The Nation’s Largest African American Video Oral History Collection Mobile search icon Mobile close search icon
Advanced Biography Search
Mobile navigation icon Close mobile navigation icon

Dr. Ronald C. Childs

Surgeon Dr. Ronald C. Childs was born on December 25, 1957. Childs received his B.A. degree from Boston University in 1979, his M.D. degree from Howard University College of Medicine, in 1983, and completed his orthopedic surgery internship and residency in 1989 at Howard University Hospital. Later, Childs became a member in the Rush Medical College Spine Fellowship Program at Rush-Presbyterian-St. Luke’s Medical Center in Chicago, Illinois.

On active duty in the United States Army where he served three years including a tour of duty in Saudi Arabia during Operation Desert Storm, Childs became part of the U.S. Army Medical Corps. During this time, he conducted orthopedic and combat surgeries during the Persian Gulf War, and was stationed in both Germany and Saudi Arabia during the conflict.

In 1994, Childs joined Commonwealth Orthopedics and Rehabilitation, P.C. in Fairfax, Virginia as the medical group’s first spine surgeon where he specialized in minimally invasive spine surgery, anterior cervical micro-discectomy and cervical disc replacement. While working in Fairfax, Childs became the first surgeon to conduct the XLIF (extreme lateral inter-body fusion) surgical procedure. Childs served as chief of the orthopedics spine section at Inova Fairfax Hospital, medical co-director of the Inova Spine Institute, and chairman of the hospital’s spine and osteobiologics committee. He also served as chairman of the state’s Region II of the Workers Compensation Peer Review Board.

Childs was board certified and re-certified in 2001 2011, respectively by the American Board of Orthopedic Surgery. He has been a fellow in the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons and the American College of Surgeons. He served as an active member in the North American Spine Society, the Old Dominion Medical Society, Fairfax Medical Society, and Society of Lateral Access Surgeons.

In 2015, Commonwealth and OrthoVirginia merged to become OrthoVirginia, with offices in Central and North Virginia, and Childs joined the group formally known West End Orthopedic Clinic (WEOC) which was renamed OrthoVirginia in 2011.

Childs has several patents pending in that area in the area of minimally invasive spinal surgery. In 2017, Childs applied for a patent after he developed a bone fixation device with DePuy Synthes. He was voted a “Top Doctor” in 2015, 2017 and 2018 by Washingtonian magazine and Northern Virginia Magazine.

Childs and his wife, Virginia have two children.

Dr. Ronald C. Childs was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on August 10, 2018.

Accession Number

A2018.151

Sex

Male

Interview Date

8/10/2018

Last Name

Childs

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

C.

Occupation
Schools

Central High School

Boston University

Howard University

First Name

Ronald

Birth City, State, Country

Philadelphia

HM ID

CHI06

Favorite Season

Christmas

State

Pennsylvania

Favorite Vacation Destination

Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts

Favorite Quote

Always Believe In Yourself.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

12/25/1957

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

United States of America

Favorite Food

Swordfish

Short Description

Surgeon Dr. Ronald C. Childs (1957- ) served as medical co-director of the Inova Spine Institute at Inova Fairfax Hospital, and also chairman of Spine and Osteobiologics committee. Childs has several patents pending in that area in the area of minimally invasive spinal surgery.

Employment

Ortho VA

Rush University Medical Center

U.S. Army

Howard University Hospital

Favorite Color

Blue

Dr. L.D. Britt

Surgeon Dr. L.D. Britt was born on June 28, 1951 in Suffolk, Virginia to Claretta White Britt and Vandious Britt. He graduated as valedictorian of his class at Booker T. Washington High School in 1968, and received his B.A. degree in experimental psychology from the University of Virginia in 1972. He went on to earn his M.D. degree from Harvard Medical School and his M.P.H. degree in public health from Harvard School of Public Health in 1977. The following year, Britt completed his medical internship and assistant residency in the department of surgery at Barnes Hospital in St. Louis, Missouri with further studies at the W. Alton Jones Cell Science Center in Lake Placid, New York.

In 1979, Britt accepted a two-year research fellowship in the department of surgery at the Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis. After his residency at the University Hospital and Cook County Hospital in Chicago, Britt completed a clinical fellowship from 1985 to 1986 at the Maryland Institute of Emergency Medical Services Systems. From 1987 to 1997, Britt was Chief of the Trauma Division at Eastern Virginia Medical School and worked as the medical director of the Shock Trauma Center at the Sentara Norfolk General Hospital. He was also a member of the surgical staff at Children’s Hospital of the King’s Daughters. In 1994, Britt was appointed as the Henry Ford endowed chair of the department of surgery at the Eastern Virginia Medical School, becoming the first African American in the country to be awarded an endowed chair in surgery at a major American medical school. From 1997 to 2000, Britt served as both chairman of the Surgical Services Committee for Sentara Hospitals and surgical chief of staff at Sentara Hospital Norfolk. Britt went on to serve as president of the American College of Surgeons from 2010 to 2011. In addition to his roles as editor and reviewer for numerous medical journals, Britt authored 290 scientific publications and three books including a recent edition of Acute Care Surgery. He also participated in over 200 visiting professorships and distinguished lectureships throughout the world, including the A. Clifford Barger-Hinton Wright Lecture at Harvard Medical School and the Balfour Visiting Professorship at the Mayo Clinic.

Britt earned numerous awards as an educator including the Robert J. Glaser Distinguished Teaching Award, the nation’s highest teaching award in medicine given by the American Association of Medical Colleges in conjunction with the national medical honor society, Alpha Omega Alpha. Britt received The Outstanding Faculty Award, Virginia’s most prestigious educator award presented by the Governor and State Council of Higher Education for excellence in teaching, research and public service. In addition, Britt was honored with an Emmy Award by the National Academy of Television Arts and Sciences for his contribution to the television special, Youth / Violence: A Call To Disarm. President George W. Bush nominated Britt to the Board of Regents of the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences.

Dr. L.D. Britt was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on January 17, 2018.

Accession Number

A2018.002

Sex

Male

Interview Date

01/17/2018

Last Name

Britt

Maker Category
Occupation
Organizations
Schools

University of Virginia

Harvard Medical School

Harvard

First Name

L.D.

Birth City, State, Country

Suffolk

HM ID

BRI09

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Virginia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Chicago

Favorite Quote

There is No Quality Without Access

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Virginia

Birth Date

6/21/1951

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Norfolk

Favorite Food

Italian

Short Description

Surgeon Dr. L.D. Britt (1951 - ) served as a trauma surgeon for the Sentara Norfolk General Hospital before being appointed professor at the Department of Surgery at the Eastern Virginia Medical School [EVMS].

Favorite Color

Black

Dr. Alvin Blount, Jr.

Physician Dr. Alvin Blount, Jr. was born on February 24, 1922, in Wake County, Raleigh, North Carolina. He was the eldest of four children and the only son of parents who worked as domestics. After graduating from Washington High School in Raleigh, Blount enrolled at North Carolina A & T University in 1939 where he served as the student body president and as chairman of the campus newspaper before graduating in 1943 with his B.A. degree in chemistry (magna cum laude). After graduating, Blount was accepted into a government funded program that enabled him to enroll in Howard University Medical School where he studied under Dr. Charles Drew and received his M.D. degree in 1947. Blount spent three years on active duty in the U.S. Army during medical school. He completed a general surgery residency at Kate Bittings Reynolds Memorial Hospital in Winston-Salem.

In 1952, Blount was mobilized with the 8225th Infantry Division from Fort Bragg as a member of the U.S. Army Medical Corps’ 2nd Mobile Army Surgical Hospital (MASH) Unit that was sent to Korea. Blount, whose team performed ninety surgeries a week, went on to become a captain in the U.S. Army Medical Corps. He served as acting Chief of Surgery for the 8225th MASH Unit in Korea from 1951 until 1952, and was appointed Chief of Surgery for the 47th U.S. Army Combat Surgical Hospital in Southeast Asia. He returned to the United States in 1954.

In 1957, Blount became the first African American in North Carolina be certified by the American College of Abdominal Surgeons in 1957 and practiced at Kindred Hospital (formerly L. Richardson Hospital). He was a litigant of the suit Simkins v. Moses H. Cone Hospital (1963), the landmark Supreme Court decision that desegregated hospitals throughout the South. Blount became the first black surgeon admitted to the medical staff of Cone Hospital in 1964. He served as Chief of Surgery for L. Richardson Hospital and as Medical Director for the Guilford Health Care Center.

Blount was affiliated with numerous organizations including Kappa Alpha Psi Fraternity, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, and the Association of Guardsmen. He was a member of the Sigma Pi Phi Fraternity since 1970; and, in 1979, he established the Beta Epsilon Boule of the Sigma Pi Phi Fraternity in Greensboro. Blount, a 33rd degree Mason, was an honorary past Grand Master and Medical Director of the Prince Hall Masons of North Carolina. He received countless awards including the Order of the Long Leaf Pine, the highest honor that can be granted to a civilian in the state of North Carolina. In 1983, North Carolina A & T University awarded Blount an Honorary Doctorate of Humanities

Blount passed away on January 6, 2017 at age 94.

Accession Number

A2013.157

Sex

Male

Interview Date

5/5/2013

Last Name

Blount

Maker Category
Marital Status

Widow

Middle Name

V.

Occupation
Schools

Washington High School

North Carolina Agricultural & Technical State University

Howard University College of Medicine

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Alvin

Birth City, State, Country

Raleigh

HM ID

BLO02

Favorite Season

Summer

State

North Carolina

Favorite Vacation Destination

Home

Favorite Quote

If you think you are right, have the courage to do it.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

North Carolina

Birth Date

2/24/1922

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Greensboro

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Chicken

Death Date

1/6/2017

Short Description

Physician Dr. Alvin Blount, Jr. (1922 - 2017 ) , the first African American in North Carolina to be certified by the American College of Abdominal Surgeons, was a litigant in the hospital desegregation suit Simkins v. Moses H. Cone Hospital, which allowed him to become first black surgeon admitted to the medical staff of Cone Hospital. He served as acting Chief of Surgery for the 8225th Mobile Army Surgical Hospital (MASH) Unit in Korea from 1951 until 1952, and was appointed Chief of Surgery for the 47th U.S. Army Combat Surgical Hospital in Southeast Asia.

Employment

Delete

Kindred Hospital

Moses H. Cone Memorial Hospital

L. Richardson Hospital

Womack Army Hospital

8225th Mobile Army Surgical Hospital

United States Army Medical Services

Katie B. Reynolds Memorial Hospital

Favorite Color

Light Green

Timing Pairs
0,0:2835,19:17790,203:18385,212:53310,588:53772,596:54465,605:76772,852:77384,864:77928,873:78404,881:80376,918:80852,926:81736,939:88510,1027:88895,1036:89115,1041:93930,1113:108490,1262:113260,1293:114502,1298:125734,1467:126139,1480:131647,1544:136290,1566:136510,1571:141156,1639:146276,1668:147872,1690:149048,1712:156058,1775:158476,1795:159100,1805:176763,2024:183386,2059:204590,2260$380,0:5980,83:6880,94:7580,100:8080,106:9180,119:10980,143:18783,270:23230,329:26290,393:26920,420:41138,575:69056,941:79454,1013:109475,1361:114721,1420:116630,1525:179498,2141:180344,2189:194972,2313:208580,2440:216256,2581:216864,2590:230282,2737:238307,2849:277920,3266
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Alvin Blount's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Alvin Blount lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Alvin Blount describes his mother's family background, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Alvin Blount describes his mother's family background, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Alvin Blount talks about his mother's education and aspirations and his parents working in New York during the Great Depression

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Alvin Blount describes his father's family background, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Alvin Blount talks about land ownership in North Carolina after the American Civil War

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Alvin Blount describes his father's family background, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Alvin Blount talks about his father's education and his job in North Carolina

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Alvin Blount talks about his parents getting married in 1920 and lists his siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Alvin Blount talks about his parents' loving marriage, their emphasis on education, and their having to work in New York during the Great Depression

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Alvin Blount discusses his father's employment as a chauffeur for Eddie Rickenbacker, the Rickenbacker family, and General John "Black Jack" Pershing

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Alvin Blount talks about the mentorship that he received from his father's employer, Reed Chambers

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Alvin Blount talks about Reed Cambers, his mother's death, and his father's remarriage

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Alvin Blount describes his childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Alvin Blount talks about his childhood observations of his life as an African American

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Alvin Blount talks about his religious faith

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Alvin Blount talks about attending elementary school in New Rochelle, New York and Franklinton, North Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Alvin Blount talks about the difference between his elementary schools in New Rochelle, New York and Franklinton, North Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Alvin Blount talks about the teachers who influenced him, his math classes and why he decided to major in chemistry in college

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Alvin Blount talks about his academics and leadership in high school

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Alvin Blount talks about being exposed to black doctors in the neighborhood

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Alvin Blount talks about attending North Carolina A and T State University in 1939 on a National Youth Administration (NYA) scholarship

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Alvin Blount talks about his professors in at North Carolina A and T State University and his involvement in campus politics

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Alvin Blount talks about his nickname in college, and running for student body elections

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Alvin Blount recalls the United States' entry into World War II in 1941 and why he decided to pursue medicine

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Alvin Blount talks about the importance of a background in the humanities, and how he ensured that he received a well-rounded education

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Alvin Blount talks about the joining the U.S. Army and his experience there

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Alvin Blount talks about attending Howard University's medical college, his residency in North Carolina, and the challenges of being a black physician

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Alvin Blount talks about the Flexner Report

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Alvin Blount talks about the challenges that were faced by black medical students and residents while receiving his medical training

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Alvin Blount talks about the limited opportunity for black medical residents and the discrimination against them

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Alvin Blount talks about his professors and colleagues at Howard University's College of Medicine

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Alvin Blount talks about his career as a physician and surgeon

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Alvin Blount talks about his residency at Kate B. Reynolds Hospital in Winston-Salem, North Carolina

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Alvin Blount talks about rejoining the military in 1950, and his assignments to the MASH units in Fort Bragg and in Korea

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Alvin Blount describes his experience in the Korean War, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Alvin Blount talks about his marriages

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Alvin Blount reflects upon his experience in Korea during the Korean War and the plight of the civilians, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Alvin Blount reflects upon his experience in Korea during the Korean War and the plight of the civilians, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Alvin Blount talks about the book and television series, MASH

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Alvin Blount describes his experience the Korean War, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Alvin Blount talks about returning from the Korean War and his acquaintance with Thurgood Marshall

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Alvin Blount talks about becoming the first black doctor to practice at Moses H. Cone Memorial Hospital in Greensboro, North Carolina

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Alvin Blount talks about the anti-discrimination 'Simkins versus Moses H. Cone Memorial Hospital' lawsuit of 1963, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Alvin Blount talks about the anti-discrimination 'Simkins versus Moses H. Cone Memorial Hospital' lawsuit of 1963, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Alvin Blount reflects upon Jack Greenberg being the only white legal counselor for the NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund (LDF)

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Alvin Blount reflects upon his experience with demonstrations at North Carolina A and T State University

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Alvin Blount talks about Reverend Jesse Jackson

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Alvin Blount talks about black doctors who were involved in civil rights and the history of African Americans in medicine in Greensboro, North Carolina

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Alvin Blount talks about becoming the first black physician to perform surgery at Moses Cone Memorial Hospital in Greensboro, North Carolina

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Alvin Blount talks about the Ku Klux Klansmen who built his home in Greensboro, North Carolina

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Alvin Blount talks about facing discrimination as a physician in Greensboro, North Carolina

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Alvin Blount talks about serving on the Greensboro jury commission

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Alvin Blount reflects upon the changes in the relationship between African American and white doctors in North Carolina

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Alvin Blount reflects upon his career

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Alvin Blount describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Alvin Blount reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Alvin Blount reflects upon the election of President Barack Obama as the first black president in the United States

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - Alvin Blount talks about his family

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Alvin Blount discusses health concerns and healthcare for the African American community, pt. 1

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Alvin Blount discusses health concerns and healthcare for the African American community, pt. 2

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Alvin Blount talks about medical malpractice

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Alvin Blount talks about how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Alvin Blount describes his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

5$6

DAStory

3$1

DATitle
Alvin Blount talks about the anti-discrimination 'Simkins versus Moses H. Cone Memorial Hospital' lawsuit of 1963, pt. 1
Alvin Blount talks about becoming the first black physician to perform surgery at Moses Cone Memorial Hospital in Greensboro, North Carolina
Transcript
There's a story to that. I was chairman in Greensboro [North Carolina] of the liaison committee between the Greensboro Medical Society--black, and the white medical society, Gilford County. They had a group of doctors, members from each of them. And I served as chairman. I was secretary of the Greensboro Medical Society. And although they had other people qualified, I had an application in. And I was appointed the first black doctor to the Gilford County Medical Society and the Greensboro Academy of Medicine. Now, there's another--added to it. They offered us, before this, what is called a scientific membership--which you go to the meetings, but the social events, you were excluded.$$Scientific membership?$$Yeah. And we wrote them back and told them this is the most insulting thing you can do, and did not accept it.$$Yeah, isn't a goal of the American Medical Association to form a collegial bond between physicians?$$Well, that's what they said. But you see, they didn't have a--. Here's the question. When you read this book, you'll understand the black doctor was never intended by the American Medical Association to be as full fledged as the white physician. I don't care how much training, what and what--if you're black, then you lost your qualification then. That went for [Dr. Charles] Drew, that went for all of us at Howard [University, Washington, District of Columbia], and everybody, until they got them to--and so forth. So, there we had that right that we had in the South. And in--a lot of northern states were doing the same thing. It excludes, at that time it didn't exclude Connecticut nor Massachusetts at first. So, this is it, the thing that we were fighting about. It all eventually led, as you know, in a suit.$$Right, right.$$In 1962.$$A friend of yours who's a dentist, right, filed?$$There were ten of us.$$Well, can you remember all ten?$$Yeah. I got them around here somewhere. Okay, let me see if I can give you--There was Dr. [Walter] Hughes, Dr. Blount, Dr. Jones and Dr. Alexander, Dr. F. E. Davis and E.C. Noel. And the dentists were Dr. [George] Simkins, Dr. Milton Barnes and Dr. W. T. L. Miller. And there were two civilians, one of which was named Lyons.$$Okay.$$That's it.$$Okay, okay.$Okay. Now, in 1964--this is the same year as the Civil Rights Act was passed, you became the first black physician to perform an operation at Moses Cone [Memorial Hospital, Greensboro, North Carolina], right?$$Yes I did, a cholecystectomy (unclear).$$How did that take place? I mean, was there, you know--because you being the first, there had to be some--was there any ceremony involved in this, or any--$$It is said that the white surgeons took a holiday that day. That's so far back I can't think whether it was true or not. More than likely, it was. But it was said that for two or three days, the white physicians would boycott this. I don't know whether they did or not, but that is said, and it probably is true. But I had been operating with them over at the black hospital. So, that wasn't anything new. I'd been at the [U.S.] Army hospital and I operated, so--. And my assistant was in surgery and gynecology, but he was also certified. So, we went in and did our, you know, before we do our operations, the first thing we do is we ligate the cystic duct and cystic artery. And then before we cut, we take a picture of the common [bile] duct to see if there are any stones in there. If not, you cut them and (unclear) come on out. And I guess we were there about an hour and ten minutes doing that. And they were amazed, because some of their doctors took two hours and a half or something. But that goes under the particular art of dexterity. And some people are fairly good technicians and others aren't, and no matter how much theory they know, they just can't do the small things, because we don't--yeah--$$We were talking about Jack White earlier--$$Yeah, that's right.$$--about how dexterious he was.$$And me doing them now, I'd be doing laproscopic. I'd just make two little holes and look down there and clip, clip, clip, clip, and in thirty minutes, I'm out. But (unclear), and then of course, the next day I have to (unclear) with an abdominal hysterectomy and, you know, the vaginal. I did, and I think the next day I had a cholecystectomy the day before, and lesions were left in the colon and enter into what we call entero-proctostomy, the thing what I've been doing all the time. And then they started drifting back and shaking my hands and saying, "It certainly went right, I'm sorry y'all had to go through this stuff." You know, I just took that pressure off them. "Yeah, man. But you see what you were doing, you were messing with my welfare because the patient wanted to come here, and I couldn't come here. So they had to get somebody here to do the operation. You're taking my money. (laughter). And so, that's the only thing we're interested in. You don't have to love me, or like me, or not. But you don't have the right to keep me out of this facility, because you don't want it. The people know it."$$This is true.$$Yeah. So there again goes-they of us (unclear) how to approach things and how to get things over to people definitely without having to put your fist on them. Don't get mad about it, just lay the facts out. Smarter thinker. That's what I, all my life--if you live in the South, and they do anything for you, you had to spend some nights thinking how you're going to get this done.

Clive Callender

Surgeon and medical professor Clive Callender was born on November 16, 1936 in New York, New York. Callender lived in a foster home and then with his father, until his stepmother had to be hospitalized. His Aunt Ella took him in and began his faith-based life. Through his involvement with Ebenezer Gospel Tabernacle at the age of seven, Callender decided to become a medical missionary. After graduating from Commerce High School, Callender received his B.S. degree in chemistry and physiology from New York City’s Hunter College. He went on to attend Meharry Medical College in Nashville, Tennessee, where he received his M.D. degree in 1963.

Callender completed a series of residencies at Harlem Hospital, Howard University Hospital, Freedmen’s Hospital and Memorial Hospital for Cancer and Allied Disease. In 1968, he returned to Howard University Hospital to become chief resident. The following year, Callender became an instructor at Howard University. In 1970, Callender served as a medical officer at D.C. General Hospital. He was then invited to Nigeria’s Port Harcourt General Hospital at the end of the country’s Biafran Civil War, where for nine months he fulfilled his life’s goal of becoming a medical missionary. In 1971, Callender received a two-year postdoctoral fellowship through the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to study organ transplant medicine. He studied at the University of Minnesota under Dr. John Najaraian and Dr. Richard Simmons. In 1973, Callender was promoted to the rank of assistant professorship at Howard University Hospital’s medical school and founded the Howard University Hospital Transplant Center. He discovered that the greatest obstacle in transplant medicine was the scarcity of donors and he strove to increase the number of African American organ donors. In 1991, he founded the National Minority Organ Tissue Transplant Education Program (MOTTEP). Two years later, MOTTEP received a $1.2 million in funding from NIH’s Office of Research on Minority Health to develop a minority donor strategic plan and implementation in eleven cities. In 1995, the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) awarded National MOTTEP a $5.8 million to expand into fifteen new cities. One year later, Callender was appointed chairman of the Department of Surgery and the first Lasalle D. Lefall, Jr. Professor of Surgery at Howard University College of Medicine.

Callender has served as a spokesperson for organ donation at more than 1000 meetings and is a member of numerous professional societies. He has authored over 125 scientific publications on transplantation. Callender appeared on many national television shows including the Oprah Show, Nightline, CBS Evening News and CNN News. He and his wife Fern, have raised three children: Joseph, Ealena and Arianne.

Clive Callender was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on June 25, 2012.

Accession Number

A2012.146

Sex

Male

Interview Date

6/25/2012

Last Name

Callender

Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

O.

Schools

Commerce High School

Hunter College

Meharry Medical College

First Name

Clive

Birth City, State, Country

New York

HM ID

CAL04

Favorite Season

None

State

New York

Favorite Vacation Destination

None

Favorite Quote

To God Be The Glory.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

11/16/1936

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Chicken, Bananas, Corn

Short Description

Surgeon and medical professor Clive Callender (1936 - ) is an internationally recognized leader in organ donation advocacy and the founder of The National Minority Organ Tissue Transplant Education Program (MOTTEP).

Employment

Howard University Hospital

Howard University

National Institute of Health (NIH)

D.C. General Hospital

Howard University Hospital Kidney and Liver Transplant

Favorite Color

Blue, Lavender, Purple

Timing Pairs
0,0:214670,2954$0,0:9019,108:10020,158:32450,482:34050,495:41490,603:61850,887:99805,1348:107230,1483:107980,1493:109255,1515:109855,1528:132444,1844:158058,2214:158555,2222:197711,2735:219824,3042:222560,3088:229932,3201:248831,3421:255210,3492
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Clive Callender's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Clive Callender lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Clive Callender talks about his maternal family history

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Clive Callender talks about his siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Clive Callender talks about paternal family history

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Clive Callender talks about his parents' personalities

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Clive Callender explains why he was raised by his aunt, Ella Waterman

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Clive Callender talks about his religious upbringing

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Clive Callender describes the role his father played in his life during his childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Clive Callender talks about his childhood dream of becoming a medical missionary

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Clive Callender talks about the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood in Harlem, New York

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Clive Callender talks about his grade school years at P.S. 113 in New York, New York

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Clive Callender describes the differences between him and his twin brother

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Clive Callender talks about ethnic distinctions within the African American community

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Clive Callender talks about the honors program he was in at Commerce High School in New York, New York

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Clive Callender talks about being hospitalized for eighteen months with pulmonary tuberculosis

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Clive Callender talks about a mentor he had while hospitalized

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Clive Callender talks about his lung surgery

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Clive Callender talks about how he was not afraid during his illness because of his faith

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Clive Callender talks his role models and uncles, Drs. Vernal and Herbert Cave

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Clive Callender talks about his first year at Hunter College in New York, New York

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Clive Callender talks about enrolling in Hunter College in New York, New York

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Clive Callender talks about the turning point in his academic career at Hunter College in New York, New York

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Clive Callender talks about being accepted to Meharry Medical College in Nashville, Tennessee

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Clive Callender describes an influential physiology professor at Hunter College in New York, New York

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Clive Callender explains how his church raised money to send him to medical school

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Clive Callender talks about being the top student in his class at Meharry Medical College in Nashville, Tennessee

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Clive Callender talks about his professors at Meharry Medical College in Nashville, Tennessee

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Clive Callender talks about his experiences at hospitals in Ohio, during an externship and as a surgical intern

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Clive Callender talks about medical advances in treating tuberculosis

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Clive Callender describes why he transferred from Harlem Hospital to Howard University Hospital

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Clive Callender talks about his experience being active in the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Clive Callender describes how he met his wife

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Clive Callender talks about being a medical missionary in Port Harcourt, Nigeria pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Clive Callender talks about being a medical missionary in Port Harcourt, Nigeria pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Clive Callender describes how Nigerians reacted to death

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Clive Callender talks about why he thinks that all people of color descended from Africans should visit Africa

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Clive Callender talks about his missionary work in Nigeria

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Clive Callender talks about his memories of his time in Nigeria

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Clive Callender talks about his time at the transplant program at the University of Minnesota in Minneapolis, Minnesota

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Clive Callender talks about working with Dr. Samuel Kountz, the first African American transplant surgeon

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Clive Callender talks about starting the transplant program at Howard University Hospital

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Clive Callender describes the study he conducted with Dr. James Bayton to understand why African Americans are reluctant to be organ donors

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Clive Callender talks about the reasons African Americans are reluctant to become kidney donors

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Clive Callender talks about the formation of the District of Columbia Organ Donor program in 1982

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - Clive Callender talks about the success of the Dow Chemical Company's Take Initiative Program

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Clive Callender talks about the conception of the National Minority Organ Tissue Transplant Education Program (M.O.T.T.E.P.)

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Clive Callender talks about securing funding for the National Minority Organ Tissue Transplant Education Program (M.O.T.T.E.P.)

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Clive Callender talks about the success of the National Minority Organ Tissue Transplant Education Program (M.O.T.T.E.P.)

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Clive Callender talks about the challenges the National Minority Organ Tissue Transplant Education Program (M.O.T.T.E.P.) faced working in the Native American community

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Clive Callender talks about National Minority Organ Tissue Transplant Education Program's (M.O.T.T.E.P.) efforts to educate people on health and preventative care

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Clive Callender talks about the donor shortage in the United States and the cost of addressing the problem

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Clive Callender explains the need to educate minority communities about stem cell transplantation pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Clive Callender explains the need to educate minority communities about stem cell transplantation pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Clive Callender talks about health issues in the African American community

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Clive Callender talks about overcoming religious objections to organ donation

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Clive Callender talks about the "Be Blessed Model"

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Clive Callender talks about becoming chair of the department of surgery at Howard University College of Medicine in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Clive Callender talks about effect of the environment on people's health

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Clive Callender talks about his thoughts on the Affordable Care Act and universal healthcare

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Clive Callender explains his medical philosophy

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Clive Callender explains what he would do differently in his career

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Clive Callender reflects on his legacy

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Clive Callender shares some stories of successful transplant patients

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Clive Callender talks about his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Clive Callender talks about his wife, children, and twin brother

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Clive Callender talks about how thankful he is for his health

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Clive Callender talks about how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Clive Callender narrates his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

6$4

DAStory

2$6

DATitle
Clive Callender talks about the "Be Blessed Model"
Clive Callender talks about working with Dr. Samuel Kountz, the first African American transplant surgeon
Transcript
Okay, you had something called the "Be Blessed Model"?$$Well, one of the things that we developed after our last grant from N.I.H. [National Institutes of Health] was to look at end-stage renal disease and find out what really is the causation factor. And as we look at some work done by [Dr.] Jules Harrell at Howard University [Washington, D.C.] who started his effort in 1982 and others across the country, we recognized that part and parcel of it institutionalized racism. Part and parcel of it is doing those things that are contrary to the soul and the mind of mankind. And out of it we've evolved--actually, Dr. Alonzo Campbell at Howard University was part of our team, evolved the "Be Blessed Model" which looks at the biological aspects of it, the environmental aspects of it, the behavioral aspects of it, the willingness to love, the willingness to forgive. And as we've looked at those elements of it, we have recognized that one aspect of it that most people don't even think about, but a very positive aspect of it is, is spirituality. And so as we've looked at, and when, as we put together "Be Blessed Model", we, we identified those factors that are associated with positivity and good health. And those factors that are associated with negativity and bad health, and so if you promote the positive, then what will happen will be, you win that race. If you promote the negative, that is hostility, lack of forgiveness, lack of love, then you will promote the losing the race--I'm sorry, the winning the race and dying early. Okay, that's the bottom line. If you, if you win the race, that means you die early. If you lose the race, that means that you have adopted those positive elements of forgiveness, of love and therefore, you will not be likely to be as afflicted by those negative elements and, and have a lot of hostility because it turns out, that institutionalized racism, hostility and hating are, are factors that result in you dying early. And so this then is what the "Be Blessed Model" is all about, promoting those elements that are spiritually positive and going away--doing away with those elements that are negative. One of the things that is associated with obesity is depression and, and not having love in your life. And so you eat so much, and you get too fat. And then you get too fat and you also get kidney disease, you get hypertension and those other things. So that this is what the "Be Blessed Model" is all about. And one of the things we'd like to do, apply broadly, is to see how we can not only have this as something that we've tested and done with some volunteer groups, but to see how this is done across the country, how--and if we can promote these positive attitudes and, and positive spirituality elements, if that then will help us turn around this negative tendency that we have towards winning that race from the cradle to the grace--to the grave, a race that we want to lose.$Now, Dr. [Samuel] Kountz, he, he's an African American?$$Yes, he was actually from Arkansas and wound up in Stanford [University, Palo Alto, California], and then after exceling in Stanford, was, he was appointed as the Chairman of Surgery at [State University of New York] Downstate Medical College [New York, New York]. And so shortly after I finished my training at University of Minnesota [Minneapolis, Minnesota] [clearing throat], I found the opportunity to work with him on weekends and often so that while I did my transplant training at University of Minnesota, and you might read some places that (laughter), that I trained under [Dr. Samul] Sam Kountz, it's not actually true. I did my training with John Najarian, but when I returned as a fully-trained surgeon, I spent a lot of time with Sam Kountz, learning from him, the arts and science of transplant surgery as he had learned them. And he was one of the pioneers, it was an opportunity to learn a lot from him. It was interesting as well to work with him and Khalid Butts who is, who was his right hand there because in 1980, he actually died of complications of high blood pressure. You'll actually read in the literature that he died of something he contracted in Africa, but the truth of the matter is that he actually died of complications of high blood pressure. We, as doctors, aren't always good patients. We don't always take our medication as we should. And he developed complications of high blood pressure, which resulted in him being in the hospital and one of the medications he took resulted in him getting a seizure and convulsions and because of the fact that he had some anatomical differences in his neck, they had difficulty intubating him. As a consequence, he had brain damage that resulted in his later death and him never being able to practice surgery again. So he died at around the age of fifty in the prime of his career, the prime of his life. But in spite of what you read in the books, he actually died of complications of high blood pressure. But he was a great friend and a great surgeon and great human being who has a legacy of his own that will live on. As a consequence of my interaction with him, shortly after his death, I put on at least six Samuel Kountz International Symposia which would honor, honor his legacy and, and try to get people to recognize the minority dilemma in transplantation that existed yesterday and today and we hope will be eliminated tomorrow. But it, it's something that is important to acknowledge and be aware of.$$Okay, well--so he was, Kountz, Dr. [Samuel] Kountz was involved in kidney transplantation, right?$$He was a pioneer in kidney transplantation. He came along shortly after John Najarian and [Richard] Rich Simmons and [Thomas] Tom Starzl and those blacks who were the pioneers of kidney transplantation. He did some things in transplantation that hadn't, hadn't been done before. He did a lot with live donor transplantation, was one of the first to use intravenous steroids to reverse rejection episodes and was one of the first to do live transplantation on television, which was televised across the United States. He was quite a, a surgeon and was internationally renowned, had gone to Egypt and other places to do transplants, to take transplantation outside of the United States of America. He was quite a pioneer and quite a surgeon who became the first African American president of the Society of University Surgeons.

Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr.

Surgeon, professor, medical director, and contributor to community service, Asa G. Yancey, Sr., M.D. was born to Daisy L. Sherard Yancey and Arthur H. Yancey on August 19, 1916 in Atlanta, Georgia. Daisy was a housewife, and Arthur worked as a U.S. Post Office mail carrier. Mr. Arthur H. Yancey wrote an autobiographical book in 1959 entitled Interpositionulification: What the Negro May Expect. In 1933, Asa G. Yancey graduated as valedictorian from Booker T. Washington High School in Atlanta. He earned his B.S. degree with honors four years later from Morehouse College. Yancey was one of four African American students in his class at the University of Michigan Medical School where his elder brother, Bernise, graduated from medical school in 1930.

Upon receiving his M.D. degree from the University of Michigan Medical School in 1941, Yancey first completed a general rotating internship from 1941 to 1942 at what is now Metropolitan General Hospital in Cleveland, Ohio. It was from this experience that he decided to pursue general surgery training. He served as First Lieutenant in The United States Army Medical Corp. before he returned to complete his residency in surgery at Freedmen’s Hospital, Howard University, where he trained under the guidance of Dr. Charles R. Drew. In 1945, he was a surgical fellow at the U.S. Marine Hospital in Boston and then became an instructor of surgery at Meharry Medical College in Nashville, Tennessee. Also about this time, Yancey started his involvement with the National Medical Association (NMA), the largest and oldest national organization for African American physicians.

Following his time in Boston and Nashville, he served as the Chief of Surgery at the Veterans Administration Hospital in Tuskegee, Alabama and then the Hughes Spalding Pavilion of Grady Memorial Hospital, Emory Univerisity where he established the first accredited general surgery training program for black surgeons. With his return to Atlanta in 1958, Yancey was invited to join the faculty at Emory University School of Medicine where he became an Instructor of Surgery in 1964. In 1972, Yancey was appointed medical director of Grady Memorial Hospital and associate dean at Emory University Medical School. He was appointed full Professor of Surgery at Emory University Medical School in 1975. He continued to work at the Emory University Clinic and Grady Memorial Hospital until his retirement in 1989.

Yancey has contributed numerous articles to the academic surgical community, and he has been recognized with many awards His article, “A Modification of the Swenson Operation for Congenital Megacolon," published in a 1952 issue of The Journal of the National Medical Association, describes a surgical procedure that preceded Soave’s publication by ten years. Yancey has also written articles exploring issues of medical care, health care, and poverty including "Medical Education in Atlanta and Health Care of Black Minority and Low Income People," and "The Challenge of Providing Health Care for the Poor: Public Hospital Perspective". His book Portrayal of a Lifespan describes life as it was for him in the 21st Century. Yancey received the Bennie Service Award, in 1990 and he receivedan Honorary Doctor of Science from Morehouse College and Howard University. . The Society of Black Academic Surgeons established a lectureship in the name of Asa G. Yancey, Sr., M.D. The Emory University Health System recognized his professional contributions over the years by naming a healthcare facility, The Asa G. Yancey Health Clinic, in northwest Atlanta.

Yancey was married to the late Carolyn “Marge” E. Dunbar and they have four children: Arthur H. Yancey II, M.D, Carolyn L. Yancey, M.D., Caren L Yancey-Covington (deceased), and Asa G. Yancey, Jr., M.D.

Dr. Asa G. Yancey was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on March 19, 2012.

Dr. Asa Yancey passed away on March 9, 2013.

Accession Number

A2012.056

Sex

Male

Interview Date

3/19/2012

Last Name

Yancey

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

G.

Schools

Edmund Asa Ware School

Booker T. Washington High School

Morehouse College

Michigan Medicine

First Name

Asa

Birth City, State, Country

Atlanta

HM ID

YAN04

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Georgia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Sea Coasts of Alabama, the Gulf of Mexico

Favorite Quote

Let's Get On With It.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Birth Date

8/19/1916

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Atlanta

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Ice Cream

Death Date

3/9/2013

Short Description

Surgeon, medical professor, and medical director Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. (1916 - 2013 ) served as the medical director of Grady Memorial Hospital and dean at the Emory University School of Medicine in Atlanta, Georgia. He also created the first accredited surgical training program for black doctors in Georgia.

Employment

Freedmen's Hospital, Howard University

United States Marine Hospital

Meharry Medical College

Tuskegee Veteran's Administration Hospital

Hughes Spalding Pavilion of Grady Memorial Hospital

Emory University

Grady Memorial Hospital

Favorite Color

Green

Timing Pairs
0,0:192,5:448,10:960,19:1344,28:1920,38:36183,256:36801,282:56328,440:61034,500:65130,529:65530,535:85077,741:86073,864:120544,1143:123662,1196:128954,1260:129626,1265:132398,1327:135674,1389:142086,1464:173124,1800:189730,1978:200483,2240:225028,2558:225398,2565:229838,2667:230282,2674:256470,2949$0,0:12464,144:20920,171:21640,179:22240,185:25372,194:26488,201:27852,217:28596,224:31696,260:32316,266:33060,274:33760,282:34080,287:39362,333:39946,342:46138,394:49490,415:66710,539:69135,551:71516,577:81731,675:94077,744:94698,755:96290,761:96990,773:97550,783:98320,796:98670,802:98950,807:99370,814:101641,827:103678,856:104842,871:107073,906:108237,923:108722,929:109110,934:128793,1299:129339,1306:131341,1339:132615,1356:139294,1399:148315,1468:149125,1475:154530,1513:161667,1588:166612,1718:166904,1723:169210,1742:170925,1753:172795,1781:175622,1807:176154,1812:188080,1872:191692,1908:194140,1939:205110,2045:211944,2099:238760,2275:239508,2291:244396,2354:246252,2399:246542,2405:249964,2422:250516,2431:254382,2513:264485,2644:274645,2713:275690,2724
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr.'s interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. recalls how his parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. lists his siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. remembers his father's personality and book

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. talks about his early schooling

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. remembers his elementary school teachers

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. describes his personality as a young child

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. recalls his family's home

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. remembers Atlanta University in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. describes his relationship with his siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. remembers his childhood friends

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. describes the race relations in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. remembers Morehouse College in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. recalls enrolling at the University of Michigan Medical School in Ann Arbor, Michigan

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. remembers the University of Michigan Medical School in Ann Arbor, Michigan

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. recalls his residency at Freedmen's Hospital in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. talks about his salary as a medical intern

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. describes his experiences in the U.S. Army, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. describes his experiences in the U.S. Army, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. remembers meeting his wife

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. recalls working as a surgeon in Mound Bayou, Mississippi

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. describes the community of Mound Bayou, Mississippi

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. describes his role at the Tuskegee Veterans Administration Hospital in Tuskegee, Alabama

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. remember the death of Charles R. Drew, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. remember the death of Charles R. Drew, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. talks about the Tuskegee syphilis experiment

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. describes Dr. William Montague Cobb

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. recalls the history of Grady Hospital in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. recalls becoming the chief of surgery at the Hughes Spalding Pavilion in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. talks about the conditions at Grady Memorial Hospital in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. recalls serving on the Atlanta Board of Education

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. describes the achievements of the Atlanta Board of Education

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. recalls joining the staff of Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. talks about the closure of black hospitals

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. shares his views on public healthcare

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. talks about his family

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. describes how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. lists his favorites

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. narrates his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$3

DAStory

9$8

DATitle
Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. recalls enrolling at the University of Michigan Medical School in Ann Arbor, Michigan
Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. describes the community of Mound Bayou, Mississippi
Transcript
Now, what happened when you graduated from Morehouse [Morehouse College, Atlanta, Georgia]?$$Well (pause), I caught the train (laughter) I caught the train and went to Detroit [Michigan] and I had a cousin there, a Mr. A.W. Prince [ph.] and I was just, my father [Arthur H. Yancey] wrote Mr. Prince and asked if I could live with him and Mr. Prince said, "Yes, I'd be glad to have him." So I was a roomer in Mr. Prince's home and I walked around Detroit and walked the streets looking for a job and that was in the days of, the Great Depression was still going on and a job was mighty hard to find, but I finally found a little job in a furniture store and my job was to keep the stock room straight with the furniture and keep it ready to place in the showroom to see. And, of course, while I was doing that I decided to go out to Ann Arbor [Michigan] and look around a little bit. My brother [Bernise A. Yancey] had finished medical school out there at the University of Michigan and, so I took the train or bus or whatever was moving at the time, and went out there and decided I'd go by the dean's office and tell him I wanted to go to medical school (laughter). He said, "You what?" He said, "You haven't even applied." I'm sure I realized that but that didn't make any difference. I'm here now and I want to go to medical school. He said, "When?" I said, "This September." That was maybe in July or August. He said, "No way. Just forget it." He said, "We took this class and decided who was going to be a member of this class last March and here you come in here in July and talk about you want to go to medical school. Just forget it." (Laughter) So I said, "Thank you very much," and left. And I knew I had a pretty good transcript at Morehouse and probably better than a lot that he had (laughter) so I went on home and wrote Morehouse and asked them to send my transcript to the dean there at, A.C. Furstenberg, at the University of Michigan school of medicine [University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan], which they did, of course, and when I figured my letter had time to get to Morehouse and Morehouse had time to send in a transcript, I went back out there to see the dean and he said, "Well, you're here again," and I said, "That's right, here I am." He said, "What do you want?" I said, "I want to go to medical school," (laughter). "When do you want to go?" "I want to go this July. I want to go this September," and here it is July. He said, "Forget it," (laughter). We took this class--I said, "Now wait a minute." I said, "I have my transcripts and you can see it." But when he got it, he realized it was better than a whole lot that he had and I knew it would be so he says, "Just wait a minute." He sat there a minute or two and I sat there a minute or two and he said, he reached into the drawer and pulled out a blank form, he said, "Fill this out and come on to school" (laughter).$Tell us about Mound Bayou [Mississippi].$$Mound Bayou--$$Yeah.$$--was an all colored town. The word colored was popular at the time. It was a small town and they had a, back in those days our people always joined a burial society and they'd pay twenty-five, fifty cents a week so that when they passed away, they would have enough money in that pool to get a decent looking casket and have a decent service. So, that was, and Mound Bayou was an all Negro town and that was a popular word at the time, and it had a Negro mail and it was just a, the people in the surrounding community and it was just houses here and there and farms and so forth, and the Mississippi Delta country, the land was just as flat as the top of that table, and the people put their nickels and dimes and quarters and fifty cent pieces together and built, and they had a burial organization. That was what it's for, it's a big house there, but after many years had passed, they found they had a lot of money, so they decided to build a hospital and they built the Taborian Hospital [Mound Bayou Community Hospital, Mound Bayou, Mississippi] and the idea was that the people who were members of the Knights and Daughters of Tabor [International Order of Twelve Knights and Daughters of Tabor] would continue to pay their yearly policy, but they could go to the hospital and get treatment free at the time of service, and they did that, but the chief surgeon that they hired to take care of people began to try to collect fees from the patients. Some of them would pay, some of them got mad and objected. So, they came to a parting of the ways and that's how they invited us from Meharry [Meharry Medical College, Nashville, Tennessee] to come down and help out, because he wouldn't treat the ones who wouldn't pay him. So, we went down and became chief in the hospital, so I was running the hospital and he built a little tent across the street and took his friends over there. We just ignored him and paid no attention. We just kept running the hospital.$$Sir, what was this doctor's name? What was his name?$$Dr. Howard [T.R.M. Howard]. He finally moved to Memphis [Tennessee] and practiced there for a while until he retired, I guess, I don't know.$$Okay. Is he any relation to the Dr. Howard that was involved in civil rights down there? Is he related to the Dr. Howard from Mississippi that was involved in civil rights?$$I don't remember anything about that.$$Yeah, there was a Dr. Howard from Mississippi that moved to Chicago [Illinois] who was involved in the Civil Rights Movement down there. Famous Dr. Howard.$$He did go to Memphis and then to Chicago, and I can't tell you about the other--I don't know anything about that.

Dr. James Williams

As a military officer and physician, Dr. James B. Williams has spent his entire career in public service. Co-founding the Williams Medical Clinic in Chicago with his two brothers, Dr. Jasper F. Williams and Dr. Charles L. Williams, he was also part of a handful of dedicated young men who enlisted and became America’s first black airmen, known as the Tuskegee Airmen.

In 1942, with a pre-medicine background, Williams was drafted into the military and given a position with the medical corps at Camp Pickett, Virginia, and was chosen to attend Medical Administrative Officers Candidate School. Wanting to become a pilot, however, he asked to transfer to the Army Air Corps. He was subsequently appointed an aviation cadet and sent to Boca Raton Club, Florida, for basic training. From there, he went to Yale University for technical training, where he was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the Air Corps. As a member of the Tuskegee Airmen, Williams served as an Engineering Officer in the post war 99th Fighter Squadron. Also during his time in the service, Williams was among the 101 black officers who attempted to integrate a segregated officers’ club in what became known as the Freeman Field Mutiny.

Williams, a native of Las Cruces, New Mexico, was born on May 28, 1919 to Clara Belle Williams and Jasper B. Williams and was educated in a segregated grade and high school. He earned his B.S. degree in chemistry from New Mexico State University after finishing his military service, and with dreams of becoming a physician, he earned his M.D. degree from Creighton University School of Medicine. There, he met his future wife, Willeen Brown. Williams continued his medical education and was accepted into Creighton’s surgical residency program, earning his M.S. degree in surgery in 1956. With his various medical experiences, he and his brothers established the Williams Clinic on Chicago’s South Side. At its peak, there were more than twenty-eight doctors practicing at the clinic. Williams also worked at Chicago’s St. Bernard’s Hospital in 1957 as its first African American physician, becoming the hospital’s chief of surgery from 1971 to 1972. Williams combined his dedication to progress and medical prowess by meeting with President John F. Kennedy in 1963, as a member of a National Medical Association delegation to advance an amendment to the Hill-Burton Act that would prevent discrimination in hospitals built with federal assistance. Williams also served as physician to Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., when the civil rights leader lived in Chicago.

Williams and his wife lived in Las Cruces, New Mexico. The couple had two children: a daughter, Brenda Payton Jones, a former columnist for the Oakland Tribune, and a son, Dr. James B. Williams II, colorectal surgeon in Albuquerque, New Mexico.

Williams passed away on November 23, 2016.

Accession Number

A2008.088

Sex

Male

Interview Date

7/16/2008

Last Name

Williams

Maker Category
Middle Name

B

Schools

Booker T. Washington

Wiley College

University of New Mexico

Tuskegee University

New Mexico State University

Creighton University

Search Occupation Category
First Name

James

Birth City, State, Country

El Paso

HM ID

WIL47

Favorite Season

Fall, Spring

Sponsor

Brenda Payton

State

Texas

Favorite Vacation Destination

Jamaica

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Illinois

Birth Date

5/28/1919

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Chicago

Country

United States

Favorite Food

None

Death Date

11/23/2016

Short Description

Surgeon and tuskegee airman Dr. James Williams (1919 - 2016 ) co-founded the Williams Clinic on Chicago's South Side. He also served as Dr. King's physician while Dr. King lived in Chicago. He was also a member of the Tuskegee Airmen as an Engineering Officer after World War II.

Employment

619th Bombardment Squadron

St. Bernard's Hospital

Williams Clinic

Main Sponsor
Favorite Color

None

Timing Pairs
0,0:770,9:3465,78:4697,107:5390,118:8510,127:9336,136:21148,303:24820,332:25590,350:28180,402:40363,531:61068,739:62124,753:66500,846:68612,875:98250,1212$0,0:4704,73:5376,83:6048,94:27900,190:28300,196:28860,204:29180,209:33208,257:33856,266:35638,285:36043,291:45087,455:45719,466:48326,509:48958,518:49511,526:59952,631:60576,643:61122,653:61434,658:63618,702:69092,739:70555,762:72403,794:73096,806:74174,825:107438,1105:108030,1115:108992,1131:111212,1206:115758,1251:127762,1353:129556,1390:132832,1484:133924,1511:135250,1533:141234,1572:157722,1712:158182,1718:174220,1859:175721,1896:179987,1963:181014,1978:189360,2119
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Dr. James Williams' interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Dr. James Williams lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Dr. James Williams describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Dr. James Williams describes his mother's education and career

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Dr. James Williams describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Dr. James Williams describes his father's civil rights activities

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Dr. James Williams recalls Dr. Lawrence A. Nixon

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Dr. James Williams lists his siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Dr. James Williams describes his parents' personalities

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Dr. James Williams remembers moving to Las Cruces, New Mexico

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Dr. James Williams recalls his family's dog

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Dr. James Williams remembers the doctor who treated his brother's clubfoot

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Dr. James Williams recalls the Booker T. Washington School in Las Cruces, New Mexico

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Dr. James Williams describes his parents' careers

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Dr. James Williams describes his family life

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Dr. James Williams describes the role of religion in his childhood

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Dr. James Williams describes his early education

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Dr. James Williams describes school segregation in Las Cruces, New Mexico

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Dr. James Williams recalls meeting George Washington Carver as a teenager

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Dr. James Williams describes his high school education at the Booker T. Washington School

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Dr. James Williams remembers Wiley College in Marshall, Texas

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Dr. James Williams recalls the University of New Mexico in Albuquerque, New Mexico

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Dr. James Williams describes training in aircraft maintenance

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Dr. James Williams recalls his promotion to engineering officer in the U.S. Army

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Dr. James Williams remembers serving in the U.S. Army during World War II

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Dr. James Williams remembers segregation at Freeman Army Airfield

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Dr. James Williams recalls his arrest during the Freeman Field Mutiny

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Dr. James Williams recalls his imprisonment during the Freeman Field Mutiny

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Dr. James Williams describes his legal defense during the Freeman Field Mutiny

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Dr. James Williams recalls serving at the Lockbourne Air Force Base in Columbus, Ohio

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Dr. James Williams remembers Benjamin O. Davis, Jr.

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Dr. James Williams describes his and his brothers' early medical careers

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Dr. James Williams recalls applying to medical schools

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Dr. James Williams recalls his older brother's injury on the family homestead

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Dr. James Williams remembers Creighton University School of Medicine in Omaha, Nebraska

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Dr. James Williams describes his early medical career

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Dr. James Williams recalls becoming Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr.'s physician

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Dr. James Williams recalls treating an infant who suffered a gunshot wound in utero

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Dr. James Williams remembers serving as a physician for prominent civil rights leaders

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Dr. James Williams remembers Elijah Muhammad

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Dr. James Williams remembers his patients in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Dr. James Williams describes his family members' medical careers

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Dr. James Williams describes the healthcare system in Cuba

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Dr. James Williams talks about health insurance in the United States

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Dr. James Williams describes his membership in professional organizations

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Dr. James Williams reflects upon the legacy of the Tuskegee Airmen

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Dr. James Williams describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Dr. James Williams reflects upon his life

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Dr. James Williams reflects upon the history of the U.S. Air Force

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Dr. James Williams reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Dr. James Williams describes how he would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

5$6

DAStory

6$9

DATitle
Dr. James Williams recalls treating an infant who suffered a gunshot wound in utero
Dr. James Williams describes how he would like to be remembered
Transcript
We had a baby that my brother [Jasper F. Williams] and I operated, it was the first baby in the world--the mother was pregnant with the baby and she was shot. And the bullet went in the, the child's flank, went through the liver, the colon, collapsed the right lung and ended up behind the bone in the right upper arm. That's the first baby in the world to survive a gunshot wound to the abdomen and chest in utero, was the one that we did.$$Um-hm.$$I don't think anybody's changed that since then. And my brother delivered the baby, and he handed him to me, and when I got 'em he wasn't breathing, he had no heartbeat, and I started resuscitating him, and his heart started beating and the kid, we invited him to the conference at the University of Illinois, you know, my wife [Willeen Brown Williams] picked up the mother and the child, the little guy was interested in everything that was going on that evening. And the mother said he's the smartest kid she had, she had five other kids, you know, but he survived. And now, he was, that's when we celebrated our twenty-fifth anniversary, and now we just finished our fifty-seventh, so he's, must be about twenty, he's probably twenty-seven years old now.$Our last question is similar to legacy but a little different. Sir, how would you like to be remembered?$$I hadn't thought of that (laughter). But, in my field of surgery I thought I was, could compete with anybody, of course I had good training, I had a master's degree in surgery, which very few surgeons have. And after that I went up to the Royal Vic [Royal Victoria Hospital, Montreal, Canada], in McGill [McGill University, Montreal, Canada] and they had a Jewish surgeon up there who was taking the internal mammary artery and re-vascularizing the heart, that was the fir- I had an opportunity to be up there when he was doing that, which was very unusual. And now they can do bypasses, but what he was doing, he got collateral circulation and he got some mock-ups, you know to show that he was getting collateral circulation in the animals that he did 'em on. I hope we can get somebody in medical school down in Cuba 'cause I think that's a great opportunity that's being overlooked, and still don't know why that some of the black males who were in the program dropped out, I haven't had a chance to talk to the guy from Ohio State [The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio], you know, who takes the kids down there.$$But you wanna be remembered as a good surgeon?$$Oh yeah.$$And?$$And a good parent, yeah. I think that's important. I think that's important for all black parents. I mean, I agree with what Obama's [HistoryMaker President Barack Obama] telling the folks that they have to be responsible for their kids. Of course it's interesting, our kids, we had a motor home and we'd go to skiing in the wintertime, and in the summertime we'd go to Canada, fishing, and both of them liked those things even though they did 'em as kids and they--my son [James Williams II] has a motor home, he still likes to go fishing and skiing. And plus, the fact, I told you he was an excellent surgeon and has made well. Just like I told you, he was considered the best colorectal surgeon in the State of New Mexico.$$Okay, so you'd like to be remembered as a good surgeon and a good parent.$$That's right.

Dr. Rogsbert Phillips

Breast cancer specialist Dr. Rogsbert Frenzel Phillips was born on July 12, 1948, in Newnan, Georgia, to Olivia Louise Bohannon Mitchell and Zack Phillips. Phillips attended the University of Georgia and graduated in 1970. She also attended and graduated from Columbia University’s College of Physicians and Surgeons with her M.D. degree. In 1982, Phillips became the first African American woman to complete the general surgery program at Emory University.

Phillips started her general surgery practice in Atlanta, Georgia, and decided to specialize in the treatment and prevention of breast cancer. She is one of the top breast cancer specialists in the United States. In 1989, Phillips founded Sisters By Choice, a support group providing educational, emotional, spiritual, and physical resources to breast cancer survivors, their families, and other health care professionals. The organization strives to be a leading provider of innovative programs and efforts that increase breast cancer education and awareness. The organization provides support and counsel to individuals diagnosed with breast cancer and their families. Phillips also started an annual Breast Cancer Awareness Weekend in Atlanta.

In 2000, Phillips participated in conducting experimental surgical procedures to detect and prevent breast cancer called ductal lavage. The procedure entails inserting a small scope into the breast under a local anesthetic to remove and test cells for abnormalities that could lead to cancer. This procedure could lead to the prevention of possible future breast cancer patients and could save future lives.

Phillips continues her general surgery practices in Atlanta and Lithonia, Georgia, and has been practicing medicine for thirty years.

Accession Number

A2006.116

Sex

Female

Interview Date

10/13/2006 |and| 2/24/2008

Last Name

Phillips

Maker Category
Occupation
Schools

A.F. Herndon Elementary School

E. P. Johnson Elementary School

Murphy High School

University of Georgia

Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons

University of Bridgeport

Emory University

First Name

Rogsbert

Birth City, State, Country

Newnan

HM ID

PHI01

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Georgia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Rome, Italy

Favorite Quote

When You Learn, You Teach. When You Get, You Give Back.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Birth Date

7/12/1948

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Atlanta

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Seafood

Short Description

Surgeon Dr. Rogsbert Phillips (1948 - ) conducted her general surgery practices in Atlanta and Lithonia, Georgia. One of the top breast cancer specialists in the United States, she founded Sisters By Choice and started an annual Breast Cancer Awareness Weekend in Atlanta.

Employment

American Cyanamid Company

University of Bridgeport

Private Practice

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
288,0:672,8:1344,15:1824,22:2304,28:5760,87:6816,105:7776,123:25270,422:25618,427:27960,432:29117,453:31253,493:40331,641:51746,760:56154,883:56610,891:57066,898:58282,930:66870,1134:86038,1332:90688,1437:108074,1671:108466,1676:122920,1933:143248,2203:148250,2320:181215,2865:182788,2884:192448,3024:193240,3037:194032,3050:195832,3083:196264,3090:197416,3108:199990,3120:200529,3127:201145,3137:201453,3142:201761,3147:207824,3212:218000,3332:222824,3354:224056,3369:226080,3407:227664,3439:231465,3458:237604,3485:240268,3523:267500,3685:268025,3693:273110,3733:273855,3739:280144,3776:291110,3939$0,0:4512,115:21956,285:22430,292:22746,297:23062,302:23536,316:35910,428:36750,436:46054,553:46662,562:58372,714:61126,756:61774,766:62098,771:62584,785:65419,838:69388,905:70036,916:72304,967:78346,1023:81838,1036:82995,1051:83529,1058:85576,1094:86733,1107:91221,1157:91666,1163:92111,1181:93090,1200:93446,1205:96917,1255:98964,1283:101456,1330:105422,1381:107226,1410:110260,1457:110588,1462:111080,1469:111572,1477:112310,1491:112802,1498:116380,1535:116860,1543:117260,1549:120300,1606:121420,1628:123340,1706:130900,1739:131495,1747:134130,1797:152232,2047:158120,2127:166750,2252:167344,2263:171302,2287:172822,2297:174038,2307:175254,2316:185090,2365:198001,2515:198694,2527:208242,2711:209397,2736:210090,2754:227560,2954:228835,2973:229435,2983:229810,2990:231760,3021:232360,3028:233035,3039:240428,3096:241260,3111:242196,3123:243860,3154:246044,3177:254286,3211:255087,3222:257490,3261:258291,3273:260820,3282:261180,3288:261468,3293:261756,3298:263484,3331:266796,3407:268380,3432:269100,3444:269388,3449:271044,3478:271620,3488:271908,3493:272412,3501:273132,3512:276372,3554:281930,3560:282524,3567:283415,3577:283910,3582:284504,3590:286781,3623:289454,3664:298350,3743:298819,3760:300159,3787:300695,3798:301298,3808:303370,3829
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Dr. Rogsbert Phillips' interview, session 1

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips describes her parents' elopement

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips describes the story behind her name

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips describes her parents' personalities and who she takes after

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips lists her siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips describes her earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips recalls family dinners and holidays

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips remembers Atlanta's Southwest neighborhood

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips remembers Atlanta's Summerhill neighborhood

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips describes her childhood personality

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips describes her childhood pastimes with her family

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips describes Atlanta's Kirkwood neighborhood

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips describes her early aspirations

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips describes her experiences of racial discrimination at the University of Georgia, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips remembers J.C. Murphy High School in Atlanta

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips recalls the deaths of political and civil rights leaders

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips describes her admiration for her sister

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips recalls choosing to attend the University of Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips recalls her arrival at the University of Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips describes her experiences of racial discrimination at the University of Georgia, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips reflects upon discrimination in schools and the work force

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips describes her organizational involvement in college

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips describes her graduate studies at Bridgeport University

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips describes her decision to attend medical school, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips describes her decision to attend medical school, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips describes her classmates at Columbia University

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips reflects upon her decision to become a doctor

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips describes her decision to specialize in surgery

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips recalls her graduation from Emory University

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips remembers opening her private practice

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips remembers meeting her research partner, Susan Love

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips remembers founding Sisters By Choice

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips describes the programs organized by Sisters By Choice

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips describes her frustrations over cancer treatment

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips describes her work with Susan Love

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Slating of Dr. Rogsbert Phillips' interview, session 2

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips describes her work at American Cyanamid Company

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips describes her residency program at Emory University

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips describes her work in clinical trial studies

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips recalls other doctors' support for her private practice

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips recalls how she became a breast disease specialist

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips reflects upon the impact of race on her practice, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips reflects upon the impact of race on her practice, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips describes her relationship with Dr. Harold Freeman

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips shares her reasons for creating Sisters By Choice, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips shares her reasons for creating Sisters By Choice, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips describes her involvement with clinical trials, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips describes her involvement with clinical trials, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips describes the history of breast cancer treatment

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips talks about breast cancer's prevalence in the media

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips describes the goals of Sisters By Choice

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips shares her thoughts on universal healthcare policies

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips describes preventative breast cancer treatments

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips talks about hereditary breast cancer

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips describes the importance of preventative methods

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips reflects upon the need for breast cancer education

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips explains when to begin having mammograms

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips reflects upon her life

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips remembers individuals who influenced her, pt. 1

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips remembers individuals who influenced her, pt. 2

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips shares her advice for future generations

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips narrates her photographs

DASession

1$2

DATape

3$5

DAStory

6$6

DATitle
Dr. Rogsbert Phillips describes her decision to attend medical school, pt. 2
Dr. Rogsbert Phillips recalls how she became a breast disease specialist
Transcript
Then it became major, major problem for me you know. Because when I applied to medical school, it was an option, it was an option of two you know. And I had seriously started thinking about it you know whether or not I wanted to do it and then I had gone to my boss, my supervisor at American Cyanamid [American Cyanamid Company] and I had told him that I wanted to do some traveling, I wanted to go overseas to work. And they were saying, "Yeah, we'll support you." American Cyanamid, we had three lady docs as scientists, and I was the only one with a master's [degree] and the boss' wife and another young lady. And so I really, and this company is really like family, I mean, it was just a nice environment. And being a researcher, you know, they give you projects, you do it on your own time, you know. If you finish the project you out of there, you know what I mean. And so I really, really enjoyed it. And so it was a big question you know, do I go to medical school or you know. And this time I'm making good money too and then they telling me you know, whatever you want to do you know, we'll do it. And so it was a company that I saw myself growing old in, okay. So I decided I'm not going to medical school, you know. And so my boss came to me and he says, "What?" I said, "I'm not going." He said, "Before you decide," this is in Greenwich, Connecticut, all right, "before you decide just go down to New York [New York] and talk to them," and so I said, "Okay." So on a Friday I took off, go down to New York and I drive. And although I've gone to New York and you know when you go in just for entertainment, drive down to New York, you don't see all of New York City, right. So Columbia University [New York, New York] is up 169th Street, you know. And you drive down and you try to figure out, now where am I going to park, I mean, I can't see myself living down here, what's going on here. So I go in and talk to the people, and we talk and I say to them, you know I really appreciate the invitation to join your class but I can't come, and they want to know why and it's I don't have any money. Well they had given me some money, but they said, "Okay, you know, go over and talk to the financial people," so they give me more money, you know what I'm saying. Okay so I go back to work and here it is my excuse for not coming you know. So I go back to work Monday and my supervisor said, "Okay Zel [HistoryMaker Dr. Rogsbert Phillips] what you going to do?" "I am not going to medical school, I'll be here." He said, "You sure?" "Nope I'm not going to medical school." All my colleagues, "You sure you're not going?" "Nope, I'm not going," you know. So I was sitting down Tuesday night writing the Columbia University a letter looking at the Knick [New York Knicks] game, writing a letter, typing, you know, you typing. Typing a letter to Columbia saying, you know I appreciate the opportunity, but I'm not coming to Columbia. And I couldn't write that letter, I just could not. So instead I wrote a letter resigning my position. So that's how I ended up in medical school because it was an opportunity that I could not walk away from. I mean and so that's how I ended up in medical school, and that was you know one of the pivoting decisions in my life. And you know I went to medical school and I enjoyed medical school. It gave me an opportunity to further you know grow and mature as a person. But more importantly it really opened up a world where I think, to be able to every, day in and day out, to impact one's life. It's overwhelming, you know, and I don't take for granted being a physician on any level. And my experience in medical school and subsequently meeting patients and interacting with patients. Every patient that I see it confirms to me that I'm doing what I'm supposed to be doing. I thoroughly enjoy my life, I enjoy being a physician. And I just can't think of doing anything else, I really can't.$When you first started, when you first opened your office, you were not focusing on the breast surgery.$$I was not focusing on breast surgery and as I said, being an African American female there were certain doctors who just didn't refer patients to me because of that. Not because I didn't take good care of their patients, it was, it was just a good old boy system, you know. But as I, you know, made a statement here in the medical community, and that statement was that I was an excellent doctor taking care of their patients. I mean, there was no question about the level of care, quality of care I gave that patient. You cannot ignore that, I mean, no matter how you want to, and because of that, you know, people start you know giving me more of a chance to take care of their patients, and they were satisfied, the patients were satisfied, and by word of mouth, you know, and referring, patients came to me because, you know, their mother you know, or their father I took care of. But one thing that was unique is that the, my reputation for taking care of breast disease you know was dominated by everything else I took care of. And it got to the point that my referring doctors, no matter what else, you know, walked in their doors for disease process, if it was a breast problem, it was just automatically sent to Dr. Phillips [HistoryMaker Dr. Rogsbert Phillips]. And early on you know if I think about how my practice kind of evolved you know into taking care of patients with breast disease you know I look back and you know my first operation as a student with a breast case, you know, the first, you know, as a resident [at Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia], you know, I was on a breast service, my brief, my advisor in medical school was a breast specialist, all right. And so everything, I mean, I keep saying, you know, breast, breast, breast, I mean, it just kept coming, you know, hitting me right square in the eye, you know. And I enjoy taking care of breast patients. And so it just developed, you know, I was there and people you know were referring me, you know, their breast problems.$$And was it because of the great success you were having with their patients?$$You know if we look at how medicine has evolved for women doctors in general, there has been different aspect of medicine that women naturally excelled in. If you look at pediatrics, okay when women were allowed by the male you know, well, I shouldn't say that, when women was allowed to go to medical school, and if you look at the number one field they went into, it was pediatrics and then if you look at in late '80s [1980s] and '90s [1990s], you know, the OB/GYN [obstetrics and gynecology] dominated, you know, choices for women. And I think it was just easier for us. I mean, let's face it, it's not easy being in a male dominated field, profession. I mean, no matter, you can go outside medicine, and I think it was just easier for men to accept us in different roles in medicine. When I came out in surgery, there was only a handful of women throughout the United States was into surgery. And most of us you know if you look at the development of our practice, particularly people in my age, breast was just easier for people to you know to refer to us. And then if you look at, women felt more comfortable you know coming to a woman doctor with breast disease. And that's not to say that men are not as compassionate and or not equipped to take care of the disease, I would never say that because even today medicine is still dominated by men, but I think people recognize that when it comes to breast disease, I bring something to the table that a man cannot bring to it, and that's my you know gender, you know. And women today you know will, you know I have a lot of patients who come to me primarily because I am a woman.

Dr. Mildred Jefferson

Dr. Mildred Fay Jefferson was born in 1927 in Pittsburg, Texas - the daughter of Gurthie Roberts Jefferson, a public school teacher, and Millard F. Jefferson, a Methodist minister. She attended public schools in East Texas and entered Harvard Medical School in 1947 after receiving a B.A degree summa cum laude from Texas College in Tyler, Texas and a M.S. degree from Tufts University in Medford, Massachusetts.

Jefferson became the first African American woman to graduate from Harvard Medical School in 1951. She was the first woman to be a surgical intern at Boston City Hospital and the first woman admitted to membership in the Boston Surgical Society. She is, however, best-known for her longtime support and involvement in the “right-to-life movement” in America. She helped to establish the National Right to Life Committee and served three times as its president. She has been a local, regional and national speaker and activist.

After her Harvard Medical School graduation, Jefferson served as a general surgeon with the former Boston University Medical Center and Assistant Clinical Professor of Surgery at Boston University Medical School.

Jefferson has had a career-long interest in medical jurisprudence, medical ethics and the interface between medicine and law, as well as their impact on public policy and society. As a founding member of state and national “right-to-life” organizations, she is president of Right to Life Crusade.

Jefferson is a founding member of the Board of Governors and a past President of the Value of Life Committee of Massachusetts and is also active with the American Life League and Americans United for Life Legal Defense Fund. Jefferson is also a member of Black Americans for Life and is held in high esteem by Feminists for Life. Jefferson passed away on October 18, 2010.

Accession Number

A2006.063

Sex

Female

Interview Date

4/5/2006

Last Name

Jefferson

Maker Category
Middle Name

Fay

Occupation
Schools

A.L. Turner High School

Texas College

Tufts University

Harvard Medical School

Harvard

First Name

Mildred

Birth City, State, Country

Pittsburgh

HM ID

JEF02

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Texas

Favorite Vacation Destination

Monterey, California

Favorite Quote

To Thy Own Self Be True

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Massachusetts

Birth Date

4/6/1927

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Boston

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Apples (Washington State Red)

Death Date

10/18/2010

Short Description

Surgeon Dr. Mildred Jefferson (1927 - 2010 ) was the first African American woman to graduate from Harvard Medical School, the first woman to be a surgical intern at Boston City Hospital and the first woman admitted to membership in the Boston Surgical Society.

Employment

Boston University Medical Center Hospital

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:444,4:8954,144:9398,152:9916,162:10582,172:13172,225:14282,290:14578,295:14874,300:16354,335:16798,342:17094,348:17538,356:18574,375:19166,384:20202,405:21090,420:21460,426:21904,434:27755,448:28538,458:29930,478:35411,550:38280,559:38604,564:39171,572:41115,605:42492,628:42816,633:47433,704:48000,713:54507,768:55752,786:60898,880:61479,889:63969,923:64550,932:65131,940:65712,948:66459,964:69980,971:70380,977:70780,982:71180,987:78469,1107:80681,1153:82024,1179:82419,1185:86527,1246:91474,1252:95496,1285:96000,1294:98142,1333:101410,1366:103894,1425:106447,1507:107206,1529:107827,1541:109345,1568:110035,1579:110380,1586:110863,1594:111208,1600:112726,1627:119440,1687:120000,1695:120560,1703:120880,1708:121360,1715:121760,1721:122240,1728:122640,1735:123040,1741:123520,1748:124320,1761:124640,1766:126800,1806:127200,1812:127520,1817:128320,1828:131440,1866:132320,1877:141330,1947:142425,1963:147097,2031:151477,2109:158278,2163:158586,2168:159433,2180:159741,2185:160588,2199:160896,2204:161589,2216:163360,2253:167518,2324:168211,2339:168981,2353:169443,2360:172870,2368:173536,2383:177310,2471:180640,2529:180936,2534:183090,2539$0,0:1577,48:1992,54:2656,62:6723,193:14691,327:16268,349:23028,378:25880,415:26708,426:27536,436:29652,463:30204,470:32044,495:36680,534:37640,552:38520,563:39800,580:40440,589:41160,600:41560,606:43080,628:47410,704:48040,716:48460,723:50210,754:50560,760:50840,765:52030,784:52590,794:54410,821:54830,828:55110,833:56860,870:57140,875:60220,961:60500,966:60780,971:72041,1017:73529,1037:75575,1071:75947,1076:76319,1081:77063,1091:77993,1103:78458,1109:79016,1116:82190,1141:84070,1150:84415,1155:84967,1163:85312,1169:85726,1176:86209,1185:86761,1194:87313,1203:91935,1304:92349,1312:93798,1335:94281,1343:94833,1352:95316,1361:95592,1366:96972,1402:97593,1413:98076,1421:98559,1429:98835,1434:99594,1447:102290,1460
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Dr. Mildred Jefferson's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson describes the origin of her name

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson describes her profession

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson describes her mother's upbringing

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson describes the community of Carthage, Texas

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson recalls being honored by her hometown of Pittsburg, Texas

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson remembers her mother's teaching career

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson talks about her mother

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson describes her father's background

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson remembers her father's ministry

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson describes her earliest childhood memories

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson recalls visiting her maternal family in East Texas

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson describes the sights, sounds and smells of her childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson describes her early education

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson remembers her family physician, Dr. Allen Moore Baker

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson remembers her influences as a child

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson recalls her extracurricular activities in high school

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson recalls her early experiences of epidemics

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson describes her premedical studies at Texas College

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson recalls her transition to Boston, Massachusetts

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson describes her home in Boston's Roxbury neighborhood

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson recalls her graduate studies at Tufts College in Medford, Massachusetts

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson recalls attending Boston's Harvard Medical School

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson describes her studies at Boston's Harvard Medical School

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson recalls her surgical internship at Boston City Hospital

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson recalls the challenges she faced as a female surgical resident

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson describes her career at Boston University Medical Center Hospital

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson talks about her medical association memberships

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson remembers Dr. William Augustus Hinton

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson recalls founding the Value of Life Committee of Massachusetts

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson recalls founding the National Right to Life Committee

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson recalls her National Right to Life Committee presidency

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson talks about Feminists for Life of America

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson talks about Black Americans for Life

Tape: 3 Story: 12 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson describes her presentation style

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson describes her role at Massachusetts Citizens for Life

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson talks about her media involvement

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson describes the right to life movement

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson recalls her correspondence with President Ronald Reagan

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson remembers President Ronald Reagan's election in 1980

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson recalls her campaign for the U.S. Senate

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson shares her perspective on care management

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson shares her perspective on affirmative action

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson recalls receiving the Father Flanagan Award for Service to Youth

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson recalls her involvement with the Knights of Columbus

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson recalls being honored by Texas College in Tyler, Texas

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson shares her perspective on sex education

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson talks about the role of health education for youth

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson describes her sources of moral and financial support

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson describes her written works in progress

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson describes her aspiration to own a newspaper business

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson reflects upon her childhood in East Texas, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson reflects upon her childhood in East Texas, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson reflects upon her life

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson talks about the importance of history

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson describes her hopes for the African American community and how she would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$3

DAStory

1$8

DATitle
Dr. Mildred Jefferson describes her studies at Boston's Harvard Medical School
Dr. Mildred Jefferson recalls founding the National Right to Life Committee
Transcript
You were beginning to tell me about your preparation at Harvard Medical School [Boston, Massachusetts] to move into surgery. But before we get back to that, you mentioned earlier, the dog lab, and I wanted to--what was that about?$$Well (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Where did that fit into your studies and research?$$In the, the second year, when we were beginning our clinical studies, in order to prepare us for being able to assist in the operating room, we were given basic operating and surgical technique in a dog lab. And, although I'm just one step removed from being an antivivisectionist because I knew we took good care of the dogs. And I knew that the handlers, who took care of them after we finished, treated them well. I could accept doing our operations on the dogs. 'Cause after all you had to treat your patient well to have him or her survive. So, I could do that, but that was one benefit of being in Harvard Medical School. We did have a very, very good program. And, Dr. Carl Walter [Carl W. Walter], who headed that department and Dr. David Hume [David M. Hume], who was another one of my professors, who was only as resident at that, was the chief resident at that time, gave me the opportunity of putting in extra time. So, I had fairly advanced surgical technique by the time I even got to my internship.$$Well, tell me about that preparation then, the third and fourth years, and the surgical experiences (unclear) (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) Well, I took every course that I thought would be of value and I certainly took everything that I thought would make up for what would be, expected to be shortcomings. So, that I did an elective in urology because most people would expect that a woman doctor would not be very strong in urology. Although, obviously women have urological problems as well. In most urological practice I think most urologists see more men than women in their practices. So that in medical school I not only did special work with--in urology, but I took the course with Dr. J. Hartwell Harrison, one of my favorites, who was one of the great urologists of his time. And, he said to me, to work helping him with sections of a book that he was working on. So, that if you look in that textbook, and I've forgotten which one it is, you will see in the charts and the diagrams. He always gave me credit for the things that I did. So, he'd make sure my name was listed (laughter). So, if we lo- go back to those old editions of that textbook, you will see that work.$Okay (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) Because we found after a year or so that the Value of Life Committee [Value of Life Committee of Massachusetts] was somewhat passive. You have to wait for people to invite you to speak. (Laughter) You can't just go speaking to them if they haven't invited you. And because it was really intense promotion and accelerated promotion of the abortion acceptance, we decided we'd better get something more formal. But, we were pushed because the pro-abortion groups got, in 1972, got a non-binding referendum on the ballots of twenty carefully selected cities and towns that would repeal the abortion laws of the Commonwealth [Commonwealth of Massachusetts]. So that many of the people that we had spoken to at other times came together in ad-hoc groups to fight that issue. And, we joined them together and that's--was the nucleus that became Massachusetts Citizens for Life [Boston, Massachusetts].$$I see.$$Although, we lost that referendum by 55/45. When we finally got our applications in and articles of incorporation, we got them back about ten days or two weeks before January 22nd, '73 [1973] when the U.S. Supreme Court handed down its landmark abortion decisions, Roe versus Wade [Roe v. Wade, 1973] and Doe versus Bolton [Doe v. Bolton, 1973]. But, in June of that year, we formally created National Right to Life Committee. And, I had the honor of giving the keynote address that launched the organization.

Dr. Warren Strudwick, Sr.

Dr. Warren James Strudwick was born on December 23, 1923, in Durham, North Carolina. His mother was a teacher and his father a physician. As a child, he enjoyed a privileged life until his father’s death in 1931, when he was eight years old. Strudwick attended Whitted Elementary School and as a young boy enjoyed building model airplanes and was a member of the safety patrol. He received his diploma from Hillside High School in 1940.

Strudwick attended North Carolina College for Negroes in 1940, where he studied chemistry until he transferred to West Virginia State College in 1942. That same year, he was drafted into the United States Marine Corps where he served in a combat unit during World War II. In 1943, he attended Purdue University to complete Officers Training School. In 1946, Strudwick entered Howard University, receiving his B.S. degree in biology and chemistry in 1948. He went on to attend Howard University Medical School and while a student met and married his wife, Dr. Bette Catoe. He graduated from medical school in 1952.

In 1958, Strudwick helped to integrate Washington, D.C. hospitals. From 1961 to 2000, he taught surgery at Howard University Medical School. While teaching, he also operated a successful private practice in Washington, D.C. Strudwick was a member of numerous professional organizations including the American Board of Surgery, the American Medical Association, the American Cancer Society and the American Society of Abdominal Surgeons. He was also actively involved in the NAACP, Urban League and Kappa Alpha Psi Fraternity. Strudwick also wrote and published a number of medical related articles.

Strudwick passed away on October 27, 2008 at the age of 84. He leaves behind his wife and three grown children; two are physicians and the other an attorney.

Accession Number

A2004.084

Sex

Male

Interview Date

6/17/2004

Last Name

Strudwick

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

James

Occupation
Schools

W. G. Pearson S.T.E.A.M. Elementary School

Whitted Elementary School

Hillside High School

North Carolina Central University

West Virginia State University

Purdue University

Howard University

First Name

Warren

Birth City, State, Country

Durham

HM ID

STR05

Favorite Season

Spring

State

North Carolina

Favorite Vacation Destination

Caribbean

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

12/23/1923

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Fried Chicken

Death Date

10/27/2008

Short Description

Surgeon Dr. Warren Strudwick, Sr. (1923 - 2008 ) helped to integrate Washington, D.C. hospitals and has taught at Howard University Medical School. Strudwick also had a successful private practice in Washington.

Employment

Post Office, Washington DC

Howard University

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:792,29:1980,48:2508,57:2970,66:3432,72:3894,81:4422,93:5082,106:6138,133:13155,236:13581,244:13865,250:14504,265:14788,270:15285,279:15924,293:16421,302:16705,307:22598,433:26626,438:28562,468:28914,473:33402,543:37358,569:38006,581:43669,657:44317,668:44722,674:45370,700:47756,709:49068,726:49806,738:50708,750:51036,755:51774,767:52102,772:54234,809:54808,819:58908,936:67772,1025:70390,1086:70852,1093:72546,1121:81487,1221:90360,1317:90871,1326:91236,1332:92404,1355:96054,1422:96565,1431:96930,1437:97222,1443:97733,1451:102786,1484:103216,1491:103990,1504:107906,1537:110780,1547:111185,1553:112319,1570:112724,1576:114425,1625:114992,1634:115397,1640:116288,1654:120480,1687:121080,1699:122180,1721:124280,1748:127064,1759:127652,1768:129248,1790:130004,1815:130424,1821:136052,1944:136724,1953:149027,2122:153631,2185:154461,2198:155042,2207:155457,2214:156951,2241:157283,2246:158528,2266:159358,2293:159690,2298:161267,2338:165411,2357:166421,2369:167633,2389:169148,2413:169956,2423:176196,2449:176840,2457:181128,2516:190896,2633:191192,2638:192524,2675:192820,2680:193116,2692:193634,2701:194004,2729:203840,2848:204236,2856:205028,2872:205622,2890:208896,2940:209344,2957:209984,2998:210368,3012:212896,3042:214700,3056:216287,3090:217430,3096:219900,3104:222385,3166:224570,3205:224930,3212:225290,3220:229536,3304:236531,3383:238313,3415:239204,3438:241900,3446:242077,3457$0,0:1472,42:1856,50:2560,70:3136,87:3520,94:3968,102:4416,112:4864,120:17796,171:20984,192:25378,254:25952,262:27250,282:30450,338:31410,357:31810,363:43415,571:44520,587:51277,613:51625,618:52582,630:53887,648:62034,738:62658,747:66636,847:68118,874:68664,886:74436,1009:75138,1019:75450,1024:82944,1113:83592,1123:87768,1208:94028,1283:94288,1289:94548,1296:97530,1346:102668,1421:105776,1477:106112,1482:115616,1650:116694,1674:124986,1822:126278,1865:126754,1873:128794,1922:130562,1988:131242,1999:131718,2007:132262,2025:132534,2030:132806,2036:133146,2042:134302,2065:134778,2073:142533,2152:142857,2157:143343,2164:143667,2169:147260,2188:156890,2339:157690,2353:158090,2359:161599,2419:161915,2424:164917,2502:165391,2510:168156,2580:169657,2615:170289,2625:171237,2639:178260,2675:178700,2680:179580,2691:181010,2704:181450,2709:188006,2787:188314,2792:191110,2815:196380,2883:197920,2935:200720,3024:201350,3034:210170,3115:211500,3133:216095,3198
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Warren Strudwick interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Warren Strudwick lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Warren Strudwick remembers his mother

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Warren Strudwick remembers his father

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Warren Strudwick traces his family history

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Warren Strudwick shares his earliest memories

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Warren Strudwick recalls the sights and smells of growing up

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Warren Strudwick discusses his brother

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Warren Strudwick gives an overview of his school life

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Warren Strudwick describes his childhood interests

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Warren Strudwick discusses his early religious participation

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Warren Strudwick recalls influential figures from his adolescent years

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Warren Strudwick recounts his high school experience

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Warren Strudwick details his college experience and his military stint

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Warren Strudwick recounts his medical school experience

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Warren Strudwick discusses changes in his family life

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Warren Strudwick reflects on his medical training

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Warren Strudwick reflects on the medical profession during the 1950s

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Warren Strudwick describes his experiences as a medical school professor

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Warren Strudwick evaluates the "managed care" healthcare system

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Warren Strudwick considers the effect of violent crimes on healthcare systems

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Warren Strudwick describes his family's medical legacy

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Warren Strudwick shares advice for aspiring medical practitioners

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Warren Strudwick reflects on developments in the medical field during his lifetime

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Warren Strudwick describes how he'd like to be remembered

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Warren Strudwick shares thoughts on the significance of history

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Warren Strudwick reflects on his father's success

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Warren Strudwick considers his legacy

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Warren Strudwick reflects on systems of government

DASession

1$1

DATape

1$2

DAStory

4$6

DATitle
Warren Strudwick remembers his father
Warren Strudwick recounts his medical school experience
Transcript
Now, let's talk a little bit about your father, starting with his name, where he grew up and where he was born?$$Okay. His name was William Canady Strudwick. Now, where he got both names, I do not know. The William and the Canady, I have no idea, except for the fact that the name William, when you look through the Strudwicks on the computer, you see a lot of Williams, and it may be they just picked that up. Canady, I have no idea about. Strudwick, I think it came from the plantation owners, I suppose. I don't think Strudwick is an African name, as such, so this is the only way that I can say it came about. He, as far as I knew--my daddy died when I was eight years old [1932]. I have very few recollections of what he was like. I do know that he was very good to me and certainly, I remember that very well. He was a disciplinarian and my mama [Mabel Christina Wormley] used to say, well, I'll tell your daddy when he comes home what you did, you know. And I was scared, but anyway, he was not the one who would give me the whipping. I had to go outside and get the switch from the hedges and my mama would do the whipping (laughter) for whatever I had done wrong, you know (laughter). But anyway, I remember he was flamboyant and an immaculate dresser. I don't remember ever seeing my daddy in what one would call work clothes. He always had on a suit and tie and cuff links and all, and he--and I guess in those days, doctors were that way. They, and that's what I remember. I remember he liked cards too. We were in a black neighborhood, in which everybody, you were either poor, middle class or what one would call well-off black, you know. And so we were well off as blacks go in that--in fact, we had two cars as I remember. Prior to that time, I was told that he used to make his house calls in a wagon, you know, horse and wagon. We had a barn behind our house. I can remember that, the little barn, and I remember that barn. But I don't remember the horse and the buggy. I do remember the cars that we had. We had a Packard, which was a super car. I guess it was the Mercedes of that day. And we had a Hupmobile, which was a two-seater car, which in the back was like a convertible, you know, the back seat was, you could open, and you'd sit in the back seat in the air and all. So I remember that about him. I remember he used to carry me at times to East Durham to visit his patients, and he had some friends down there who we'd go to see. The man who married him, I remember him as Reverend Sowell and his wife. They had a store in East Durham. I can remember very well the, going down there in these cars and all. And at that time, there were not paved roads. They had dirt roads, and all, and I remember, you know, sometimes it was muddy and all. But he would take me with him and all. And this is about all I can remember about my father. I remember it was very devastating to my mother and to my brother [William Wormley Strudwick], you know, when my father died. But being eight years old, it just did not translate to me very well, until I started not being able--my mother would tell me that we can't afford this and we can't afford that. That's when it started to hit me. But from that point on, from eight, through nine to ten and all that, took it, but anyway, there were some things that I wanted. So I started working at ten years of age. I started finding little jobs to make money.$What were our experiences like in medical school, like were there any classes that you really enjoyed taking in medical school?$$Yeah, I guess, you know, to me all of 'em were enjoyable if it were not for who--sometimes who was teaching and all, but the subject itself, I mean, was quite interesting, you know. You were learning all the time. You learned about bacteria, you learned about the germs, and you learned--they called it bacteriology. You learned about anatomy, you learned the anatomy of the body. You learned what is biochemistry, you know, the chemical elements of the body. You--it was just a very interesting experience for me anyway. And you did not--what you were trying to do is get the basics before you went to clinical medicine, and everybody strived to get to clinical medicine when you start treating, taking care of patients. But anyway, and early, I, I enjoyed it.$$So while you were in medical school, did you know that you wanted to be a surgeon or were you still trying to determine what type of medicine you would go into?$$No, I wanted to be a surgeon, yeah. I wanted to do something with my hands. I always wanted to do something--that's why I said I wanted to be an engineer and all. I wanted to be something, you know. So surgery was the thing that I would be doing with my hands and all. And it was fascinating to me. Surgery was fascinating, and I wanted to be able to do something to a person that would make them better. And most things in surgery, you were operating to make a person better. In medicine, there were some things that--and most things with surgery, you could cure, if you're gonna operate on 'em. But in medicine, you weren't--you could treat them, but you knew they were gonna die no matter what you did (chuckle). So surgery was my choice as far as that was concerned.$$And while you were in medical school, you--as you mentioned, while you were at Howard [University] you met your wife [Bette Catoe]. And you all married in medical school. What was that like, being married while going to medical school?$$It was okay. And the reason it was okay, and I think that one of the best things that happened to me was maybe going into the service. I grew up in the service. It made me know that I, when I got out, I had to do something, and it gave me the GI Bill of Rights, and I don't think, if I had not had the GI Bill of Rights, I would have been able to afford to go to medical school or to finish college. I don't know, I have no idea, but I do know the GI Bill of Rights took me all the way through except for my last year of medical school in which I got a scholarship for that. But up until that point, you know, the GI took care of us. I worked part time. I worked--part of the time, I worked at the post office, you know, just about the whole time I was in medical school really. And you can't work now. They do not allow you to work. It's too much to learn. They don't allow you to work now. If you're gonna work, you can work at something related to medicine. So it's a little different in this day. I know some of my classmates worked full time, you know, doing something, during medical school days.

Dr. LaSalle D. Leffall, Jr.

Dr. LaSalle Doheny Leffall, Jr. was born May 22, 1930, in Tallahasee, Florida, but grew up in Quincy, Florida. His parents, Lula Jourdan and LaSalle Leffall, Sr. met at Alabama Teachers College. Leffall graduated from Dr. Wallace S. Stevens High School at age 15 years in 1945. Awarded his B.S. degree summa cum laude from Florida A & M College in 1948, Leffall at age twenty-two earned his M.D. from Howard University College of Medicine. There, Dr. Burke Syphax, Dr. Jack White, Dr. W. Montague Cobb and the celebrated Dr. Charles R. Drew taught him.

Upon earning his M.D., Leffall continued his medical training as intern at Homer G. Phillips Hospital in St. Louis; assistant resident in surgery at Freedman’s Hospital from 1953 to 1954; assistant resident in surgery at D.C. General Hospital from 1954 to 1955; chief resident in surgery at Freedman’s Hospital from 1956 to 1957 and senior fellow in cancer surgery at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Hospital from 1957 to 1959. Beginning his military service at the rank of Captain, M. C., he served as chief of general surgery at the U. S. Army Hospital in Munich, Germany, from 1960 to 1961. Leffall joined Howard’s faculty, in 1962, as an assistant professor and by 1970, he was chairman of the Department of Surgery, a position he held for twenty-five years. He was named the Charles R. Drew Professor in 1992, occupying the first endowed chair in the history of Howard’s Department of Surgery.

Leffall has served as visiting professor at over 200 medical institutions in the U.S. and abroad and authored or coauthored over 130 articles and chapters. He is a diplomate of the American Board of Surgery and a fellow of both the American College of Surgeons and the American College of Gastroenterology. His professional life has been devoted to the study of cancer, especially among African Americans. In 1979, as president of the American Cancer Society, Leffall developed programs and emphasized the importance of this study for the benefit of the African American population and other ethnic groups. Cancers of the head and neck, breast, colorectum and soft part sarcomas are his main areas of interest.

Surgeon, oncologist, medical educator and civic leader, and the recipient of many awards, Leffall has taught over 4,500 medical students and trained at least 250 general surgery residents. In 1995 he was elected president of the American College of Surgeons and in 2002 was named chairman of the President’s Cancer Panel. He and his wife, Ruthie have one grown son, LeSalle, III.

Leffall passed away on May 26, 2019.

Accession Number

A2004.064

Sex

Male

Interview Date

6/7/2004

Last Name

Leffall

Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

D.

Schools

William S. Stevens High School

Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University

Howard University College of Medicine

First Name

La Salle

Birth City, State, Country

Tallahassee

HM ID

LEF02

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Florida

Favorite Vacation Destination

Puerto Rico, Maine

Favorite Quote

Equanimity under duress

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

5/22/1930

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Sole

Death Date

5/26/2019

Short Description

Medical professor, oncologist, and surgeon Dr. LaSalle D. Leffall, Jr. (1930 - ) is the president of the American College of Surgeons and chairs the President's Cancer Panel. Leffall has authored over 150 articles, has taught over 4,500 medical students and trained at least 250 general surgery residents at the Howard University College of Medicine.

Employment

Homer G. Phillips Hospital (St. Louis, Missouri)

Freedmen's Hospital, Howard University

Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center

Howard University College of Medicine

Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences

Georgetown University

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:1848,37:7722,232:8052,238:8316,243:8910,254:11418,320:12276,352:15246,459:15642,467:16104,476:17160,502:17424,507:17820,515:18942,540:19338,550:20526,575:20922,583:27380,593:28660,666:33700,746:35940,779:36260,784:37300,801:39460,852:40020,860:45560,880:48742,929:52834,1036:53082,1041:53578,1051:53950,1059:55314,1088:56244,1108:57794,1145:62240,1177:62905,1188:64660,1201:65080,1209:65920,1229:66400,1244:66880,1253:67660,1273:67900,1278:68140,1283:68440,1289:70304,1305:71032,1324:71760,1343:75904,1453:76520,1465:77024,1481:77584,1493:78088,1508:79656,1560:80104,1569:80496,1577:81280,1595:81504,1600:82344,1620:82904,1631:87700,1649:88276,1661:88596,1667:88980,1675:89556,1686:92340,1726:92960,1740:95130,1786:95626,1797:97734,1847:98044,1853:98478,1862:98850,1869:99594,1884:100338,1905:100958,1917:102322,1947:106176,1972:106995,1995:107373,2002:108003,2013:108381,2020:109011,2031:111405,2082:112098,2098:112413,2104:112917,2116:113358,2124:117443,2147:117778,2154:120726,2253:123741,2320:124076,2326:124880,2345:125349,2354:126555,2396:127694,2425:128096,2432:128498,2439:130709,2500:131178,2508:132317,2531:137070,2538:138695,2585:138955,2590:140190,2612:141035,2630:143310,2681:143830,2692:144090,2697:147446,2718:147950,2729:148454,2739:148734,2745:149126,2755:149574,2764:149966,2772:151646,2803:152934,2811:154950,2860:155678,2877:156070,2885:156294,2890:156518,2895:156854,2902:157638,2919:158086,2928:158478,2936:161294,2958:161806,2967:162254,2975:162958,2987:163278,2993:164750,3025:165198,3033:165454,3038:165838,3045:166606,3060:166990,3067:167758,3082:168270,3091:168718,3099:171342,3116:172174,3133:172878,3145:173198,3151:173774,3161:174030,3166:174414,3173:174670,3178:175054,3185:175374,3191:176014,3202:177806,3241:178126,3247:179278,3277:179790,3286:180238,3294:180942,3307:181198,3312:181582,3319:181902,3325:182734,3340:183118,3347:183886,3362:184398,3371:184846,3379:188022,3391$0,0:1235,30:1755,39:2145,46:8970,195:11310,247:11895,257:12480,268:13000,277:13455,288:13845,296:14105,301:14690,311:15340,326:15795,333:17030,352:17810,364:18135,371:18590,380:19500,395:19825,401:21515,436:22620,469:31565,597:32148,611:32572,620:32890,627:33579,645:35275,688:35540,694:35805,700:36282,711:36653,719:37660,745:38084,754:38561,765:41370,776:43974,819:44842,837:45400,854:45772,861:46578,877:47136,887:48376,911:49120,936:49616,945:50174,956:51042,974:51600,985:52716,1007:53274,1017:53770,1026:56250,1091:56932,1114:57242,1120:57738,1129:58296,1141:58792,1150:59412,1163:59970,1175:64550,1209:64862,1214:65642,1226:66266,1235:66578,1240:67124,1249:68294,1287:69230,1324:69698,1332:70088,1337:72272,1372:72974,1382:74378,1403:75782,1434:76562,1445:80460,1450:80916,1458:81220,1463:81676,1469:82132,1477:82436,1482:83120,1495:85096,1537:85780,1549:87528,1584:88136,1593:88820,1604:92114,1641:92762,1654:93049,1661
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of LaSalle Leffall interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - LaSalle Leffall's favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - LaSalle Leffall describes his mother's background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - LaSalle Leffall describes his father's background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - LaSalle Leffall recounts his early years in Quincy, Florida

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - LaSalle Leffall describes his childhood interests

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - LaSalle Leffall describes his early influences

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - LaSalle Leffall recounts his college years at Florida A&M

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - LaSalle Leffall remembers influential teachers at Florida A & M

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - LaSalle Leffall recalls his admission to medical school

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - LaSalle Leffall recounts his experience at Howard University Medical School

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - LaSalle Leffall describes Dr. W. Montague Cobb, a memorable instuctor at Howard Medical School

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - LaSalle Leffall remembers an influential physician, Dr. Charles Drew

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - LaSalle Leffall remembers Dr. Syphax and Dr. White at Howard University School of Medicine

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - LaSalle Leffall talks about the influence of Dr. Jack White at Howard School of Medicine

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - LaSalle Leffall recalls his medical internship at Homer Phillips Hospital in St. Louis

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - LaSalle Leffall recounts his experience as one of the first black residents at Gallinger Hospital

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - LaSalle Leffall recalls his surgical residency at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, 1957-1959

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - LaSalle Leffall recalls his courtship and marriage and his military service in Germany

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - LaSalle Leffall summarizes his career at Howard from 1962-2004

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - LaSalle Leffall details his work with American Cancer Society including foreign humanitarian and research work

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - LaSalle Leffall discusses cancer and race

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - LaSalle Leffall evaluates new cancer treatments

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - LaSalle Leffall discusses his son

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - LaSalle Leffall discusses his wife's family's five generations of college graduates

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - LaSalle Leffall talks about his presidencies of American Cancer Society and American College of Surgeons

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - LaSalle Leffall expresses his hopes for the future

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - LaSalle Leffall talks about working with the Bush family on cancer-related projects

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - LaSalle Leffall discusses the role of attitude in cancer treatment

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - LaSalle Leffall remembers his parents

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - LaSalle Leffall considers his legacy and the role of a teacher

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - LaSalle Leffall considers healthcare reform

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - LaSalle Leffall reflects on the course of his career

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - LaSalle Leffall shares advice for blacks aspiring to be doctors

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$4

DAStory

4$3

DATitle
LaSalle Leffall describes Dr. W. Montague Cobb, a memorable instuctor at Howard Medical School
LaSalle Leffall talks about his presidencies of American Cancer Society and American College of Surgeons
Transcript
One of your teachers, I know, was W. Montague Cobb, and that's someone who--?$$Absolutely, Dr., Dr. W. Montague Cobb was one of my favorite teachers [at Howard University Medical School, Washington, D.C.]. He was a man I met in my first year because he taught anatomy. And he used to have what we would call "bust out sessions". Now, what does that mean? You'd go into him, and you'd say "bust me out", meaning, ask me any question you want to ask me. I think I know the answer. And, and I liked that kind of challenge. And he liked that. He liked young students who felt so confident that they would walk in and say, "Dr. Cobb, bust me out" (laughter), and that meant, ask me anything you want on anatomy. And we wanted to let him know that we knew the answers. And I just enjoyed him as a teacher. And we used to have something called the cadaver walk. On the final examination, they would ask a hundred and eighty questions, and the cadavers have all been dissected then. All the cadavers are dissected. And they would have labels on some of everything, arteries, veins, muscles, bones, all this. And you had to identify those structures. And I really loved that. And when I was a medical student in my later years and as a surgical resident, I used to come back every year to go over with the freshman, medical and dental students, the cadaver, to prepare them, help prepare them for the cadaver walk. But Dr. Cobb was, I think an outstanding teacher, but in addition to that, I worked with him as assistant editor of the "Journal of the National Medical Association", and even though he was not a practicing physician, he did some of the early work in helping to integrate Gallinger Municipal Hospital, which was the city hospital then, but controlled totally by whites, no blacks on the staff. And Dr. Cobb was one of the major ones who helped integrate that hospital. And so in addition to being an excellent teacher as professor of anatomy, he also helped in--on the social basis, for social justice in medicine, helping to integrate Gallinger Municipal Hospital, which later became D.C. General Hospital.$$Now, he was also a musician too, I believe.$$Oh, he loved to play the fiddle, the vio--I say the fiddle. He loved to play the violin. And when we'd have the medical school smoker, he would come, and he would play the violin. He was a very learned man. I, I learned a lot from Dr. Cobb, having worked with him as assistant editor of "The Journal of the National Medical Association", and then having this interest I had in anatomy, I would go and talk with him. And he was just a first-rate individual and it was a, an honor for me to get to know a man like that.$$Now, maybe we should say something about what "The National Medical Association" is?$$The National Medical Association is an association founded in 1895 by black physicians because they were denied admission to the American Medical Association. And the National Medical Association still exists. And we think it exists because even though blacks can now become members of the American Medical Association, the National Medical Association still addresses some issues that affect black physicians disproportionately. And therefore, we still think there is a role for the National Medical Association, even though black physicians can become members of the American Medical Association.$I think the presidency of the American Cancer Society came first, right?$$It did. I became president of the American Cancer Society in 1978, had a year from 1978 to '79 [1979], and had a lot of wonderful trips. I went all around speaking to the different groups and chapters here, went abroad, many different places, to the Soviet Union, the Peoples Republic of China, Vietnam, Liberia. Then other places, just around--the Dominican Republic, this--speaking for the American Cancer Society. But I am a surgeon. I'm a trained surgeon. And my specialty happens to be cancer. That's why I was active in the American Cancer Society. But I'm also active as a surgeon, and I became the first black president, African American president of the American College of Surgeons. That was in 1995 -'96 [1996]. So I, I was deeply honored by that, and I went around speaking to the different chapters. Your primary role as president of the American College of Surgeons is to go around the country, speak to the different chapters with the fellows who are in the chapters, to find out what their concerns are and bring those concerns back to the national body and see what can be done on a national level to help, help address the problems they tell you about. And that's what I did, but in addition, I went to South Africa. I went to Hong Kong, I went to Canada. I went to different places, and--went to Germany. So I got an honorary fellowship from Canada, from South Africa, from Germany. So that was a, the height of my professional career as a surgeon was to be president of the American College of Surgeons. That was the height of my professional career.