde describes his first semester at Columbia University

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Evan Forde talks about his Spanish professor at Columbia University

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Evan Forde describes becoming interested in marine geology and geophysics

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Evan Forde describes his acceptance into Columbia University for graduate school

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Evan Forde describes receiving his M.S. degree in marine geology at Columbia University pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Evan Forde describes receiving his M.S. degree in marine geology at Columbia University pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Evan Forde talks about his mother wanting him to be a doctor

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Evan Forde describes his master's thesis pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Evan Forde describes his master's thesis pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Evan Forde describes what happened when he was not credited for his research pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Evan Forde describes what happened when he was not credited for his research pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Evan Forde describes how he became the first African American oceanographer to conduct research aboard a submersible craft

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Evan Forde describes his first dive on a submersible pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Evan Forde describes his first dive on a submersible pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Evan Forde describes being on a submersible dive

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Evan Forde describes being caught under a mud slide in a submersible canyon

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Evan Forde talks about how he was nicknamed Willie Cousteau

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Evan Forde describes his most memorable discoveries from his submersible dives

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Evan Forde talks about creating the prevailing theory explaining mid-Atlantic submarine canyons

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Evan Forde describes his involvement in science education pt. 1

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Evan Forde describes his involvement in science education pt. 2

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Evan Forde describes how he became a writer for 'Ebony Jr.'

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Evan Forde talks about being a science educator

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Evan Forde describes his involvement in satellite remote sensing research pt. 1

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Evan Forde describes his involvement in satellite remote sensing research pt. 2

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Evan Forde describes the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration severe weather poster

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Evan Forde describes creating the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration posters

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Evan Forde describes writing oceanic curricula pt. 1

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Evan Forde describes writing oceanic curricula pt. 2

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - Evan Forde talks about one of his speeches

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - Evan Forde describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 8 Story: 6 - Evan Forde reflects on his life

Tape: 8 Story: 7 - Evan Forde talks about his family

Tape: 9 Story: 1 - Evan Forde talks about his father's influence on his life

Tape: 9 Story: 2 - Evan Forde talks about his community service in science education

Tape: 9 Story: 3 - Evan Forde talks about how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 9 Story: 4 - Evan Forde describes his research on hurricanes and Saharan air layers pt. 1

Tape: 9 Story: 5 - Evan Forde describes his research on hurricanes and Saharan air layers pt. 2

DASession

1$1

DATape

5$5

DAStory

1$6

DATitle
Evan Forde describes receiving his M.S. degree in marine geology at Columbia University pt. 1
Evan Forde describes what happened when he was not credited for his research pt. 1
Transcript
So, Dr. [John] Sanders mostly assuredly had a significant on my education. Not only that, but when I went to graduate school, he became my advisor. And it was a significant event for a number of reasons. First of all, I knew that he believed in me. But when I took my qualifying exam, which at Columbia [University, New York, New York], the way it works, is the qualifying exam allowed you to get the Master's degree, but qualified you to go on for the Ph.D. And there was a teacher in graduate school who was the only teacher who I ever earned a "B" in his class, he insisted that I go on a field trip in the snow when I had strep throat and a hundred and four degree fever, and told me that I'd fail his course if I didn't go on the field trip that weekend. And so the qualifying exam consisted of ten questions, and you had to answer seven of them. They were in different areas: paleontology, marine geology, geophysics, geochemistry, oceanography, marine biology; that sort of thing. And I knew who was going to grade the marine geology and geophysics question. It was that professor I had. And so I found seven other questions to answer on the qualifying exam, which generally speaking, you do answer the question in the field you're going to get your advanced degree in, but I didn't want any problems out of him. And I actually--what I--I took a paleontology question instead, 'cause the others, they were--there was a certain group that you pretty much knew "I'm going to do this one, I'm going to do that one," and that sort of thing. And so when the scores came back, this professor went to the--and I passed the qualifying exam--he went to the head of the department at Lamont [Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University] and said that I should not be allowed to get my degree because I had not answered the marine geology and geophysics question, which is the area that I was getting my degree in. And it was not written anywhere in the rules that I got along with the tests. He said, "Yeah, but it's customary and everybody knows." So there was this brouhaha at the school. And the head of the department didn't know me from Adam, and was--had gotten him to agree that if I would answer that question for him, you know, a separate setting and all that, successfully, that he'd allow me to pass the exam.$What does a person in academics can do about such a thing? I mean, is it--either they or--what could you--I mean, what were you thinking at the time that--?$$Okay. So what I did was, I--when I found out that the paper was being published without my name on it, because my supervisor was away for the summer, and I was opening her mail. I'm trying not--the person went to a very, very high position in another government agency by the way, after that, but hadn't published a paper in several years, and knew nothing about the sediments and the bathymetry and the geophysical methods I was using. And it was actually her cruise that I was one, and one of her instruments didn't work, and that's when she came to me. She said, "You're very familiar with this area. What would you do if you had the ship for three days?" And I said, "Well, I suspect there's these underwater landslides that we could use seismic reflection profiling, and we can use the 3.5 kilohertz profiler, and the R-beam echo sounder. We could do the survey." And she said, "I d-- How would the survey lines go, I don't know." So I--because I made the map, the underwater map, right, the map of the bottom. From memory I sketched it out. And I said, "This ship will go this way, this way, this way, this way." And I was on watch that night when we got the evidence we needed that the underwater landslides had actually taken place. And I called my mentor who is no longer working here, the guy who had originally hired me that summer, who said, "With these grades, we need to find a position for him," and he was very excited, but he was no longer my lab director, and told him about it. And so I called him and asked him what I should do when I found out that the paper was being published without my name. And he said, "Go to the director, your division director and tell him." And he said, "But before you do that, Xerox the paper and highlight everything in yellow that's directly attributable to you." It was three-quarters of the paper. Even the estimates I'd made of the size of the underwater landslide. I said it was twenty-eight cubic kilometers. Her final estimate was thirty cubic kilometers. You know, it was very close. These are calculations I'd done on the back of an envelope basically, you know, and she had her computer programmers, you know calculate that stuff. And so the director, 'cause she still wasn't here, he said, "You did the right thing to come to me, and don't you say a word about this to anybody." Now, I had already said something to my mentor, who's no longer here, and he said, "I will handle this. Don't confront her, don't say anything." And so I was being obedient. And when I saw that the paper was--appeared on the list of approved for publication, I called my mentor back and I said, "What do I do?" He said, "It is not too late to get your name on that paper." He said, "It's awful suspicious, why would anybody be acknowledged twice in the same acknowledgments? That's just a line or two, you know. That's suspicious to begin with." And he called the Lab Director here, and I don't know what that conversation went like, but then I got called in by the Lab Director who said, "Where do you get off airing dirty laundry for this laboratory outside?" And I said, "I'm not airing dirty laundry. He hired me. He's my profession mentor," and all that. "If you," he told me, "If I hear you breathe a word of this to another living soul, I will fire your ass. Do you understand me? Have I made myself clear?" I said, "Yes, sir." "Not another word to anybody." And so I was threatened with being fired if I cried rape, or help, or I've being taken advantage of here. And it happens occasionally in our profession. And I understand that it happened to the person who was supervising me then; that when she was in graduate school, something similar had happened to her. So she should have known better in how traumatic it could be. But, like I said, her career continued to rise, and she became the deputy director of a government agency.$$Now, so how--$$By the way, it would be pretty easy to find out who it is, so I don't--I mean somebody who would know, you know, but I'm not trying to, you know. So I was never able to discuss it with her. And she left here in, like, a few years, and-

Daniel Akins

Physical chemist and chemistry professor Daniel Akins was born on July 8, 1941, in Miami, Florida, and graduated from Booker T. Washington High School in 1960. Akins earned his B.S. degree in chemistry from Howard University in 1963 where he was inducted into Sigma Xi honor society. He received his Ph.D. degree in physical chemistry from the University of California, Berkeley, in 1968 under the mentorship of Professor C. Bradley Moore.

After finishing his graduate education, Akins worked at Florida State University as both a postdoctoral researcher at the Institute for Molecular Biophysics and visiting assistant chemistry professor. In 1970, he became an assistant professor in the chemistry department at the University of South Florida and was promoted to associate professor in 1975. Between 1977 and 1979, Akins served as a visiting program director of the physical chemistry subsection of the dynamics program at the National Science Foundation (NSF). After a brief period as a senior scientist with the Polaroid Corporation, he began his career at The City College of New York as a professor of chemistry in 1981. In 1988, Akins founded and served as director of what would become in 2000 the CUNY Center for Analysis of Structures and Interfaces (CASI), which has the goal of training minority scientists in high-level scientific research. Eleven years after establishment of CASI, he was awarded an NSF Integrative Graduate Education and Research Traineeship (IGERT) grant. In 2008, Akins became the principal investigator for a $5 million NSF grant to establish a center for nanostructure applications known as CENSES (Center for Exploitation of Nanostructures in Sensors and Energy Systems). Throughout his career, he has published more than 130 research papers in leading scientific journals. His principal research focuses on the development of new nanomaterials for use in molecular photonic devices (MPDs), chemical sensors and fuel cells.

Akins is a member of several professional organizations, including the American Chemical Society, the Society for Applied Spectroscopy, and NOBCChE (National Organization for the Professional Advancement of Black Chemists and Chemical Engineers). Throughout his career, Akins has shown a continued commitment to increasing diversity in the sciences and has mentored many doctoral students. For his work, Daniel has been recognized many times, including being named a Sigma Xi Distinguished Lecturer and receiving the CCNY Faculty Service Award. In 2000, Akins received the Presidential Award for Excellence in Science, Mathematics, and Engineering Mentoring (PAESMEM) from President Bill Clinton. Daniel Akins lives in Teaneck, New Jersey with his wife Sondra Akins. They have two children, Dana, a mechanical engineer, and Meredith, an actress and dancer.

Daniel Akins was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on May 14, 2012.

Accession Number

A2012.109

Sex

Male

Interview Date

5/15/2012

Last Name

Akins

Marital Status

Married

Schools

Douglass Primary School

Phillis Wheatley Elementary School

Booker T. Washington High School

University of California, Berkeley

Florida State University

Howard University

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Daniel

Birth City, State, Country

Miami

HM ID

AKI03

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Florida

Favorite Vacation Destination

Miami, Florida

Favorite Quote

Never give up.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Birth Date

7/8/1941

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New York

Country

United States

Favorite Food

All Food

Short Description

Chemist and chemistry professor Daniel Akins (1941 - ) , an expert on nanomaterial, is the director of the CUNY Center for Analysis of Structures and Interfaces.

Employment

City College of CUNY

Polaroid Corporation

National Science Foundation (NSF)

University of South Florida

Florida State University

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:1452,35:7195,95:11700,882:15865,968:19350,1034:19775,1040:22495,1095:29338,1126:30374,1141:32520,1230:34000,1263:37404,1343:45014,1413:45758,1424:55841,1531:59564,1713:61827,1749:72990,1880:76188,1952:76516,1957:78238,2022:81764,2106:88919,2191:92584,2248:95840,2303:98128,2338:98480,2343:107741,2467:108434,2475:109358,2487:112669,2556:113131,2563:113824,2573:116672,2607:119432,2631:137560,2824:138757,2876:139270,2886:148800,2995:150120,3015:162052,3229:164161,3293:164389,3312:166470,3326$0,0:9494,131:10440,146:13106,193:16675,225:19570,230:20615,245:29819,340:30284,351:36904,412:37348,420:40826,498:41418,507:41788,525:44425,530:47760,579:51580,596:52705,610:64780,889:65380,898:71529,949:72026,958:72452,980:76925,1062:79698,1078:80210,1083:83986,1159:84242,1164:85202,1196:88382,1234:89566,1283:93044,1331:100783,1442:101784,1480:103940,1515:116574,1683:119566,1808:138096,1930:139360,1959:141493,2040:141967,2047:147610,2117:150165,2168:150457,2173:155172,2261:159216,2350:169240,2422:174627,2506:176571,2546:179001,2620:179325,2625:184900,2677:193790,2809:200835,2895:201660,2908:204135,2960:204885,2975:206385,3003:206760,3009:217760,3177:219720,3227:221050,3257:222870,3300:223640,3340:229830,3380:232600,3397
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Daniel Akins slates the interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Daniel Akins shares his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Daniel Akins talks about his mother's background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Daniel Akins talks about his grandparents

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Daniel Akins talks about his mother

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Daniel Akins talks about his father's background

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Daniel Akins talks about the church founded by his grandfather

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Daniel Akins talks about his grandparents

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Daniel Akins talks about how his parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Daniel Akins talks about his father's military experience

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Daniel Akins talks about his grandmother

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Daniel Akins describes the similarities between him and his parents

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Daniel Akins describes his neighborhood growing up

Tape: 1 Story: 14 - Daniel Akins talks about his brother and the church he grew up in

Tape: 1 Story: 15 - Daniel Akins talks about the sights, sounds, and smells of growing up

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Daniel Akins talks about growing up in Miami, Florida

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Daniel Akins talks about his hobbies

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Daniel Akins talks about what he learned about being an artist

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Daniel Akins talks about grade school

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Daniel Akins discusses the connection between art and mathematics

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Daniel Akins describes his personality

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Daniel Akins talks about race relations in Miami, Florida

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Daniel Akins talks about high school

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Daniel Akins talks about his extracurricular activities in high school

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Daniel Akins talks about his heroes

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Daniel Akins describes his first interest in science

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Daniel Akins talks about why he chose to attend Howard University

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Daniel Akins talks about his high school science projects

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Daniel Akins talks about his transition to Howard University

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Daniel Akins talks about his studies at Howard University

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Daniel Akins talks about changing his major

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Daniel Akins talks about how he met his wife

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Daniel Akins talks about early computers

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Daniel Akins talks about black astronauts

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Daniel Akins talks about his mentors

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Daniel Akins describes his professors at the University of California

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Daniel Akins talks about graduate school

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Daniel Akins talks about his post-doctoral studies

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Daniel Akins describes the Free Speech Movement and race relations

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Daniel Akins describes his experience at the University of South Florida

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Daniel Akins talks about his experience working for the Polaroid Corporation

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Daniel Akins talks about working at CUNY

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Daniel Akins talks about his research at CUNY

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Daniel Akins talks about the challenges minorities face in academia

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Daniel Akins talks about one of his publications

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Daniel Akins talks about the number of minorities that pursuing doctorate degrees

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Daniel Akins talks about the program IGERT and its mentorship philosophy

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Daniel Akins talks about the practical uses of infinitesimal sensors

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Daniel Akins describes an average work day

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Daniel Akins talks about his work in research and science

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Daniel Akins talks about what he would do differently

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Daniel Akins talks about his goals for CUNY

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Daniel Akins talks about his legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 11 - Daniel Akins talks about his concerns for the African American community

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Daniel Akins talks about his love for tennis

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Daniel Akins talks about his family

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Daniel Akins talks about how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Daniel Akins describes his family photos

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$4

DAStory

4$6

DATitle
Daniel Akins describes the Free Speech Movement and race relations
Daniel Akins talks about his experience working for the Polaroid Corporation
Transcript
You know. I mean, I don't know if people--. Well, tell me this now; we didn't discuss any of this, but in Berkeley when you were there, it was like the height of the political (unclear)--$$Yes.$$--free speech movement [The Free Speech Movement (FSM) was a student protest which took place during the 1964-1965 academic year on the campus of the University of California, Berkeley under the informal leadership of students Mario Savio, Brian Turner, Bettina Aptheker, Steve Weissman, Art Goldberg, Jackie Goldberg, and others. In protests unprecedented in this scope at the time, students insisted that the university administration lift the ban of on-campus political activities and acknowledge the students' right to free speech and academic freedom.]--$$Oh, yeah. Yeah.$$--Black Panthers [the Black Panther Party for Self Defense, active from 1966-1982] were on the rise. All that was going on when you were there. Did you have a chance to pay any attention to that, because I know you--$$Oh, I [belonged to?] I was there when Mario Savio and Bettina Aptheker and Jerry Rubin, and all of those, you know, took over the administration building and Sproul Hall Plaza [University of California, Berkeley]. I was there during that, then they jumped up on the police car and, you know, and it was--I was there when police would come to the campus. The California's high patrol, you know, their badges covered with black tape and they would take the students and sometimes throw them down a two-story flight, and the only thing that would save them would be other students who would grab them before they would hit the concrete, you know. All of these were white students, I mean. And so, I remember one day that some pregnant students decided they would block the police who had arrested all of these students and then would take them in a bus, and these were pregnant with babies. And the cops got off the bus, off of their buses and beat them with clubs. And I said, "Wait a minute, now. If they're going to do that to them, what are they going to do to me." So I sort of--I, basically, but I wasn't at the center of, you know, of their focus, you know. But it was--that was a daily thing. It was hard to avoid it. I mean, it was a very exciting time to be there. So, when I (unclear), just being on campus, you couldn't miss that.$$Now, did you encounter the Black Panthers at all?$$Oh, yeah. Yeah, I mean, they were people I knew, you now, around campus; then on the avenue, I mean, the coffee houses, I mean, you know. And, there was always something like a stomp speaker--not a stomp speaker, but a box, you know, soapbox speaker. The funny part--it wasn't funny, but the John Birch Society was big too, you know. So every day there was a debate in the Sproul Hall Plaza. And I can remember--there were even people who were trying to recruit you for different things, you know, for whatever. I don't know if it's Secret Services [United States] or what, but they were always around; even Soviets [referring to the Union of Socialist Soviet Republics, 1922-1991]. (laughs).$$So, okay.$$But it was a lot of activity going on at Berkeley. But I avoided any real, you know, getting involved with student groups and things of that sort. But I was in graduate school. That wouldn't have worked anyway.$Okay.$$Then I went to Polaroid [Corporation] for a couple years. That was my private industry experience. And I did that for two years. Then I ended up here.$$Now, what is--what was it like working at Polaroid?$$I was the only black chemist, physical chemist in the whole facility. And it was--I had no one working for me, but I had the title of a senior scientist, and which is unprecedented. I had all the stuff I wanted; they bought me lasers, and I set up the laboratory, but, normally the position would have--you'd have technicians, but I didn't. I did everything for myself. And the reason behind that, I found out later, but there was, as you can imagine, there was some politics going on. I had written--they asked me to write up something. They had a consultant who said there was good work, so they offered me the job. They maybe want to make me the director. But the physical chemistry division, which would have been new, but once the people there got wind that they were bringing someone else new in to run this, there was some friction, resistance. So they decided to ask me to come anyway, you know, come in. But I didn't have the same title, but they gave me for the same money, which was--. So I did it that way. But once I got there, I realized that that was untenable, you know, because you don't report to anyone; you just sort of at the good graces of whomever your sponsor is, who you don't even know who that is. That's one thing I learned, that you got always find out who's backing you. You know, I didn't even know that was of an issue. But once I got there and I find out what was going on, I decided I'd get out as soon as I could. And that took a couple of years. I was fortunate because as soon as I left, Polaroid fell, collapsed. But it was--it was clear that was going to happen because electronic photography was going to clearly take over.$$Yeah. It's--. Oh, so, you were thinking of forming your own business at that time you were saying, before--?$$Yeah, because I was doing some things that I thought were very exciting, and they were a spin-off, maybe of what Polaroid was doing. I really didn't know too much about their field and their science. I was learning, but I thought I had something new that I could do. But as I got experienced in the company doing the research, I realized that you really couldn't compete. I mean, I wouldn't have been able to compete against them, because this is a multi-billion dollar company and, you know, with all the--a lot of people--a lot of buildings and everything going for them. So, that wouldn't have worked. That would have been the wrong area because it's clearly electronic photography was on its way in.$$Now this is 1979, though?$$Yeah.$$And, electronic photography hadn't really--$$It hadn't quite kicked in, but it was on the horizon. You know, I mean, in retrospect, I mean, everyone was saying in the company what was going to happen, but they wanted to diversify. So they started going into equestrian photography at racetracks and using a Polaroid film to get quick pictures of horse ligaments--you know, legs and things. But, you know, it's a sort of small business-kind of thing. They also got into batteries. Those cameras had batteries, so they wanted to spin off into that. But I think the general view was that photography wasn't going to be the future, you know.

The Honorable Les Brown

Motivational speaker Les Brown was born Leslie Calvin Brown on February 17, 1945, in Miami, Florida. After giving birth to Brown and his twin brother, Wes, on the floor of an abandoned building, Brown’s biological mother gave her sons up for adoption when they were six weeks old to Mrs. Mamie Brown. When he was in fifth grade, Brown was forced back a grade by the school’s principal after being disruptive in class. Brown’s demotion subsequently led him to being placed in special education classes and labeled as mentally retarded. As an adolescent, Brown attended Booker T. Washington High School where he was influenced by a speech and drama instructor who encouraged him to pursue a career in radio broadcasting.

After graduating from high school and briefly working for the Department of Sanitation, Brown worked as an errand boy for a Miami Beach radio station. At the station, Brown observed the disc jockeys with hopes of one day becoming an on-air personality. His break came when one of the disc jockeys became inebriated. Brown stood in for him and then was hired as a disc jockey. In the late 1960s, Brown moved to Columbus, Ohio, to work for WVKO Radio, where he became active in the community. Brown’s political activism in Columbus won him a seat with the 29th House District of the Ohio State Legislature. In his first year, Brown passed more legislature than any other freshman representative in Ohio State legislative history. In his third term, Brown served as chair of the Human Resources Committee.

In 1981, Brown left the Ohio State House of Representatives to care for his ailing mother back in Florida. While in Miami, he continued to focus on social issues by developing a youth center training program. In 1986, Brown entered the public speaking arena on a full time basis and formed Les Brown Enterprises, Inc. In 1989, Brown received the National Speakers Association’s highest award, the Council of Peers Award of Excellence (CPAE). In 1990, Brown recorded the Emmy Award-winning series of speeches entitled You Deserve, which became the lead fundraising program of its kind for pledges to PBS stations nationwide. In 1991, Toastmasters International selected Brown as one of the world’s best speakers and awarded him the Golden Gavel Award.

Brown ranks amongst the nation’s leading authorities in understanding and stimulating human potential; he is a featured guest on many radio broadcasting stations and is often hired by professional corporations to teach and inspire new levels of achievement.

Accession Number

A2007.292

Sex

Male

Interview Date

10/17/2007

Last Name

Brown

Maker Category
Schools

Booker T. Washington High School

Frederick R. Douglass Elementary

First Name

Leslie "Les"

Birth City, State, Country

Miami

HM ID

BRO49

Favorite Season

Summer

Sponsor

George Fraser

State

Florida

Favorite Vacation Destination

New York, New York

Favorite Quote

Stand Up For What You Believe In Because You Can Fall For Anything.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Illinois

Birth Date

2/17/1945

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Chicago

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Pie (Sweet Potato)

Short Description

State representative The Honorable Les Brown (1945 - ) formed Les Brown Enterprises, Inc. in 1986. In the late 1960s through the 1970s, Brown served as an Ohio state representative. As a motivational speaker, he was a featured guest on many radio broadcasting stations and in corporate venues.

Employment

WMBM radio

WVKO radio

Ohio State House of Representative

WEDR radio

Les Brown Enterprises

Main Sponsor
Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:6030,125:6930,136:7920,194:20790,394:22950,422:25020,446:26280,462:35740,514:39819,544:41728,579:43720,625:44218,632:44882,643:45214,648:46542,677:46957,683:49032,719:49364,724:53026,743:53602,752:55330,792:56770,823:57058,828:57490,842:58714,867:59074,873:59506,880:60298,893:60586,898:61090,907:65870,949:66554,960:68986,1010:69518,1018:70810,1045:73394,1089:74078,1100:74382,1105:74686,1139:78486,1216:79246,1238:80006,1248:82818,1288:83426,1299:83882,1307:84186,1312:84490,1317:84794,1322:85098,1327:86086,1345:87302,1368:87758,1375:88518,1397:89734,1425:96950,1431:97440,1439:101570,1535:103250,1572:106330,1650:106610,1655:106890,1660:107450,1670:107870,1678:108850,1686:109480,1697:109970,1706:110950,1727:115920,1847:126862,1966:127972,1986:131080,2052:132560,2091:135816,2165:136556,2182:140320,2190:141013,2209:143924,2229:144536,2240:145556,2259:145964,2266:146644,2279:146916,2284:147324,2291:149588,2314:154484,2385:156116,2403:156788,2411:164564,2517:164852,2548:165572,2561:172040,2642$0,0:5460,155:5700,160:8700,233:8940,238:9360,246:9840,256:13440,330:13980,342:14880,363:15120,368:15480,373:16620,409:18780,459:19020,464:20340,507:20760,515:21360,527:21840,536:22080,541:22320,546:22680,559:23040,567:23640,579:31396,656:31837,665:33034,694:33601,706:34672,725:35995,757:36373,764:36877,773:37318,783:37822,792:38326,802:38956,813:39460,828:39712,833:42358,901:42610,906:44185,950:45886,980:46138,985:46831,1000:54250,1043:56150,1078:58450,1148:59150,1156:69050,1293:70250,1323:71050,1332:74605,1413:74985,1418:75460,1424:80140,1512:80844,1521:81724,1539:96810,1806:98650,1836:99290,1845:107518,1978:113434,2070:115238,2098:118471,2129:122658,2221:133718,2504:138616,2698:140038,2723:140670,2732:141460,2806:151168,2898:156412,3055:157856,3074:159832,3134:160136,3149:172072,3393:183710,3568:184438,3577:184984,3584:185712,3670:187441,3686:192355,3755:201923,3914:207512,4021:210347,4075:216662,4105:217880,4125:218750,4137:221186,4182:222143,4194:224610,4203
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of The Honorable Les Brown's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - The Honorable Les Brown lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - The Honorable Les Brown describes his adoption

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - The Honorable Les Brown describes his mother's upbringing

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - The Honorable Les Brown talks about his learning disability

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - The Honorable Les Brown describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - The Honorable Les Brown talks about his adopted sister, Margaret Ann Sampson

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - The Honorable Les Brown remembers his mother's arrest

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - The Honorable Les Brown remembers his godmother

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - The Honorable Les Brown recalls his early influences

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - The Honorable Les Brown describes the Overtown neighborhood in Miami, Florida

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - The Honorable Les Brown describes the sights of his childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - The Honorable Les Brown recalls his introduction to motivational speaking

Tape: 1 Story: 14 - The Honorable Les Brown describes the smells and sounds of his childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 15 - The Honorable Les Brown describes his early aspirations

Tape: 1 Story: 16 - The Honorable Les Brown lists his siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 17 - The Honorable Les Brown describes his early education

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - The Honorable Les Brown remembers Douglas Elementary School in Miami, Florida

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - The Honorable Les Brown recalls his early mentors

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - The Honorable Les Brown describes segregation in Miami, Florida

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - The Honorable Les Brown recalls his brief involvement in football

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - The Honorable Les Brown describes his twin brother

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - The Honorable Les Brown recalls his start as a radio disk jockey

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - The Honorable Les Brown remembers working for WMBM Radio in Miami Beach, Florida

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - The Honorable Les Brown recalls transitioning to WVKO Radio in Columbus, Ohio

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - The Honorable Les Brown describes his start at WVKO Radio

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - The Honorable Les Brown describes the qualities of a successful disk jockey

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - The Honorable Les Brown describes the African American radio community

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - The Honorable Les Brown recalls the conservative attitudes in Columbus, Ohio

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - The Honorable Les Brown recalls his early community organizing

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - The Honorable Les Brown talks about police brutality

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - The Honorable Les Brown recalls his termination from WVKO Radio in Columbus, Ohio

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - The Honorable Les Brown remembers becoming the program director of WVKO Radio

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - The Honorable Les Brown recalls running for the Ohio General Assembly

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - The Honorable Les Brown remembers C.J. McLin

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - The Honorable Les Brown remembers retiring from the Ohio General Assembly

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - The Honorable Les Brown recalls studying the oratory of Reverend Dr. Johnnie Colemon

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - The Honorable Les Brown remembers lessons from his time as a state legislator

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - The Honorable Les Brown recalls building alliances as a state legislator

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - The Honorable Les Brown talks about political campaigning in the black community

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - The Honorable Les Brown talks about political campaigning in the white community

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - The Honorable Les Brown remembers protesting against police brutality

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - The Honorable Les Brown recalls founding the Les Brown Youth Enrichment Seminar, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - The Honorable Les Brown recalls founding the Les Brown Youth Enrichment Seminar, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - The Honorable Les Brown recalls joining WEDR radio in Miami, Florida

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - The Honorable Les Brown recalls the Liberty City uprisings in Miami, Florida

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - The Honorable Les Brown recalls being targeted by the state attorney general

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - The Honorable Les Brown talks about the Les Brown Youth Enrichment Seminar

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - The Honorable Les Brown remembers the mentorship of Mike Williams

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - The Honorable Les Brown describes the influence of Mike Williams

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - The Honorable Les Brown recalls the encouragement of Horace Perkins

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - The Honorable Les Brown talks about his relationship with Mike Williams

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - The Honorable Les Brown describes the black community in Miami, Florida

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - The Honorable Les Brown describes Miami's African American political leadership

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - The Honorable Les Brown remembers his program for African American and Haitian children

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - The Honorable Les Brown recalls working with Clarence King in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - The Honorable Les Brown describes his decision to become a motivational speaker

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - The Honorable Les Brown recalls training as a motivational speaker

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - The Honorable Les Brown talks about his honors and awards

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - The Honorable Les Brown talks about his success as a motivational speaker

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - The Honorable Les Brown describes his oratorical strategies

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - The Honorable Les Brown remembers funding his early speaking career

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - The Honorable Les Brown recalls opening an office in Detroit, Michigan

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - The Honorable Les Brown describes the motivational speaking industry

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - The Honorable Les Brown describes his speech writing technique

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - The Honorable Les Brown recalls his experiences of discrimination as a motivational speaker

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - The Honorable Les Brown describes his advantages as a motivational speaker

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - The Honorable Les Brown recalls his appearances on PBS

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$4

DAStory

2$5

DATitle
The Honorable Les Brown talks about police brutality
The Honorable Les Brown recalls founding the Les Brown Youth Enrichment Seminar, pt. 2
Transcript
But Les [HistoryMaker Les Brown], let's talk about that, that period a little bit more and the reason I wanna do it, I wanna understand what is sort of happening with you--$$Um-hm.$$--as you're sort of growing and maturing--$$Um-hm.$$--and then I wanna understand also the context of--$$Yes.$$--what Columbus [Ohio] was like you know besides Woody Hayes. So what is the black community like? What is the white community like? You know besides just umbrage of this conservative town?$$Police brutality was very, very flagrant and very bold. They did not hide it then. I mean people could stand around and they would beat people publicly. That infuriated me. So I was the first person to do editorials on that and held demonstrations and demanded that the cops be fired. Brought enough pressure to get them fired and then they would go before a review board of other police officers and they would be reinstated. But we, we knew that we were fighting a losing battle but we said we need to fight anyhow because this is the Gestapo of our community. And they knew how to intimidate people and they knew they had carte blanche. All they had to say as they do today, I thought he had a gun and they would kill people. And that so, that was, that was a very tough issue and even to this day I have to walk away from some things that I see because it number one, people feel powerless in the face of it which I think is crazy because nobody is invincible although they're very powerful, they're the only licensed assassins in our community, but it's a very difficult situation because you need them to protect you from criminals and then at the same time there are many of them 35 percent of them are mentally ill and are criminals themselves with a badge and a gun you know. Look at the newspaper coming through the airport. Young guy was arrested for nothing and a cop struck--I mean stuck a screwdriver up his rectum. I mean that's that's sick and that's just the tip of the iceberg. What has happened--so that's that's been one area of my life I had to shut down. I've seen it most of my life. I have a strong passion about it and perhaps one of the reasons that I'm leaving Chicago [Illinois] because of the, the feeling of powerlessness that people have for the past twenty years police have used cattle prods on the gums, the lips, the penis and testicles of African American males to extract confessions and for crimes they did not commit. It was proven by a panel and they sat on the findings of that panel until the policemen could not be prosecuted and the city could not be sued and the statute of limitations ran out.$And then I put my name on the, on the register and they called, the Les Brown Youth Enrichment Seminar. "Members of the committee thank you very much for this opportunity to speak to you today." I said, "As you can see here I have five hundred sheets of paper and it would not be cost effective to duplicate this and give it to each of you because you wouldn't have time read it anyhow. So let me tell you about the Les Brown Youth Enrichment Seminar. We have gathered here as I have listened to you to provide funding for programs that will help kids to make it through the summer. The Les Brown Youth Enrichment Seminar is designed to give kids the tools to make it, not only during the summer, but during life. So I believe that we can have Little League football teams and baseball teams and basketball teams. We can also have little league dermatologists and cardiologists and that's what this program is designed to do. To let our kids know they're molding now what they will be in the future." So they said, "Whoa." No one had ever come up there and they talked about it from that perspective. They said, "Well, how much will your program costs?" I didn't know. I played bid whist and I'm very good and we always say come high or stay home. All the other programs like one hundred thousand, two hundred thousand dollars, so I said, "$350,000." And they said, "$350,000?" I said, "Yes." And they spoke among themselves. They said, "Mr. Brown [HistoryMaker Les Brown], what about a hundred thousand dollars? It's the first program?" I didn't speak immediately because I didn't want to speak in unknown tongues. I was excited. I said I can't believe this. So I paused. I said, "That'll be good to start it off." And they said, "Very good, go to the clerk and they will cut you a check tonight for thirty-five thousand dollars for startup. Mr. Brown?" "Yes." "Go to the clerk, he's to your left and they will cut you a check tonight for thirty-five thousand dollars as startup." I said, "Yes." I went over to the clerk. They asked for my name, my address, my social security number. I gave it to them and they gave me a check. And I'm saying oh my god. I became paranoid as I'm walking into the elevator. I thought that somebody was following me so I wouldn't get on the elevator with anybody for fear that somebody would rob me. And then when nobody was around, I got on the elevator, I went downstairs. My heart is beating real fast. I go to a payphone booth and called my sister. I said, "Margaret Ann [Margaret Ann Sampson], come get me quick." She said, "Why?" I said, "I'm at Dade County Auditorium [Miami Dade County Auditorium, Miami, Florida] and they gave me thirty-five thousand dollars." And she said, "For what?" I said, "For a youth program." She said, "You don't know anything about training youth." I said, "I know but we can go to the library tomorrow." (Laughter) And so my sister came by there. She said, "Where will you be?" I said, "I'll be in the payphone booth." She said, "Why?" I said, "I just feel like somebody's watching me." So she came by there and she said, "Leslie? Leslie?" And I was in this payphone booth. I had (unclear) the payphone booth and I, and I opened the door a little bit so the light would be on. She said, "Leslie?" I said, "I'm down here." She said, "Where are you?" I said, "Here." She said, "Look at you sweating. Why are you in there?" I said, "I don't know. I just felt like somebody was watching me." She said, "For what?" I said, "I got a thirty-five thousand dollar check." She said, "Why?" "To train to some youth." She said, "You are kidding." I said, "Yes." I said, "Could you take off from school tomorrow and go to the library with me and help me find a program so we can start?" She said, "Yes," so she took off the next day. We went to the library to find various programs that was existing across the country. We got the best ideas and put that program together and then I started doing that and I did a youth training in Miami, Florida and that was a new beginning in a special kind of way because the activist in me went down in Miami and became politically involved.

Gloria Johnson Goins

Gloria Johnson Goins was born and raised in Miami, Florida on April 17, 1963 to Albert and Lillian Johnson. She graduated in the top five percent of her class from Ransom Everglade College Preparatory School in Coconut Grove, Florida. Goins received her B.A. degree in psychology from Stanford University in 1985 and her J.D. degree from the University of Pennsylvania Law School in 1988, where she was also an editor of the Law Review. She received her M.B.A. degree from Mercer University in 2000.

After receiving her law degree, Goins joined the law firm of Fine, Jacobson, Schwartz, Nash, Block & England as an associate in the area of commercial and civil litigation. In 1992, she joined BellSouth Telecommunications as a General Attorney. Goins played a major role in the successful design and implementation of the 678 area code and mandatory ten digit dialing. She also co-authored an article on the Family and Medical Leave Act which was published in the October 1996 issue of the Georgia Bar Journal.

Goins continued her career at BellSouth in the roles of General Attorney and Vice President of Diversity at Cingular Wireless, a division of BellSouth, until May 2003 when she joined the Home Depot Corporation in Atlanta, Georgia as Chief Diversity Officer. Her primary responsibilities as Chief Diversity Officer include creating and implementing global company wide diversity and inclusion initiatives. Some of Goins’ key accomplishments include developing a corporate inclusion council charged with leveraging diversity as a competitive advantage, and the implementation of domestic partner benefits.

Goins is a member of the Home Depot Foundation, the Florida and Georgia Bar Associations and the National and American Bar Associations. She is active in the United Way of America, the NAACP and the Georgia Council of Child Abuse. In 2004, she was named Woman of the Year by Women Looking Ahead magazine.

Goins was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on March 26, 2007.

Accession Number

A2007.110

Sex

Female

Interview Date

3/26/2007

Last Name

Goins

Maker Category
Middle Name

Johnson

Occupation
Schools

St. Stephen's Episcopal Day School

Ransom Everglades School

Stanford University

University of Pennsylvania Law School

Mercer University Eugene W. Stetson School of Business and Economics

First Name

Gloria

Birth City, State, Country

Miami

HM ID

GOI01

Favorite Season

Christmas

State

Florida

Favorite Vacation Destination

Beaches

Favorite Quote

To Whom Much Is Given, Much Is Required.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Birth Date

4/17/1963

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Atlanta

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Chocolate

Short Description

Corporate lawyer Gloria Johnson Goins (1963 - ) served as a general attorney at BellSouth Telecommunications, where she played a major role in the implementation of the 678 area code and mandatory ten digit dialing. She also served as vice president of diversity at Cingular Wireless, before she joined the Home Depot Corporation in Atlanta, Georgia as its chief diversity officer.

Employment

The Home Depot, Inc.

Cingular Wireless LLC

Fine, Jacobson, Schwartz, Nash, Block, and England

Adorno and Zeder

BellSouth Telecommunications, Inc.

Favorite Color

Red

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Gloria Johnson Goins' interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Gloria Johnson Goins lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Gloria Johnson Goins describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Gloria Johnson Goins talks about her mother's childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Gloria Johnson Goins describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Gloria Johnson Goins remembers her parents' occupations

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Gloria Johnson Goins describes how her parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Gloria Johnson Goins talks about her parents' marriage

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Gloria Johnson Goins describes her earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Gloria Johnson Goins describes the sights, sounds and smells of her childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Gloria Johnson Goins remembers the Overtown neighborhood of Miami, Florida

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Gloria Johnson Goins recalls her early education

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Gloria Johnson Goins recalls her early influences

Tape: 1 Story: 14 - Gloria Johnson Goins remembers her extracurricular activities

Tape: 1 Story: 15 - Gloria Johnson Goins describes her family's Bahamian traditions

Tape: 1 Story: 16 - Gloria Johnson Goins remembers visiting the Bahamas as a child

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Gloria Johnson Goins talks about the early influence of religion

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Gloria Johnson Goins describes her relationship with her mother

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Gloria Johnson Goins describes her relationship with her father

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Gloria Johnson Goins remembers the Ransom Everglades School in Miami, Florida

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Gloria Johnson Goins recalls her activities at the Ransom Everglades School

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Gloria Johnson Goins remembers her high school prom

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Gloria Johnson Goins talks about her family's economic status

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Gloria Johnson Goins talks about the Cuban community in Miami, Florida

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Gloria Johnson Goins recalls her mentor at the Ransom Everglades School

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Gloria Johnson Goins recalls her transition to Stanford University

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Gloria Johnson Goins remembers her first experience of an earthquake

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Gloria Johnson Goins describes the black community at Stanford University

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Gloria Johnson Goins recalls joining the Delta Sigma Theta Sorority

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Gloria Johnson Goins describes her undergraduate honors thesis

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Gloria Johnson Goins describes her decision to major in psychology at Stanford University

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Gloria Johnson Goins recalls her preparation for law school

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Gloria Johnson Goins recalls her first impression of the University of Pennsylvania Law School in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Gloria Johnson Goins recalls her first law internship

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Gloria Johnson Goins describes the demographics of the University of Pennsylvania Law School

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Gloria Johnson Goins describes her first year of law school

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Gloria Johnson Goins remembers her second year of law school

Tape: 3 Story: 12 - Gloria Johnson Goins remembers her second law internship

Tape: 3 Story: 13 - Gloria Johnson Goins recalls joining the University of Pennsylvania Law School Law Review

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Gloria Johnson Goins recalls the demographics of the Fine, Jacobson, Schwartz, Nash, Block and England law firm

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Gloria Johnson Goins remembers her third year of law school

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Gloria Johnson Goins recalls her experiences as an associate at a majority-white law firm

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Gloria Johnson Goins remembers joining the law firm of Adorno and Zeder

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Gloria Johnson Goins recalls joining the legal staff of BellSouth Telecommunications, Inc.

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Gloria Johnson Goins describes her casework at the BellSouth Corporation

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Gloria Johnson Goins recalls her article on the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Gloria Johnson Goins recalls her regulatory initiatives at the BellSouth Corporation

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Gloria Johnson Goins describes her position at the BellSouth Corporation

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Gloria Johnson Goins recalls her role as the vice president of diversity at Cingular Wireless LLC, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Gloria Johnson Goins recalls her role as the vice president of diversity at Cingular Wireless LLC, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Gloria Johnson Goins remembers the Eugene W. Stetson School of Business and Economics in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Gloria Johnson Goins talks about her family

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Gloria Johnson Goins reflects upon her faith

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Gloria Johnson Goins recalls joining The Home Depot, Inc.

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Gloria Johnson Goins describes her initiatives at The Home Depot, Inc.

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Gloria Johnson Goins recalls her challenges as chief diversity officer of The Home Depot, Inc.

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Gloria Johnson Goins reflects upon her plans for The Home Depot, Inc.

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Gloria Johnson Goins talks about her faith

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Gloria Johnson Goins reflects upon her life

Tape: 5 Story: 11 - Gloria Johnson Goins describes her plans for the future

Tape: 5 Story: 12 - Gloria Johnson Goins describes her hopes for the African American community

Tape: 5 Story: 13 - Gloria Johnson Goins describes her advice to young people

Tape: 5 Story: 14 - Gloria Johnson Goins reflects upon her legacy

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$1

DAStory

9$13

DATitle
Gloria Johnson Goins recalls her mentor at the Ransom Everglades School
Gloria Johnson Goins recalls her early influences
Transcript
Before you graduate, is there a teacher or a counselor that lead you in the direction of what school you would go to?$$Yes. There's a teacher at Ransom Everglades [Ransom Everglades School, Miami, Florida] named Dan Bowden, who is an institution within the institution. Mr. Bowden probably taught at Ransom forty years. I mean the, the power of Ransom Everglades is that the teachers could go to public school and make more money. But they loved teaching, and they loved the students, so they, they're committed to the school. So he's, he taught there forty years plus before he retired. And I remember him--he's a hoot. He and my mother [Lillian Dean Johnson], their birthdays were near each other. And he would always send my mother a birthday card on her birthday. But I'll, I'll tell you the most salient thing I remember about Dan Bowden, apart from the fact he was my poetry teacher and taught me this incredible poetry. I remember one day I was walking down the breezeway, which was sort of the main atrium of Ransom. And Mr. Bowden said, "[HistoryMaker] Maya Angelou is coming to town, and I want to take you to see her. I want you to go get permission from your parents to go see her." And I said like a, you know, a confused teenager, "Maya Angelou, who's that?" And he said, "You don't know who Maya Angelou is, oh, oh, please." I mean he was just so hurt and disappointed. So I said, "Okay, wow, I've just offended my English teacher, but okay, I'll ask my parents if I can go." So, of course, you know, whatever Mr. Bowden said was fine with them. So they signed a permission slip, and he took me and no one else. I was the only student he took out of the entire school to go see Maya Angelou. And she was the most incredible individual I have seen to date. I have never seen someone so incredibly talented and elegant and gorgeous. I think I laughed and I cried all at the same time. I mean she sang. She recited poetry. I mean I was mesmerized. And so, Mr. Bowden said, after the performance was over, he said, "I'm gonna take you up to meet her." And I'm thinking, okay, well, there's like two thousand people in here. How are we gonna get to that stage to meet her? And certainly, you may have heard of her. I don't think you guys are old, old friends that have tea. So he literally took me by the hand and really just went through the crowd, pushing people aside, "Excuse me, excuse me," I mean just pushing people aside. He was like a weed whacker, just getting through the crowd. And finally, you know, he kind of, you know, you know, got his way up to the stage. And I was like, oh, my god, I hope these people aren't mad because, you know, this man just kind of knocked them over. And he went up to her, and he said, "Ms. Angelou, I'd like you to meet Gloria Johnson [HistoryMaker Gloria Johnson Goins]. She's one of my best and brightest students." And she--I'll never forget this--she leaned down from the stage, and she took my face in her hands, and she said, "Gloria, you're beautiful." And I'll never forget that because I said, "Wow. You mean I could actually be like Maya Angelou one day?" So, that, you know, changed my life. And then, coupled with the fact that when I was doubting my abilities even then, he said, "Look, you can go wherever you want to go. So you want to go Stanford [Stanford University, Stanford, California], even though nobody's gotten into Stanford for five years at this school, you can go there." And so he really kind of just really worked on my self-esteem and, and, and just told me, you know, "Wherever you want to go to college, you can go there. You want to go to Stanford, that's where you can go." And that's actually where I ended up going.$Do you remember any of the teachers at that school [St. Stephen's Episcopal Day School, Miami, Florida]?$$Yes.$$Tell me about them.$$I remember Ms. Betts. She was my fourth grade teacher. She was--her name was Marguerite Betts [ph.]. She looked like an angel, and she acted like an angel. She was so protective of me. I remember unfortunately my dad [Albert Johnson, Sr.] got in a really bad car accident. And my father was struggling trying to take care of me, get to school. And he had me stay with Ms. Betts for a couple of days. And she would take me to school and make sure I did my homework, and she was just an angel. And I, I remember in fourth grade that someone also called me the N word. And when she found that out, I mean she was just, you know, really, really angry about it and just took immediate reaction--immediate cor- corrective action of that situation, so she was an angel. I remember my sixth grade teacher, Mrs. Reynolds [ph.]. Mrs. Reynolds was a no nonsense kind of teacher. And what I remember most about her is I remember her being fair. And what I mean is two things. We did 'A Christmas Carol' [Charles Dickens] as a play. And I was one of--I was the only black child in the class and only one of two in the whole school, and she gave me the lead. And a lot of my other classmates were like, "Wait a minute. How can you be Scrooge [Ebenezer Scrooge]? Number one, you're, you're not a man, and number two, you're black. So how can you, black girl, be the lead in this play?" So that was the first thing. I thought she was fair. But then, something interesting happened. Growing up for most of my life, I, I just naturally assumed that, that white people were smarter than black people. Having spent the first couple of years of my life in a basically all-black school, living in an all-black neighborhood [Overtown, Miami, Florida], going to an all-black church, I really didn't interact with white people extensively. And so, even though I was getting straight A's, and I was in advanced classes, I didn't think very much of it 'cause I assumed everybody else was. And of course we weren't talking to each other because they never talked to me. And my best friend [Madelaine Bertram Osborne], I loved her death, but I knew she wasn't an Einstein [Albert Einstein]. So I knew that, you know, she wasn't knocking it out of the ballpark, but I didn't care; she was my friend. And so I remember Mrs. Reynolds because when it was time to graduate from sixth grade, she decided to wait until graduation day to announce who the top students in the class were. So she got, she gets up, and she announces that the third place student is Olga Gomez [ph.]. So I said, "Okay, yeah, Olga's pretty smart." Then she gets up and says the second place student is Nancy Roth [ph.]. And I said, "Wait a minute. How can Nancy Roth be second place? There's nobody in this class smarter than Nancy; something's wrong." So then she gets up and says, "Our first place scholarship winner is Gloria Johnson [HistoryMaker Gloria Johnson Goins]," and I didn't get up. So I looked around and looked around, and she's like, "Come on, get up, get up. What's wrong with you?" And I'm like, "Me? How could I be the smartest person?" I mean it took a long, uncomfortable pause for me to get up there and realize I had the highest grades in the entire class, stark contrast from where I started, 'cause I was constantly in the principal's office. It was a, a religious school. I was always teasing the priests, putting cupcakes in his chair, and putting tacks in his hair, and you know, disrupting the class. So the fact that I had the highest grades, I, I couldn't accept that. So it, it took me awhile to kind of come to grips with the fact that I actually was bright, and I was talented, and that I could compete.

Dorothy Fields

Archivist Dorothy Fields was born on December 31, 1942 in Miami, Florida. She was raised as an only child in the African American neighborhood of Overtown, formerly known as Colored Town. The family then purchased property in the Brown Subdivision of Miami. Fields attended Phyllis Wheatley Elementary School and Booker T. Washington High School. In high school, Fields was a member of the concert and marching band, and excelled in journalism.

In 1960, Fields graduated from Booker T. Washington High School. The following year, she enrolled at Spelman College in Atlanta, Georgia, as an art major. As a freshman, Fields participated in the 1960 march with Dr. King to desegregate Rich’s department store in downtown Atlanta. Upon completion in a student exchange program at Smith College in Northampton, Massachusetts, Fields earned her B.F.A degree in art from Spelman College in 1964. After graduation, Fields worked as a school librarian, reading teacher and educational specialist for Miami-Dade County Public Schools for 40 years.

In 1974, Fields then received her M.A. degree in curriculum and instruction through a local outreach program out of the University of Northern Colorado. In that same year, in preparation for the nation’s bicentennial, Fields began a search for information from which curriculum materials could be developed on the black experience in South Florida. Fields was unable to find any information about South Florida’s black history in any school or public library. From this experience Fields established The Black Archives, History and Research Foundation, a photographic repository containing the legacies of Miami’s black community f South Florida in 1977. In the same year, Fields received a certificate from Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia, in Archives Administration and Historic Preservation. Later, at The Union Institute and University in Cincinnati, Ohio, she earned a Ph.D. in 20th century African-American history, historic preservation, and public history.

Fields’ vision was to establish a manuscript and photographic repository for the African American community of Miami. She initially began collecting oral histories from older African American residents living in the communities of Overtown and the Brown Subdivision. From her efforts, the city of Miami later designated the community of Overtown as a National Trust “Main Street” community. Overtown is officially named the Historic Overtown Folklife Village. Fields is also responsible for the successful restoration of the landmark Lyric Theater located in Overtown. Renowned artists such as Nat King Cole, Marion Anderson, Etta Moten Barnett once performed at this theater.

Fields has received numerous honors and awards for her efforts in preserving African American history and culture. She serves a member of the advisory board for the Haitian Heritage Museum, and a board member for the Vizcaya Museum and Gardens in Miami. She was also a Woodrow Wilson Teacher’s Fellow at Princeton University. A life member of the association for the Study of African American Life and History she also holds membership in the Society of American Archivists and the Academy of Certified Archivists. She is a member of Zeta Phi Beta Sorority, Inc. and The Links, Incorporated.

Fields has two daughters, attorney Katherine Fields Kpehyee Marsh and historian Edda Fields-Black, author of 'Deep Roots: Rice Farmers in West Africa and the African Diaspora.'

Accession Number

A2006.024

Sex

Female

Interview Date

2/17/2006

Last Name

Fields

Maker Category
Occupation
Organizations
Schools

Booker T. Washington High School

Phillis Wheatley Elementary School

Spelman College

University of Oklahoma

University of Northern Colorado

Union Institute & University

First Name

Dorothy

Birth City, State, Country

Miami

HM ID

FIE02

Favorite Season

Winter

State

Florida

Favorite Vacation Destination

Manhattan, New York

Favorite Quote

Until The Lions Tell Their Story, Tales Of The Hunt Will Continue To Glorify The Hunter.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Florida

Birth Date

12/31/1942

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Miami

Country

United States

Favorite Food

N/A

Short Description

Archivist Dorothy Fields (1942 - ) founded The Black Archives, History & Research Foundation of South Florida. She has helped preserve the history of African American communities in Miami, and successfully restored the landmark Lyric Theater located in Overtown, Florida.

Favorite Color

Zeta Blue

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Dorothy Fields' interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Dorothy Fields lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Dorothy Fields talks about her maternal family history, pt.1

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Dorothy Fields talks about her maternal family history, pt.2

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Dorothy Fields talks about her paternal family history

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Dorothy Fields talks about family names and her maternal grandparents' occupations

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Dorothy Fields talks about the high school education of relatives on her mother's side at historically black colleges and universities

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Dorothy Fields talks about Miami's Colored Town

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Dorothy Fields describes her family's move from Miami, Florida's Colored Town to Brownsville, Florida

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Dorothy Fields talks about her childhood education

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Dorothy Fields remembers the lesson she learned after earning an 'F' in physical education

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Dorothy Fields shares her memories of her Aunt Bert

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Dorothy Fields talks about her close-knit maternal family, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Dorothy Fields talks about close-knit her maternal family, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Dorothy Fields talks about her experience at Booker T. Washington High School in Miami, Florida

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Dorothy Fields describes the sights, sounds, and smells of her childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Dorothy Fields talks about Bahamian-style homes and why her family settled in Miami, Florida's Colored Town

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Dorothy Fields describes her childhood memories and her family's involvement in black fraternal organizations

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Dorothy Fields talks about formative figures and events as a student at Booker T. Washington High School in Miami, Florida

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Dorothy Fields remembers moving to Massachusetts and her experiences of Boston and New York

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Dorothy Fields talks about her experiences at Camp Atwater in North Brookfield, Massachusetts

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Dorothy Fields recalls formative experiences from her youth

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Dorothy Fields talks about her experience at Spelman College in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Dorothy Fields talks about her involvement in an intergroup youth council, and segregation in the South

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Dorothy Fields remembers Spelman College's policies and meeting Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Dorothy Fields talks about her participation in the Civil Rights Movement as a student at Spelman College in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Dorothy Fields describes the response of Spelman College's president, Dr. Albert Manley, to student activism during the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Dorothy Fields describes the environment of Spelman College in Atlanta, Georgia and her experience there

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Dorothy Fields describes why she did not go to graduate school in New York City, New York

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Dorothy Fields describes her experiences as an exchange student at Smith College in Northampton, Massachusetts

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Dorothy Fields talks about her experience as an exchange student at Smith College in Northampton, Massachusetts

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Dorothy Fields describes how she became a school librarian and reading teacher

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Dorothy Fields talks about working in a federal color awareness program and her marriage to Eddie Fields

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Dorothy Fields talks about her experiences of racial discrimination while working as a teacher at Myrtle Grove Elementary School

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Dorothy Fields describes meeting Thelma Peters and Arva Moore Parks McCabe through her search for the history of blacks in Miami, Florida

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Dorothy Fields talks about how she came to work at the Historical Museum of Southern Florida and the skills she learned there

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Dorothy Fields discusses her findings about the founders of the City of Miami, Florida

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Dorothy Fields talks about her graduate studies in the University of Oklahoma's outreach program in Miami-Dade County, Florida

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Dorothy Fields describes the beginning of her research on blacks in Miami, Florida

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Dorothy Fields talks about her studies in archives administration and historic preservation at Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Dorothy Fields remembers being falsely told that Booker T. Washington High School in Miami, Florida could not become a part of the National Register of Historic Places

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Dorothy Fields talks about her research on black ancestry in Miami, Florida

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Dorothy Fields talks about assembling a board of directors after establishing the Black Archives Foundation in 1977

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Dorothy Fields describes how Florida's I-95 expressway displaced black residents in Miami's Overtown neighborhood

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Dorothy Fields compares Miami, Florida's Overtown and Downtown neighborhoods

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Dorothy Fields remembers leading her board of directors into Miami's Overtown community

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Dorothy Fields describes how the thriving atmosphere of Miami's Colored Town was destroyed by the construction of I-95

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Dorothy Fields talks about her discovery of Miami's Lyric Theater and her vision for the Historic Overtown Folk Life District

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Dorothy Fields talks about the purchase of the Lyric Theater and buildings and its placement on the National Register of Historic Places

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Dorothy Fields talks about working to preserve and restore the Lyric Theater

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Dorothy Fields describes writing a last minute response to an RFP for Florida International University in Miami, Florida

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Dorothy Fields describes her doctoral studies in her fifties through Union Institute & University

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Dorothy Fields talks about her two daughters

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Dorothy Fields talks about her mentor, John Hope Franklin

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Dorothy Fields talks about her participation in the Civil Rights Movement as a student at Spelman College in Atlanta, Georgia
Dorothy Fields discusses her findings about the founders of the City of Miami, Florida
Transcript
But that was quite an experience then because as the movement [Civil Rights Movement] started, I mean when we started with him [Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.] in the fall of '60 [1960], it was a matter of helping to get Rich's Department Store to serve black people. One of the graduation presents that I got was a credit card to Rich's Department Store, one of the largest department stores in the southeast. And of course I would--wanted it so I could go for dinner and treat my friends for food.$$Right.$$I wasn't--and a few clothes, but then food. Not that the food at Spelman [College, Atlanta, Georgia] wasn't good but it was just a matter of being out and being able to do something someplace else. But we couldn't sit down. You'd have to get it and stand up. And so it started off a very small movement and then I remember I guess maybe--that was in the fall, maybe by spring he told us that they're going to start marching, actually walking from the AU Center [Atlanta University Center, Atlanta, Georgia] to downtown, to Rich's, and so we started doing that. And we made a human chain around Rich's, and you know how large Rich's is?$$Yeah, the one right Downtown--$$Downtown.$$--it's huge.$$That was the only one at the time.$$Okay.$$And--$$Yeah, there's no Lenox Mall and--$$Didn't exist. A human chain was made.$$Of Spelman [College, Atlanta, Georgia] and Morehouse [College, Atlanta, Georgia] and Clark [College, Atlanta, Georgia] students?$$Yes.$$And Morris Brown [College, Atlanta, Georgia]?$$And students started coming from all over the country. And when we would get to--we would march quietly. You were not supposed to say anything--just and if anyone said anything to you, just you know turn the other cheek, don't say anything. When we would get to a corner, the Ku Klux--Klu Klux Klan in full regalia would come and run into us.$$Oh!$$And the guys from Morehouse would be--the Ku Klux Klan would do a counter march. The guys from Morehouse would run across the street through the traffic and try to catch us, hold their arms out like this so we wouldn't be pushed into the traffic.$$Wow.$$The Ku Klux Klan would also march with, do a counter march. We're going one way, there going another. They had bowling balls in shopping bags and they would swing the bowling--the shopping bag to try to hit us in the stomach, to try to give us you know, so we wouldn't be able to have children. It was not easy. And then we would--$$Bowling balls?$$Bowling balls in shopping bags that they would swing at us, try to hit you.$$Right, cause you're not going to punch a woman?$$Yes, yes, yes, yes, uh-huh, uh-huh, uh-huh.$$Wow.$$And then when we get back on campus there would be a cross-burning.$$So--$$So I don't know how we studied. I don't know how we studied and how we got through. And I know my mother [Dorothy Johnson Jenkins McKellar] was so, so afraid because she said, not only for my safety and the safety of my friends and the whole campus, but she was concerned that she was going to lose her job. She said if they see you on television, and recognize you I can lose my job.$$Wow.$$So she was always very afraid, yes, that she would lose her job. And she could have.$$To think, so that retaliation--$$Yes.$$--all the way down here--$$Oh, definitely.$$--because of--?$$Oh, sure, sure.$$Had that happened to anybody else that you knew around here or just--?$$No, but did [HM] Thelma Gibson tell you that her husband [Reverend Canon Theodore Roosevelt Gibson] was with, was president of the [Miami chapter of the] NAACP [National Association for the Advancement of Colored People] and they--the [Joseph] McCarthy people requested during the Red Scare, the membership roll and her husband refused to do it and they, yes.$$No, she didn't.$$She didn't tell you that story? Oh my, that was very important, yes, uh-huh. So we knew that that could happen. We knew that that could happen.$What continues to propel you along this path that's brought you here?$$Well, actually when I went home the day after, the day that I spoke with the women at the library, and she had said--so what she said, I went home and Uncle Sammy lived right across the street and I went, stopped home like my uncles and aunts would always do--$$Right, right.$$--and talked to him about it. So he said well Mrs. Fields, I guess you don't understand our history any more than the woman at the library. He's saying don't blame her. This is the kind of family, right? No nonsense.$$Okay.$$Okay, remember my mom [Dorothy Johnson Jenkins McKellar] and the 'F,' okay. Never, you know not any nonsense, loving family, but no nonsense. He said well you don't understand it any better than she. The fact is my generation has been too busy trying to survive. It's going to be up to you and your generation to write the history. No there's no written history. It's going to be up to your generation. He was very philosophical about it and always with stories to tell. He even told me that as a young boy, he remembers in Miami's Colored Town [now Overtown, Miami, Florida] the old men sitting around talking and playing checkers and laughing and boasting that they helped Miami become a city. So once I started on this, it opened new vistas, which was his, one of his favorite words. He said see if you can find any evidence of what they've been talking about.$$(Unclear).$$And sure enough I was able to get from the clerk's office a copy of the original charter for the city of Miami, and it just blew my mind because--$$What did it say?$$--that charter shows--we have that original copy. I mean we have a copy of that--the same copy that I got then, I have now and I want to bring it out for you to see it, shows that a third of the men who stood for the City of Miami's incorporation were black men. And my uncle really wanted see if the men could--who could read or write? He wanted to know which names he recognized and many of them had been in slavery.$$Wow.$$See, this was 1896--$$Right, right.$$--and so that was 19, I mean 1865 [sic, 1896], so many of them were old men but they were there. As it turns out all of the names were written in one hand, the hand of the clerk of the court at the time.$$Okay.$$But next to each man's name was his race, so that's how we knew.$$Oh, exactly.$$That's how we know who was black and who was white. That's why instead of people saying oh, you should have a museum. I say, well a museum is fine and you bring in collections and you interpret the collections. But when you identify, collect, process and make available to students and scholars and teachers and to the public at large, the primary source material that then is interpreted by a historian then for me that, that goes deeper than just showing something that's on the wall, and so I started collecting primary sources.