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Jonelle Procope

Lawyer and foundation president Jonelle Procope was born on March 20, 1951 in Baltimore, Maryland. Her mother, Corinne, was a teacher; her father, John L. Procope, Sr., was a businessman and hospital administrator. Procope was raised in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and graduated from the Philadelphia High School for Girls. She received her B.A. degree in economics from Howard University, and her J.D. degree from St. Johns University.

In 1977, Procope was hired as an associate attorney at the law firm of Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom in New York City. She then joined Viacom International Inc. in 1980, where she specialized in entertainment law for the company’s divisions including Viacom International, MTV, Showtime Entertainment, and Viacom Productions. From 1988 to 1994, Procope worked as director of business affairs for Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, where she served as primary legal counsel to the Advertising and Media departments for the company’s Consumer Products Group. From 1998 to 2003, she was vice president of business and legal affairs for Blackground Records, an independent record label in New York City. Procope was then named president and chief executive officer of the Apollo Theater Foundation, Inc. in March of 2003.

Procope has also been active in numerous civic and community organizations. She sits on the boards of New York Public Radio, the Arthur Ashe Learning Center, the 125th Street B.I.D., and the Apollo Theater Foundation, Inc. She is a member of the Friends of Education Committee of the Museum of Modern Art and the NYC Landmarks50 Advisory Committee.

Procope has been profiled in The New York Times Public Lives column, which recognizes individuals who have distinguished themselves through significant contributions to New York City, named as one of Portfolio magazine's 73 Biggest Brains in Business, profiled in Ebony magazine, and honored by The New York Daily News as one of 100 Women Who Shape Our City. In 2014, she received the Matrix Award – “Women Who Change the World” from New York Women in Communications.

Procope is married to Frederick O. Terrell and resides in New York City. They are parents of two adult sons, Matthew and Evan.

Jonelle Procope was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on May 8, 2014.

Accession Number

A2014.105

Sex

Female

Interview Date

5/8/2014 |and| 08/25/2014

Last Name

Procope

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Alice

Schools

Lansdowne Friends

Friends' Central School

Philadelphia High School for Girls

St. John's University

Howard University

First Name

Jonelle

Birth City, State, Country

Baltimore

HM ID

PRO03

State

Maryland

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Birth Date

3/20/1951

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New York

Country

United States

Short Description

Lawyer and foundation president Jonelle Procope (1951 - ) was the president and chief executive officer of the Apollo Theater Foundation, Inc.

Employment

Apollo Theater

Blackground Records

All Access Entertainment

Bristol Myers Squibb

Equitable Real Estate Group

Viacom International

Skadden, Arps, Meager & Flom

J. Terry Edmonds

Speechwriter Terry Edmonds was born on September 9, 1949 in Baltimore, Maryland. The son of Naomi Parker, a waitress, Edmonds grew up in the projects of Baltimore’s inner-city. He spent time in a foster home and his family was on welfare for a number of years, but Edmonds went on to be the first in his family to attend college. He graduated from Morgan State University in 1973, with his B.A. degree in English.

In 1978, Edmonds was hired as a public relations and communications specialist at the Maryland Transit Administration. Then, in 1982, he took a position as director of public relations for Trahan, Burden and Charles Advertising. While working at Trahan, Burden and Charles, Edmonds also served as director of communications at the Joint Center for Political Studies, a Washington, D.C. think tank, from 1985 until 1987. In 1987, he was hired as a press secretary in the office of Kweisi Mfume, at that time a newly elected United States representative from Maryland. Edmonds worked in public relations for Macro Systems in 1988, Blue Cross and Blue Shield in 1989, the University Research Corporation in 1990, and R.O.W. Sciences in 1991. Then, in 1993, he was hired as a senior speechwriter for the United States Secretary of Health and Human Services, Donna Shalala. After serving under Shalala for two years, Edmonds worked as a speechwriter for President Bill Clinton in 1995, making him the first African American speechwriter for a United States President. In 1997, Edmonds was promoted to deputy director of speechwriting, and, in 1999, he was appointed by President Clinton as the director of speechwriting and assistant to the president.

In 2002, Edmonds was hired as the director of editorial management at AARP, and, in 2005, he served as the executive speechwriter for Time Warner, Inc. Edmonds then went on to work as a speechwriter for the Corporation for National and Community Service, as well as the senior advisor and speechwriter for NASA Administrator Charles Bolden. He was also appointed associate vice president and editorial director of Columbia University.

Terry Edmonds was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on October 26, 2013.

Accession Number

A2013.266

Sex

Male

Interview Date

10/26/2013

Last Name

Edmonds

Maker Category
Middle Name

Terry

Organizations
Schools

Morgan State University

Search Occupation Category
First Name

J.

Birth City, State, Country

Baltimore

HM ID

EDM03

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Maryland

Favorite Vacation Destination

Beaches

Favorite Quote

Seek ye first the kingdom of God, and his righteousness; and all these things shall be added unto you.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Birth Date

9/9/1949

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New York

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Steamed Crabs

Short Description

Speechwriter and presidential appointee J. Terry Edmonds (1949 - ) was the first African American speechwriter for a United States President.

Employment

Maryland Transit Administration

Trahan, Burden and Charles Advertising

Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies

United States House of Representatives

Macro Systems

Blue Cross Blue Shield

University Research Corporation

R.O.W. Sciences

United States Secretary of Health and Human Services

White House

AARP

Time Warner, Inc.

Corporation for National and Community Service

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)

Columbia University

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
1107,0:1660,9:3477,33:4741,87:10271,230:18258,303:18942,310:19512,316:20424,326:27296,381:27740,388:30454,425:34696,458:36544,486:37300,496:52910,666:53270,671:66011,758:66319,763:70862,848:71401,856:83170,988:83620,996:103530,1236:104726,1252:105094,1259:106290,1272:107578,1286:116695,1366:138830,1661:141998,1729:144836,1789:145760,1808:146090,1814:148004,1857:148664,1868:154630,1917:159220,1987:163930,2027:172284,2151:181154,2243:190922,2366:197221,2431:197917,2441:204181,2557:204790,2565:231200,2885$0,0:3740,37:6065,81:6965,104:7340,110:8540,128:8915,134:10190,146:22404,284:28823,330:35393,458:37656,512:38021,518:43446,555:48918,641:50134,659:64720,929:66025,950:69448,969:69772,974:71473,999:71797,1004:83055,1161:83419,1166:85057,1202:96776,1345:101343,1389:101715,1394:102087,1399:107295,1500:112520,1526:113544,1547:114056,1563:114504,1571:117454,1605:117806,1614:122294,1698:122734,1703:123614,1716:127880,1741
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - J. Terry Edmonds narrates his photographs

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Slating of J. Terry Edmonds' interview

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - J. Terry Edmonds lists his favorites

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - J. Terry Edmonds describes his mother's family background

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - J. Terry Edmonds talks about his mother's childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - J. Terry Edmonds describes his father and his step-father's family background

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - J. Terry Edmonds describes his parents' personalities

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - J. Terry Edmonds talks about his siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - J. Terry Edmonds describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - J. Terry Edmonds recalls moving around Baltimore while growing up

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - J. Terry Edmonds recalls his childhood interests

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - J. Terry Edmonds remembers the Kennedy Assassination, the March on Washington and the moon landing

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - J. Terry Edmonds talks about the influence of the "I Have a Dream" speech on his writing

Tape: 2 Story: 13 - J. Terry Edmonds describes the schools he attended during childhood

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - J. Terry Edmonds describes his teachers

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - J. Terry Edmonds recalls his childhood love of writing

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - J. Terry Edmonds remembers the day President Kennedy was assassinated

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - J. Terry Edmonds talks about reading the black press as a child

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - J. Terry Edmonds describes his high school interests

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - J. Terry Edmonds talks about his high school experience

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - J. Terry Edmonds describes the churches he attended in Baltimore

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - J. Terry Edmonds talks about being published at Morgan State University

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - J. Terry Edmonds reflects on the influence of Smokey Robinson

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - J. Terry Edmonds discusses the poetry scene at Morgan State University

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - J. Terry Edmonds discusses the culture of Baltimore

Tape: 3 Story: 12 - J. Terry Edmonds remembers his most influential professor

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - J. Terry Edmonds recalls how his education influenced his writing

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - J. Terry Edmonds discusses his poetry and his poetic influences

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - J. Terry Edmonds talks about his experience at Morgan State University

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - J. Terry Edmonds talks about his first job after graduating from Morgan State University

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - J. Terry Edmonds describes his early jobs in public relations

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - J. Terry Edmonds talks about his experience in public relations

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - J. Terry Edmonds talks about working in advertising

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - J. Terry Edmonds describes working at the Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - J. Terry Edmonds describes becoming a speechwriter

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - J. Terry Edmonds talks about his experience working for public relations consulting firms

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - J. Terry Edmonds describes his entry into the Clinton Administration

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - J. Terry Edmonds remembers becoming a presidential speechwriter

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - J. Terry Edmonds describes the diversity of the Clinton Administration

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - J. Terry Edmonds talks about his routine as a speechwriter for President Bill Clinton

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - J. Terry Edmonds describes the collaborative process of writing speeches for President Bill Clinton

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - J. Terry Edmonds remembers writing emergency statements for President Bill Clinton

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - J. Terry Edmonds recalls advising President Bill Clinton to speak about the Million Man March

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - J. Terry Edmonds discusses his favorite speeches for President Bill Clinton, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - J. Terry Edmonds talks about gaining access to President Bill Clinton

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - J. Terry Edmonds remembers a compassionate call from President Bill Clinton

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - J. Terry Edmonds discusses his favorite speeches for President Bill Clinton, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 11 - J. Terry Edmonds describes the challenges of being a speechwriter for President Bill Clinton

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - J. Terry Edmonds discusses President Bill Clinton's Advisory Board on Race

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - J. Terry Edmonds talks about his promotion to Chief Speechwriter and the 2000 State of the Union address

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - J. Terry Edmonds talks about the Monica Lewinsky scandal

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - J. Terry Edmonds reflects on working in the Clinton Administration

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - J. Terry Edmonds discusses writing speeches for AARP and the John Kerry campaign

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - J. Terry Edmonds recalls writing speeches for Time Warner CEO Richard Parsons, President Obama, and NASA Director Charles Bolden

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - J. Terry Edmonds reflects on the importance of inner strength

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - J. Terry Edmonds talks about his plans for the future

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - J. Terry Edmonds reflects on his legacy

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - J. Terry Edmonds shares his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 6 Story: 11 - J. Terry Edmonds talks about his family

Tape: 6 Story: 12 - J. Terry Edmonds discusses how he would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

5$5

DAStory

7$3

DATitle
J. Terry Edmonds discusses his favorite speeches for President Bill Clinton, pt. 1
J. Terry Edmonds talks about his routine as a speechwriter for President Bill Clinton
Transcript
What was your, I guess, favorite speech for the president [President Bill Clinton], or which one did he think was the--first of all, what did he think (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous)--Well I think he thought--well, there were so many I wrote for him--literally hundreds. I know whenever I see him, he always talks about the speech that he gave during the 35th anniversary of the Bloody Sunday [March 7, 1965], when he went back to Selma, Alabama to give a speech at the Edmund Pettus Bridge to commemorate the 35th anniversary of that march which, as you know, resulted in beatings by the State Troopers and [HM] John Lewis almost losing his life. And anyway, he went back on the 35th anniversary and, and gave a speech, and I gave him a refrain that 'We have another bridge to cross.' As long as African Americans are, you know, are not being treated equally, we have another bridge to cross. And he liked that refrain, and he liked that speech. My favorite speech, of course, was when he went to Morgan State University [Baltimore, Maryland] in 1997 to deliver the commencement speech and, you know, I not only had a chance to write that speech, I flew over in the helicopter with him; we flew from the White House to Morgan in Marine One, you know. People say a ticket on Air Force One is, you know, the hottest ticket in town; ticket on the Marine One is even hotter--getting on that helicopter, 'cause it's only about four people on that helicopter with the president. Anyway, I flew over with him. It was a speech about science and ethics in the 21st century, and I think we made a pledge to try to find a cure for AIDS within 10 years. But the highlight moment for me was--and this was something I did not write into the speech--was, you know, when he pointed me out as a graduate of Morgan State University and made me stand up before the graduating class and be acknowledged, and of course you can imagine how I felt; I was very proud, very humbled, and it was just a great moment because my wife was there, family, and of course the faculty and the president of Morgan, you know; they loved me ever since (laughter). So that was, that was a great moment.$$Well would you consider that to be a part of the Clinton--I guess charisma or style? Because so many people we've interviewed who served with President Clinton talk about how he seemed to personally connect with them.$$Yes, yes. He, he, he, he made an effort to connect not only with the staff, but of course with his audience and with the American people and--yeah, that was a special quality that he had.$$Okay. They say like everybody felt like he was their buddy (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous)--Yes, yes, yes. When you were with him, you felt, you felt like, you know, there was no one else in the room but you and him, and he was very personable and--yeah.$$Okay, okay. So those are two speeches.$How were you--what was your work day like? What was the situation like?$$No two days were alike at the White House, and it was kinda like a 24/7 situation where--you know, this was before the cell phones and, and--we had--but we had beepers; I remember I had a beeper and you had to always be ready for that beeper to go off. I would get to work maybe--I think my first meeting--when I became--you know, I, I started as a sort of a junior speechwriter but after, you know, a couple of years, I was promoted to chief speechwriter, and that day--the days were like--started--my first meeting was 7:45 in the morning; if I got out by Nine at night, that was a good day. Sometimes I would stay there 'til midnight, sometimes all night, and--$$Is this something you understood when you were weighing (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous)--I think I did; I mean you understand it intellectually, but you can't know it until you actually experience what it's like being on call like that and having to--it's like being a fireman in a way because when something happens in the world, the president has to make an instant statement; you have to, you know, help them craft that statement when, you know--in a very short period of time. So it, it was interesting and I--it was--after you get in there, you know, people say, "Well (unclear), you work in the White House; that must be very glamorous." It's hard work, it's a job, you know. You, you, you, you never--I will say this, I never walked into the Oval Office without a sense of history, that I knew that I was in a special place, and whenever I got to meet with the president, you know, that was always special. But a lotta the work was routine and just grueling and just producing, you know.

Philip Merrill

Historian, writer, appraiser and collector Philip J. Merrill was born in 1962 in Baltimore, Maryland, and grew up in the Sandtown-Winchester neighborhood of Baltimore. His mother headed a nonprofit job training institute for the disadvantaged; his father, George B. Merrill, was a pastor. Merrill’s great-grandmother helped to raise him. He was one of only two African American students in his graduating class of 1981 at the Friends School of Baltimore. Merrill would go on to graduate from Loyola University in Maryland in 1985.

In 1994, Merrill founded the organization Nanny Jack & Company, an archives and consulting agency specializing in creating projects that illuminate the African American experience through memorabilia, oral history and research. The company would eventually house over 30,000 artifacts, including photographs, rare books, folk art, documents, music, dolls, furniture, and quilts. Nanny Jack & Company would go on to collaborate with various educational organizations and television channels, including The Smithsonian Institution’s Anacostia Museum and Center for African American History and Culture, the Discovery Channel, the Maryland Historical Society, Maryland Public Television, and the History Channel. In 1996, Merrill became an appraiser with the Public Broadcasting Service’s (PBS) television show Antiques Roadshow. He created the category for black memorabilia on Antiques Roadshow, and would stay on the program until 2001. Then, in 2006, Merrill became a fellow of Open Society Institute, where he developed the “Know History, Know Self” program, which used artifacts to teach African American students about their family, community and school history.

In 1998, Merrill published the book The Art of Collecting Black Memorabilia, and, in 1999, he published The Black America Series: Baltimore, which chronicled the history of the Baltimore’s African American community. Merrill was also the editor of a 2002 book of historical photographs entitled The World War II Black Regiment that Built the Alaska Military Highway: A Photographic History. Then, in 2013, he authored the children’s book, How Princess Wee Wee Got Her Name. Merrill was named Baltimore City Paper’s Best Historian in 2001, and, in 2002, Merrill received the Towson University’s Distinguished Black Marylander Award. He was awarded an Honorary Doctorate of Humane Letters from Eastern Theological Seminary in 2007.

Philip J. Merrill was interviewed by the The HistoryMakers on August 8, 2013.

Accession Number

A2013.211

Sex

Male

Interview Date

8/7/2013

Last Name

Merrill

Maker Category
Middle Name

J

Organizations
Schools

Friends School Of Baltimore

Loyola University Maryland

School No. 66, Mount Royal Elementary and Middle School

St. Mary's College of Maryland

First Name

Philip

Birth City, State, Country

Baltimore

HM ID

MER01

Favorite Season

Spring, Summer

State

Maryland

Favorite Vacation Destination

Anywhere Warm

Favorite Quote

It Is Open To Interpretation.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Maryland

Birth Date

3/14/1962

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Baltimore

Country

United States of America

Favorite Food

Macaroni And Cheese

Short Description

Historical researcher Philip Merrill (1962 - ) founded Nanny Jack & Company, where he collected and researched African American memorabilia for over twenty years. He was also the author of The Art of Collecting Black Memorabilia and The Black America Series: Baltimore.

Employment

Nanny Jack & Company

Delete

Human Development Institute, Inc.

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:3449,54:5274,125:5785,212:8559,272:9070,280:12209,351:19446,430:19830,437:20790,456:21814,482:22198,489:25654,575:26614,627:40604,836:47178,975:50478,1070:54339,1095:54704,1101:77843,1506:78354,1514:78646,1519:79157,1528:79449,1533:82730,1606:84263,1635:84555,1644:85869,1730:86380,1738:86745,1744:87329,1753:87694,1759:89373,1789:89884,1799:90468,1811:91417,1825:116487,2194:116998,2202:117290,2207:118969,2247:121378,2345:123422,2380:126440,2392$0,0:2146,41:2738,51:6215,95:9348,118:11180,138:14964,204:20468,275:21758,288:22790,303:26592,312:27024,319:28104,334:28392,339:30120,371:30552,378:30912,385:31560,395:33504,445:34152,457:34584,464:35232,472:35808,481:38760,533:39120,540:40416,562:41496,582:42000,590:42720,601:51261,794:54732,942:58942,1022:59374,1030:64054,1123:67190,1129:71814,1204:72518,1219:73134,1228:73926,1241:75246,1263:77094,1296:77974,1307:78590,1316:81406,1356:81934,1363:89288,1450:91220,1501:98258,1707:98603,1713:111526,1915:118767,2020:120081,2036:121249,2071:121906,2085:133805,2330:134535,2341:140830,2358:141170,2363:143125,2394:143720,2402:147035,2485:147885,2498:148480,2506:150180,2547:155658,2581:158692,2637:164703,2695:166197,2728:166695,2758:167857,2783:173690,2867:175229,2908:175553,2913:182663,3051:182939,3056:183560,3088:183974,3134:205699,3431:208280,3444:208880,3455:209480,3466:210155,3480:210680,3488:214654,3538:221430,3662:222340,3680:222970,3692:223460,3709:224790,3738:225140,3744:231095,3825:232553,3853:233282,3868:234011,3880:238022,3913:239318,3941:242020,3954:242958,3975:243360,3982:244432,3999:252108,4096:252444,4101:253620,4125:253956,4139:259070,4180:259720,4196:261488,4211:261772,4216:262127,4222:262766,4236:263831,4254:266174,4290:268446,4329:269866,4346:278311,4480:287592,4574:287920,4579:288412,4587:289478,4602:291364,4637:292922,4678:293660,4694:294890,4713:296284,4732:305540,4873:305860,4879:312149,4979:312979,4992:316714,5056:317544,5069:318457,5083:320366,5101:321113,5111:321777,5123:322607,5135:323188,5143:323520,5148:323935,5154:324599,5163:333558,5262:333878,5268:334390,5278:336246,5317:336630,5325:337718,5347:340150,5391:340982,5405:341686,5427:346736,5466:347116,5472:349818,5504:350294,5513:352320,5537
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Philip Merrill's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Philip Merrill lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Philip Merrill describes his mother's family background, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Philip Merrill describes his mother's family background, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Philip Merrill talks about his maternal great-grandmother's personality

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Philip Merrill recalls his family's connection to West Virginia

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Philip Merrill remembers the street vendors in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Philip Merrill describes his maternal great grandmother's educational background

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Philip Merrill talks about his mother's early schooling

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Philip Merrill recalls meeting Richard I. McKinney

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Philip Merrill talks about his mother's education

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Philip Merrill describes his biological father's family background, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Philip Merrill describes his biological father's family background, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Philip Merrill describes his stepfather's family background

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Philip Merrill talks about his likeness to his mother

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Philip Merrill describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Philip Merrill describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Philip Merrill describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Philip Merrill talks about his early education

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Philip Merrill describes his experiences at School No. 66, Mount Royal Elementary and Middle School in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Philip Merrill talks about his early childhood influences

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Philip Merrill recalls his experiences at Friends School of Baltimore in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Philip Merrill remembers his teachers at Friends School of Baltimore

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Philip Merrill describes his early study of African American history

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Philip Merrill talks about his early experiences of religion

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Philip Merrill recalls the airing the 'Roots' television miniseries

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Philip Merrill remembers his social activities at Friends School of Baltimore

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Philip Merrill describes his academic standing at Friends School of Baltimore in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Philip Merrill talks about his experiences at Loyola College in Maryland in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Philip Merrill recalls the African Student Association at Loyola College in Maryland

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Philip Merrill describes his social activities at Loyola College in Maryland in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Philip Merrill talks about the Human Development Institute, Inc. in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Philip Merrill recalls beginning his collection of black memorabilia

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Philip Merrill talks about specializing in the history of black materials

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Philip Merrill recalls the black memorabilia he has sold

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Philip Merrill describes other black memorabilia collectors

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Philip Merrill talks about working as an African American history consultant

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Philip Merrill recalls the strategies in purchasing black memorabilia

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Philip Merrill describes the differences between appraising the black and white Americana, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Philip Merrill describes the differences between appraising the black and white Americana, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Philip Merrill talks about his approach to collecting black memorabilia

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Philip Merrill recalls his initial interest in black photography

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Philip Merrill remembers financial issues at Nanny Jack and Company in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Philip Merrill describes Nanny Jack and Company's interactions with the educational community

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Philip Merrill talks about Nanny Jack and Company's competitors

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Philip Merrill recalls buying Ku Klux Klan memorabilia for the Nanny Jack and Company archives

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Philip Merrill talks about the variety of content in the Nanny Jack and Company archives

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Philip Merrill recalls his experiences as an appraiser for 'Antiques Roadshow'

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Philip Merrill remembers his challenges on 'Antiques Roadshow'

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Philip Merrill recalls appraising pottery by David Drake on 'Antiques Roadshow'

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Philip Merrill remembers researching antebellum black craftsmen

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Philip Merrill describes the need for expert appraisal of black memorabilia

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Philip Merrill talks about the increased education of amateur antique collectors

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Philip Merrill reflects upon his life

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - Philip Merrill describes the lack of African American collector associations

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Philip Merrill reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Philip Merrill describes the internship opportunities at Nanny Jack and Company in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Philip Merrill describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Philip Merrill talks about his future writing projects

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Philip Merrill talks about his family

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Philip Merrill describes the 'Know History, Know Yourself' program

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Philip Merrill narrates his photographs, pt. 1

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Philip Merrill narrates his photographs, pt. 2

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$6

DAStory

5$1

DATitle
Philip Merrill describes his early study of African American history
Philip Merrill recalls buying Ku Klux Klan memorabilia for the Nanny Jack and Company archives
Transcript
When did you manifest an interest in history?$$Not at Friends School [Baltimore, Maryland] (laughter).$$Okay.$$Not at Loyola College [Loyola College in Maryland; Loyola University Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland], which is now a university. As a matter of fact, I detested history because I never saw a--I didn't see the relativeness, I didn't see any relation to me. I really wasn't that excited about learning about [President] George Washington or, you know, any of the standard people that were in the history books back then. And needless to say there wasn't any topic such as Afro or African American history or culture that was being taught back then.$$So (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) You know, we were lucky if you learned anything about Frederick Douglass or Harriet Tubman (laughter), maybe Sojourner Truth and maybe the assassination of Martin Luther King [Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.] or something but overall--and didn't even do well in history at Friends. As a matter of fact, what is so ironic about all this is one of the history teachers that I won't name, years later when I was appointed by the city council [Baltimore City Council], mayor and city council to a commission couldn't wait to contact me to let him know, to let me know how proud he was of me and what I've done with my career and blah, blah, blah. And I wanted to say, "Well, no thanks to you," (laughter), but I didn't. I just smiled and humbly said, "Thank you." But my love came from home. My love of history came from the fact that my parents [Betty Jackson Merrill and George Merrill] were history, being an interracial couple, that was history. Nanny Jack's [Merrill's maternal great-grandmother, Gertrude Berry Jackson] stories about domestic work, coming from West Virginia and just, you know, I was surrounded by history. And at Loyola, a Jesuit institution--so someone says, "Oh, my goodness. You've got Quaker then Jesuit," and my honorary doctorate is from a theo- a Baptist theological seminary [Eastern Theological Seminary, Lynchburg, Virginia] (laughter). Someone could say, "Wow, look at this whole religious experience." Yeah, it's exciting but my love of learning and history came from the house--$$Speaking of--$$--came from home.$$Okay. Stories you were telling before that--$$Yeah (simultaneous).$$--(simultaneous) that linked directly to historical information.$Tell us something about the quantity and nature of your inventory?$$Well, first of all, it, it runs the gambit. Rare books, photographs, letters, sheet music, 78 records [78 rpm record], dolls, toys, an extensive black hair care department, hot combs, pomade, diplomas from black beauty schools and so forth, a strong education, Jim Crow education department, diplomas, report cards, textbooks from the segregated schools with the stamp of the name of the school inside, homework assignments. I'm just trying to think--Masonic--we have a strong mutual benefit society, benevolent society collection from the Elks [Improved Benevolent and Protective Order of the Elks of the World], Knights of Pythias, Knights of Templar [Knights Templar], Green Knight Order of Hope [ph.]. Earlier I talked about the Sons and Daughters, Brothers of Moses [Grand United Order of Brothers and Sisters, Sons and Daughters of Moses], ones that you can't even think of, the Odd Fellows [Independent Order of Odd Fellows], just all kinds of badges, photographs, bylaws, a strong KKK [Ku Klux Klan] department with hoods, robes, photographs. Their bible is called the Kloran.$$The Kloran?$$Yeah, K-L-O- yeah, you've got to laugh. It's a joke for real. So we have an extensive KKK department that I've worked very diligently over the years to get original stuff. They have female members of the Klan that people don't know about. So the husband can be a member, the wife could join and there is a junior Klan for the children. So it really could be a family--$$Are there any stories about collecting this material?$$Yeah, of (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) I can't imagine you going into someplace--$$Of course I got one great story.$$Yeah.$$A dear friend of mine who was a Civil War reenactor for 'Glory,' he was a white gentleman, he since died. He called me one day, he said, "Philip [HistoryMaker Philip Merrill], Philip, I found a KKK robe for you at an antique show." I said, "Well, okay, I've already got one but give me the number and I'll call them." I called the man very nervously and sheepishly on the phone, and in my naivete I say, "Excuse me, are you racist," (laughter)? That's one of the first things out of my mouth, I said to him, "Are you racist?" He says, he says, "No, listen to me, I'm a born again Christian, I'm a recovering alcoholic, and I work with youth. I am, I cannot be further from being a racist." I said, "Okay (makes sound), good. I feel better now. How much are you selling your robe for and tell me about it?" He said, "Well, I have a hood, robe, gloves and a case that it came in. I'm selling for one price." I said, "Okay," I said, "now I can't afford that right now but I can give you the money on a certain date." He said, "No problem. I'll hold it for you." The certain date comes along I call him, I say, "I'm ready." He said, "No problem," he says, "Meet me at this parking lot." So I tell mom [Betty Jackson Merrill] and dad [George Merrill], I said, "Mom and dad, listen, if I don't call you within a half hour, send the police, send the police," because I'm concerned even though he said on the phone he was not a racist. My spirit was good with him, we vibed, I felt okay but you never know. I get to the parking lot, he had a little boy with him, could not have been kinder, make the exchange, buy it. You know, he told me, "God bless you and blah, blah, blah," and that was that. I get home and I look at it closely and I realize that it's in a case like a pillow case but with a snap on the top of it, and it all fit in there very nicely. As a matter of fact, for many years when I go into some of the schools, I put it back in the case and let the children touch it and try to guess what it is, none of them ever guess. But anyway there were some initials on the inside of the casing. So I called the man back and he says, "You know, let me call the people that I acquired this from because this was hidden in a secret compartment in a bureau, a dresser drawer, a piece of furniture." So he called the lady, and the lady had to sit down because the lady had no idea that her brother was an active KKK member. Isn't that a fabulous story? So you just never know over the years if brother, sister, father, cousin whoever is a member of the KKK. My other quick KKK story was, I was going to an antique store in the historic district and a white gentleman who ran the store said, "What are you looking for today?" I said, "Unusual black Americana. Anything that's not the run of the mill." He said, "Well, I have what is known as a KKK bible but it's not here, would you want it?" I said, "What? A bible?" He said, "Yeah, it spells out all the laws, regulations, rules and so forth." I said yes. So time went by, and I thought nothing of it. Lo and behold the man called me and said, "I found it. You still want it?" I said yeah. Went back down to the store, he had it there, and I purchased it. Now the reason why I wanted the bible--and it's K-L-O-R-A-N.$$The Kloran?$$Yeah, the reason why I wanted it was that I had a 1920 something letter that several KKK members were being expelled from the KKK, and I wanted to know why. Well, when you open up this--their bible it gives you all their rules and regulations and covenants, and I could look up what this code was to find out why these men in Pennsylvania were being removed from the Klan. Isn't that fascinating?$$It is.$$So you just never know, never know. So those are just two interesting KKK stories.

Eugenia Collier

Author and professor Eugenia Collier was born on April 6, 1928 in Baltimore, Maryland to Harry Maceo, a physician, and Eugenia Williams, an educator. She received her B.A. degree from Howard University (magna cum laude) in 1948. In 1950, she received her M.A. degree from Columbia University and in 1976, her Ph. D. degree from the University of Maryland. Collier’s dissertation was “Steps Toward a Black Aesthetic: A Study of Black American Literary Criticism,” which was published by the University of Maryland.

After graduating from Columbia University, she worked as a caseworker from 1950 to 1955 with the Baltimore Department of Public Welfare. In 1955, she joined the faculty at Morgan State College (now Morgan State University) as an English instructor. She remained at Morgan State until 1966, as assistant professor. From 1966 to 1996, she taught English at several other colleges and universities, including the Community College of Baltimore (1966-1974), the University of Maryland, Baltimore County (1974-1977), Howard University (1977-1987), Coppin State College (now Coppin State University) (1987-1992) and Morgan State University (1992-1996). She also served as a visiting professor at Southern Illinois University and Atlanta University. She then served as a consultant for several schools and organizations, including Workshop of Center for African and Afro-American Studies (1969), Call and Response Workshop at Karamu House (1970), Pine Manor Junior College (1970) and Bond Humanities Fair, Atlanta, Georgia (1973-1974). In 1996, she retired from teaching.

In 1969, Collier published "Marigolds," which remains a widely read short story. Collier has written or co-written a number of other short stories, essays and books. Collier won the Gwendolyn Brooks Prize for Fiction award in Negro Digest in 1969 for “Marigolds.” She also received the Outstanding Educators of America Award in 1972 and the Distinguished Writers Award by the Middle Atlantic Writers Association in 1984. Her work has appeared in the Negro Digest, Black World, TV Guide, Phylon, College Language Association Journal and The New York Times. Collier has been a member of several organizations, including the College Language Association, the Association for the Study of Negro Life and History, the Middle Atlantic Writers Association and the African American Writers Guild.

Eugenia Collier was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on August 7, 2013.

Accession Number

A2013.223

Sex

Female

Interview Date

8/7/2013 |and| 5/20/2014

Last Name

Collier

Maker Category
Marital Status

Divorced

Middle Name

Williams

Occupation
Schools

Deanwood Elementary School

P.S. 112

Booker T. Washington Middle School for the Arts

Frederick Douglass High School

Columbia University

University of Maryland

Howard University

First Name

Eugenia

Birth City, State, Country

Baltimore

HM ID

COL24

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Maryland

Favorite Vacation Destination

West Virginia

Favorite Quote

He Maketh Me To Lie Down In Green Pastures: He Leadeth Me Beside The Still Waters. - Psalm 23:2

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Maryland

Birth Date

4/6/1928

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Baltimore

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Chitterlings

Short Description

English professor Eugenia Collier (1928 - ) was best known for her 1969 short story “Marigolds.” She also taught English for forty-one years at several colleges and universities.

Employment

Morgan State University

Coppin State University

Howard University

University of Marlyand, Baltimore

Community College of Baltimore

Maryland Crownsville State Hospital, Baltimore Department of Public Welfare

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Eugenia Collier's interview, session 1

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Eugenia Collier lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Eugenia Collier talks about her mother's education and career

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Eugenia Collier describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Eugenia Collier remembers her maternal grandparents

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Eugenia Collier describes her father's family background, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Eugenia Collier describes her father's family background, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Eugenia Collier remembers her father's siblings and parents

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Eugenia Collier describes her step grandfather

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Eugenia Collier remembers her paternal aunt

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Eugenia Collier talks about her paternal aunt's adopted daughter

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Eugenia Collier describes her father's medical training and career

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Eugenia Collier talks about how her parents met

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Eugenia Collier describes her parents' personalities and who she takes after

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Eugenia Collier talks about her brother

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Eugenia Collier describes her earliest childhood memory

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Eugenia Collier recites her father's favorite poem

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Eugenia Collier describes the sights, sounds and smells of her childhood

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Eugenia Collier talks about her early education

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Eugenia Collier remembers her influential teachers

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Eugenia Collier talks about her early exposure to African American literature

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Eugenia Collier recalls learning Negro spirituals at school

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Eugenia Collier describes her early career aspirations

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Eugenia Collier remembers segregation in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Eugenia Collier describes her early religious experiences

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Eugenia Collier recalls her decision to attend Howard University

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Eugenia Collier talks about the mistreatment of African Americans after World War II

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Eugenia Collier describes her first impressions of Howard University

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Eugenia Collier remembers her influential professors at Howard University

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Eugenia Collier recalls meeting Richard Wright and Langston Hughes

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Eugenia Collier talks about her favorite works by Richard Wright

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Eugenia Collier remembers her acquaintances at Howard University

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Eugenia Collier talks about her decision to attend Columbia University in New York City

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Eugenia Collier describes her first impressions of Columbia University in New York City

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Eugenia Collier talks about her thesis on Sterling A. Brown

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Eugenia Collier describes her experiences in New York City's Harlem neighborhood

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Eugenia Collier recalls working for the Baltimore City Department of Public Welfare

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Eugenia Collier talks about her ex-husband

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Eugenia Collier describes the faculty at Morgan State College in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Eugenia Collier talks about her early writing habits

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Eugenia Collier recalls the accolades for her short story 'Marigolds'

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Eugenia Collier talks about the inspiration for 'Marigolds'

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Eugenia Collier remembers publishing her short story, 'Marigolds'

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Eugenia Collier shares a synopsis of 'Marigolds,' pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Eugenia Collier shares a synopsis of 'Marigolds,' pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Eugenia Collier talks about the writing community in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Eugenia Collier describes her writing style

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Eugenia Collier recites 'Nightmare House' and 'Salmon and Saxophones'

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Eugenia Collier talks about her sons

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Eugenia Collier describes her teaching philosophy and favorite students

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Eugenia Collier recalls her decision to pursue a Ph.D. degree at the University of Maryland in College Park, Maryland

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Eugenia Collier talks about the field of African American literary criticism

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Eugenia Collier describes her dissertation on the black aesthetic

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Eugenia Collier talks about the black aesthetic

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Eugenia Collier remembers the black publishers and magazines of the 1970s

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Eugenia Collier talks about her review of the film 'Conrack'

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Eugenia Collier remember her Ph.D. advisor

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Eugenia Collier describes her play, 'Ricky'

Tape: 7 Story: 9 - Eugenia Collier remembers FESTAC '77

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Slating of Eugenia Collier's interview, session 2

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Eugenia Collier describes Julian Mayfield, pt. 1

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Eugenia Collier describes Julian Mayfield, pt. 2

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - Eugenia Collier remembers her international travels

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - Eugenia Collier talks about Hoyt W. Fuller's influence on her career

Tape: 8 Story: 6 - Eugenia Collier remembers Haki Madhubuti

Tape: 8 Story: 7 - Eugenia Collier talks about the black vernacular

Tape: 8 Story: 8 - Eugenia Collier talks about her involvement in literary groups

Tape: 8 Story: 9 - Eugenia Collier describes her experiences on the faculty of Howard University

Tape: 8 Story: 10 - Eugenia Collier talks about the closure of black book stores during the 1980s

Tape: 9 Story: 1 - Eugenia Collier describes her challenges with the administration of Howard University

Tape: 9 Story: 2 - Eugenia Collier remembers Robert Hayden

Tape: 9 Story: 3 - Eugenia Collier talks about the works of Haki Madhubuti and Robert Hayden

Tape: 9 Story: 4 - Eugenia Collier recalls joining the faculty of Coppin State College in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 9 Story: 5 - Eugenia Collier talks about the Arena Players, Incorporated

Tape: 9 Story: 6 - Eugenia Collier describes her approach to teaching American literature

Tape: 9 Story: 7 - Eugenia Collier talks about the lack of recognition for African American authors

Tape: 9 Story: 8 - Eugenia Collier talks about the scholarship of black women

Tape: 10 Story: 1 - Eugenia Collier talks about the inspiration behind her novel, 'Beyond the Crossroads,' pt. 1

Tape: 10 Story: 2 - Eugenia Collier talks about the inspiration behind her novel, 'Beyond the Crossroads,' pt. 2

Tape: 10 Story: 3 - Eugenia Collier remembers publishing 'Breeder and Other Stories'

Tape: 10 Story: 4 - Eugenia Collier talks about the inspiration for her short stories

Tape: 10 Story: 5 - Eugenia Collier remembers retiring from Morgan State University in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 10 Story: 6 - Eugenia Collier describes her novel, 'The Day the Gods Wept'

Tape: 10 Story: 7 - Eugenia Collier talks about her current writing projects

Tape: 10 Story: 8 - Eugenia Collier recalls moving to the Charleston Retirement Community in Catonsville, Maryland

Tape: 10 Story: 9 - Eugenia Collier shares her advice to young writers

Tape: 11 Story: 1 - Eugenia Collier talks about contemporary African American writers

Tape: 11 Story: 2 - Eugenia Collier describes her hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 11 Story: 3 - Eugenia Collier reflects upon her life

Tape: 11 Story: 4 - Eugenia Collier reflects upon her professional legacy

Tape: 11 Story: 5 - Eugenia Collier talks about her family

Tape: 11 Story: 6 - Eugenia Collier describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 11 Story: 7 - Eugenia Collier narrates her photographs, pt. 1

Tape: 11 Story: 8 - Eugenia Collier narrates her photographs, pt. 2

Tape: 12 Story: 1 - Eugenia Collier narrates her photographs, pt. 3

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$6

DAStory

1$3

DATitle
Eugenia Collier recites her father's favorite poem
Eugenia Collier shares a synopsis of 'Marigolds,' pt. 2
Transcript
All right, now you--okay go ahead.$$Oh, speaking of my earliest happy memories, I wanted to read you a little bit of my father's [H. Maceo Williams, Sr.] favorite poem, and it became my favorite, too. The poem is 'Columbus' by Joaquin Miller. Now, picture this--my brother's [H. Maceo Williams, Jr.] on one knee, I'm on the other knee, and Daddy is reading to us. Now, "Behind him lay the gray Azores/ behind the Gates of Hercules." Now, you know, I didn't have no idea what Azores or Hercules or any other. "Before him not the ghost of shores / before him only shoreless seas. The good mate said: 'Now we must pray, for lo! the very stars are gone. Brave Admiral, speak, what shall I say?' 'Why, say, "Sail on! sail on! and on!"'." And believe me, when every, every stanza ends with sail on, sail, and Daddy would--I don't know that he could do justice like that 'cause he was holding us, but his voice would rise, and he would really orate, "Sail on, sail on, and on." So, that was, that was great. I, I just loved that.$But here's where the growing up part comes. Lizabeth feels ashamed. She's too big to be doing stuff like that. She doesn't know, she doesn't know what to do. In the dead of the night, kids are in bed, but they can hear their parents talking through the walls. The father is in total despair because he can't get a job and, in fact, he weeps. She has never heard her father weep. She grows up a little bit more from that. She doesn't know exactly what to do. She, she knows she's got to do, she can't do anything for him but, but her whole insides are just sort of boiling. She gets up, goes out the window, she's going out. Her brother [Joey], little brother is tagging along behind her. She goes--doesn't know where she's going, but she goes over to Miss Lottie's house, and she has such a hatred for those marigolds. She gets in Miss Lottie's garden and just pulls them all out, destroys the garden, and looks up finally, and there's Miss Lottie standing over her. She says, at that moment, 'cause the, the story is told by, by Lizabeth, grown. At that moment, she felt compassion. She felt something she had not felt before and that was her growing up point, time. She looks around. She can't do anything about the marigolds--she has destroyed them. And that moment is her moment of turning a corner, of growing up. And, and that's about it. There's no great plot to it if they're looking for some kind of a plot, but I just wanted to use the symbol of the marigolds. The one spot of beauty in that terrible little neighborhood town, whatever. Miss Lottie never plants marigolds again. It has destroyed something in her. And the sentence that Hoyt [Hoyt W. Fuller] took out, the last sentence in the, in the story was supposed to be that as I, Miss, Miss Lizabeth, grown up Elizabeth, "I, I'm, it's strange that I should think of those marigolds now as I wait for you who will not come." That was my own pessimism there. Hoyt took the sentence out, and it's much better without that sentence. So, that's 'Marigolds' [Eugenia Collier] somehow or another it has appealed to different people. And, oh, in fact, I was so pleased and so tickled. A teacher--oh, where, way, way out of town, a teacher wrote to me and said that her students had read 'Marigolds' and how much they liked it, and how much she enjoyed teaching it every, every year, whatever. And so, what she did, she had, the, the last sentence, the last existing sentence--oh, the last existing sentence was, "And I, too, have planted marigolds." That's the end of it. She said she liked it so much that she had that last sentence tattooed on her side (laughter) so. I said, "Whoa, no greater tribute can anybody make," oh my goodness.

Gen. William Ward

U.S. Army General William E. Ward was born on June 3, 1949 in Baltimore, Maryland. He attended Morgan State University and graduated with his B.A. degree in Political Science in 1971. While there, he joined the Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) and as a Distinguished Military Graduate (DMG) was commissioned as an Infantry Second Lieutenant in 1971. In 1979, Ward received his M.A. degree in Political Science from the Pennsylvania State University. He then went on to attend the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College and the U.S. Army War College.

Ward’s military service has included overseas tours in Korea, Egypt, Somalia, Bosnia, Israel, two tours in Germany, and a wide variety of assignments in the United States, including Alaska and Hawaii. His command and troop assignments include: Commander of 5th Battalion, 9th Infantry, 2nd Brigade at Fort Wainwright, Alaska; Commander of the 2nd Brigade, 10th Mountain Division at Fort Drum, New York and during Operation Restore Hope in Mogadishu, Somalia; Assistant Division Commander of the 82nd Airborne Division at Fort Bragg, North Carolina; Commanding General 25th Infantry Division and U.S. Army in Hawaii at the Schofield Barracks in Hawaii; Commander of the Stabilization Force during Operation Joint Forge in Sarajevo, Bosnia; and Deputy Commander U.S. European Command. His staff assignments include: Executive Officer to the Vice Chief of Staff of the U.S. Army in Washington, D.C.; Deputy Director for Operations of the National Military Command Center in Washington, D.C.; Chief of the Office of Military Cooperation with Egypt in the American Embassy in Egypt; and Vice Director for Operations of the Joint Staff in Washington, D.C.

In 2005, Ward served as the Deputy Commanding General and Chief of Staff of the U.S. Army, Europe and the Seventh Army. While in this capacity, he was selected by the Secretary of State to serve as the United States Security Coordinator, Israel-Palestinian Authority where he served from March of 2005 through December of 2005. Ward served as the inaugural Commander of U.S. Africa Command (AFRICOM) Headquartered in Stuttgart, Germany from October 1, 2007 to March 8, 2011. Ward is a member of the Omega Psi Phi Fraternity, Inc., the 100 Black Men of America, and the National Society of Pershing Rifles. He is also an honorary member of the Sergeant Audie Murphy club and was awarded Honorary Doctorate Degrees from Morgan State University and Virginia State University.

Ward’s military honors include the Defense Distinguished Service Medal with Two Oak Leaf Clusters, the Distinguished Service Medal with Oak Leaf Cluster, the Defense Superior Service Medal with two Oak Leaf Clusters, the Legion of Merit with Three Oak Leaf Clusters), the Defense Meritorious Service Medal, the Meritorious Service Medal (with Six Oak Leaf Clusters), the Joint Service Commendation Medal, the Army Commendation Medal (with three Oak Leaf Clusters); the Army Achievement Medal (with Oak Leaf Cluster), the Expert Infantryman's Badge, the Combat Infantryman's Badge, and the Master Parachutist Badge.

Ward currently serves as the President and COO of SENTEL Corporation.

U.S. Army General William E. Ward was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on June 25, 2013.

Accession Number

A2013.180

Sex

Male

Interview Date

7/25/2013

Last Name

Ward

Maker Category
Middle Name

E.

Occupation
Schools

Morgan State University

Pennsylvania State University

Army Command and General Staff College

U.S. Army War College

Search Occupation Category
First Name

William

Birth City, State, Country

Baltimore

HM ID

WAR16

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Maryland

Favorite Vacation Destination

None

Favorite Quote

Improve The Foxhole.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Interview Description
Birth Date

6/3/1949

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Peanut Butter

Short Description

General Gen. William Ward (1949 - ) Commander of the 2nd Brigade, 10th Mountain Division during Operation Restore Hope in Mogadishu, Somalia, Commander 25th Infantry Division, Commander of the Stabilization Force during Operation Joint Forge in Sarajevo, Bosnia, US Security Coordinator in Tel Aviv and Jerusalem, the inaugural Commander of U.S. Africa Command (AFRICOM) headquartered in Stuttgart, Germany from 2007 to 2011. He currently serves as the President of SENTEL Corp.

Employment

United States Army

Stabilization Force, Operation Joint Forge

25th Infantry Division

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:4330,72:19043,265:19517,272:24178,342:28207,408:45244,587:75672,1054:92110,1208:131020,1828:131395,1834:142770,1999:161002,2254:163326,2282:173630,2417:183600,2536$0,0:950,4:1340,10:3602,53:5162,73:19358,429:20216,446:20528,451:21620,473:32480,532:32960,540:38860,594:46256,690:49954,812:59585,883:59845,912:64460,977:65240,996:87816,1311:88084,1316:89558,1355:89826,1365:90429,1380:96794,1538:98134,1573:98469,1579:99340,1601:108894,1718:115326,1812:116880,1838:117176,1843:118582,1870:125024,2018:125334,2024:125830,2033:126760,2056:127194,2070:131038,2161:131286,2166:131782,2179:132030,2185:132402,2192:132774,2199:133022,2204:137848,2258:139616,2310:139888,2315:141248,2351:142608,2372:143764,2394:144784,2432:148388,2525:152564,2543:152959,2549:158173,2634:158805,2640:159358,2648:159911,2656:160306,2662:176807,2893:183713,2959:184881,2979:186122,2994:188239,3037:188750,3046:189553,3064:189991,3071:195810,3115:198021,3162:202912,3287:203180,3292:203917,3357:212359,3570:225378,3741:230208,3841:235844,3872:238504,3915:239188,3929:240480,3953:243824,4032:244888,4038:258598,4301:261336,4317:263100,4377:263478,4384:266754,4481:269967,4552:270471,4579:275243,4599:278057,4650:279598,4694:287303,4908:287571,4913:293301,4950:293689,4955:294174,4964:294950,4975:299050,5000:299458,5007:299730,5012:300002,5017:301294,5035:301974,5049:310909,5196:311639,5217:311931,5222:314486,5260:314778,5265:317698,5325:318063,5331:318793,5344:321421,5398:331206,5519:331950,5546:333252,5583:333810,5594:334058,5599:336910,5671:340374,5680:340662,5685:340950,5690:341526,5700:343110,5751:343398,5756:344262,5772:344550,5777:344910,5783:345918,5793:346926,5809:347574,5819:349590,5879:356360,5933
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Gen. William Ward's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Gen. William Ward lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Gen. William Ward describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Gen. William Ward talks about his maternal grandfather's upbringing in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Gen. William Ward talks about his mother's upbringing in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Gen. William Ward talks about his mother's education and her employment at the Social Security Administration

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Gen. William Ward describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Gen. William Ward talks about his father's employment and aspirations

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Gen. William Ward talks about his father's service as a combat engineer in World War II

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Gen. William Ward describes how his parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Gen. William Ward describes his parents' personalities and who he takes after

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Gen. William Ward talks about his sister, Christina Ward Young

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Gen. William Ward talks about his childhood household

Tape: 1 Story: 14 - Gen. William Ward describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 15 - Gen. William Ward describes the neighborhood where he grew up in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Gen. William Ward talks about his father building their family's home in Baltimore County, Maryland, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Gen. William Ward talks about his father building their family's home in Baltimore County, Maryland, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Gen. William Ward describes the sights, sounds and smells of growing up in Baltimore, Maryland, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Gen. William Ward describes the sights, sounds and smells of growing up in Baltimore, Maryland, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Gen. William Ward talks about the community's interest in sports in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Gen. William Ward talks about the community's interest in doo wop music

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Gen. William Ward describes his experience in the first grade in Baltimore County, Maryland

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Gen. William Ward describes his experience in an integrated school system in the 1950s, and his family instilling self-confidence in him

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Gen. William Ward talks about his interests in elementary school as well as the schools he attended

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Gen. William Ward talks about his exposure to the Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Gen. William Ward talks about his experience in elementary school in Towson, Maryland

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Gen. William Ward talks about his interests while growing up

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Gen. William Ward reflects about his non-military oriented childhood

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Gen. William Ward talks about attending junior high school in the early 1960s, and meeting his wife in college

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Gen. William Ward talks about his interest in political science, playing football, and running track in high school

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Gen. William Ward talks about being employed in high school

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Gen. William Ward talks about his social experience in high school

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Gen. William Ward talks about the poor career counseling that he received in high school, and his decision to attend Morgan State University

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Gen. William Ward describes his decision to attend Morgan State University

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Gen. William Ward describes his graduation from Towson Senior High School

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Gen. William Ward talks about his desire to become a lawyer while studying at Morgan State University, pt 1

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Gen. William Ward talks about the influence of his teachers, Maxwell and Sandye Jean McIntyre, at Morgan State University

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Gen. William Ward talks about his desire to become a lawyer while studying at Morgan State University, pt 2

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Gen. William Ward talks about the reaction in Baltimore, Maryland, to Dr. Martin Luther King's assassination

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Gen. William Ward talks about being employed in college, and his experience in the political science department at Morgan State University

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Gen. William Ward describes his experience in the ROTC program at Morgan State University

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Gen. William Ward talks about historian Benjamin Quarles and the Vietnam War

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Gen. William Ward talks about getting married and being commissioned into active duty in the 82nd Airborne Division of the U.S. Army in 1971

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Gen. William Ward talks about General Daniel "Chappie" James and General Benjamin Oliver Davis

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Gen. William Ward describes his experience on his first commission to the 82nd Airborne Division of the U.S. Army, where he became a platoon leader

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Gen. William Ward discusses disciplinary challenges within the U.S. Army during the 1970s

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Gen. William Ward describes his experience as a platoon leader in the 82nd Airborne Division

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Gen. William Ward discusses his assignment to the 2nd Infantry Division in Korea in 1974

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Gen. William Ward describes his experience as a lieutenant in the 2nd Infantry Division in Korea

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Gen. William Ward talks about becoming a captain, going to graduate school, and teaching at the United States Military Academy at West Point

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Gen. William Ward talks about his experience in the advanced infantry career course

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Gen. William Ward talks about the Korean axe murder incident in 1976

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Gen. William Ward describes his decision to attend graduate school at Penn State University, and to teach at the United States Military Academy

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Gen. William Ward describes his experience as a graduate student at Pennsylvania State University

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Gen. William Ward describes his experience as an assistant professor of social sciences at the United States Military Academy at West Point

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Gen. William Ward describes how he became Commander of the 5th Battalion, 9th Infantry

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Gen. William Ward describes his experience as Commander of the 5th Battalion, 9th Infantry in Fort Wainwright, Alaska

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Gen. William Ward talks about being selected for colonel, and becoming the brigade commander of the 2nd Brigade, 10th Mountain Division in 1992

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Gen. William Ward describes his experience with the 2nd Brigade, 10th Mountain Division during relief efforts after Hurricane Andrew in 1992

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Gen. William Ward describes his experience as part of the U.N. relief mission in Somalia in 1992

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Gen. William Ward discusses the Battle of Mogadishu and Somali Civil War, pt. 1

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Gen. William Ward discusses the Battle of Mogadishu and Somali Civil War, pt. 2

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Gen. William Ward talks about his experience as the Executive Officer to the Vice Chief of Staff of the Army

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Gen. William Ward talks about his experience as the Deputy Director for Operations in the National Military Command Center

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Gen. William Ward describes the ceremony where he was promoted to become a brigadier general in 1996

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Gen. William Ward describes his experience as Assistant Division Commander for Support at Fort Bragg, North Carolina

Tape: 7 Story: 9 - Gen. William Ward describes his experience as Chief of the Office of Military Cooperation in Cairo, Egypt

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Gen. William Ward talks about his assignment as the commander of the 25th Infantry Division in Hawaii

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Gen. William Ward talks about his assignment as the Vice Director for Operations on the Joint Staff and after the 9/11 attack

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Gen. William Ward talks about his principle of "improving the foxhole," and his experience at the Pentagon after 9/11

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - Gen. William Ward describes his experience as Commander of the NATO Force in Bosnia

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - Gen. William Ward describes his experience as United States Security Coordinator between the Israeli and Palestinian authority

Tape: 8 Story: 6 - Gen. William Ward talks about his service as the deputy commander of EUCOM and as the inaugural commander of AFRICOM

Tape: 8 Story: 7 - Gen. William Ward talks about the formation of the United States Africa Command (AFRICOM)

Tape: 8 Story: 8 - Gen. William Ward talks about the goals for the United States Africa Command (AFRICOM)

Tape: 9 Story: 1 - Gen. William Ward discusses the initial apprehension towards the U.S. Africa Command (AFRICOM)

Tape: 9 Story: 2 - Gen. William Ward discusses the initial reactions to his appointment as commander of AFRICON

Tape: 9 Story: 3 - Gen. William Ward describes his experience in Africa as the commander of the U.S. Africa Command (AFRICOM)

Tape: 9 Story: 4 - Gen. William Ward describes the highlights of his service as the inaugural commander of the U.S. Africa Command (AFRICOM)

Tape: 9 Story: 5 - Gen. William Ward talks about his engineering leadership experience in the U.S. Army, and receiving the Black Engineer of the Year Award in 2010

Tape: 10 Story: 1 - Gen. William Ward discusses his retirement from the U.S. Army

Tape: 10 Story: 2 - Gen. William Ward talks about his life after retirement

Tape: 10 Story: 3 - Gen. William Ward reflects upon his life and career

Tape: 10 Story: 4 - Gen. William Ward talks about his family

Tape: 10 Story: 5 - Gen. William Ward describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 10 Story: 6 - Gen. William Ward reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 10 Story: 7 - Gen. William Ward talks about a lesson of accountability from his service in Korea

Tape: 10 Story: 8 - Gen. William Ward talks about his team philosophy

Tape: 10 Story: 9 - Gen. William Ward narrates his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$7

DAStory

4$7

DATitle
William E. Ward talks about his interests while growing up
William E. Ward describes the ceremony where he was promoted to become a brigadier general in 1996
Transcript
Okay, now, in light of the fact that you achieved the rank of Four-Star General, were you exhibiting, or did you have--where did you exhibit leadership as a young fellow, growing up? I mean, I know you played sports. But were you in the Boy Scouts or were you in church organizations or, you know--How did you display, you know--?$$Yeah, I think I was--I was a Cub Scout for two years. And then I stopped that. And I don't recall exactly why, but I did stop that. You know, in my little community where we lived, there were probably six or seven of us guys, you know. And we would always play, you know, three-on-three, or four-on-three, football, basketball. I played Little League baseball. And I think, you know, neighborhood activity where we lived--before we moved into our house once my dad [Richard Isiah Ward] finished it--You know, we would do little organized games there, organized--I call them playground sports. Did a lot of that. I think that was my biggest, I guess, set of activities--the largest set of activities I engaged in that would later on culminate into what I eventually did. The YMCA [Young Men's Christian Association], you know, that's where I learned to swim, at the YMCA. You know I'd get on a bus and go downtown in Baltimore [Maryland] by myself to the YMCA on Saturdays and engage in the programs that the YMCA offered. My mom [Phyllis cashen Ward] wanted me--dad wanted me to do that. And I think that's probably the biggest thing. I did sing in a little church choir. But so did a lot of other guys. Obviously, we all did that. So, those are probably the most substantial things. There's really nothing about my childhood, quite frankly, that would automatically point to "Hey, this guy always wants to take charge and be in charge." That wasn't the case at all. I don't think that was, you know, something that was inherent in who I was, you know--anytime I'd get involved in something, I'm going to take charge, I'm in charge. (laughter) That wasn't it. You know--$$Okay. So, you couldn't spot you as a little general.$$No, no. Now, I did like to, you know, I think I've always been pretty organized. I mean, and I've got a cousin who will talk about me playing with little, you know, toy soldiers and things of that sort. I can recall, I used to play with trucks a lot, you know, and what not. In fact, I think, you know, as a youngster, one of the things that I talked about mostly was, you know, I liked to drive trucks, you know. I just was fascinated with trucks.$And being made Brigadier General in '96 [1996]. Now this, this is a big deal. I mean it's a big deal, I think, and we shouldn't gloss over it. What kind of a ceremony is it, and did your parents [Phyllis Cashen Ward and Richard Isiah Ward] get a chance to come in?$$My dad did not. My dad was too ill to make it. My mom was there, and obviously all the rest of my family. But the ceremony was a pretty special one. It was conducted by the Vice Chief of Staff of the Army, who was my boss. And done there in the Pentagon. A host of friends who I've known my entire life--family. And I think as I was delivering my comments--Once I'd been promoted, you know, I was evoking my dad. Because a lot, you know, certainly who I am and who I was on that day for sure, was reflective of who he was as a man and what I'd learned from him. And so I really was, you know, evoking all that. He was too ill at the time to be there, though. But I clearly made sure everyone knew that, you know, he clearly was a part of my life that was responsible for me having achieved what I had achieved. And basically, because of what he taught me about how to treat people. Because of--not what he said to me, but what I saw him do, and how I saw him treat people. And then clearly, you know, you acknowledge--you know, your family. And my wife [Joyce Lewis] and kids, you know, my mom's sister and aunts, uncles and cousins, and also friends. But the important--you know, the teammates that I served with over those years--the non-commissioned officers [NCOs], the soldiers, all those folks who have been a part of my experiences in my various units, and what they had done to help the teams that I've been a part of, to be successful. And by acknowledging all of that, it was a big part of it. So, yeah, it's a big deal. It's a big deal, a huge step. One that--you know, when I look back on my days at Morgan [State University, Baltimore, Maryland], even my days as a lieutenant in the 82nd [Airborne Division], you're never thinking that you would achieve that, because clearly I didn't. I know there are some who say, yeah, I just did all these things. But, just never me. I mean, things happen over time and you get selected for a school, and you do it well. And you're able to command a formation. And that happens because you have some great teammates. So, yes, giving thanks for all that. You know, and certainly you're being thankful to the Almighty for all the care that he's provided as you go through all the stages. I talked about being in these various assignments, in Korea. You know, being so cold in Korea as a young captain walking those ridges, checking on my people--I think I'm going to die, I'm so cold. You can't feel your feet, your hands, your ears. Just absolutely, just chilling, chilling cold. You know, being in Germany there before the Cold War hit, you know, there in that mechanized brigade--Knowing that if something happens and the war goes off, your first line is to move, is to march east to stop the invaders that are coming from the east. And you're there, you know, training and preparing for that. You know, in Somalia, as a brigade commander--you know, doing what I did there--knowing that anytime you go out on this mission, you send your soldiers out, you know, they may not come back. You go out, and you're just as vulnerable as they are. And so, when you look at those experiences and you say to yourself, well, why is it that you get through it? Well, you train for it. You have teammates that you count on, that you can depend on, those old stories that you've heard about so much, you know. Why do you do this? You do this for your buddy to your left and to your right. And that is the same true echelon. It doesn't matter how senior you are, or how junior you are. I can recall being in Somalia on one occasion there. And I had a, you know, my driver and my vehicle and, you know a security guard had a machine gun. And we're both under this Humvee, you know, being shot at. And he looks at me, and I look at him. And I said, "I sure hope that machine gun you got got bullets in it." He said, "Sir, this got bullets, and I hope that rifle you got has bullets." "I got bullets, too." He said, "Well, we're both in this thing together." So, that, when you get in those types of situations, it doesn't matter what rank you are, you're still a human being first and foremost. And so, you apply that to all that you do. First and foremost, you start off with human beings. So when I got that, you know, that star--And I'll always remember, I had received a gift from a good friend. And he kind of described to me the points of that star, what each of them meant. And I kind of took that--I said, that's right. This star doesn't belong to Kip Ward. This star belongs to everyone who's been responsible for what Kip Ward is. And each point belongs to one of them. And I talk about my family, my teammates, my God--those things that have contributed to me receiving the star. And then the final one was mine. When you look at it, you know, this star belongs to the combination of all these people--all these events that have gone on in your career to enable you to have achieved this particular milestone. And so, and that's the way I thought about every one of them, you know. Every one--I say these aren't mine. These belong to those who I've been fortunate enough to serve with, and have been fortunate enough and blessed enough so that, you know, the things that I have done have contributed to making the team better. And in doing the best that I could do, to cause what they have done, to make them better as well. And that's what it's about for me. And so, that first ceremony, that first promotion that I had as a brigadier general, that's--those were the things that were, you know, flooding through my mind at that point in time.$$Okay.

Mary C. Curtis

Newspaper editor and news correspondent Mary C. Curtis was born on September 4, 1953 in Baltimore, Maryland. She was the youngest of five children born to Thomas Curtis and Evelyn Curtis. After graduating from Seton High School in Baltimore, Maryland in 1971, she enrolled at Fordham University in New York City and graduated form there in 1975 with her B.A. degree in communications. In 2006, Curtis was awarded a Nieman Fellowship from Harvard University.

From 1985 through 1994, Curtis served in a variety of editing positions at The New York Times, including as editor of “Home, Education, Life” and “The Living Arts,” a section in the National Edition that she helped to develop. She also served as the Features editor for the Arts and Entertainment section at The Sun in Baltimore. In addition, Curtis held positions as a reporter and as an editor with The Associated Press in New York, Hartford, Connecticut and with the Arizona in Tucson, Arizona. She also contributed news articles to TheRoot.com, theGrio.com, National Public Radio Creative Loafing , and served as a national correspondent for AOL’s PoliticsDaily.com. In 2011, she joined the The Washington Post as a contributor for the blog, “She the People.” She covered the 2012 Democratic National Convention for The Charlotte Observer.

Curtis is a member the National Association of Black Journalists. Curtis received the Carmage Walls Prize in 2005 for commentary in a competition sponsored by the Southern Newspaper Publishers Association. She is the recipient of several Green Eyeshade Awards from the Society of Professional Journalists and The National Association of Black Journalists (NABJ). The North Carolina Associated Press recognized Curtis with the Thomas Wolfe Award for her writing “My Rebel Journey,” an examination of Civil War heritage groups. She received the Clarion Award from the Association for Women in Communications in 2010 and 2012. Curtis was inducted into the Hall of Fame of the Region IV National Association of Black Journalists in 2004.

Curtis and her husband, Martin F. Olsen, live in Charlotte, North Carolina.

Mary C. Curtis was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on May 8, 2013.

Accession Number

A2013.156

Sex

Female

Interview Date

5/8/2013

Last Name

Curtis

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

C.

Schools

Harvard University

Fordham University

The Seton Keough High School

St. Pius V Elementary School

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Mary

Birth City, State, Country

Baltimore

HM ID

CUR05

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Maryland

Favorite Vacation Destination

St. Tropez

Favorite Quote

To whom much is given, much is required.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

North Carolina

Birth Date

9/4/1953

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Charlotte

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Fish

Short Description

Newspaper editor, newspaper correspondent, and newspaper columnist Mary C. Curtis (1953 - ) former reporter for The Baltimore Sun and editor at The New York Times, was inducted into the Hall of Fame of the Region IV NABJ.

Employment

Washington Post

Creative Loafing Atlanta

Fox Charlotte

AOL

Grio, The

CNN

Charlotte Observer

New York Times

Baltimore Sun

Arizona Daily Star

Associated Press (AP)

Traveler's Insurance, Co.

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:40,5:2977,63:3333,68:6181,126:33248,362:33536,527:33968,534:34472,542:36056,571:42850,624:43186,629:44950,659:50662,775:51082,781:58390,928:68547,1019:72490,1072:73190,1083:75360,1128:91020,1404:92220,1431:92700,1438:93580,1455:93900,1460:94220,1465:94540,1470:96220,1504:96780,1512:99260,1548:119904,1909:121679,1950:122389,1961:122673,1966:123099,1974:133252,2205:139871,2232:159570,2565:175006,2868:179077,3005:182941,3111:183355,3121:190462,3355:205550,3566:205922,3572:208619,3630:214523,3667:215910,3687:216494,3697:218684,3749:220436,3822:221093,3836:221750,3850:222261,3858:222626,3864:228393,4063:228685,4092:232627,4162:238628,4191:239167,4202:239552,4208:246174,4308:247329,4389:259042,4587:261014,4634:270545,4698:270940,4704:271256,4709:272836,4729:280847,4854:284059,4923:285884,4957:291604,5015:303965,5229:312470,5342$0,0:14222,224:19040,339:19436,346:23396,437:29616,498:30327,523:39096,665:46020,738:46980,784:47540,792:54442,929:54988,938:58853,984:60313,1020:61919,1065:62503,1119:79770,1441:80288,1452:80732,1460:81028,1465:81768,1481:85394,1567:86726,1605:87466,1634:87762,1639:88576,1655:88946,1661:94451,1685:94877,1695:95232,1726:100880,1786:101430,1792:109720,1875:116804,2006:118421,2025:119268,2047:119730,2054:120346,2093:120885,2101:132435,2390:140634,2463:141162,2473:142086,2495:142812,2508:143274,2518:144462,2539:145980,2571:147696,2635:148818,2659:152870,2694:163830,2893:164950,2925:179287,3157:179563,3162:181150,3195:181564,3202:181978,3208:182530,3217:183013,3226:183979,3242:184807,3253:195334,3348:195778,3355:202612,3481:213170,3612:213716,3620:215432,3645:218474,3701:228546,3853:228818,3858:229226,3865:230518,3903:230994,3911:231470,3920:232014,3930:234870,3995:235550,4007:238950,4087:243900,4136:245580,4181:258382,4408:259042,4419:259570,4428:266416,4554:277600,4702
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Mary C. Curtis

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Mary C. Curtis lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Mary C. Curtis describes her mother's family history

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Mary C. Curtis talks about her maternal great-grandmother, who was born into slavery

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Mary C. Curtis recalls her mother's upbringing in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Mary C. Curtis continues to describe her mother's personality

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Mary C. Curtis describes her father's family background and her father's upbringing

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Mary C. Curtis describes how her parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Mary C. Curtis describes her parents' personalities and who she takes after

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Mary C. Curtis lists her siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Mary C. Curtis describes being the youngest of five children

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Mary C. Curtis recalls her earliest childhood memory

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Mary C. Curtis describes her neighborhood in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Mary C. Curtis describes the sights, sounds, and smells of growing up

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Mary C. Curtis remembers being on the television show 'Romper Room'

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Mary C. Curtis describes her elementary school, St. Pius the Fifth, run by the Oblate nuns

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Mary C. Curtis recounts how books influenced her as a child

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Mary C. Curtis describes her impressions of her family's involvement in the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Mary C. Curtis shares her love of the Arts and how the Arts have shaped her life and career

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Mary C. Curtis talks about Seton High School, an integrated Catholic high school in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Mary C. Curtis discusses her experiences at Seton High School in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Mary C. Curtis remembers attending her fortieth high school class reunion

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Mary C. Curtis shares her memories attending Fordham University in New York City

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Mary C. Curtis recalls meeting her husband at Fordham University

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Mary C. Curtis talks about her favorite professors and guest speakers at Fordham University

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Mary C. Curtis reflects on her family's upward mobility

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Mary C. Curtis discusses the journalists she admired in the 1970s

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Mary C. Curtis describes working with the Associated Press after graduation from Fordham University, New York

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Mary C. Curtis describes how she was treated as a young black female reporter in the 1970s

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Mary C. Curtis describes taking a break from journalism during the years of 1977-1981

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Mary C. Curtis recalls attending the Maynard Institute for Journalism Education in 1981

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Mary C. Curtis talks about her experience in Tucson, Arizona from 1981-1983

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Mary C. Curtis describes being a black female journalist in the 1980s

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Mary C. Curtis shares some memories of living and working in Tucson, Arizona

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Mary C. Curtis describes moving back to the East Coast and working at The Baltimore Sun in 1983

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Mary C. Curtis talks about joining the National Association of Black Journalists in 1984

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Mary C. Curtis talks about diversity and the benefits of being involved with the National Association of Black Journalists

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Mary C. Curtis talks about the importance of diversity of views in news stories

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Mary C. Curtis talks about her work at the Baltimore Sun

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Mary C. Curtis describes her transition to the New York Times

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Mary C. Curtis describes moving to Charlotte, North Carolina to work for the Charlotte Observer

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Mary C. Curtis talks about her son, Zane, and the move to Charlotte, North Carolina from New York

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Mary C. Curtis describes the vibrancy of Charlotte, North Carolina

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Mary C. Curtis talks about her Neiman Foundation Fellowship at Harvard University in 2005, part 1

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Mary C. Curtis talks about her Neiman Foundation Fellowship at Harvard University in 2005, part 2

Tape: 5 Story: 11 - Mary C. Curtis talks about her Neiman Foundation Fellowship at Harvard University in 2005, part 3

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Mary C. Curtis describes her return to Charlotte, North Carolina after her 2006 year at Harvard University

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Mary C. Curtis talks about her 2004 Thomas Wolfe award-winning article

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Mary C. Curtis talks about the aftermath of her Thomas-Wolfe award winning article in 2004

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Mary C. Curtis talks about her coverage of the 2007-2008 primary elections

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Mary C. Curtis recalls covering the 2008 elections and interviewing President Barack Obama and First Lady Michelle Obama

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Mary C. Curtis talks about being laid off at the Charlotte Observer in 2008 and her journalism work since then

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Mary C. Curtis talks about how she covers conservative news stories

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Mary C. Curtis talks about her journalistic philosophy

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Mary C. Curtis talks about her hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Mary C. Curtis talks about interviewing Franklin McCain of North Carolina

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Mary C. Curtis describes her different journalist affiliations

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Mary C. Curtis describes the arts events she covered

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Mary C. Curtis talks about her legacy

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Mary C. Curtis talks about her family and her son, Zane

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Mary C. Curtis talks about the future

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Mary C. Curtis talks about being on 'Jeopardy'

Tape: 7 Story: 9 - Mary C. Curtis describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 7 Story: 10 - Mary C. Curtis narrates her photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

5$6

DAStory

2$4

DATitle
Mary C. Curtis talks about diversity and the benefits of being involved with the National Association of Black Journalists
Mary C. Curtis talks about her coverage of the 2007-2008 primary elections
Transcript
Now, this is something I hear from a lot of black journalists, that they really feel, there's a particular kind of loneliness working at a white newspaper, basically, where you just don't have the--they feel, you know, it takes a lot of stamina to, you know, to stay, you know, withstand it, I guess, and you know, that's what I--that's what people keep saying, that it's a lot of pressure (unclear) (simultaneous)-$$Well, I'm not sure I'd use the word stamina as much as, you know, you are, you're doing your job, but say, if you're talking about news judgment or how a story is played or you wanna make sure that when you have people of color in the paper, that you--I'm in features. So most of the minorities you would see on the pages are in Metro or news, when they're doing something or is the face of welfare or poor people or--I mean not always. But it's usually news. And to me, I love features because it humanizes people. And you have the universal experiences. We all garden, we all cook, we all go to church. We have these experiences we share, so it's especially important that minorities are represented in stories in the food section, in the feature section, in the faith section, you know, all of these--in the entertainment section, and all of these sections. So you see people doing the same things you do. When you have a home story that is about a minority family in a home, these kinds of things. So you're always trying to make sure that happens, to make sure if you do a feature story, say, on romance, on couples, that there's diversity, and not just diversity of race, but of income level, of geography, so you're not just picking people from some part of the city, certain neighborhoods, of age. So if you have a romance story, maybe older people, and so you're mindful of that. But when you're making that, you're making that case every day in the newsroom, and you are doing your job and trying to make people understand that this is just not an extra to be put in a story, but it makes the story more complete and more accurate. So it's good journalism, and sometimes that's pressure because people are under deadline pressure. People, of course, relate more to people like themselves, so when you are alone in the newspaper or in any media organization, you're it or there's a few of you. So it is, I would say it's not stamina, but it's every day, it's--it takes energy. It takes energy, and I do think, you know, people kid about the parties at NABJ [National Association of Black Journalists], but part of it is the relaxation of being there and of knowing, when you say--it's, you're talking in a shorthand because when you say, I was trying to convince my editor, and they say, oh, I know, you know (laughter). So it's a meeting, you don't have to explain yourself. You don't have to be anyone but yourself. And I think there's a certain comfort level in that. It's the people, the way, reason people belong to any club. And I think a misnomer when people say, well, we, there's no national organization of white journalists. Well, first of all there're people of every color that belong to NABJ [National Association of Black Journalists]. White people do belong to it, Hispanic people, it's, if you believe in the mission of diversity. So it's not an exclusive organization. It's an inclusive organization, just like NAACP [National Association for the Advancement of Colored People] or any of those organizations. It is inclusive. It's about the message, and it's just nice knowing you're with people that, people who, that particular message is important to those people. And so, yeah, I think it is relaxing, and when, that very last night before you come back, there usually is a dance. And there's music and people are dancing, and it is a release of sorts. And I think there's nothing wrong with that. You know, you've worked hard, you're--you know, even at NABJ [National Association of Black Journalists], you're wearing your business clothes. You never know who you're gonna run into, that give you a future job. You're going to the job fairs. So it's about business and it's about skills development, but it's also about being with folks, you know, who--I like to say it is a shorthand. And it's about catching up with people that you haven't seen for a while because the nature of the business is that you travel to different places. You get a job here or there. So it's saying, oh, my goodness, you know. I haven't seen you. You're working in Detroit [Michigan] now, that kind of thing. So I, it's work and it's therapy (laughter). We all need that, so I agree, I agree. It's, you know, I've never--I don't think that newspapers or media organizations are any more discriminatory or whatever as any part of society. But I do think sometimes we have to emphasize that they are, indeed, a part of society. So it's not as though the people who work there--I do think sometimes journalists think, we don't have those problems because we're more open minded than that. Well, the people are human beings. When you go into the door of whatever organization, you don't drop society's roles. You don't drop any prejudices at the door because you're a journalist. You hope to, and you work at it, but we all bring something to it. So that's a part of it.$And Ed Sanders was just--and later, they made him the principal of the school, a white school that--and he hired the first black teacher there, B.B. Delaine, I think, who was the son of the Reverend Delaine of the Clarendon County case in South Carolina that was part of the 'Brown v. Board of Education' [1954]. So there's so much Civil Rights history here. But it's, you're right, you know. It, sometimes it takes a lot, but if you just say, "I'm gonna do what I have to do." So he taught me something, but I was--so that was in the '[Charlotte] Observer' too, and then when the South Carolina primaries happened in 2000--started going in 2007, I went to the debate in South Carolina, the first Democratic debate. And I saw on the stage, [President] Barack Obama and [Senator] Hillary Clinton and [Senator] John Edwards and [Governor] Bill Richardson and all these folks, [Senator] Joe Biden, I thought, you know, this is gonna be something. This is gonna be something. So I really hadn't been that involved in politics, but, you know, sometimes you see a story and you gotta grab a hold of it. And you go to that debate and then you go to the Republican debate, and you have to, you need a cheat sheet because they all look the same, you know, well, you know who [Mayor Rudy] Giuliani and [Senator John] McCain and [Governor Mitt] Romney are, but, and you realize how different it's gonna be, and this is gonna be historic. So I just got a hold of that story, tried to make it mine, got the paper's first two interviews with [President] Barack Obama, the only interview with [Senator] Hillary Clinton, followed [Governor] Mike Huckabee around South Carolina, just tried to tell that story, and that--tried to tell that story, tried to tell it.$$Now, this is a campaign that North Carolina's favorite son, [Senator] John Edwards, kind of went down and the--he had issues with his marriage and all that got in the press and-$$Yeah, although, not at the beginning there. I mean in 2000--the 2008 campaign, remember that famous debate in Myrtle Beach [South Carolina] where [Senator] Hillary Clinton and [President] Barack Obama were going at each other, and their supporters were in front with dueling cards. And [Senator] John Edwards was sort of the peacemaker.$$Oh, sure, John Edwards was-$$So calm.$$--a favorite of a lot of people, you know-$$Yeah, and then there were some people who thought, "Well, this isn't gonna be the time for a woman or a minority, that the Democrat--he would be the white guy Democrat that people come back to" because, remember that was the year after [President George W.] Bush where it was such a prime year for a Democrat. So, that's why a lot of people got frustrated when what came out, came out because if he had gotten it, of course, it would have come out, and that would have totally ruined it for it. But, yeah, it was obviously, another great time to be a journalist. Even though North Carolina's primary was late, it actually counted. But I initially covered the--South Carolina is one of the first in the South. So I got to go down there and write columns off of the appearances, see [Presdient] Bill Clinton just hang out and go out around South Carolina with the Republicans and Democrats, watch a Baptist minister bless [Governor] Mike Huckabee and, you know, all of that. It was, I really liked to see the--my piece, my column started to be on the intersection of all of these things, to look at it, and to see the culture piece in the campaigns because what are debates, but political theater? So when you're in a Republican debate and they're talking about torture and all of them are, you know, Romney's, I'm pro-Guantanamo, let's expand it, and, you know, you have [Representative] Tom Tancredo talk about, you know, Jack Ry[an], you know, "Send in the guy from '24'" and [Senator] John McCain says, "You know, we shouldn't torture because it's not about who they are. It's about who we are." And no one applauds, and you realize the only guy against it on the stage is the guy who's been tortured. So that's the story. You know, so it's finding that piece of, looking at it and saying, wow, you know. To watch Oprah [Winfrey] appearing with [President Barack] Obama in South Carolina in a stadium. It was just covering the scene. And I went on to Denver, not for the '[Charlotte] Observer', actually. They didn't send me to the Democratic National Convention. But I got a chance to go and I went and covered for Neiman [Foundation], wouldn't have missed it, went on my own time. That's when the papers were cutting back. I was starting to see the writing on the wall. So, although, you know, it was a great experience.

Cdr. William Bundy

U.S. Navy Commander and Professor William F. Bundy was born on August 12, 1946 in Baltimore, Maryland to William C. Bundy and Paulyne L. Bundy. Bundy attended Henry Highland Garnet School and then Booker T. Washington Junior High School before graduating from Baltimore City College High School in 1964, after which he enlisted in the Navy. He then graduated from the University of Hawaii with his B.A. degree in liberal studies and technical journalism in 1973.

In 1964, Bundy reported to the U.S. Navy Receiving Station in Washington D.C., and then was assigned to Sonar Technician A and A1 School in Key West, Florida. Bundy was assigned overseas duty in USNS BOWDITCH where he served until 1966. He then completed submarine Cold War patrols in nuclear attack submarines on the USS STURGEON, USS RICHARD B RUSSELL and as a combat systems officer on the USS MEMPHIS. Bundy also completed Strategic Deterrent Patrols on the USS SAM HOUSTON GOLD as the assistant weapons officer, and as the navigator and operations officer on the USS LAFAYETTE BLUE. Bundy served ashore as a sonar instructor at the Naval Submarine Training Center at Pearl Harbor, and then went on to complete Officer Candidate School. In 1981, he was assigned to the Nuclear Operations Division at the U.S. Atlantic Command where he participated in directing and developing fleet ballistic missile operations.

In 1988, Bundy assumed command of USS BARBEL in Sasebo, Japan and conducted exercises in the Western Pacific as part of the Seventh Fleet and Submarine Group Seven. Bundy was assigned as Chief Staff Officer of Submarine Squadron Three in 1990. He also served as Director of the Naval Officer Candidate School in 1993. That same year, Bundy graduated from the U.S. Naval War College with his M.A. degree in national security and strategic studies. Bundy retired from active duty in 1994. Bundy was then appointed as Director of the Rhode Island State Department of Transportation and as a FleetBoston Financial vice president before returning to the U.S. Naval War College as an associate professor. In 2005, he earned his Ph.D. degree from Salve Regina University and was promoted to full professor at the U.S. Naval War College. He was also appointed as Director of the Vice Admiral Samuel L. Gravely, Jr. Naval Research Group.

Bundy’s military decorations include the Meritorious Service Medal, the Navy Meritorious Service Medal with a Gold Star, the Navy Commendation Medal with a Silver Star, and the Navy Achievement Medal with two Gold Stars. He is one of the Centennial Seven African American submarine skippers who served during the first one-hundred years of the Submarine Service. Bundy was recognized as the Black Engineer of the Year for Achievement in Government by U.S. Black Engineer and Information Technology magazine in 1993. In 1994, he received the U.S. Navy League Dalton L. Baugh Award for Inspirational Leadership, and, in 2010, Bundy was awarded the Navy Superior Civilian Service Award.

Bundy and his wife, Jeanne L. (Pacheco) Bundy, have two sons: Lieutenant Commander William F. Bundy, Jr. and Raymond M. Bundy. His daughter is Andrena M. Seawood.

William F. Bundy was interviewed by HistoryMakers on April 27, 2013.

Accession Number

A2013.110

Sex

Male

Interview Date

4/27/2013

Last Name

Bundy

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

F.

Occupation
Schools

Salve Regina University

U.S. Naval War College

University of Hawaii

Baltimore City College

Search Occupation Category
Speakers Bureau

Yes

Speakers Bureau Availability

Weekends, need two weeks notice

First Name

William

Birth City, State, Country

Baltimore

HM ID

BUN04

Speakers Bureau Preferred Audience

Any

Speakers Bureau Honorarium

None while a U.S. government employee - Travel and lodging expenses required

Favorite Season

Summer

Speaker Bureau Notes

Emergency #:
Jeannie Bundy - (401) 439-0708, (401) 578-9501

State

Maryland

Favorite Vacation Destination

Orlando, Florida

Favorite Quote

Knowledge and courage.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Rhode Island

Birth Date

8/12/1946

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Providence

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Crab (Blue)

Short Description

Commander Cdr. William Bundy (1946 - ) , one of the “Centennial Seven” African American submarine skippers rose from the enlisted ranks to earn a commission and command a submarine, served as a leader in the submarine force and later became a professor at the U.S. Naval War College and director of the VADM Samuel L. Gravely Research Group.

Employment

Providence College School of Continuing Education

Salve Regina University

United States Naval War College

FleetBoston Financial

State of Rhode Island

Naval Education and Training Center

United States Army

United States Navy

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of William Bundy's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - William Bundy lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - William Bundy describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - William Bundy talks about his mother growing up in Stonewall and Long Island, New York, and his family's life in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - William Bundy describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - William Bundy talks about his first visit to his paternal hometown of Weems, Virginia

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - William Bundy talks about his father's growing up in Virginia, and his migration to Baltimore, Maryland, where his parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - William Bundy talks about his father's and others' service in the U.S. Army in World War II

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - William Bundy talks about his father's job as a construction worker

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - William Bundy talks about his mother, and his resemblance to her

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - William Bundy talks about his siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - William Bundy describes his earliest childhood memories

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - William Bundy talks about his first impressions of the U.S. Navy

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - William Bundy talks about his parents' divorce, and becoming involved with "The Cadets" while living in the projects in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - William Bundy describes his home, neighborhood and friends in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - William Bundy talks about his elementary school and junior high school in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - William Bundy talks about his teachers and his experience in music class

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - William Bundy talks about swimming at the YMCA and selling newspapers and soap to fund his membership and camp fees

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - William Bundy describes his decision to attend high school at Baltimore City College

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - William Bundy talks about playing football on his high school junior varsity and varsity teams

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - William Bundy talks about playing on the football and lacrosse teams in high school

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - William Bundy talks about his relationship with his father after his parents divorced

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - William Bundy talks about joining the U.S. Navy's Sea Cadets in high school

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - William Bundy talks about joining the U.S. Navy's Sea Cadets and becoming a seaman apprentice on the USS Darby after graduating from high school

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - William Bundy describes his experience on the USS Darby, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - William Bundy talks about becoming an E-3 seaman and explains the entry-level ranks in the U.S. armed forces

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - William Bundy describes his experience on the USS Darby, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - William Bundy talks about the mentors and guardians he had as a young seaman in the U.S. Navy

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - William Bundy talks about enlisting in the regular U.S. Navy in 1964

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - William Bundy talks about missing the bus to attend the March on Washington

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - William Bundy talks about his exposure to the Civil Rights Movement while growing up in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 3 Story: 12 - William Bundy discusses the close-knit African American community while he was growing up in Baltimore

Tape: 3 Story: 13 - William Bundy talks about his assignment on the funeral formation for Admiral Claude Ricketts and attending sonar technician school

Tape: 3 Story: 14 - William Bundy talks about his assignment on Oceanographic Unit 1 on the USNS Bowditch

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - William Bundy talks about getting married while he was at Fleet Sonar School, and becoming a father in 1964

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - William Bundy talks about his experience in the Oceanographic Unit 1 on the USNS Bowditch in the Atlantic Ocean

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - William Bundy discusses his assignment to the U.S. Naval Facility in the Bahamas, and the opportunity to become a submarine sonar technician

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - William Bundy discusses his interest in submarine duty in the U.S. Navy

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - William Bundy talks about his assignment on the USS Sturgeon

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - William Bundy talks about his assignment to the Naval Submarine Training Center in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - William Bundy talks about his African American colleague on the USS Sturgeon

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - William Bundy talks about teaching at the Naval Submarine Training Center in Hawaii, earning his bachelor's degree, and becoming a chief petty officer

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - William Bundy talks about attending Officer Candidate School and becoming an unrestricted line officer in the U.S. Navy

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - William Bundy talks about his mentors in the U.S. Navy, and his life at the Naval Submarine Training Center

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - William Bundy talks about his assignment and mentor on the USS Sam Houston Gold Crew

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - William Bundy talks about his assignment to the USS Ohio, the USS Richard B. Russell and attending Submarine Officer Advanced Course

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - William Bundy talks about meeting his wife, and his assignment to the USS Memphis

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - William Bundy talks about the capabilities of the USS Memphis

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - William Bundy talks about serving on the USS Memphis from 1979 to 1981

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - William Bundy talks about meeting his extended family in Weems, Virginia

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - William Bundy talks about his assignment to nuclear missile operation systems on the staff of the commander of the U.S. Atlantic Fleet

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - William Bundy talks about his assignment as the navigations and operations officer on the USS Lafayette

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - William Bundy talks about his experience as the executive officer of the USS Blueback, and author Richard Henrick's book, 'Crimson Tide'

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - William Bundy talks about his assignment as the submarine group plans officer for Submarine Group V and commanding officer of USS Barbel

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - William Bundy describes his experience as the commanding officer of USS Barbel

Tape: 5 Story: 11 - William Bundy talks about his assignment as Chief Staff Officer at Submarine Squadron III, the birth of his sons, and the U.S. Navy's diversity program

Tape: 5 Story: 12 - William Bundy talks about the National Naval Officers Association (NNOA) and his involvement in its diversity program

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - William Bundy talks about attending the U.S. Naval War College in 1992

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - William Bundy talks about receiving the Black Engineer of the Year Award in 1993

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - William Bundy talks about the U.S. Navy's Centennial Seven

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - William Bundy talks about his involvement in science and technology in the U.S. Navy

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - William Bundy talks about the African American four-star admirals in the U.S. Navy

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - William Bundy talks about his post-retirement employment and his decision to accept the position as the director of the Rhode Island Department of Transportation

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - William Bundy talks about his experience as the director of the Rhode Island Department of Transportation

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - William Bundy describes his experience at Fleet Financial Group, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - William Bundy describes his experience at Fleet Financial Group, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - William Bundy talks about his doctoral dissertation on leadership in complex technical organizations, at Salve Regina University

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - William Bundy talks about teaching leadership at Providence College

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - William Bundy talks about his experience as a professor at the U.S. Naval War College

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - William Bundy talks about the U.S. Naval War College and his role as a research professor there

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - William Bundy reflects upon race in America

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - William Bundy reflects upon race relations in the U.S. Navy

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - William Bundy talks about Admiral Arleigh Burke

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - William Bundy talks about the importance of STEM education and his efforts to encourage the same

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - William Bundy reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 7 Story: 9 - William Bundy talks about his family

Tape: 7 Story: 10 - William Bundy talks about how he would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$5

DAStory

4$10

DATitle
William Bundy discusses his interest in submarine duty in the U.S. Navy
William Bundy describes his experience as the commanding officer of USS Barbel
Transcript
Let me just ask this, now, this seems interesting. Now, is submarine duty coveted in the [U.S.] Navy?$$Yeah.$$I'm wondering 'cause I've seen like movies, the guys in the submarines, they seem like they're awful cramped in there.$$Well, it's not--it's, that's not a problem.$$And it's, they're down--can, they really can't even see outside either, you know.$$Yeah, we'll talk about that.$$Okay, so, I mean but, so what is the attraction of being on a submarine (unclear) (simultaneous)--$$It's the, in my mind, it's the best duty in the Navy.$$Okay.$$You work with some of the smartest people in the Navy. You imagine a submarine today and when I was going in the submarines back then, they were the most advanced warships that we had, all packaged in the, you know, in the, one pretty potent package. And this is toward the, you know, the--in the middle of the Cold War. And what we were doing then with our submarines has just been declassified to some degree. And so it's a pretty exciting duty. It's, it pays better. In those days, you got quite a bit more money for submarine pay because it was hazardous duty. And it was kind of what I wanted to go do--$$Okay--$$--and it's science and technology kind of stuff.$$Now, I remember in 1962, I believe it was, it was maybe a year before or around the same time as John F. Kennedy was assassinated, there was a case of a submarine 'cause we talked about it in--I was in sixth or seventh grade, eighth grade, something like that. And we talked about a submarine going too deep and collapsing on itself in the--$$Yeah, that was USS Thresher--$$Right. That's the one.$$That was on the 10th of April, 1963.$$Yes. (Unclear) (simultaneous)--$$And so we just commemorated that again. The submarine force learned a lot about that, from that case. And it really, later on, you know, it really proved to be very important in proving what we call sub-safe, submarine safety over the years. And so, yeah, that was Thresher that went down in '63 [1963].$$I raise just because, just to emphasize the point, this could be dangerous duty from a number of different--$$Oh, it is.$$--angles, yeah.$$Yeah, it is. Yeah--$$Okay. (Laughter)$Now, before we leave the [USS] Barbel, are there any stories about being the commander and what it's like?$$I think that the really interesting part is, you know, the people. I think that the enlisted people and the officers that you have working with you really make the difference in the ship. We had a number of things that could go wrong in the ship and it was the crew that you have to credit with, you know, overcoming those periods. And you face that in just about any ship that you're in, but Barbel was a thirty-year old submarine, and it was the crew that I think about most in being able to operate that ship. We went to Subic Bay [Philippines], we went to Hong Kong. We operated the ship going into, in and out of Sasebo [Japan] quite often. And that's, that was our home port. Jean [Bundy's wife] had the opportunity to be the, you know, the captain's wife, and really take care of the families when we were away. And, you know, submarine operations are not something that I can go into great detail with you about, but it was, it was a pretty, pretty exciting time for us. We operated well, I think, and we brought the ship back to Pearl Harbor [Hawaii] to be decommissioned.

Sharon Haynie

Biochemist Sharon Haynie was born on November 6, 1955 in Baltimore, Maryland. She graduated from Baltimore City Public Schools in 1973 and enrolled at the University of Pennsylvania. During her undergraduate years, she became fascinated with biochemistry and advanced inorganic chemistry. In her freshman year she was a work/study research assistant to a graduate student in organic chemistry. After receiving her B.A. degree in biochemistry from the University of Pennsylvania in 1976, Haynie enrolled at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and graduated from there in 1981 with her Ph.D. degree in chemistry.

Haynie was appointed as a member of the technical staff at Bell Laboratories from 1981 to 1984. She then moved to the DuPont Company Experimental Station Laboratory. In her first assignment in the Central Research Department Haynie worked in the Medical Biomaterials Group. She conducted research in developing the synthetic materials used in vein replacements and she isolated peptides with inherent antimicrobial properties. She also worked with the award-winning bio-3G team. Haynie authored and co-authored numerous patents, many of which detail processes of using environmentally friendly, bio-inspired pathways in a laboratory setting to create certain organic materials. Haynie served as an adjunct professor of chemistry at Delaware State University and the University of Delaware. She has been a mentor to students through several outreach projects, such as Project SEED (Summer Educational Experience for the Disadvantaged), a project sponsored by the American Chemical Society (ACS).

Haynie has been recognized for her scientific research and serving as a mentor to African Americans pursuing STEM careers. In 2003, not only did Haynie work on the research team that received the 2003 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Presidential Green Chemistry Award for New Innovation; but, she was also elected to serve as chair of the Philadelphia Section of the ACS. She is a member of the Chemical Heritage Foundation Board of Directors. The National Organization for the Professional Advancement of Black Chemists and Chemical Engineers bestowed upon her their Henry A. Hill Award in 2006 and their Percy L. Julian Award in 2008.

Sharon Haynie was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on March 24, 2013.

Accession Number

A2013.080

Sex

Female

Interview Date

3/24/2013

Last Name

Haynie

Maker Category
Middle Name

Loretta

Occupation
Schools

Western High School

University of Pennsylvania

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Sharon

Birth City, State, Country

Baltimore

HM ID

HAY14

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Maryland

Favorite Vacation Destination

None

Favorite Quote

It Beats Walking The Streets.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Delaware

Birth Date

11/6/1955

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Wilmington

Country

United States

Favorite Food

None

Short Description

Chemist Sharon Haynie (1955 - ) was known for her innovative research working with E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Co. Her research topics included developing peptides with antimicrobial properties and developing environmentally friendly pathways to create certain organic materials.

Employment

Bell Laboratories

E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company

American Chemical Society

Delaware State University

University of Delaware

Favorite Color

Purple

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Sharon Haynie's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Sharon Haynie lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Sharon Haynie describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Sharon Haynie talks about her maternal grandfather, William Penn

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Sharon Haynie talks about her maternal grandparents

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Sharon Haynie describe the importance of her maternal grandfather, William Penn

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Sharon Haynie talks about her mother

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Sharon Haynie talks about her mother's career in the Baltimore Police Department

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Sharon Haynie describes her mother's decision to leave the Baltimore Police Department and to become a claims investigator

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Sharon Haynie describes her father's family background

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Sharon Haynie talks about her father's time in the U.S. Army

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Sharon Haynie describes her parents' personalities and who she takes after

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Sharon Haynie talks about her siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Sharon Haynie describes her earliest childhood memory

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Sharon Haynie describes the neighborhoods of Baltimore, Maryland where she grew up

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Sharon Haynie describes the first home her family owned

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Sharon Haynie talks about being given independent reading and math during elementary school

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Sharon Haynie remembers the assassination of President John F. Kennedy

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Sharon Haynie talks about her elementary schools

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Sharon Haynie talks about her elementary school mentor

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Sharon Haynie describes her independent math course in elementary school

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Sharon Haynie talks about junior high school

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Sharon Haynie talks about the assassinations of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. and Robert Kennedy

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Sharon Haynie talks about the 1969 moon landing

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Sharon Haynie describes when she decided to become a research scientist

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Sharon Haynie talks about her high school

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Sharon Haynie describes her high school mentors

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Sharon Haynie describes her extracurricular activities in high school

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Sharon Haynie describes how she chose to attend the University of Pennsylvania pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Sharon Haynie describes how she chose to attend the University of Pennsylvania pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Sharon Haynie recalls her time at the University of Pennsylvania

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Sharon Haynie describes her work as a chemistry lab assistant at the University of Pennsylvania

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Sharon Haynie describes the influence of Dr. Phoebe Leboy pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Sharon Haynie describes the influence of Dr. Phoebe Leboy pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Sharon Haynie talks about Dr. Allen McDermott

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Sharon Haynie describes why she chose the Massachusetts Institute of Technology for graduate school

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Sharon Haynie describes how she picked Dr. George Whitesides as her graduate adviser at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Sharon Haynie talks about her graduate research at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Sharon Haynie talks about environmental stewardship in chemistry

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Sharon Haynie describes how she was recruited by Bell Laboratories

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Sharon Haynie talks about collaboration in science

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Sharon Haynie talks about the diversity programs at Bell Laboratories

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Sharon Haynie describes why she moved from Bell Laboratories to DuPont

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Sharon Haynie talks about her research at DuPont

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Sharon Haynie describes her research on vein replacement materials

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Sharon Haynie describes her work with antimicrobial materials

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Sharon Haynie talks about her research on amphiphilic helices

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Sharon Haynie talks about her involvement in Project SEED

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Sharon Haynie describes the 3G Process

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Sharon Haynie describes her involvement in the American Chemical Society and the National Organization for the Professional Advancement of Black Chemists and Chemical Engineers

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Sharon Haynie describes receiving the Presidential Green Challenge Award

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Sharon Haynie describes Green Chemistry research

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Sharon Haynie talks about winning the National Organization for the Professional Advancement of Black Chemists and Chemical Engineer's Henry Hill Award

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Sharon Haynie reflects on her legacy

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Sharon Haynie offers advice for young people interested in chemistry

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Sharon Haynie explains why she went into industry rather than academics

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Sharon Haynie reflects on her life

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Sharon Haynie describes her hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - Sharon Haynie talks about her family

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - Sharon Haynie talks about how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 8 Story: 6 - Sharon Haynie describes her photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$6

DAStory

7$8

DATitle
Sharon Haynie describes her work as a chemistry lab assistant at the University of Pennsylvania
Sharon Haynie talks about her research on amphiphilic helices
Transcript
Now, what did you work on as a lab assistant (unclear) (simultaneous)--$$Well, I had several research projects. So I was sort of a rolling stone, if you will. I didn't work in the same laboratory for all three and a half years I was there at Penn [University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania]. I thought it was important to get a sampling of different research experience. So for the first year, I worked with an organic chemist, but she was also doing some enzymology. She was making molecules that would be inhibitors for an enzyme. And this was exactly the area that I was interested in. So I did that for the first year, and then I came back to Baltimore [Maryland] that summer, and I worked as a telephone operator, as I had done during high school. But in the second year, I wanted to expose myself to another science which might lead to a summer position. So I then worked for, in the Department of Engineering for the then, Dean of the Department of Biochemical Engineering, and I worked with a graduate student doing fermentations. They were using cells and breaking them up to make single-cell protein. So they were interested in converting biomass to something more useful, which was a theme that, at the time, you know, probably didn't make a lot of sense to me, and it's only, you know, twenty or thirty years later that I realize that these were some of the pioneers in doing some biochemical engineering work that became very important and also as a theme in my own research career. And in that group, working with Dr. Humphrey, it was Arthur Humphrey's group, I became exposed to more of the dynamics of working in a large research group where they have retreats, regular seminars. It was more of a community, and I got exposed to that. And so that was of interest. Then I had two additional research experiences which were more singular in terms of, I was the dynamic--I was the only undergraduate in the organization. So the next was with Dr. Brittan Chance. He was a world-renowned spectroscopist. He also I think had won--I don't know if he, he was sailor. I'm not sure I he had won a cup, but he was a sailor. He was also known as a sailor. He was also very well known as a sailor. And that was a very interesting experience 'cause I was--he didn't even have graduate students. He only had post-docs in his laboratory. And I just worked independently. I worked under a post-doc, Jerry [Jeremy] Smith and just learned how to work on my own. And what was interesting in that experience was that I really didn't know what I was doing. I mean, and I will own that to this day. I mean I did spectroscopy and I could talk about the fundamental principles. They were doing some very basic work in trying to develop support of a theory of electron transport in cell membranes. And so I understood exactly what they were trying to get at, but exactly how my research connected to what they were trying to support in terms of the theory was very vague to me at that time. But I got a grounding in terms of how, sort of the mechanisms of doing fluorescence spectroscopy, and again, that whole experience in Dr. Chance's lab, I think speaks to my sort of fearlessness in sort of going and working independently without having much of guidance and mentorship, even if it didn't prove to be ultimately fruitful. I think I would have flourished more had I had someone--cause Brittan Chance certainly wasn't gonna play the role. He would come in occasionally. He worked sort of odd hours and asked me how things were going. But he was like a god. And, you know, just to, you know, sort of indulge this undergraduate working in his laboratory and, you know, wrote me a very nice reference, obviously, for graduate school, but I think I would have flourished more had I had someone who was more engaging one-on-one. But he was a very hands-off, sort of aloof person.$I have a note here about amphi-- amphiphilic helices--$$Amphiphilic helices, yeah, these were the--(simultaneous)--$$Helices, right.$$Right. These were a type of molecule that, that were antimicrobial, that is, they killed microbes, various different types of microbes, but this particular class of microbes formed a certain shape, if they were in the right environment. And so they formed a helix, so it's like a coil. You think of like a coil for a spring. So they formed a coil and they're called amphiphilic because along--so the coil, let's pretend the coil is like going in this direction. On one side of the coil, they have a charge that attracts it to surfaces. It's got, they have a positive charge, and on the other side of the coil, they have like a greasy part of the molecule that's hanging off. And it's, this particular shape, this amphiphilic helix is a theme that happens often in molecules that disrupt the exterior of microbes. And so I looked at studying this particular class of molecule and putting them on material surfaces to see if I anchor them on the top of a material that could become a carpet or a piece of clothing, if that would disrupt a microbe if it came in contact with it.$$And did it work?$$Yes, it did, and--$$Okay, you're--$$And what was very gratifying was that that work was inspired by a class of molecules that was discovered by a scientist out of the, at the time he was at the NIH [National Institutes of Health], Michael Zasloff, and his work inspired me. He found, it was, just an anecdote. He was doing some work and found that frog excreted a molecule which ultimately he called magainins, he then went off to form a pharmaceutical company, actually, outside of here in Philadelphia. And I met him for the first time. So he inspired me, he actually inspired the one patent which I'm the sole author on, and I met him for the first time three weeks ago at a Gordon Research Conference on antimicrobial peptides. And I had a poster to talk about my work--these Gordon conferences are fairly small and intimate. You have scientists coming from all over the world. And he came over--and I was dying to meet him. So this was like the second day of the conference 'cause he sat, like he was sort of the grandfather of this whole area. He was sitting in the front row of the lecture hall, and I, you know, knew that at some point during the conference, I would have to go over and introduce myself and just to acknowledge how important his discovery, you know, was an inspiration to me and my science at that particular part of my science. And in standing with my poster, he came up to me and hugged me and acknowledged how my patent had caught the attention of, caught his attention and other people in his company and some funders because, you know, it represented, you know, something they didn't think, at least conceptually, was possible. And so it was just a great affirmation for me, I mean to have, you know, a giant in the field, you know, make that connection--$$Indeed, for you both.$$Yes, yeah, yeah, so it was--$$And actually, you know, patent something and prove something that he did was useful where--$$Yes, absolutely.$$--where it hadn't been proven before-- I mean, hadn't been thought--(simultaneous)--$$Absolutely, yes, yeah, yeah. So that was, you know, even though I've long moved away from that particular science, I mean that was in '90 [1990], it was in the early '90s [1990s], '92 [1992] to '96 [1996], I think for me were the formative part of my work in that area. I sort of consulted loosely to a group that started up at DuPont in that area, sort of 2000, 2005. So it was just a, for me, just wonderful to have that affirmation. So, yeah.

Gen. James Boddie, Jr.

U.S. Air Force Brig. Gen. James T. Boddie was born on October 18, 1931 in Baltimore, Maryland. Boddie graduated from Fredrick Douglass High School in Baltimore in February 1949. Boddie received his B.S. degree in chemistry from Howard University in 1954, and his M.A. degree in public administration from Auburn University in 1975. In addition, Boddie completed military studies at the Industrial College of the Armed Forces in 1971, and the Air War College in 1975.

Boddie received his U.S. Air Force officer’s commission through the Air Force Reserve Officers’ Training Corps Program at Howard University, and then earned his wings in 1956. His first operational assignment was with the 560th Strategic Fighter Squadron at Bergstrom Air Force Base that was equipped with the F-84 Thunderstreak fighter plane. Boddie reported to Nellis Air Force Base in 1957 for gunnery and weapons delivery training in the F-100 Super Sabre. Upon completion, Boddie was assigned to the U.S. Air Force Europe Weapons Center in Tripoli, Libya where he served from until 1961. After his return to the United States in February 1961, Boddie assumed responsibilities as commandant of cadets at the Air Force Reserve Officers’ Training Corps Program at Tuskegee Institute. In 1966, Boddie volunteered for combat duty in Southeast Asia, and was assigned to the 559th Tactical Fighter Squadron at Cam Ranh Bay Air Base in the Republic of Vietnam. In addition to his duties as operations and scheduling officer, Boddie completed a total of two-hundred and one F-4 combat missions, fifty-seven of which were flown over North Vietnam. In 1980, Boddie was promoted to Brigadier General. He then served as aviation director in the Aircraft Management office, at NASA Headquarters, from 1991 to 1996; and, between 2006 and 2008, Boddie served as president of Texas Southern University.

Boddie’s experience as a command and combat pilot includes over five-thousand hours in jet fighter aircraft. His military decorations and awards include the Air Force Distinguished Service Medal, the Defense Superior Service Medal, the Legion of Merit, the Distinguished Flying Cross, the Meritorious Service Medal, thirteen Air Medals, the Air Force Commendation Medal, the Air Force Outstanding Unit Award ribbon, the Combat Readiness Medal, the National Defense Service Medal, the Armed Forces Expeditionary Medal, the Vietnam Service Medal, Small Arms Expert Marksmanship Ribbon, the Republic of Vietnam Cross of Gallantry with palm, and the Vietnam Campaign Medal. Boddie also wears the Organization of the Joint Chiefs of Staff badge.

U.S. Air Force Brig. Gen. James T. Boddie, Jr. was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on January 28, 2013.

Accession Number

A2013.026

Sex

Male

Interview Date

1/28/2013

Last Name

Boddie

Maker Category
Marital Status

Widower

Middle Name

Timothy

Occupation
Schools

Auburn University

Harvard University

Howard University

Search Occupation Category
First Name

James

Birth City, State, Country

Baltimore

HM ID

BOD02

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Maryland

Favorite Vacation Destination

Caribbean

Favorite Quote

It is five o'clock somewhere.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Texas

Birth Date

10/18/1931

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Dallas

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Steak

Short Description

Brigadier general Gen. James Boddie, Jr. (1931 - ) has logged more than five-thousand hours and flown over two-hundred mission as a U.S. Air Force command pilot.

Employment

United States Air Force

Link flight Simulation Co.

Operational Technologies Services, Inc.

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)

Texas Southern University

Favorite Color

Blue

DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of James Boddie's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - James Boddie lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - James Boddie describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - James Boddie talks about his maternal grandfather, Reverend James Arthur Moore

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - James Boddie talks about his mother's friendship with Alberta Williams King

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - James Boddie talks about his mother's growing up in Atlanta, and her family's move to Chicago, Kansas City and Baltimore

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - James Boddie describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - James Boddie talks about his father's education and family

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - James Boddie describes how his parents met and their service in the Baptist church

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - James Boddie describes his parents' personalities and who he takes after

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - James Boddie describes how he met his wife, Mattie Dwiggins, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - James Boddie describes how he met his wife, Mattie Dwiggins, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - James Boddie talks about his siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - James Boddie describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - James Boddie describes the sights, sounds and smells of growing up in Baltimore and Germantown, Maryland

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - James Boddie describes his interest in airplanes, reading and photography

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - James Boddie describes his experience in school, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - James Boddie describes his experience in school, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - James Boddie talks about Jackie Robinson, Joe Louis and the Hindenburg disaster

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - James Boddie discusses his and his family's political affiliations

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - James Boddie describes why he chose to attend Howard University in 1949

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - James Boddie talks about his siblings' education, high school, and his mentor, Lloyd N. Ferguson

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - James Boddie talks about the people he met at Howard University in the 1940s and 1950s

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - James Boddie explains why he stopped playing football at Howard University

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - James Boddie talks about his classmates at Howard University

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - James Boddie talks about being commissioned in the U.S. Air Force

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - James Boddie talks about his assignment to primary pilot training in Bartow, Florida

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - James Boddie talks about experiencing racism at primary pilot training in Bartow, Florida, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - James Boddie talks about experiencing racism at primary pilot training in Bartow, Florida, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - James Boddie talks about his assignments to Bergstrom Air Force Base and Nellis Air Force Base for F100 training

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - James Boddie describes his experience at Nouasseur Air Base in Morocco and at Wheelus Air Base in Libya, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - James Boddie describes his experience at Nouasseur Air Base in Morocco and at Wheelus Air Base in Libya, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - James Boddie talks about getting married in 1962

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - James Boddie describes his combat missions in the Vietnam War

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - James Boddie talks about his experience in Vietnam, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - James Boddie talks about his experience in Vietnam, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - James Boddie discusses the absence of racial problems in Vietnam, and his limited exposure to Vietnamese civilian life

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - James Boddie talks about returning to the United States from his service in Vietnam in 1967

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - James Boddie talks about becoming a major in the U.S. Air Force, and his appointment to the 4457th Technical Training Wing

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - James Boddie describes his relationship to Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - James Boddie talks about the March from Selma to Montgomery in 1965

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - James Boddie talks about visiting Martin Luther King in Montgomery a day after his house had been bombed

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - James Boddie talks about working at Davis-Monthan Air Force Base and Randolph Air Force Base in the late 1960s and early 1970s

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - James Boddie describes his experience at the Air War College

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - James Boddie talks about his assignments at Langley Air Force Base and Moody Air Force Base

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - James Boddie talks about his experience at Osan Air Base in South Korea from 1978 to 1980, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - James Boddie talks about his experience at Osan Air Base in South Korea from 1978 to 1980, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - James Boddie talks about his promotion to the rank of brigadier general, and his retirement from the U.S. Air Force in 1983

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - James Boddie talks about the use of flight simulators in the U.S. Air Force

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - James Boddie talks about his role as Director of Air Force Requirements for the Link Flight Simulation Division of the Singer Company

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - James Boddie talks about his service as Vice President of Operations and Business Development for Operational Technologies Services, Inc.

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - James Boddie talks about his service as Director of Aviation for NASA's Aircraft Management Office, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - James Boddie talks about his service as Director of Aviation for NASA's Aircraft Management Office, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - James Boddie talks about his company, Genesys Industries, and serving on the Board of Directors of the Military Officers Association

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - James Boddie describes his decision to move to Plano, Texas

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - James Boddie talks about his tenure as the interim president of Texas Southern University from 2006 to 2008

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - James Boddie talks about the Republican Party's control in Texas

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - James Boddie talks about travelling with his wife, attending ighter pilot reunions, and being diagnosed with cancer

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - James Boddie talks about being a member of the Tuskegee Airmen Organization

Tape: 6 Story: 11 - James Boddie discusses his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - James Boddie reflects upon the status of African Americans in the U.S. military

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - James Boddie reflects upon this life and career

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - James Boddie reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - James Boddie talks about his family

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - James Boddie talks about how he would like to be remembered

Dr. Jayfus Doswell

Entrepreneur Jayfus Tucker Doswell was born in Baltimore, Maryland in 1979. His mother, Brenda Tucker Doswell, was an educator and entrepreneur; his father, Ronald Jayfus Doswell, a social worker and historian. As a child, Doswell attended Baltimore City Public schools and enjoyed playing classical piano and violin in the Baltimore Youth Orchestra and competing in Tae-Kwon-Do and Kung-Fu tournaments. In 1995, Doswell graduated from Oberlin College with his B.A. degrees in psychology and computer science. His B.A. thesis was presented at Williams College in Massachusetts. He went on to earn his M.S. degree in systems and computer management from Howard University in 1998, and his Ph.D. degree in information technology from George Mason University. Doswell contributed his dissertation to to the creation of the IEEE Virtual Instructor Pilot Research Group (VIPRG), where he is co-director.

As early as 1997, Doswell discussed the implications of virtual reality learning technology in Black Issues In Higher Education. While earning his Ph.D. degree at George Mason University, Doswell conceived of Juxtopia, LLC and the Juxtopia Group, Inc., which develop products to integrate into a human’s daily routine and provide services to improve human health and learning. Doswell’s findings have been published in various scientific journals. Doswell has also consulted with different companies and organizations, including Maryland Medical Systems, CompuServe, Lockheed Martin, BearingPoint, Scientific Applications International Corporation, Virtual Logic, TRW and the National Cancer Institute Center for Bioinformatics. He was appointed as the chair of Biotechnology at Sojourner Douglass College, while also developing the biotechnology curriculum for Baltimore City Public Schools. In 2010, Doswell was named distinguished professor at Elizabeth City State University.

Doswell has served as a board member for several organizations such as, the American Public Health Association Health Informatics and Information Technology special interest group and American Telemedicine Association. He is also active in many professional organizations, including the Association of Computing Machinery, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, and the National Society of Black Engineers. Doswell has several inventions that are patent pending at the U.S. Patent Office.

Jayfus T. Doswell was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on January 17, 2013.

Accession Number

A2013.011

Sex

Male

Interview Date

1/17/2013

Last Name

Doswell

Maker Category
Occupation
Schools

Baltimore City College

Oberlin College

George Mason University

School No. 66, Mount Royal Elementary and Middle School

Fallstaff Elementary

Calvert Hall College High School

Howard University

First Name

Jayfus

Birth City, State, Country

Baltimore

HM ID

DOS02

Favorite Season

Christmas

State

Maryland

Favorite Vacation Destination

Kerkade, Netherlands

Favorite Quote

The Propensity For Perfection.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Maryland

Birth Date

2/24/1972

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Baltimore

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Salmon, Rice, Broccoli

Short Description

Entrepreneur Dr. Jayfus Doswell (1972 - ) is the founder of Juxtopia, LLC, and Juxtopia Group, Inc., where he has served as president and chief executive officer.

Employment

Juxtopia LLC

Sojourner Douglass College

Phezu Space, LLC

Elizabeth City State University

KPMG

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Jayfus Doswell shares the stories behind his first and middle names

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Slating of Jayfus Doswell's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Jayfus Doswell lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Jayfus Doswell talks about his maternal family history

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Jayfus Doswell describes his mother's upbringing and education

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Jayfus Doswell describes his mother's experience in the Morgan State Choir under the direction of Dr. Nathan Carter

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Jayfus Doswell talks about his paternal family history

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Jayfus Doswell describe enslavement in his paternal family history

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Jayfus Doswell talks about his father's upbringing in Baltimore, Maryland where he attended Dunbar High School

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Jayfus Doswell talks about the history of higher education among his paternal relatives

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Jayfus Doswell talks about how his father exposed him to black history as well as leaders in Baltimore, Maryland's black community, pt.1

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - 02:19:31:16 Jayfus Doswell describes his father's service in the Vietnam War as a sergeant medic

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Jayfus Doswell talks about how his father exposed him to black history as well as leaders in Baltimore, Maryland's black community, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Jayfus Doswell describes how his parents met

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Jayfus Doswell talks about his father's education and career

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Jayfus Doswell describes his parents' personalities

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Jayfus Doswell describes his earliest childhood memories

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Jayfus Doswell describes the sights, sounds, and smells of his childhood in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Jayfus Doswell talks about street divisions among boys in his childhood neighborhood in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Jayfus Doswell talks about his educational background

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Jayfus Doswell talks about his parents' separation and his first major argument with his father

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Jayfus Doswell remembers starring in a Parks Sausages commercial and purchasing his first computer

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Jayfus Doswell talks about learning computer programming at the age of twelve

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Jayfus Doswell describes the racism he experienced at Calvert Hall College High School in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Jayfus Doswell describes his experience at Baltimore City College

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Jayfus Doswell describes the lack of computer programming courses at Baltimore City College when he was a student

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Jayfus Doswell describes his self-discipline as a youth

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Jayfus Doswell describes his experience at Baltimore City College in Baltimore, Maryland and his emerging interest in neuroscience

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Jayfus Doswell describes competing in 'Amateur Night at the Apollo'

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Jayfus Doswell talks about his musical activities as a high school student

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Jayfus Doswell describes his extracurricular activities as a high school student at Baltimore City College in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Jayfus Doswell talks about his decision to attend Oberlin College in Oberlin, Ohio

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Jayfus Doswell remembers Yolanda Cruz, a mentor at Oberlin College in Oberlin, Ohio and his undergraduate research on virtual reality

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Jayfus Doswell describes the research he conducted as a Ford-Mellon Research Scholar at Oberlin College in Oberlin, Ohio

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Jayfus Doswell remembers his first job offer in 1994

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Jayfus Doswell talks about his first job as a computer programmer at CompuServe and his mentor there, Michael Johnson

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Jayfus Doswell describes applying the skills he learned at CompuServe for a consultancy project at Oberlin College

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Jayfus Doswell talks about how he applies his organizational training at CompuServe to train his interns at his company, Juxtopia

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Jayfus Doswell talks about Greek life as a student at Oberlin College in Oberlin, Ohio

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Jayfus Doswell describes training his interns at his company, Juxtopia

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Jayfus Doswell talks about his graduate studies at Howard University in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Jayfus Doswell describes his advisor and his doctoral research at George Mason University in Fairfax, Virginia

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Jayfus Doswell talks about the founding of Juxtopia, LLC

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Jayfus Doswell describes Juxtopia's first conceptual product

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Jayfus Doswell talks about two of Juxtopia's major products in augmented reality

Tape: 5 Story: 11 - Jayfus Doswell talks about the R&D at Juxtopia and Google Glass

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Jayfus Doswell distinguishes between two forms of augmented reality

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Jayfus Doswell talks about the sources of funding for his company, Juxtopia

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Jayfus Doswell talks about intellectual property and patents for augmented reality goggles

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Jayfus Doswell talks about the launch of his nonprofit organization, the JUICE Lab

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Jayfus Doswell describes a recent honor from the Economic Alliance of Greater Baltimore

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Jayfus Doswell comments on the general public's lack of knowledge about software engineering

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Jayfus Doswell comments on the interns at his nonprofit, the JUICE Lab

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Jayfus Doswell talks about Juxtopia's connection to Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Jayfus Doswell describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - Jayfus Doswell talks about what he would do differently

Tape: 6 Story: 11 - Jayfus Doswell reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 6 Story: 12 - Jayfus Doswell describes his hobbies and other business ventures

Tape: 6 Story: 13 - Jayfus Doswell talks about his parents and their pride in his success

Tape: 6 Story: 14 - Jayfus Doswell comments on how he would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$6

DAStory

7$4

DATitle
Jayfus Doswell talks about learning computer programming at the age of twelve
Jayfus Doswell talks about the launch of his nonprofit organization, the JUICE Lab
Transcript
Okay, so what, what kind of computer did you get?$$A Texas Instrument.$$Okay.$$It was called a TI-99, a gray computer, speak-synthesizer module, you have to buy it separately and hook to the side of it. So I was actually doing speech recognition programming back in 1985 on my own. And then one of my friends, over here, Paul Buchanan also had a computer and we used to try to program games together back in 1985, during just--that was part of the play time, okay let's program. We want to have our own business at twelve, but we didn't have any direction we just self-directed.$$Now how did you, how did you even like know what to do in terms of programming a computer? I mean, who, who--where did--(simultaneous)--$$Well first, well first started when--like play. The computers used to come with books, we could buy like books on how to program, I don't know where the real interest was, but I remember my mother [Brenda Tucker Doswell] took me to a class--a programming--an introductory programming class which was the most boring thing in the world, but because my friend also had a computer we thought well we can play games with the computer right, but what else could we do with the computer. Now there, there were game systems like the Atari, and the Texas Instruments where you can actually program and build your own systems. So I was--I had an Atari, but I also liked to build my own things, right, I'm a--you know, with software. So that was the interest and Paul Buchanan, we're the same age and he liked to do that as well. So, it, it first started off when we would go to different stores and type in some phrase, right, and then loop--make it loop on the computer so we'd type up a small program and we knew how to do it so we'd go in like shopping malls, type some crazy phrase and it would show on the screen, this looping, over and over and over and over again, we thought it was the funniest thing.$$'Cause the people didn't know how to get it off of there or what?$$We probably did but, when people walked by they would say this crazy--see this crazy phrase. It may have been our name, be something else, we don't, we don't know. And that sparked the interest because it was almost like, like for laughs for us and then it got more sophisticated after that in terms of, you know programs, trying to program things for real. Like game characters, scenarios, but everything was--$$Yeah, I know they used to publish those codes, game codes of how to cheat different games, different levels and all, did you all, was that, that part--(simultaneous)--$$We didn't do that, we liked to build the stuff from scratch, you know.$$Okay.$$So we studied programming languages, and at that time too we were saving things on cass-we were saving data on cassette tapes so there was a connector from a cassette tape to the computer and we used to save the data there then floppy disk came out so that's when we said, okay, this the greatest thing and then 3.5" disk came out after that, yep. So that was like, that was like every weekend we're gonna build upon a program, yeah so that was pretty cool back there.$$Okay, okay, so were, were you gettin' any support from school in terms of how to do these things?$$Not at all.$$So.$$The schools didn't even have computers like that. I mean, typing sure, programming, absolutely not.$$Okay.$$So all that was like, self-directed learning if you will. But to us it wasn't even learning, it was like a project, like building a, building a model airplane or model rocket, same type of concept growing up.$Now do you have a dream project you can talk about now that you're working on that you--?$$Oh, I, sure, so, under my not-for-profit organization that's where we do some really fancy stuff and they govern--the nice--the great technology I, now I train on how to become an entrepreneur, how to become an inventor. So under my not-for-profit organization, we have a program called JUICE, the Juxtopia Urban Innovation and Cooperative Entrepreneurship Network, an in that network we have a--a one--a young lady who's an undergraduate student that actually had a dream about interacting with information without a display. Now, the Star Trek fans with--you would call this holographic experience, right and then new technology you'll see like interactive holographic experiences. That's one project that one of my mentees, my apprentices is, is working on. How can you create an independent interactive holograph experience without, you know, outside cameras or display systems using potentially smart materials and also applications of biotechnology, so that's one (clears throat).$$Now, the governor [Governor of Maryland, Martin O'Malley] was present for the opening of JUICE [in 2012].$$Of the JUICE Lab, right. So right here in this building in my lab, the governor, Governor O'Malley had a ribbon cutting ceremony to re--to celebrate the opening of the JUICE Lab and also the Maryland, (cough) excuse me, the Maryland Innovation Initiative [MII], which is an initiative legislated in Maryland to really spark innovations and technology transfer from universities. Juxtopia's even during, you know, its initial inception it's always been tied to a university at some point. An academic institution with a preference towards (clears throat) underserved and disadvantaged institutions like HBCU's, Historically black colleges [and] universities and minority serving institutions. Giving internships to populations who are underserved in the sciences an math, right so I think the governor, Governor O'Malley and Maryland legislation recognized that and celebrated the JUICE lab and celebrated Juxtopia for what it's doing not only in product development and manufacturing here in America, in Baltimore [Maryland] but also (clears throat) improving the efficiency of underserved and disadvantaged youth.$$Okay, now you have a--how, how many people you have on staff here, yeah?$$Here in this building we have thirteen, yep and then we have management that are not in here, scattered, so five core management including legal counsel, vice president, Dr. Edward Hill, Diane, Doctor Diane Adams, who's president of Juxtopia Life, John Johnson, Chief Operating Officer, so, yeah. But all the technical staff--the technical staff specifically for the goggles are here in our secret Juice Lab (laughter).$$Okay. All right.$$Yeah.