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Tony F. Sias

Arts administrator Tony F. Sias was born on December 20, 1964 in Jackson, Mississippi to Helen Louise Walker Sias and Leo Sterling Sias, Sr. After graduating from John W. Provine High School, Sias went on to receive his B.S. degree in dramatic arts from Jackson State University in 1988, and his M.F.A. degree in acting from Ohio University in 1992.

While earning his M.F.A. degree, Sias was an intern and resident at the Cleveland Play House in Cleveland, Ohio. After graduating, he remained in Cleveland and began acting in several of the city’s theaters including a production of Kathleen McGhee-Anderson’s Oak and Ivy at the Karamu House in 1993. Sias then went on to work as a program director for the Rap Arts Youth Fellowship Program through The Centers for Families and Children before moving to the Murtis Taylor Human Services System where he ran the Coordinated Arts Program for the Greater Cleveland Neighborhood Centers Association. In 1998, Sias performed in a production of Tony Kushner’s Angels in America: A Gay Fantasia on National Themes at the Dobama Theatre in Cleveland. For this performance, Sias and his fellow cast members earned a collective Ensemble Keefer Award. The next year, he returned to the Karamu House to perform in Crumbs From the Table of Joy by Lynn Nottage. Sias made one of his first directing debuts in 1999 at the Cleveland Public Theatre where he directed the world premiere of Keith Josef Adkins’ On the Hills of Black America. Then, in 2000, Sias became the director of arts education for the Cleveland Metropolitan School District. While in this position, Sias continued to perform in and direct productions throughout the city including Elevator at the Karamu House in 2001 and the Ensemble Theatre’s one-man show Paul Robeson. In 2003, while still working for the school district, Sias became the director of the All-City Musical and served as the artistic director of the Cleveland School of the Arts. He also began teaching at Cuyahoga Community College. In 2008, Sias served as a delegate from the U.S. Department of State to Istanbul, Turkey as a representative of the Council of International Programs, USA. In 2015, Sias became the president and CEO of the historic Karamu House in Cleveland. There, he continued to direct and create new productions including the Karamu House’s Holiday Jazz Revue

Sias served on the board of trustees of the Community Partnership for Arts and Culture, Inc. and as a board member of The League of Historic American Theatres, Inc. He was also an advisory board member for Project 1 Voice, Inc. Sias also received several awards for his acting and directing in Cleveland including the Ohio House of Representatives Tribute for Excellent Leadership and the Times Newspaper’s Outstanding Director.

Tony F. Sias was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on September 25, 2018.

Accession Number

A2018.190

Sex

Male

Interview Date

9/25/2018

Last Name

Sias

Maker Category
Middle Name

F.

Organizations
First Name

Tony

Birth City, State, Country

Jackson

HM ID

SIA02

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Mississippi

Favorite Vacation Destination

Belize

Favorite Quote

Leave Before Your Audience Does, And Be Careful With An Encore.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Ohio

Birth Date

12/20/1964

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Cleveland

Favorite Food

Chicken

Short Description

Arts administrator Tony F. Sias (1964 - ) was the director of arts and education for the Cleveland Metropolitan School District and the president and CEO of the Karamu House in Cleveland, Ohio.

Favorite Color

Blue

Alexandria Holloway

Academic administrator Alexandria Holloway was born on April 15, 1947 in Jackson, Mississippi to Alfanette Holloway and Clifford Holloway. After she graduated from high school, Holloway attended Jackson State University in Jackson, Mississippi and earned her B.A. degree in music education in 1968. Holloway earned her M.A. degree in music education from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in 1970 and her Ph.D. degree in music education from Florida State University in Tallahassee, Florida in 1984.

Holloway began her career at Garden Hills Elementary School in Champaign, Illinois. In 1973, she began teaching music education and piano classes at Jackson State University. The following year, Holloway began teaching middle school classes at Franklin Junior High School in Champaign. She then moved to Miami, Florida in 1976 to teach at Miami Dade College. During the same year, Holloway was appointed as chairman of the music department. In 1986, Holloway was appointed as the associate dean of arts and letters at the Kendall campus of Miami Dade College. After remaining in that position for ten years, Holloway was appointed as the academic dean at the Wolfson campus of Miami Dade. In 2001, she helped found the Honors College at Miami Dade. Holloway was active in the Honors College until her retirement in 2011. After leaving Miami Dade College, Holloway served as the president and chief executive officer of AH Academic Consulting Group.

In addition to her career at Miami Dade College, Holloway served as a board member of various organizations including the New World School of the Arts, the YMCA South Dade Family Center, the Concert Association of Florida, and the Jubilate Chorale. Holloway also served as president of the National Black Music Caucus and as the chapter president of the Links, Inc. in 1996.

Holloway was recognized for her nearly forty years of service to Miami Dade College at her retirement in 2011, when the Honors College was named in her honor. She was also named on Success Magazine’s list of “25 Most Influential and Prominent Black Women” in 2009.

Alexandria Holloway was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on March 10, 2017.

Accession Number

A2017.034

Sex

Female

Interview Date

03/10/2017

Last Name

Holloway

Maker Category
Organizations
Schools

Florida State University

University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign

Jackson State University

Hampton University

Thea Bowman Catholic School

Sally Reynolds Elementary School

Jim Hill High School

First Name

Alexandria

Birth City, State, Country

Jackson

HM ID

HOL19

Favorite Season

Fall, Spring

State

Mississippi

Favorite Vacation Destination

Amsterdam

Favorite Quote

There’s A Destiny That Makes Us Brothers, None Goes This Way Alone, All That We Send Into The Lives Of Others Comes Back Into Our Very Own.$Teachers Are Known By The Students They Teach.$

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Florida

Birth Date

4/15/1947

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Miami

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Salmon, Shrimp

Short Description

Academic administrator Alexandria Holloway (1947 - ) served at Miami Dade College for forty-one years, and founded the Honors College in 2001, which was named in honor in 2011.

Employment

AH Academic Consulting Group

Miami Dade College

Garden Hills Elementary School

Franklin Junior High School

Jackson State University

Favorite Color

Coral

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Alexandria Holloway's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Alexandria Holloway lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Alexandria Holloway talks about her mother's education, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Alexandria Holloway describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Alexandria Holloway talks about her mother's education, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Alexandria Holloway describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Alexandria Holloway talks about her father's attitude towards the South

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Alexandria Holloway describes how her parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Alexandria Holloway describes her earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Alexandria Holloway remembers her early education

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Alexandria Holloway describes her likeness to her parents

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Alexandria Holloway talks about her relationship with her sister

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Alexandria Holloway describes the sights, sounds and smells of her childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Alexandria Holloway remembers Sister Thea Bowman Catholic Elementary School in Jackson, Mississippi

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Alexandria Holloway talks about Jim Hill High School in Jackson, Mississippi

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Alexandria Holloway remembers the Civil Rights Movement in Jackson, Mississippi

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Alexandria Holloway recalls the mass arrests after Medgar Evers' assassination, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Alexandria Holloway recalls the mass arrests after Medgar Evers' assassination, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Alexandria Holloway remembers being detained at the Mississippi State Fairgrounds

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Alexandria Holloway reflects upon the impact of her early civil rights activism

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Alexandria Holloway remembers her music activities during high school

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Alexandria Holloway recalls her decision to study music

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Alexandria Holloway talks about the music program at Jackson State University in Jackson, Mississippi

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Alexandria Holloway describes her transition to graduate school

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Alexandria Holloway describes her experiences at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Alexandria Holloway recalls her start as a music teacher

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Alexandria Holloway talks about her time as a professor at Jackson State University in Jackson, Mississippi

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Alexandria Holloway describes her decision to move to Miami, Florida

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Alexandria Holloway remembers her decision to join the faculty of the Miami-Dade Community College

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Alexandria Holloway remembers moving to Miami, Florida

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Alexandria Holloway recalls her transition to Miami, Florida

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Alexandria Holloway recalls her experiences of racial discrimination at Miami Dade College in Kendall, Florida

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Alexandria Holloway recalls her decision to earn her doctorate

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Alexandria Holloway remembers her graduate studies at Florida State University in Tallahassee, Florida

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Alexandria Holloway remembers serving as chair of the music department at Miami-Dade Community College

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Alexandria Holloway remembers forming the JUBA Gospel Ensemble, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Alexandria Holloway remembers forming the JUBA Gospel Ensemble, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Alexandria Holloway talks about her health problems

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$4

DAStory

5$7

DATitle
Alexandria Holloway recalls the mass arrests after Medgar Evers' assassination, pt. 1
Alexandria Holloway remembers serving as chair of the music department at Miami-Dade Community College
Transcript
Medgar Evers was killed in June, I think it's June, and on the day that they announced that he had been murdered in his own yard, in his driveway, they announced it on the radio, it was a, I'm pretty sure it was a Saturday morning but I can't be sure, I heard it on the radio and my sister [Yvette Holloway Lynch] and I were home alone and I said, "I've got to go to the Masonic Temple [Jackson, Mississippi]," and she said, "Don't go." I said, "I've got to go, then you need to stay here," and I told her that if something happened to me, at least my parents would have one more child.$$Had you--you had heard that he had been assassinated?$$I heard, they were on the radio that he had been assassinated.$$This is 1963?$$That--I was going into my senior year [at Jim Hill High School, Jackson, Mississippi]. And so I went to the Masonic Temple and as we were coming out, we thought it was going to be coming out like always but this time we came out they had these big garbage trucks that were backed up to the entrance. And so as we walked out of the door, you were shoved into the garbage trucks and there were dogs to keep us in line. So we were pushed into these trucks. They carried us some place and transferred us from those trucks to paddy wagons. You know those are the, they're about the size of an EMT truck [emergency medical technician] and they put about fifty of us in one that would hold twenty and carried us to the fairgrounds [Mississippi State Fairgrounds, Jackson, Mississippi] where they separated the girls and the boys and the men and the women (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) And when you say, we, were you with anyone in particular or you're just, you're--$$I was, you know, there was, I was just, I went--$$Right, you went by yourself.$$--I wasn't, I went by myself but there were other people there who I knew and there were some of my friends who didn't go, you know, but they arrested all of us, everybody who was at that mass meeting was arrested (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) And took you to the fairgrounds in a paddy wagon?$$--took us to the fairground--right, and they put the boys on one side, the women on the other side and so when they asked us, what are you, I was under eighteen so they wanted to know what I wanted. Did I want my parents to come and get me or did I want to stay and I said, "I want to stay." "Well what do you want us to tell your parents?" "Tell them to bring me a change of clothes and some money for the Coke machine." I was so stupid. Anyway, that's what they did and they told my parents I didn't want to come home because had I said I wanted to go home, they would have released me but they didn't tell me that and then I didn't know but I stayed for a while. The next day, my cousin came and she said, "Uncle Clifford [Clifford Holloway] said, when you get out just keep going, don't come home." So I wasn't afraid 'cause I knew my mother [Alfanette Kelley Holloway] wasn't going to let that happen, you know, and I knew my father, he's just that way. So I stayed the next day and the next day, and the next day the college kids came from Tougaloo College [Tougaloo, Mississippi], which was a historically black private school [HBCU]. They came in that morning about eleven [o'clock], maybe they were processed earlier, but they came into the room where we were at eleven; and we're talking about maybe four, five hundred people in this room.$I, when I left Florida State [Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida], we were sitting in a, I was back in Miami-Dade [Miami-Dade Community College South Campus; Miami Dade College Kendall Campus, Kendall, Florida] and we were sitting in a meeting and the chairman said, "I think I'm going to give up my role as chair. Is there anybody in here who wants to do it?" I said, "I'll do it," because I had already had that class from that master [Robert Glidden] so I figured I can do this, I got a book (laughter) and he had taught us everything and I think she was a little bit threatened because I had had that class and because I had just finished the doctorate. So, I went through the process and got the job.$$So, it was a direct correlation from having learned that, huh (simultaneous)?$$(Simultaneous) Yes, yes, and wanting to do it. I never wanted, I was happy doing teaching, you know, but then after having that class and seeing the transformation.$$Well, so becoming a chair is a very different job, it's more administrative, right, and is it developing a curriculum as well?$$Not necessarily. You work with the faculty to develop the curriculum but you have to administer it. One of the things that encouraged me was because during the time that I had been teaching, I started this group called, JUBA [JUBA Gospel Ensemble]. It was a gospel choir and I could never get funding, directly, from the administration to purchase anything. Now they gave me money for robes, but for music, because at that time, gospel music wasn't written out as it is now, you know, you basically had to listen to it on an album or some kind of tape or you write it yourself and that's how you learn to perform it. And so with this group of gospel singers in an academy, I had to have something to make sure that they were learning the right structure. So I asked for money to purchase albums. That didn't make sense to administrators who were not musicians and who are not African American, who don't know gospel music 'cause if I need to buy music, I just go buy the sheet music. So, what I figured out is, and I always had to justify that, so as I'm thinking about becoming an administrator, the one thing I can learn is where is the money because I saw the science department getting equipment. I saw the business department getting computers. I saw everybody getting what they needed except in this little realm. I just wanted to know, where could I carve this out. So I figured I'd become a chair for six months or a year, learn about where the music [sic.] is and go back to teaching.

Virgis Colbert

Corporate chief executive Virgis Colbert was born on October 13, 1939 in Jackson, Mississippi. Colbert earned his B.S. degree in industrial management from Central Michigan University in 1974.

Before joining Miller, Colbert was general superintendent of manufacturing for Chrysler Corporation in Toledo, Ohio. In 1979, Colbert became assistant to the plant manager at Miller’s Reidsville, North Carolina. In 1980, he was named production manager at the Fort Worth, Texas, container plant and in 1981, he was appointed production manager at Milwaukee Container. In 1981, he was named Milwaukee Container plant manager. In 1987, Colbert moved to the corporate offices as assistant director of can manufacturing. He was appointed director of can manufacturing in 1988 and director of container and support manufacturing in 1988. In 1989, he was named vice president - materials manufacturing. In 1990, he was named vice president - plant operations. In 1993, Colbert was named senior vice president - operations. In 1995, Colbert was named senior vice president - worldwide operations.

Virgis serves as a director of the NASDAQ Exchange, Single-Tenant Acquisition Group and the New Senior Investment Group. Other boards include: Merrill Lynch & Co.; Bank of America Corporation; Delphi Corporation; Sara Lee Corporation; Stanley Black & Decker; lead director at Lorillard, Inc.; Hillshire Brands; and Bradley Center Sports and Entertainment Center.

Virgis is a co-owner of the Milwaukee Bucks and director emeritus of the Green Bay Packers.

He is chairman emeritus and co-founder of the Thurgood Marshall College Fund and former chairman of the Board of Trustees of Fisk University. He received honorary doctorate degrees from Fisk University and Kentucky State University.

In 1997, he was named a national honorary member of the 100 Black Men of America. In 1996, he received the Trumpet Award from Turner Broadcasting Systems. His other awards include Harlem YMCA Black Achiever, Milwaukee YMCA Black Achiever, and Phi Beta Sigma Fraternity Black Achiever, and the National Urban League service award and the NAACP service award.
Colbert is a member of Omega Psi Phi Fraternity and the Boule'. He is a life member of the NAACP.

Fortune magazine named him as one of the “50 Most Powerful Black Executives in America.” Black Enterprise magazine named him as one of the “75 Most Powerful Blacks in Corporate America.” In 2001, Colbert was named “Beverage Executive of the Year” by Beverage Industry Magazine. Black Enterprise Magazine named him as one of the “50 Top Black Executives in Corporate America” and as one of “America’s 40 Most Powerful Black Executives.” Ebony Magazine named him as one of the “24 To Watch in ‘94,” one of the “50 Top Black Executives in Corporate America” and one of the “12 Most Powerful Blacks in Corporate America.” In 1998, he received the Executive Leadership Council Achievement Award. Colbert is listed in “Who’s Who in Finance/Industry,” “Who’s Who in the World,” and “Who’s Who in Black Corporate America.”

Colbert and his wife Angela, an attorney, have three children.

Virgis Colbert was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on February 23, 2017.

Accession Number

A2017.027

Sex

Male

Interview Date

02/23/2017

Last Name

Colbert

Maker Category
Organizations
Schools

Central Michigan University

Scott High School

Sherman Elementary School

First Name

Virgis

Birth City, State, Country

Jackson

HM ID

COL27

Favorite Season

Fall

Sponsor

Dorothy Terrell

State

Mississippi

Favorite Vacation Destination

Martha's Vineyard

Favorite Quote

If it is to be, it is up to me.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Wisconsin

Birth Date

10/13/1939

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Milwaukee

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Chicken

Short Description

Corporate chief executive (1939 - ) was senior vice president of worldwide operations of Miller Brewing Company and served as senior advisor to MillerCoors LLC.

Employment

Miller Brewing Company

Chrysler Corporation

Main Sponsor
Favorite Color

Blue

Freddi Evans

Children’s book author Freddi Williams Evans was born in 1957 and grew up in Madison, Mississippi. As a child, her parents, Reverend R. L. and Carrie Cotten Williams, traveled frequently across the United States. Evans studied piano from an early age and graduated from Tougaloo College with her B.A. degrees in music and psychology. While at Tougaloo, she also was able to travel to West Africa where she studied the traditional music of Ghana. Her love of travel and the arts influenced her desire to write her stories. She continued her education at Hahnemann University in Pennsylvania where she received her Masters degree in creative arts therapy with an emphasis in music.

Evans worked in Philadelphia before marrying and moving to New Orleans, Louisiana where she began working as a music therapist. She was a Fulbright Scholar twice, going to Zimbabwe in 1995 and South Africa in 2000. In addition to working as an arts educator and administrator for the Jefferson Parish Public School System, Evans worked as an independent consultant for various organizations including: Orleans Parish Public Schools, the Amistad Research Center at Tulane University, Louisiana State Department of Education and the Mississippi Arts Commission. In 2003, she authored her first children’s book, Bus of Our Own which received many accolades including the 2004 Mississippi Book Award. Her second and third books followed in 2005 and 2008 with The Battle of New Orleans: The Drummer’s Storyand Hush Harbor: Praying in Secret. Her fourth book, Come Sunday: New Orleans’ Congo Square, a history book for general audiences, is due in 2010.

Evans has received several awards for her work in education including the Mazie Malveaux VSA Award in 1998 for her service to Louisiana students with disabilities and the Special Congressional Recognition for Outstanding Contributions to the Arts in 2002.

Freddi Evans was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on June 9, 2010.

Accession Number

A2010.053

Sex

Female

Interview Date

6/9/2010

Last Name

Evans

Maker Category
Marital Status

Divorced

Middle Name

Williams

Occupation
Schools

Tougaloo College

Hanhnemann University

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Freddi

Birth City, State, Country

Jackson

HM ID

EVA05

Favorite Season

Fall, Winter

Sponsor

Herb and Sheran Wilkins Media Makers

State

Mississippi

Favorite Vacation Destination

Africa

Favorite Quote

Pursue purpose with a passion.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Louisiana

Birth Date

2/13/1957

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New Orleans

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Salmon

Short Description

Author and music therapist Freddi Evans (1957 - ) writes children's books based on African American history and has won several awards for her work including the Special Congressional Recognition for Outstanding Contributions to the Arts.

Employment

Jefferson Parish Public Schools

Main Sponsor
Favorite Color

Green, Pink

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Freddi Evans' interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Freddi Evans lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Freddi Evans describes her mother's growing up in Madison County, Mississippi

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Freddi Evans talks about her maternal grandparents

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Freddi Evans talks about her great-grandfather's and her grandfather's land ownership

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Freddi Evans talks about her relationship with her maternal grandfather, Edward David Cotton

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Freddi Evans talks about her maternal great-grandfather being a slave and his life after Emancipation

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Freddi Evans talks about her father's growing up in Mississippi

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Freddi Evans talks about her paternal grandparents

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Freddi Evans talks about her siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Freddi Evans describes the home where she grew up in Madison, Mississippi

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Freddi Evans describes her neighborhood in Madison, Mississippi

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Freddi Evans describes her experience in elementary school in Madison, Mississippi

Tape: 1 Story: 14 - Freddi Evans talks about playing the piano as a child

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Freddi Evans describes the sights, sounds and smells of elementary school in Madison, Mississippi

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Freddi Evans talks about her favorite teachers and her interest in math in elementary school

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Freddi Evans talks about the integration of her school in Madison, Mississippi in the early 1970s

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Freddi Evans talks about her extracurricular activities in school

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Freddi Evans describes her experience in a newly-integrated high school in Madison, Mississippi

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Freddi Evans talks about graduating from high school, and being accepted into Tougaloo College as part of early admissions

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Freddi Evans talks about the discrimination she experienced in her newly-integrated high school

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Freddi Evans talks about her family's involvement in civic life

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Freddi Evans talks about her family's involvement with church in Mississippi

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Freddi Evans talks about graduating from high school in 1973

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Freddi Evans talks about her social life in school, attending summer programs, and traveling with her family during the summers

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Freddi Evans talks about traveling with her family in the segregated South, and her parents' jobs

Tape: 2 Story: 13 - Freddi Evans talks about attending Tougaloo College, where she majored in music and psychology

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Freddi Evans talks about the music department at Tougaloo College and her trip to Ghana while she was there

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Freddi Evans talks about the similarities between the religious practices of African Americans in the South and in Africa

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Freddi Evans talks about her senior year at Tougaloo College

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Freddi Evans describes her experience in graduate school at Hahnemann University and the field of music therapy

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Freddi Evans talks about her marriage and her children

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Freddi Evans talks about her work at the Juvenile Court Services in New Orleans, Louisiana

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Freddi Evans describes her role as an artist administrator

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Freddi Evans talks about her Fulbright Scholarships and her trips to Africa and Japan

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Freddi Evans talks about her inspiration for her first book

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Freddi Evans describes her uncles' school bus business in Madison, Mississippi, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Freddi Evans describes her uncles' school bus business in Madison, Mississippi, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Freddi Evans talks about her children as her inspiration to publish her first children's book

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Freddi Evans talks about her first book getting published

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Freddi Evans talks about her second book, entitled, 'The Battle of New Orleans: The Drummer's Story'

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Freddi Evans describes her experience during Hurricane Katrina in 2005

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Freddi Evans describes her experience in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina in 2005

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Freddi Evans talks about her third book, entitled, 'Hush Harbor: Praying in Secret'

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Freddi Evans describes the story of her book entitled, 'Hush Harbor: Praying in Secret'

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Freddi Evans discusses the history of Congo Square in New Orleans, Louisiana

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Freddi Evans discusses her civic activities and the awards that she has received for her books

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Freddi Evans talks about her decision to major in classical music and her research role model from the University of Ghana at Accra

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Freddi Evans shares her message to future generations

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Freddi Evans reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Freddi Evans reflects upon the history of her family in Mississippi

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$3

DAStory

3$9

DATitle
Freddi Evans talks about the integration of her school in Madison, Mississippi in the early 1970s
Freddi Evans talks about her inspiration for her first book
Transcript
And as you moved on, you stayed at that school [Rosa Scott Elementary School, Madison, Mississippi] until you graduated?$$No, I stayed there until integration, until full integration because--$$But what year was that because 'Brown vs. The Board of Education'--$$I know, right.$$--was a long time [1954]. This is, we're already--if you're in first grade, 1961--$$Exactly.$$So, I mean integration should have happened, which it didn't, so--$$It didn't.$$--what year are you speaking of?$$Let me see, maybe around '70 [1970]. I'm not really sure exactly. I went to Tougaloo [College, Jackson, Mississippi] in '73 [1973], and I was there two years. So maybe '71 [1971] or--$$You were in--$$--'70 [1970] or '71 [1971].$$What grade?$$You know, I didn't go to twelfth grade, so I think it must have been tenth grade or something like that, tenth grade because I was there two years in the integrated school.$$Okay, so you went to Rosa Scott until the tenth grade?$$Probably to the ninth grade.$$Ninth grade, okay.$$And I went there for tenth and eleventh grade, yeah. And that was what we call full integration, of course, because then we could go to the school. Before that, we had "Freedom of Choice," and you could select. So some of the black children opted to go to the school, to the white, predominantly white school. But then after the Freedom of Choice opportunity passed, then it was like, okay, we have one high school. And so that high school became the white, predominantly white high school. And Rosa Scott ended up being maybe an elementary school or something. Right now, it's a middle school in Madison. But that was the norm, is that, if there's only going to be one high school, it would be the school that was the white high school. And things were very, very different because at Rosa Scott, we had band, we had choir, we had all of the sports. We had library. It was just, had a rich, rich extracurricular, extra curriculum activities, opportunities for students. But when we went to the school that became the high school, the white high school, all of those activities were stopped. They didn't allow band nor choir. Sports continued, you know, there was still a basketball team, still a football team, but nothing that the students could interact, you know, with, or during or any kind of extracurricular activities for students.$When did you decide to write your first book?$$Oh, I decided to write my first, I first started off with poetry, and I know the first manuscript that I attempted to write was based on my aunt who--was that the first one? I think that was the first one, who was like my grandmother [Geraldine Foster Cotten]. She kept my grandfather's [Edward David Cotten] home, the Cotten home, house. Do you remember me talking about the land? And as, when I grew up, I thought that she was my grandmother because she lived there with my grandfather. And, you know, we just--she just had the presence of a grandmother, you know, always accepting, and always had food for you, teacakes and milk. It was clabbered milk, but it was, you know, what we knew.$$It was what kind of milk?$$Clabbered milk. Now, I don't know--well, she milked cows, right? So for clabbered milk, you don't put it in the refrigerator. And it develops clabber, I guess, is what it's called. But, you know, I ate it all my life, and then when I went to Philadelphia [Pennsylvania], and I started eating yogurt, I said, you know, this is clabbered milk. So it's basically yogurt. But she always had cake or either teacakes for us to eat along with it. So, she was the grandmother figure to me. And when I found out that she had cancer, and I wanted to write about her. I wanted to write something. And so I started writing something about her teacakes. And she did read my draft, one or two drafts, but, you know, that book has not developed yet. And I believe it will, you know, but I did write poems about her. As a matter of fact, one was published in her funeral program, maybe two. Yeah, one was published in her funeral program, and I did a separate tribute to her on her, at her funeral. And then at my uncle's funeral, who's my oldest uncle on that side, I heard about the bus because, see, in rural Mississippi, when there's a funeral, there is a program. But there's also a section on the program where people whose names are not on program can get up and say something (laughter). So, during that time period, when anybody could get up and talk and make a tribute, someone said, well, I would like to thank Mr. Cotten for bringing the first school bus to the colored children. And so I started asking on the way to the graveyard, what about this school bus, you know? Tell me about the bus, riding in the car with my brother [Ray Williams], who is totally different from me. You can already know because he was Stokely [Carmichael], right? And so he knows and socializes and talks to everybody, quite different from me. And he goes, you don't know nothing. That bus stayed in the pasture for years, you know. We just cut it up for scrap metal a couple of years ago. So, okay, the bus stayed there until I became interested in it, right? And then I started interviewing my relatives about this bus, you know. Who, why, how, you know, how did he get it, when, and all of that. And so I developed the storyline, and it was called "The Bus for Us."

James Collier, Jr.

Elementary school teacher and engineer James Collier was born on October 18, 1924 in Jackson, Tennessee to Lucille and James Collier, Sr. Collier’s grandmother ran a boarding house for Pullman porters, and his maternal great grandmother lived to be 111 years old. A retired quality control engineer for Monsanto, Collier was the inventor of the process by which Monsanto sliced and coated silicon chips for electronic information storage. Growing up in Jackson, Tennessee, he attended South Jackson Elementary School in an integrated neighborhood. At segregated Merry High School in Jackson, Collier was an outstanding musician. He sang and played the violin and trombone. Before graduation in 1942, Collier and the members of the choir refused to entertain the white state school superintendent. They let the elaborate intro music play and stood mute.

Drafted into World War II in 1943, Collier was discharged in 1946. He graduated from Jackson’s Lane College with his B.S. degree in social science and music in 1949. Collier also took graduate courses at Saint Louis University in St. Louis, Missouri.

Collier started working for the St. Louis Board of Education in 1950 as a substitute teacher, then as a sixth grade teacher. Also working after hours as a musician and band leader, he played trombone with his group, Jim Collier and the Rhythmaires and promoted acts like Chuck Berry, Eddie Kendall, Archie Burnside, Nancy Wilson, Otis Hightower, Art Blakely, Ernie Wilkins, Jimmy Forrest and Jimmy Smith.

In 1980, Collier invented and patented a silicon slicing process for today’s silicon chips. Monsanto Electronics established a plant to produce the chips in 1963, where Collier experimented and developed the slicing process.

Collier was the founder of Operation Family and works with youth, mentoring and teaching them voice and stage presence. For many years, he produced his own cable television show. The broad range of subjects covered by Collier include the works of Tyler Perry, black land distribution after the Civil War, St. Louis gang culture and an award winning Black History Month program. Collier also published a book of his poetry and was developing his talent as a painter.

Collier passed away on June 1, 2011 at the age of 86.

Accession Number

A2007.293

Sex

Male

Interview Date

10/17/2007

Last Name

Collier

Middle Name

Alexander

Organizations
Schools

South Jackson Elementary School

Jackson Central-Merry Academy of Medical Technology

South Elementary School

Search Occupation Category
First Name

James

Birth City, State, Country

Jackson

HM ID

COL16

Favorite Season

Fall

Sponsor

National Science Foundation

State

Tennessee

Favorite Vacation Destination

Europe

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Missouri

Birth Date

10/18/1924

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

St. Louis

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Beef Steak

Death Date

6/1/2011

Short Description

Elementary school teacher and engineer James Collier, Jr. (1924 - 2011 ) invented and patented the silicon splicing process for today’s silicon chips.

Employment

United States Army

Jim Collier and the Rhythmaires

St, Louis Board of Education

Monsanto Company

Silicon Technology Corporation

Delete

Main Sponsor
Main Sponsor URL
Favorite Color

Blue

DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of James Collier's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - James Collier shares his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - James Collier talks about his grandparents on his mother's side of the family

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - James Collier talks about his mother

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - James Collier talks about his father's side of the family

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - James Collier talks about his childhood in South Jackson, Tennessee

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - James Collier talks about his high school teachers and administrators

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - James Collier shares a story of civil disobedience in high school

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - James Collier recalls his high school graduation and involvement in music and arts

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - James Collier talks about his experience in the Army Cryptology Unit and Army Service Force Band

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - James Collier describes his first marriage

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - James Collier talks about his academic experience at Lane College

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - James Collier talks about his music group, Jim Collier and the Rhythmaires

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - James Collier talks about income during his early career

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - James Collier describes his move to St. Louis and Monsanto

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - James Collier describes the silicon project at Monsanto, part 1

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - James Collier describes the silicon project at Monsanto, part 2

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - James Collier discusses his contributions to silicon splicing

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - James Collier describes the process of preparing silicon chips

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - James Collier gives advice to future inventors

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - James Collier talks about his post-retirement musical endeavors

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - James Collier talks about producing the television show 'Street Level' and other documentaries

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - James Collier discusses his poetry and volunteer activities

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - James Collier discusses his hopes and concerns for the black community

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - James Collier reflects on his life and talks about his family

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - James Collier describes his photographs

Bishop Carolyn Tyler Guidry

Bishop Carolyn Tyler Guidry was born in Jackson, Mississippi on August 25, 1935. As a child, she attended St. Matthew Baptist Church for grade school, where eight grade levels were taught in a single classroom. After high school, Tyler Guidry earned her associate’s degree from J.P Campbell College in Jackson, and later studied economics at Tougaloo College. In 1977, she graduated from Los Angeles Bible School and she received her master’s of theology from Fuller Theological Seminary in 2004.

After she completed her A.A. degree, Tyler Guidry began working for the NAACP, where she was the women’s voter registration chair. In 1972, she and her husband, Kerry Tyler, drove across country to California, where she was hired by the Security Pacific Bank. The following year, she left the bank as she answered her calling to the ministry. After graduating from the Los Angeles Bible School, Tyler Guidry became the pastor of the First A.M.E. Church in Indio, California, where she remained for the next six years. In 1983, she moved to Bakersfield, California, where she led the congregation at Cain Memorial A.M.E. Church until 1989. That year, she was appointed to Walker Temple A.M.E. Church in Los Angeles, making her the first female to be appointed to a major metropolitan church in the A.M.E. Church. In 1994, Tyler Guidry was appointed to be the first female presiding elder in the Fifth Episcopal District. On July 5, 2005, Tyler Guidry was elected to become only the second female bishop in the A.M.E. Church.

In addition to her ministry, Tyler Guidry has been involved with a number of other organizations. She has served as the secretary of the board of the John F. Kennedy Hospital in Indio, president of the Riverside County Board of Mental Health and treasurer of the national board of One Church One Child, among many other groups. She is also a contributor to the fourth edition of “Those Preaching Women.” Her first husband, Kerry Tyler, passed away in 1988. She and her husband Don Guidry reside in Los Angeles. She has six children, twelve grandchildren and two great-grandchildren.

Accession Number

A2004.192

Sex

Female

Interview Date

10/5/2004 |and| 11/15/2004

Last Name

Guidry

Maker Category
Middle Name

Tyler

Occupation
Schools

Mary C. Jones Elementary School

Brinkley High School

Los Angeles Bible Training School

Tougaloo College

First Name

Carolyn

Birth City, State, Country

Jackson

HM ID

GUI01

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Mississippi

Favorite Vacation Destination

Bermuda

Favorite Quote

I Can Do All Things Through Christ That Strengthens Me.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

California

Birth Date

8/25/1937

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Los Angeles

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Ice Cream

Short Description

Bishop Bishop Carolyn Tyler Guidry (1937 - ) was the first woman to be appointed a major metropolitan charge when she was assigned to Walker Temple in Los Angeles, California. Guidry was later elected a bishop of the African Methodist Episcopal Church, becoming only the second woman to hold that title.

Employment

National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)

Security Pacific Bank

First A.M.E Church

Cain Memorial A.M.E. Church - Bakersfield, California

Walker Temple A.M.E. Church

Fifth Episcopal District of the A.M.E. Church

A.M.E. Church

Favorite Color

Sky Blue

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Bishop Carolyn Tyler Guidry's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Bishop Carolyn Tyler Guidry lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Bishop Carolyn Tyler Guidry describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Bishop Carolyn Tyler Guidry describes where her mother grew up

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Bishop Carolyn Tyler Guidry shares a story about her maternal family

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Bishop Carolyn Tyler Guidry remembers her family life as a child

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Bishop Carolyn Tyler Guidry talks about her relationship with her father

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Bishop Carolyn Tyler Guidry remembers the sights, sounds and smells of growing up in Jackson, Mississippi

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Bishop Carolyn Tyler Guidry lists the family members in her household growing up

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Bishop Carolyn Tyler Guidry describes her childhood personality

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Bishop Carolyn Tyler Guidry describes her early educational experiences in Jackson, Mississippi

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Bishop Carolyn Tyler Guidry talks about the application of the separate but equal doctrine in Jackson, Mississippi schools

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Bishop Carolyn Tyler Guidry recalls segregation in Jackson, Mississippi

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Bishop Carolyn Tyler Guidry remembers the trial and execution of Willie McGee in Jackson, Mississippi

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Bishop Carolyn Tyler Guidry recalls the day World War II ended

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Bishop Carolyn Tyler Guidry describes the radio shows she listened to with his family as a child

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Bishop Carolyn Tyler Guidry describes what she liked to read as a child

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Bishop Carolyn Tyler Guidry talks about secretly being taught African American history at Mary C. Jones Elementary School in Jackson, Mississippi

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Bishop Carolyn Tyler Guidry talks about the teaching of African American history after the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Bishop Carolyn Tyler Guidry describes Brinkley High School in Jackson, Mississippi

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Bishop Carolyn Tyler Guidry describes what she was like as a student

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Bishop Carolyn Tyler Guidry talks about attending church as a child

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Bishop Carolyn Tyler Guidry describes meeting her first husband

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Bishop Carolyn Tyler Guidry recalls being courted by her first husband

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Bishop Carolyn Tyler Guidry describes her marriage to her first husband

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Bishop Carolyn Tyler Guidry recalls the reason she went back to school

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Bishop Carolyn Tyler Guidry describes her first husband's educational background

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Bishop Carolyn Tyler Guidry explains how she became involved in the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Bishop Carolyn Tyler Guidry recalls the death of Medgar Evers

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Bishop Carolyn Tyler Guidry describes her awareness of the crimes committed against African Americans during her youth in Mississippi

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Bishop Carolyn Tyler Guidry recalls 1964's importance in Mississippi's history

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Bishop Carolyn Tyler Guidry remembers the Freedom Summer of 1964 in Mississippi

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Bishop Carolyn Tyler Guidry recalls her ten-year-old son being jailed with demonstrators in 1964

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Bishop Carolyn Tyler Guidry talks about Robert Parris Moses

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Bishop Carolyn Tyler Guidry talks about HistoryMakers Joyce Ladner and Dorie Ladner

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Bishop Carolyn Tyler Guidry remembers Civil Rights activists in 1964

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Bishop Carolyn Tyler Guidry talks about moving to Los Angeles, California and working at Security Pacific Bank

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Bishop Carolyn Tyler Guidry describes her experience at Los Angeles Bible Training School in Los Angeles, California

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Bishop Carolyn Tyler Guidry describes her experience as pastor of First A.M.E. Church in Indio, California

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Bishop Carolyn Tyler Guidry recalls her time pastoring in Bakersfield, California and the impact of her first husband's death

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Bishop Carolyn Tyler Guidry recalls the movement to elect the first woman bishop in the A.M.E. church

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Bishop Carolyn Tyler Guidry remembers the election of the first woman bishop in the A.M.E. church in 2000

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Bishop Carolyn Tyler Guidry recalls her election as the second woman bishop in the A.M.E. church

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Bishop Carolyn Tyler Guidry describes the challenges she faces as bishop of the A.M.E. church

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Bishop Carolyn Tyler Guidry explains the history of activism in the A.M.E church and her personal theology

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Bishop Carolyn Tyler Guidry describes her hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Bishop Carolyn Tyler Guidry reflects upon her life and her career as a minister

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Bishop Carolyn Tyler Guidry reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Bishop Carolyn Tyler Guidry describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Bishop Carolyn Tyler Guidry narrates her photographs, pt.1

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Bishop Carolyn Tyler Guidry narrates her photographs, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Bishop Carolyn Tyler Guidry narrates her photographs, pt. 3

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$4

DAStory

2$8

DATitle
Bishop Carolyn Tyler Guidry recalls her ten-year-old son being jailed with demonstrators in 1964
Bishop Carolyn Tyler Guidry describes her experience as pastor of First A.M.E. Church in Indio, California
Transcript
Did you go door to door in those days or were you mainly in the NAACP [National Association for the Advancement of Colored People] office in '64 [1964] or--$$No, we actually went door to door to register people. I was a block captain where we actually knocked on doors to get people to register to vote. During some of the demonstrations when the city [of Jackson, Mississippi] decided to use a garbage truck to pick people up who were being arrested for demonstrating, my ten year old son, was one of those picked up and we had to go get him out of jail.$$They picked him up in a garbage truck?$$Yeah, um-hm. They used the, the dump truck to put people in to take them off to jail. And the jail was not large enough to hold all the people so they took 'em to the fairgrounds, the county fairgrounds where they locked people up. And that, I remember we had to go and get our son out of that, no charges, he was ten years old. So there were no charges brought against him and as parents we went down and we got him and so he was okay but that was, that was supposed to be a form of intimidation. And I think in the past when blacks have been lynched, that it put fear in blacks and so maybe they were assured that black folk wouldn't rise up. And I think even the whites were, were surprised themselves that it didn't work anymore, you know, these folk were crazy now, they don't behave the way they're supposed to.$So you're in Indio, California (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) For six years.$$--you know this small church--for six years?$$Uh-huh. When, when I went there the church was so small they could raise about twenty-five dollars a Sunday, and so three Sundays they paid the pastor the twenty-five and the fourth Sunday was trustee Sunday they paid the light and gas and telephone bill with that offering. And the second Sunday I was there, the leader of the congregation decided that since I was gonna be there they needed to pay me a decent salary, so he determined how much each one of the present members would give so that they could pay me seventy-five a week, which they did. But, of course, when it came time to pay the bills he had to give each one of the members one of the bills, somebody got the light bill, somebody got the water bill, and they would pay, that's how they paid their bills. So, when it came time to other obligations, the women would have chicken dinners to raise the money and this went on my first year. And then I--the man who was the leader would not sell any dinners, wouldn't help the women and I said to them look ladies, look at who's doing the work, you don't need to do this. We can do this a better way. And I began to teach tithing and stewardship. And I remember we had this, this three month program where we had Bible study on tithing and we had set a goal the first Sunday in August was going to be our first tithing Sunday. And the first time we did it, and they raised $1200, they could not believe it they'd raise that much money. But it was sort of the turnaround in the congregation. The congregation was growing numerically, we now had young people, we had a choir of about thirty, young people in the youth choir, the adults were coming back to church, and they had a $1200 offering on a Sunday when they couldn't raise twenty-five [dollars] before. And so we began to, to grow and the church became important. I used to go to the school board and give the invocation. I'd go to the city council and give the invocation. I joined the Interdenominational Ministerial Alliance, black and white preachers, and became president of the alliance. Anything that was going on in the city I made sure that First A.M.E. Church [Indio, California] was superimposed. When the fair would come and we had a booth, so that we were there, our presence was there. So much so that six years later when I was about to leave Indio, something happened on the [city] council and one of the members was dismissed and the charter says that if the council, remaining council can agree on an individual they don't have to have a special election. And the council members came to me and asked if I would serve on the city council, they could all agree on me as a person. And it was tempting, my ego said, ah ha, be on the city council, but I had been told by my bishop that I was being moved to another congregation to pastor. And I had to remind myself that God had called me to preach and that I was a pastor and I had not been called to serve on the city council.

Dr. Gilbert R. Mason, Sr.

Gilbert R. Mason, Sr., “wade-in” activist and physician, was born in Jackson, Mississippi, on October 7, 1928. When he graduated from Jackson’s Lanier High School in 1945, Mason dreamed of becoming a doctor. He earned a B.S. degree from Tennessee State University in 1949. He earned an M.D. degree from Howard University Medical School in 1954 and served a year as an intern at Homer G. Phillips Hospital in St. Louis, Missouri.

Mason started a family practice in Biloxi, Mississippi, in 1955. In May 1959, he led a nonviolent protest against the “whites only” section of a federally funded Gulf Coast beach. Mason’s group was arrested. Subsequent “wade-ins” ignited some of the bloodiest white rioting in Mississippi history. These resulted in a successful antidiscrimination lawsuit against the state of Mississippi, the first such case filed in U.S. history. At the same time, Mason filed the first school desegregation lawsuit in the history of Biloxi, which he also won. Mason collaborated with other Mississippi NAACP activists, including Winston Hudson, Amzie Moore, Aaron Henry and Medgar Evers. He helped the NAACP join with CORE, SNCC and SCLC to form the Council of Federated Organizations (COFO). Mason played a role in COFO’s massive black voter registration drive, the Freedom Summer of 1964. Mason served as president of the Mississippi NAACP for thirty-three years.

The recipient of numerous awards as a physician, Mason was recognized with a special commendation by joint resolution of the Mississippi State Legislature on March 1, 2002 for his contributions to the Biloxi Regional Medical Center. He resided in Biloxi where he was known as “the civil rights doctor” until his death on July 8, 2006.

On Sunday, July 30, 2006, the mayor of Biloxi, Mississippi proclaimed it to be Dr. Gilbert Mason Day in Biloxi.

Selected Bibliography

Beaches, Blood and Ballots: A Black Doctor’s Civil Rights Struggles. (1998) By Dr. Gilbert Mason and James Patterson Smith.

Accession Number

A2002.202

Sex

Male

Interview Date

11/11/2002

Last Name

Mason

Maker Category
Middle Name

R.

Organizations
Schools

Lanier High School

Tennessee State University

Howard University College of Medicine

First Name

Gilbert

Birth City, State, Country

Jackson

HM ID

MAS02

Favorite Season

None

Sponsor

Knight Foundation

State

Mississippi

Favorite Vacation Destination

Nassau, Hawaii, Silver Springs, Maryland

Favorite Quote

If It Is Done When It Is Done, It Will Be Well If It Is Done Quickly.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Birth Date

10/7/1928

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Atlanta

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Okra, Collard Greens, Pork Chops, Pineapple Cream Pie

Death Date

7/8/2006

Short Description

Social activist and family practitioner Dr. Gilbert R. Mason, Sr. (1928 - 2006 ) worked as a physician in Mississippi for over forty years, and led a nonviolent protest against the “whites only” section of a federally maintained Gulf Coast beach, which resulted in a successful and historic first federal anti-discrimination lawsuit against the state of Mississippi. Mason and local activists also won the first school desegregation lawsuit in the history of Mississippi.

Employment

Homer G. Phillips Hospital (St. Louis, Missouri)

Howard Memorial Hospital

Private Practice

Main Sponsor
Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:5208,74:19810,232:55080,612:82204,949:102838,1310:199770,2182:201420,2236:203520,2504:207795,2589:275180,3366$0,0:2456,19:9512,162:27650,391:40950,658:61430,917:130850,1568
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Dr. Gilbert R. Mason, Sr.'s interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Dr. Gilbert R. Mason, Sr. lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Dr. Gilbert R. Mason, Sr. describes his paternal family background, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Dr. Gilbert R. Mason, Sr. describes his maternal family background, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Dr. Gilbert R. Mason, Sr. describes his paternal family background, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Dr. Gilbert R. Mason, Sr. describes the research he is doing on his paternal great-grandfather, who was allegedly a slave of George Mason

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Dr. Gilbert R. Mason, Sr. describes his paternal great-great grandfather's occupation

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Dr. Gilbert R. Mason, Sr. talks about his maternal great-great grandfather, Confederate Army Brigadier General William Wirt Adams

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Dr. Gilbert R. Mason, Sr. describes his father's occupation

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Dr. Gilbert R. Mason, Sr. describes his maternal family background, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Dr. Gilbert R. Mason, Sr. describes how his parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Dr. Gilbert R. Mason, Sr. describes why his parents settled in Jackson, Mississippi

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Dr. Gilbert R. Mason, Sr. describes the sights, smells, and sounds of his childhood in Jackson, Mississippi, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 14 - Dr. Gilbert R. Mason, Sr. describes the sights, smells, and sounds of his childhood in Jackson, Mississippi, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 15 - Dr. Gilbert R. Mason, Sr. describes his childhood interests and activities

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Dr. Gilbert R. Mason, Sr. talks about his paternal great-grandmother, Suzanna Mason

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Dr. Gilbert R. Mason, Sr. shares memories from his childhood in Jackson, Mississippi

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Dr. Gilbert R. Mason, Sr. describes what a slaughter bin is

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Dr. Gilbert R. Mason, Sr. describes stargazing as a child in Mississippi

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Dr. Gilbert R. Mason, Sr. talks about being a Boy Scout and becoming an Eagle Scout

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Dr. Gilbert R. Mason, Sr. describes what happened to his Eagle Scout friend, Joe

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Dr. Gilbert R. Mason, Sr. describes his experiences in grade school

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Dr. Gilbert R. Mason, Sr. describes why he attended Jim Hill High School rather than Lanier High School in Jackson, Mississippi

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Dr. Gilbert R. Mason, Sr. talks about the history of schools in Jackson, Mississippi, and black Mississippi government officials

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Dr. Gilbert R. Mason, Sr. talks about transferring to Lanier High School and skipping eleventh grade

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Dr. Gilbert R. Mason, Sr. shares meaningful moments from high school

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Dr. Gilbert R. Mason, Sr. describes two of his high school football coaches' connections with black activists

Tape: 2 Story: 13 - Dr. Gilbert R. Mason, Sr. talks about his high school class- and teammate, HistoryMaker Lerone Bennett, Jr.

Tape: 2 Story: 14 - Dr. Gilbert R. Mason, Sr. describes the use of second-hand materials in high school

Tape: 2 Story: 15 - Dr. Gilbert R. Mason, Sr. describes why he enrolled at Tennessee State University in Nashville, Tennessee

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Dr. Gilbert R. Mason, Sr. describes how he made extra money as a student at Tennessee State University

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Dr. Gilbert R. Mason, Sr. describes his experiences attending Howard University College of Medicine

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Dr. Gilbert R. Mason, Sr. describes his experiences with racism as an intern at Homer G. Phillips Hospital in St. Louis, Missouri

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Dr. Gilbert R. Mason, Sr. describes the racism he faced working as a doctor

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Dr. Gilbert R. Mason, Sr. describes why he continued to practice medicine in Biloxi, Mississippi rather than move to Ohio

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Dr. Gilbert R. Mason, Sr. describes his involvement in the fight to desegregate schools in Biloxi, Mississippi

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Dr. Gilbert R. Mason, Sr. describes his work on desegregating Mississippi's beaches

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Dr. Gilbert R. Mason, Sr. talks about forming the Gulf Coast Civic Action Committee and the first wade-in on the Gulf Coast Beach

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Dr. Gilbert R. Mason, Sr. talks about organizing and participating in the "Bloody Sunday" wade-in on the Gulf Coast Beach

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Dr. Gilbert R. Mason, Sr. talks about being reprimanded by the Gulf Coast Medical Society for his Civil Rights activities

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Dr. Gilbert R. Mason, Sr. talks about raising money for the Gulf Port branch of the NAACP

Tape: 3 Story: 12 - Dr. Gilbert R. Mason, Sr. talks about Medgar Evers

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Dr. Gilbert R. Mason, Sr. talks about Gulf Coast Beach in Biloxi, Mississippi

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Dr. Gilbert R. Mason, Sr. talks about the ruling that effectively desegregated Gulf Coast Beach in 1969

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Dr. Gilbert R. Mason, Sr. talks about being a consultant for the film "Ghost of Mississippi"

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Dr. Gilbert R. Mason, Sr. describes what happened to the money intended for his bail after the Gulf Coast Beach wade-ins of 1963

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Dr. Gilbert R. Mason, Sr. describes how the Biloxi Branch of the NAACP integrated Biloxi, Mississippi

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Dr. Gilbert R. Mason, Sr. talks about the racism he faced trying to attend the 1960 Boy Scouts of America Jamboree in Colorado Springs, Colorado

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Dr. Gilbert R. Mason, Sr. describes how his Boy Scout troop was discriminated against in Dallas-Fort Worth, Texas

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Dr. Gilbert R. Mason, Sr. talks about pressuring the City of Biloxi to put blacks on the police force, in the sheriff's department, and in city hall

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Dr. Gilbert R. Mason, Sr. talks about the issues the Mississippi NAACP faced

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Dr. Gilbert R. Mason, Sr. talks about forming the Council of Federated Organizations in 1963

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - Dr. Gilbert R. Mason, Sr. talks about attending the Democratic National Conventions as Parliamentarian of the Freedom Democratic Party

Tape: 4 Story: 12 - Dr. Gilbert R. Mason, Sr. talks about working with President Richard Nixon and President Lyndon B. Johnson

Tape: 4 Story: 13 - Dr. Gilbert R. Mason, Sr. describes what he learned from serving on an ad-hoc committee to bring the National Football League to Biloxi, Mississippi

Tape: 4 Story: 14 - Dr. Gilbert R. Mason, Sr. shares memories from the various committees he has served on

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Dr. Gilbert R. Mason, Sr. describes a racist incident at Howard Memorial Hospital in Biloxi, Mississippi

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Dr. Gilbert R. Mason, Sr. talks about the Academy of Family Practice, the American Board of Family Physicians, and the Mississippi State Licensure Board

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Dr. Gilbert R. Mason, Sr. describes his reasons for filing a school desegregation lawsuit against the City of Biloxi, Mississippi

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Dr. Gilbert R. Mason, Sr. shares his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Dr. Gilbert R. Mason, Sr. talks about his family

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Dr. Gilbert R. Mason, Sr. reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Dr. Gilbert R. Mason, Sr. talks about retirement

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Dr. Gilbert R. Mason, Sr. talks about how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Dr. Gilbert R. Mason, Sr. narrates his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$4

DAStory

9$10

DATitle
Dr. Gilbert R. Mason, Sr. talks about organizing and participating in the "Bloody Sunday" wade-in on the Gulf Coast Beach
Dr. Gilbert R. Mason, Sr. talks about forming the Council of Federated Organizations in 1963
Transcript
So the students, I organized them and the next Sunday, April the 24th, we called it bloody Sunday. They were waiting for us. They got ready too, with pipes and chains and baseball bats and cue sticks. So when we went down there, they had walkie talkies. We organized it at my office and we left from there. Anyway they were waiting for us. Now we thought the sheriff, we helped to elect him, was going protect us. And they the guys stand up there with their hands on their hips. And they met us with baseball bats and what have you. I wasn't supposed to drive my car down there, but I had drove it, and there were two young men, Gilmore Fielder and Joe Lundburger, they had em down on neutral ground beating them up and had cue sticks, so I jumped out of the car and took the cue stick from em and I beat one with the cue sticks and the other one grabbed me and I bit him. I said Lord, I'm glad it wasn't much AIDS back in those days. So some of us--the undertaker whose place we have went to another section of the beach and they were beating him up so bad and Mrs. McDaniels fell across him and said please don't kill my husband. And big mama whose married to the barber, she about 300 pounds, she said you want to beat on somebody, beat on me. At any rate the future undertaker, Galloway, they broke his knees by hitting him across the knees with the cue sticks. And we had a guy who owned a cleaner name Brown, they beat him across the head, you'll see some of those pictures in archives. Anyway they arrested Gilmore Fielder and me and Joe Lundburger. And I told em, I said the guy's name was deputy sheriff, I said, I ain't got time to be arrested. I said I'll come back and give myself us as soon as I sew these people up. So I went on and took care of them and gave them lock jaw (unclear) and then I went on down gave myself up. He said well he said he was coming back. So they took me and finger printed me. And by that time my wife and Christopher Rosato was a friend of mine were there with my bail money. So then we had to work to get the other people out. This is the 24th now, of April, Bloody Sunday.$$And--$$How many people went to the beach that Sunday?$$Huh?$$How many people went to the beach that Sunday, how many black folks?$$Oh, I'll say about 200 in all places.$$And how many whites were there with--$$Oh, they outnumbered us three to one. All right. So--and the students were there. And it was so many of my Boy Scouts out there, I saw one report says that a Boy Scouts who Dr. Mason led the Boy Scout troupe down there for an activity, that isn't so. It just happened to be (unclear) Carney and his brother--Carney. I told Carney, I said, I see they said something else other than (unclear) run over the railroad track. The only way he could get off of the beach was go on the railroad track and run down the railroad track, but at that time I went before a justice of the peace and he found us guilty. Gilmore Fielder and I posted a bond too, it wasn't much. Okay. And so we gon negotiate again and try to see what happens. And Felix went before the Governor, that's a different story.$$Was that Felix Lundburger?$$Huh?$$Was that Mr. Lundburger?$$No. Lundburger and I were together. Lundburger and Gilmore Fielder.$$Okay.$$Anyway--$$(Unclear).$$--We talked to the Board of Supervisors and what have you.$So, tell me now, I think you were around when COFO [Council of Federated Organizations] was formed too, back in '60' (1960)--$$Coburt?$$--COFO.$$Oh, COFO, yeah.$$That was formed you said at Dookie Chase Restaurant in New Orleans [Louisiana]?$$Dookie Chase on the second floor, in Dookie Chase.$$Okay when was that?$$Nineteen sixty-three.$$Okay. And what was the idea behind COFO?$$We found that somebody said divide and to conquer. That we were fighting each other, the NAACP [National Association for the Advancement of Colored People] was said not to like SNCC [Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee] and SNCC says that NAACP is old and SNCC is too slow. So we figured we could come together and also consolidate some of the kids from the Northeast and East and Midwest and get a better job done. See up until that time NAACP was footing just about all the Civil Rights bills and did for a long time after that. But then SNCC started raising--and those young people were bold enough and ingenious enough to create new ideas. They came in and organized freedom schools and taught people how to read and write and to vote and ordinary hygiene. We even had some--one Thanksgiving, Dick Gregory [HM] sent three ice box truckloads of turkeys to the Gulf Coast. So people (unclear) our branch was adopted by the Long Island Branch, and they sent us clothes, a copying machine--$$Mimeograph machine?$$Yeah, yeah, mimeograph machine.$$Okay.$$And they gave us comfort and consolation. So the idea of COFO was a joint effort, I thought it was good. It was good.

Audrey Manley

Audrey Forbes Manley was born March 25, 1934, in Jackson, Mississippi, to Ora Lee Buckhalter Forbes and Jesse Lee Forbes. She reached the height of public service in medicine while serving as the U.S. Deputy Surgeon General and Acting Surgeon General before assuming the helm of Spelman College as President.

After a childhood spent in Tougaloo, Mississippi, Manley (then Forbes) moved to Chicago, Illinois, where she graduated from Wendell Phillips High School in 1951. Manley received a B.A. at Spelman College in Atlanta, Georgia, in 1955 and went straight to Meharry Medical College in Nashville, Tennessee. After earning her M.D., Manley moved back to Chicago and completed her residency at Cook County Children's Hospital in 1963. While a resident, Manley taught pediatrics at the Cook County School of Nursing, foreshadowing her future career in education.

Manley began practicing privately in 1965, while working at the North Lawndale Neighborhood Health Center. In 1967, she became the assistant medical director at the Woodlawn Child Health Center. Two years later, she moved to San Francisco and continued her pediatric practice at Mt. Zion Medical Center. After marrying Dr. Albert E. Manley in 1970, she moved back south and became Chief of Medical Services at Grady Memorial Hospital's Emory University family planning clinic in Atlanta, Georgia.

Dr. Manley then turned her considerable skills toward the federal government. She became a commissioned officer of U.S. Public Health in 1976 with a rank of Captain. At the Washington, D.C., office of the U.S. Health Resources and Services Administration, Manley studied sickle cell and other genetic diseases and eventually became the National Health Service Corps Director. She again focused on education by consulting on three movies about sickle cell disease and teaching Howard University students about pediatrics, as well as earning an M.P.H. from Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland in 1987.

In 1989, Manley began working within the U.S. Public Health Service in Washington, D.C., She worked her way up from Principal Deputy Assistant for Public Health, becoming the Deputy Surgeon General and Acting Deputy Assistant Secretary for Minority Health in 1994. She also was a member of the U.S. Delegation to UNICEF and the UNICEF/WHO Joint Committee on Health Policy from 1990 to 1993. From 1995 to 1997, Manley served as U.S. Deputy Surgeon General and Acting Surgeon General, advising the nation on matters of health and medicine. Finally, in 1997, Manley chose to serve her alma mater as President of Spelman College.

Accession Number

A2002.022

Sex

Female

Interview Date

3/14/2002

Last Name

Manley

Maker Category
Organizations
Schools

Daniel Hand School at Tougaloo College

Wendell Phillips Academy High School

Spelman College

Meharry Medical College

Johns Hopkins University

First Name

Audrey

Birth City, State, Country

Jackson

HM ID

MAN02

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Mississippi

Favorite Vacation Destination

Caribbean

Favorite Quote

To whom much is given, much is required.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Nevada

Birth Date

3/25/1934

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Las Vegas

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Banana Pudding

Short Description

College president and federal government appointee Audrey Manley (1934 - ) began working within the U.S. Public Health Service in Washington, D.C., in 1989, and later served as U.S. Deputy Surgeon General and Acting Surgeon General, advising the nation on matters of health and medicine from 1995 to 1997. Manley then returned to her alma mater as President of Spelman College.

Employment

Cook County Children's Hospital

Delete

University of Chicago

Mount Zion Hospital

Emory University Grady Memorial Hospital

United States Health Resources and Services Administration

United States Public Health Service

Spelman College

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:272,3:3350,53:3998,63:4808,74:6185,141:8453,198:10235,223:10640,229:15078,255:16100,275:16465,281:17049,291:20042,353:20626,365:25152,467:26758,496:28729,529:29459,541:29897,549:31868,578:32233,584:32525,589:32817,594:39100,619:45388,668:46946,681:47278,686:50910,698:51449,706:51911,713:52604,723:53297,736:53913,746:54375,754:55068,765:66088,988:74180,1073:74560,1081:75700,1098:76384,1108:76992,1118:77524,1127:79196,1159:81248,1190:84136,1255:88093,1285:90223,1318:93850,1367:96343,1411:96691,1416:97909,1433:98344,1439:98692,1444:101860,1462:102435,1468:103815,1483:104620,1495:110490,1551:113811,1586:114360,1600:114665,1606:115153,1616:115458,1622:118630,1694:118874,1699:119362,1710:123967,1722:124506,1730:125122,1740:125892,1751:131950,1818:132750,1829:133230,1839:133550,1844:137100,1881:137388,1886:137748,1893:140291,1918:140527,1923:140763,1928:142061,1974:142297,1979:142592,1985:143064,1995:145127,2010:145601,2018:146312,2028:146786,2037:147260,2044:147813,2053:148287,2061:148682,2067:150183,2094:152866,2116:156666,2182:156970,2187:157958,2203:158718,2219:159630,2234:160846,2266:161226,2272:168605,2334:168913,2339:170376,2369:170684,2374:172917,2409:174226,2430:174996,2441:177075,2479:180476,2497:180796,2506:181052,2511:182588,2542:182972,2549:183804,2569:184828,2591:185084,2596:185852,2611:186108,2616:186492,2625:186940,2637:187324,2644:190802,2685:191192,2691:193688,2732:194078,2738:194624,2746:196574,2783:201254,2873:201800,2882:203704,2895:204052,2900:204400,2905:204922,2912:205531,2921:209446,3001:213186,3029:224080,3183:224050,3188$210,0:560,6:2240,39:4620,102:5530,117:9030,181:9800,195:13260,208:14844,239:15132,244:15420,249:16068,259:19380,320:20316,334:20676,343:21108,350:21684,359:22188,367:27120,430:27484,435:27848,440:28485,448:31124,497:33945,532:34309,537:35128,548:35583,554:40042,623:40497,629:41747,639:43334,667:44024,685:44300,690:47612,852:47888,857:48164,862:54480,928:56230,968:56650,978:63580,1102:68730,1137:69780,1152:72840,1172:76899,1223:78760,1229:79060,1234:79435,1240:79810,1246:80410,1256:82760,1264:83804,1275:89140,1322:94750,1383:95450,1392:96920,1399:98720,1428:101060,1468:104150,1488:104610,1494:105346,1504:106082,1509:106450,1514:109578,1567:110866,1586:111786,1598:112798,1611:113258,1617:113626,1622:118237,1653:119004,1669:121672,1707:121982,1713:122354,1720:123284,1743:125392,1803:132039,1914:132477,1921:132769,1926:133937,1962:140306,2042:140582,2047:145788,2148:146196,2157:146468,2162:146944,2175:147420,2183:148032,2208:148712,2276:149256,2285:155380,2335
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Audrey Forbes Manley interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Audrey Forbes Manley's favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Audrey Forbes Manley talks about her immediate family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Audrey Forbes Manley recalls childhood memories

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Audrey Forbes Manley remembers elementary school

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Audrey Forbes Manley discusses her childhood personality

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Audrey Forbes Manley explains her family's migration to Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Audrey Forbes Manley talks about the environment of Tougaloo, Mississippi

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Audrey Forbes Manley remembers factors surrounding her move to Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Audrey Forbes Manley describes leaving the segregated South for Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Audrey Forbes Manley discusses the white religious faculty at Spelman College and Tougaloo College

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Audrey Forbes Manley talks about her religious background

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Audrey Forbes Manley remembers high school experiences

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Audrey Forbes Manley tells of segregation on Chicago's South Side

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Audrey Forbes Manley recalls favorite teachers at Wendell Phillips High School

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Audrey Forbes Manley explains her early interest in studying medicine

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Audrey Forbes Manley talks about her involvement in the Baptist Church

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Audrey Forbes Manley remembers her years at Spelman College

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Audrey Forbes Manley talks about policy concerns she had at Spelman College

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Audrey Forbes Manley explains long lasting working relationships with Morehouse College students

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Audrey Forbes Manley describes her transition into Meharry Medical College

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Audrey Forbes Manley discusses summer jobs

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Audrey Forbes Manley remembers early struggles at Meharry Medical College

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Audrey Forbes Manley recalls experiences with various classmates at Meharry Medical College

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Audrey Forbes Manley talks about her internship in Gary, Indiana

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Audrey Forbes Manley discusses her residency at Cook County Hospital, Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Audrey Forbes Manley talks about reconnecting with Dr. Albert Manley

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Audrey Forbes Manley explains how she returned to the public health community

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Audrey Forbes Manley tells of experiences working in Chicago's inner-city medical community

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Audrey Forbes Manley remembers working in San Francisco

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Audrey Forbes Manley details her career with the federal government

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Audrey Forbes Manley explains the U.S. Public Health Service

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Audrey Forbes Manley talks about progress and downfalls in health care during her career

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Audrey Forbes Manley discusses her plans for retirement

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Audrey Forbes Manley considers Spelman College's legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Audrey Forbes Manley considers her legacy

DASession

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DATape

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DATitle
Audrey Forbes Manley talks about her internship in Gary, Indiana
Audrey Forbes Manley remembers working in San Francisco
Transcript
So what happened now, you, was it this--you got your resident, internship right, at Cook County [Hospital, Chicago, Illinois]?$$No, I did my internship in Gary, Indiana--,$$In Gary, okay.$$--at St. Mercy Hospital, St. Mary Mercy Hospital.$$Okay. And was that, you know, are those chosen by lottery or whatever?$$Not then. Not then.$$Oh no, and all of this is new business today.$$Okay. So why did you go there?$$No you would, you would write, sit down just like I found the Jessie Smith Noyes Foundation you would canvas your friends and word of mouth for internships where, where they were accepting. Now remember this was in 1959. We were still in a segregated society. At this point black medical school graduates were assured places in about a handful of institutions. You knew you could get a residency at [George W.] Hubbard Hospital at Meharry [Medical College, Nashville, Tennessee]. There was Homer G. Phillips [Hospital] in St. Louis [Missouri], there was Provident in Chicago, there was Mercy-Douglass [Hospital] in Philadelphia [Pennsylvania] and then about a handful of black hospitals where you knew you could go if you applied and you were a good enough student you could get a residency. And there was Howard, Howard [University] Hospital [Washington, D.C.]. Some residency, residencies were more, were harder to get than others, let's say, surgery, OB-GYN [obstetrics and gynecology] very difficult to get into, very competitive. And black physicians you know fought hard to get them but I forgot Howard. Howard was a big draw for training. We had not yet gotten to the point where you could apply anywhere you wanted to apply and hoped to get in and there was no such thing as a lottery. I learned about the internship program in Gray--in Gary through another physician who had did her internship there the year before me. They never--they had one year with a black intern and she had done very well. Now that was another thing you want to talk about being the first, how you have to always do good, be almost perfect, walk on water because you're opening the door for others. Her name was Georgia Mitchell. She went to Meharry and she worked in Gary because she got married and her husband was in Gary. And they accepted her at Mercy Hospital. Again, Catholic hospitals came first and she did a very good job. So she called, she came back to Meharry to recruit and she said this was a good internship program and you know encouraged us to apply. The thing about it that attracted me, it paid a little better than the others. I think, now I think at Cook County then we were making a hundred and twenty five dollars a month you know that's the slave wages. And this program paid maybe like three hundred dollars a month and they gave you an apartment and all the food you could eat and everything so they really--for an internship that was great. So I said well that's close to Chicago, gets me closer to home, closer to my mother and so I applied and I was accepted. That was a great internship. I was on call every fourth night. That, that means when you're on call every fourth night that's the forty-eight hour shift that you got to pull.$Other things happened you will see San Francisco [California] I got--that was a call. They had a big problem in San Francisco. Now I'm going to see myself now not as a stationary person in one place but as someone who is going to engage with many different situations, San Francisco. I had no thought of going to San Francisco but when the flower children started getting out of the Haight Ashbury [San Francisco neighborhood] they were leaving behind those who couldn't get out and these were fifteen and sixteen-year-old girls with babies and small children. Some of these women were tripped out on speed for two and three weeks and they needed a pediatrician, someone who could deal with those kinds of problem. Well I, you know, Cook County [Hospital, Chicago, Illinois] and Woodlawn [Maternal and Child Heath Center, Chicago, Illinois] I had some good experience. Went out to visit, loved San Francisco and decided I would go. I went out there and spent a couple of years [1969-1970] but San Francisco was too far and the problems in San Francisco were worse than I had ever seen anywhere, that's the truth. So--.$$You mean because of the drug culture?$$Well because of the drugs yes. We saw in San Francisco first what would later sweep the nation, there's no question. But I saw it in 1969 and '70 [1970] before it got the way it is now across the nation. But yes, that was early, speed and we didn't have the crack then it was mostly speed and, and marijuana and these young women who were just wasted by the experience in Haight Ashbury and their children. And the project was supported by Mount Zion Hospital and the University of California, San Francisco. And it was, it was one of those things that you know again, a good experience but I don't think I would have stayed there indefinitely. Don't know how long I would have stayed if Dr. [Albert] Manley hadn't asked me to marry him and that's what happened. You know, he says you're going so far, why are you going so far away? And you know we got married and I came back to Atlanta [Georgia], so you know the rest.$$No, but--,$$Know the rest.$$--no, the thing is you were, at that point you're already serving on the [Chicago] Board [of Health] though right? But I resided from the board.$$You resigned from the board. I resigned from the board, right.