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The Honorable Lorraine Miller

Former clerk of the United States House of Representatives Lorraine C. Miller was born in Fort Worth, Texas, to Lena Marie and Johnnie C. Miller. Miller was heavily involved in the Baptist Church as a child, and both of her parents believed ardently in the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). In the early 1970s, Miller enrolled at Jarvis Christian College outside of Dallas, but she quickly changed career paths and began attending the University of North Texas. She then graduated from North Texas in 1975 with her B.A. degree in political science.

Upon graduation, Miller worked as a high school government teacher in Fort Worth. She then decided to pursue a political career and worked as an intern for the Maryland Legislature in Washington, D.C. in the late 1970s. Soon after moving to Washington, she enrolled in classes at American University and started working for United States Congressman Jim Wright. Miller would go on to work for Wright for eleven years, including serving as his executive assistant when he was speaker of the house from 1987 to 1989. Then, she worked for House Speaker Tom Foley and U.S. Congressman John Lewis in the early 1990s. Miller would later attend Georgetown University and graduate with her executive M.B.A degree.

In the mid-1990s, Miller served two years in the White House as the deputy assistant to President William J. Clinton. She then served as the director of government relations for the Federal Trade Commission from 1995 to 1999. In 1999, Miller became chief of the Consumer Information Bureau of the Federal Communications Commission. Then, in 2001, she served as senior advisor to House Minority Whip Nancy Pelosi until 2007, when Pelosi named Miller the new clerk of the House of Representatives. Miller would become the first African American to both hold that seat and to serve as an officer of the U.S. House of Representatives. She held the seat until 2011.

In 2004, Miller was elected president of the Washington, D.C. branch of the NAACP. Then, in 2008, she was elected to the NAACP National Board of Directors.

Lorraine C. Miller was intervied by The HistoryMakers on July 27, 2013.

Accession Number

A2013.215

Sex

Female

Interview Date

7/27/2013

Last Name

Miller

Maker Category
Marital Status

Single

Middle Name

C.

Schools

Como Montessori

University of North Texas

Harvard University

Georgetown University

Como Elementary School

Jarvis Christian College

American University

First Name

Lorraine

Birth City, State, Country

Fort Worth

HM ID

MIL10

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Texas

Favorite Vacation Destination

Beaches

Favorite Quote

To God Be The Glory Great Things He Has Done

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Interview Description
Birth Date

5/6/1948

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Cake (Chocolate)

Short Description

Federal government appointee The Honorable Lorraine Miller (1948 - ) served over thirty years in the United States government and was the first African American to hold the seat of clerk of the U.S. House of Representatives.

Employment

Keller Williams Preferred Properties

United States House of Representatives

Office of Democratic Leader Nancy Pelosi

American Federation of Teachers

Office of the Vice President of the United States

Federal Communications Commission (FCC)

Federal Trade Commission

White House

Democratic Steering and Policy Committee - U.S. House of Representatives

Fort Worth Independent School District

Favorite Color

Emerald Green

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/648211">Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of The Honorable Lorraine Miller's interview</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/648212">Tape: 1 Story: 2 - The Honorable Lorraine Miller lists her favorites</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/648213">Tape: 1 Story: 3 - The Honorable Lorraine Miller describes her mother's family background</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/648214">Tape: 1 Story: 4 - The Honorable Lorraine Miller describes her mother's education</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/648215">Tape: 1 Story: 5 - The Honorable Lorraine Miller describes her mother's profession</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/648216">Tape: 1 Story: 6 - The Honorable Lorraine Miller describes her father's family background</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/648217">Tape: 1 Story: 7 - The Honorable Lorraine Miller describes her grandfather's work</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/648218">Tape: 1 Story: 8 - The Honorable Lorraine Miller talks about her father's service in the U.S. Army</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/648219">Tape: 1 Story: 9 - The Honorable Lorraine Miller describes her uncle's decision to move to New York City</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/648220">Tape: 1 Story: 10 - The Honorable Lorraine Miller talks about her father's career</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/648221">Tape: 1 Story: 11 - The Honorable Lorraine Miller talks about her father's business relationship with U.S. Representative Jim Wright</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/648222">Tape: 2 Story: 1 - The Honorable Lorraine Miller talks about her father's service in World War II</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/648223">Tape: 2 Story: 2 - The Honorable Lorraine Miller talks about her parents' relationship</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/648224">Tape: 2 Story: 3 - The Honorable Lorraine Miller describes her earliest childhood memory</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/648225">Tape: 2 Story: 4 - The Honorable Lorraine Miller remembers the Como neighborhood of Fort Worth, Texas</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/648226">Tape: 2 Story: 5 - The Honorable Lorraine Miller describes the sights, sounds and smells of her childhood</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/648227">Tape: 2 Story: 6 - The Honorable Lorraine Miller remembers her early exposure to music</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/648228">Tape: 2 Story: 7 - The Honorable Lorraine Miller talks about Juneteenth</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/648229">Tape: 2 Story: 8 - The Honorable Lorraine Miller describes her parents' involvement in the NAACP</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/648230">Tape: 2 Story: 9 - The Honorable Lorraine Miller talks about voter intimidation in Fort Worth, Texas</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/648231">Tape: 3 Story: 1 - The Honorable Lorraine Miller recalls the shift to single member districts in the Fort Worth City Council</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/648232">Tape: 3 Story: 2 - The Honorable Lorraine Miller describes her early academic interests</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/648233">Tape: 3 Story: 3 - The Honorable Lorraine Miller talks about her sister's musical talent</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/648234">Tape: 3 Story: 4 - The Honorable Lorraine Miller remembers her involvement in the community</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/648235">Tape: 3 Story: 5 - The Honorable Lorraine Miller recalls the assassination of President John Fitzgerald Kennedy</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/648236">Tape: 3 Story: 6 - The Honorable Lorraine Miller describes her civil rights activities in Fort Worth, Texas</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/648237">Tape: 3 Story: 7 - The Honorable Lorraine Miller remembers her influential teachers</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/648238">Tape: 3 Story: 8 - The Honorable Lorraine Miller recalls her early aspirations</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/648239">Tape: 3 Story: 9 - The Honorable Lorraine Miller describes her decision to attend the Jarvis Christian College in Hawkins, Texas</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/648240">Tape: 4 Story: 1 - The Honorable Lorraine Miller remembers the Jarvis Christian College in Hawkins, Texas</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/648241">Tape: 4 Story: 2 - The Honorable Lorraine Miller recalls her decision to study political science</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/648242">Tape: 4 Story: 3 - The Honorable Lorraine Miller recalls transferring to North Texas State University in Denton, Texas, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/648243">Tape: 4 Story: 4 - The Honorable Lorraine Miller recalls the assassination of Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/648244">Tape: 4 Story: 5 - The Honorable Lorraine Miller recalls transferring to North Texas State University in Denton, Texas, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/648245">Tape: 4 Story: 6 - The Honorable Lorraine Miller talks about the teaching philosophy at historically black colleges</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/648246">Tape: 4 Story: 7 - The Honorable Lorraine Miller recalls the influence of the Black Power movement</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/648247">Tape: 4 Story: 8 - The Honorable Lorraine Miller talks about the black politicians from Texas</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/648248">Tape: 4 Story: 9 - The Honorable Lorraine Miller remembers moving to Washington, D.C.</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/648249">Tape: 5 Story: 1 - The Honorable Lorraine Miller remembers the Watergate scandal</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/648250">Tape: 5 Story: 2 - The Honorable Lorraine Miller recalls joining U.S. Representative Jim Wright's staff</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/648251">Tape: 5 Story: 3 - The Honorable Lorraine Miller recalls working on Jim Wright's reelection campaign in 1980</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/648252">Tape: 5 Story: 4 - The Honorable Lorraine Miller talks about the lack of funding for black voter mobilization</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/648253">Tape: 5 Story: 5 - The Honorable Lorraine Miller recalls her work in the House Democratic Steering and Policy Committee</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/648254">Tape: 5 Story: 6 - The Honorable Lorraine Miller remembers the ethics investigation against Jim Wright</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/648255">Tape: 5 Story: 7 - The Honorable Lorraine Miller describes her strategy for political success</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/648256">Tape: 5 Story: 8 - The Honorable Lorraine Miller describes the demographics of Jim Wright's staff</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/648257">Tape: 6 Story: 1 - The Honorable Lorraine Miller remember U.S. Representative Jim Wright's resignation</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/648258">Tape: 6 Story: 2 - The Honorable Lorraine Miller remembers working for U.S. Representative Tom Foley</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/648259">Tape: 6 Story: 3 - The Honorable Lorraine Miller remembers meeting Nelson Mandela</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/648260">Tape: 6 Story: 4 - The Honorable Lorraine Miller recalls studying at Georgetown University and Harvard University</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/648261">Tape: 6 Story: 5 - The Honorable Lorraine Miller talks about her graduate education</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/648262">Tape: 6 Story: 6 - The Honorable Lorraine Miller talks about the rise of Newt Gingrich</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/648263">Tape: 6 Story: 7 - The Honorable Lorraine Miller remembers the Republican Revolution of 1994</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/648264">Tape: 6 Story: 8 - The Honorable Lorraine Miller remembers her relationship with Republicans in the U.S. Congress</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/648265">Tape: 6 Story: 9 - The Honorable Lorraine Miller describes her challenges at the Federal Trade Commission</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/648266">Tape: 7 Story: 1 - The Honorable Lorraine Miller talks about partisan turnover in the House of Representatives</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/648267">Tape: 7 Story: 2 - The Honorable Lorraine Miller describes her responsibilities on the Federal Trade Commission</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/648268">Tape: 7 Story: 3 - The Honorable Lorraine Miller describes how she came to work for the Federal Communications Commission</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/648269">Tape: 7 Story: 4 - The Honorable Lorraine Miller recalls the controversy over unregulated billing by telecommunications companies</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/648270">Tape: 7 Story: 5 - The Honorable Lorraine Miller remembers directing the White House Community Empowerment board</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/648271">Tape: 7 Story: 6 - The Honorable Lorraine Miller describes the effects of No Child Left Behind on the American Federation of Teachers</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/648272">Tape: 7 Story: 7 - The Honorable Lorraine Miller talks about the inefficiencies of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/648273">Tape: 7 Story: 8 - The Honorable Lorraine Miller talks about the attempts to privatize the education system</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/648274">Tape: 7 Story: 9 - The Honorable Lorraine Miller remembers the presidential election scandal of 2000</a>

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$7

DAStory

6$4

DATitle
The Honorable Lorraine Miller describes her civil rights activities in Fort Worth, Texas
The Honorable Lorraine Miller recalls the controversy over unregulated billing by telecommunications companies
Transcript
Now I didn't ask you about the March on Washington. Now that was the August before JFK [President John Fitzgerald Kennedy] was assassinated (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) Right, yeah.$$Did you know anyone from Fort Worth [Texas] that went to the march?$$ There were, I had a couple of friends. I wanted to go and my mother [Lena Jones Miller] wouldn't let me go. But, I, I really, really wanted to come and she said, "Oh no, you're not going anywhere." We had a march downtown Fort Worth [Texas], the day of, and I begged my mom to let me go down there and she said, "Okay, you can go, but you and your sister [Maurietta Miller] can go, but you come right back home. I don't want you loitering and don't do anything. If somebody says something to you, you know, just don't, don't engage them." And then I had during the march, I had a guy that spat on me, and I remembered my mom's stern words, "Don't engage them. If somebody does anything to you, you know, turn the other cheek, don't get involved because I don't want you hurt." And I came home, I was madder than a wet hen and I told her I said, "You should have let me do something. I could have slapped him, I could have hit him." And she says, "No, and then you would have probably encountered him in a way that he could have hurt you." You don't know what, he could have had a knife or gun or whatever, so the better part of valor was to remain calm. She said, "That's why I didn't want you to go down there in the first place," so, anyway.$$I'm glad I asked that question. So did you get involved in NAACP Youth [NAACP Youth Council]?$$ Yes, we were. My father [Johnnie Miller], when my sister and I were way little, we had youth membership, and we went to the meetings. We had a very active NAACP [Fort Worth Tarrant County Branch NAACP, Fort Worth, Texas] at that time, very active. They were doing a lot of things and there were a lot of these critical meetings. I can just remember as a child the (unclear), we got to go to the NAACP meeting, only we just not gone tell anybody. And it was a critical time. You could feel it, you could sense it.$$Okay, okay. So, I guess the NAACP Youth was doing a lot of things in those days, I mean, really active.$$ Yes, yes. We're trying to, we're trying to revive it now. And it's coming back.$$Okay.$$It's coming back.$$Yeah, they had a different character from the regular NAACP.$$Yeah.$$It was more activist oriented.$(Simultaneous) All kinds of things, and we went through them thoroughly. I brought all of the telecommunications companies and their consumer affairs folks in; and I had our folks to really go through a phone bill, just get a typical phone bill and go through it. "Do you understand every charge to say, 'Why is it there,' just from our perspective," and then we brought the folks in and had them to do it, the same kind of analysis and you saw the discrepancies and I said, "Well why are you charging this person twenty-six cents for this particular fee for something and then charging thirty-one cents for the same thing?" "Oh, well this is to offset." You know they had all kinds, oh yeah, it was, they were skimming millions of dollars off the American consumer and that was one part of it, and then for people who were handicapped and had some kind of disability, oh my god, they were just being literally raped by the telecommunications companies because they put all kinds of fees on 'em and they knew if you were hard of hearing or blind, you're not examining your bill. And they would just arbitrarily attach fees that you would have no idea why and even if you used the product they were trying to sell--if you didn't they still charged you for it. So it was, it was a scam that we went to war with them on, and so I had all these backlog of complaints, while you're still trying to deal with the everyday complaints that consumers were having with the telecommunications (unclear), and then you had Reverend Jackson [HistoryMaker Reverend Jesse L. Jackson] and Reverend Sharpton [HistoryMaker Reverend Al Sharpton] who were saying, as we were, radio licenses and they were discriminating against African Americans (unclear). All of that was going on at the same time, so it was juggling a lot of balls in the air and trying to get them, trying to get them resolved. We did a fairly good job doing it but, and then you got the eight hundred pound gorilla of the [U.S.] Congress that was just breathing down your neck trying to, you know, every time we turned I had to spend more time preparing the chairman [William E. Kennard] for testifying on the Hill [Capitol Hill, Washington, D.C.] which was so time consuming, but that was, that's the nature of the beast. And you just had to do it. So it was a l- it was, it was, it was tough.

Pierpont Mobley

Equal employment opportunity advocate and activist Pierpont Mobley was born in 1937. Mobley attended Antioch School of Law, where he received his M.A.degree in equal employment opportunity/employment law and his M.L.S. degree.

Mobley’s tenure in federal service began as the federal government started to implement affirmative action and equal employment opportunity programs in the private sector. However, Mobley’s career focused on expanding employment opportunities within the federal government. For more than twenty-five years, Mobley worked as a personnel and equal employment opportunity specialist for various agencies in the federal government. Under President Jimmy Carter’s administration, he was appointed chief of civil rights and equal employment opportunity programs for the United States Drug Administration. He later served as the equal employment opportunity manager for the White House. In this position, Mobley was responsible for overseeing personnel relations in the White House and writing equal employment opportunity policies for both the White House and the Executive Office of the President. He also worked for the Department of the Army as a military personnel and race relations specialist. Before retiring from federal service, Mobley worked for the Department of the Interior as the chief of complaints and adjudication for the Bureau of Mines. Mobley developed the White House’s first affirmative action plan. He also championed equal employment opportunity within the federal sector as popular support for affirmative action and equal employment opportunity began to wane.

Following a career that spanned four presidential administrations, Mobley retired as a federal appointee. In 1995, Mobley co-founded the JPM Group with his wife, Jeannette Mobley. The JPM Group is a consulting firm that specializes in the areas of management and human resources for private businesses and government agencies. The JPM Group’s clients include Verizon, Inc., D.C. Public Schools, the Federal Drug Administration, and the White House Office. Mobley remains active in local politics. A longtime resident of Washington, D.C., he served as the re-election campaign manager for Councilman Vincent Orange in 2002.

Pierpont Mobley was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on July 24, 2012.

Accession Number

A2013.196

Sex

Male

Interview Date

7/24/2013

Last Name

Mobley

Maker Category
Middle Name

M.

Organizations
Schools

David A. Clarke School of Law

First Name

Pierpont

HM ID

MOB01

Favorite Season

Fall

Favorite Vacation Destination

Price Mountain, Shenandoah Mountains

Favorite Quote

If it's up to you, it must be done.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

12/20/1937

Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Favorite Food

Salad

Short Description

Federal government appointee Pierpont Mobley (1937 - ) worked for more than two decades to increase minority and female employment opportunities in the White House and federal government.

Employment

United States Drug Administration

Department of the Army

White House

Department of the Interior

JPM Group

Favorite Color

Blue

The Honorable Charles Z. Smith

Retired Justice of the Washington Supreme Court and prosecutor for the United States Department of Justice, Charles Zellender Smith was born on February 23, 1927, in Lakeland, Florida. Son of John R. Smith, Sr., a Cuban immigrant, and Eva Love Smith, he attended school in Franklin, North Carolina at age three, Washington Park School in Lakeland and Hungerford School in Maitland, Florida. Mentored by Dr. William H. Gray, Jr., President of Florida A&M College, he served as Gray’s administrative assistant. From 1945 to 1946, Smith served in the United States Army as a court reporter. He later joined the Gray family in Philadelphia attending Temple University, where he earned his B.S. degree in 1952. Smith then moved to Seattle, Washington, where he entered the University of Washington Law School. He was one of four minority students in a class of 120. He was the only African American or person of color in the graduating class. While in law school, Smith met Hawaii-born Eleanor Martinez, whom he married in 1955.

After graduating from law school, Smith served as a law clerk for Supreme Court Justice Matthew W. Hill. From 1956 to 1960, he served as a Deputy Prosecuting Attorney for King County. In 1961, Smith was recruited by U.S. Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy to join his staff. Smith’s assistance was sought by the Attorney General in investigating mismanagement of the Central States Teamsters Pension Fund. He led a team conducting grand juries around the country, culminating in indictment and successful prosecution of James R. Hoffa and five business men for mail fraud and wire fraud in the Northern District of Illinois in 1964.

In 1965, Smith returned to Seattle where he became the first African American or person of color to become a judge in the State of Washington, being appointed as Judge of the Seattle Municipal Court. In 1966, again as a “first,” he was appointed to the King County Superior Court and subsequently reelected unopposed until he left the court in 1973. Also, in 1973, Smith was appointed Professor of Law and Associate Dean at the University of Washington Law School where he served until his retirement in 1986. Later in 1973 Smith was commissioned in the United States Marine Corps Reserve where he served in the Judge Advocate Division as a military judge until his retirement as a Lieutenant Colonel in 1986.

Smith served as President of the American Baptist Churches, USA in 1976 and 1977 and participated with the National Inter-religious Task Force on Soviet Jewry. He served as a delegate to Task Force follow-up conferences in Rome, Italy, Belgrade, Yugoslavia and Madrid, Spain.

On July 18, 1988, Smith became the first African American or person of color to serve on the Washington Supreme Court. He served three terms retiring in 2002. In 1999, he was appointed by President William J. Clinton to the U.S. Commission on International Religious Freedom, created by Congress to monitor the status of freedom of thought, conscience and belief abroad. In 2001, the Student Bar Association at the University of Washington Law School established the Charles Z. Smith Public Service Scholarship. He received the Distinguished Service Award from the National Center for State Courts in 2004 and was honored by Pioneer Human Services in Seattle with naming of one of its low cost housing properties as the Chares Z. Smith House.

Smith lived in Seattle, Washington with his wife, Eleanor Martinez. The couple had four adult children and six grandchildren.

Accession Number

A2007.308

Sex

Male

Interview Date

6/3/2008

6/4/2008

10/27/2007

Last Name

Smith

Middle Name

Z.

Schools

Washington Park School

Robert Hungerford Industrial School

Temple University

Florida Memorial University

Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University

Washington University School of Law

National Judicial College

Naval Justice School

First Name

Charles

Birth City, State, Country

Lakeland

HM ID

SMI21

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Florida

Favorite Vacation Destination

Hawaii

Favorite Quote

Truth, Justice And Freedom.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Washington

Interview Description
Birth Date

2/23/1927

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Seattle

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Chocolate

Death Date

8/28/2016

Short Description

Federal government appointee, law professor, and state supreme court judge The Honorable Charles Z. Smith (1927 - 2016 ) was the first African American to serve on the State of Washington's Supreme Court. In addition to holding this Washington Supreme Court position from 1988 until his retirement in 2002, Justice Smith was also known for serving on the staff of U.S. Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy, and being appointed to the U.S. Commission on International Religious Freedom by President William J. Clinton.

Employment

Municipal Court of Seattle

Washington Supreme Court

U.S. Army

King County Prosecuting Attorney's Office

U.S. Department of Justice

King County Superior Court

University of Washington School of Law

U.S. Marine Corps

Favorite Color

Orange

Timing Pairs
0,0:680,26:3570,72:46056,704:48516,716:49462,730:51784,756:57718,836:58062,841:58406,846:73750,968:78070,1024:78550,1031:81190,1060:82310,1078:83030,1089:94007,1206:106842,1338:109520,1371:174598,2302:189876,2414:219876,2732:220578,2743:222138,2760:223386,2786:228300,2884:228612,2889:238892,3007:246823,3154:247516,3164:269972,3443:270752,3454:276580,3483$0,0:1428,31:1764,36:10668,219:52860,728:56470,772:57990,792:58560,805:95730,1165:96318,1172:96990,1180:105390,1291:105726,1296:113450,1361:144030,1811:155382,1934:155772,1940:233694,2902:234773,2928:239670,3009:241745,3041:264968,3297:265472,3304:285068,3490:286212,3505:286652,3511:315310,3886:315926,3894:325062,3968:331038,4066:356170,4364
DAStories

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611125">Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of The Honorable Charles Z. Smith's interview, session 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611126">Tape: 1 Story: 2 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith lists his favorites</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611127">Tape: 1 Story: 3 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith describes his mother's family background, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611128">Tape: 1 Story: 4 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith describes his mother's family background, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611129">Tape: 1 Story: 5 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith describes the race relations in Franklin, North Carolina</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611130">Tape: 1 Story: 6 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith talks about his mother's formal education</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611131">Tape: 2 Story: 1 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith talks about his mother's move to Lakeland, Florida</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611132">Tape: 2 Story: 2 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith describes his father's family background</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611133">Tape: 2 Story: 3 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith talks about the origin of his father's name</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611134">Tape: 2 Story: 4 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith recalls how his parents met</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611135">Tape: 2 Story: 5 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith describes his parents' personalities and who he takes after</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611136">Tape: 2 Story: 6 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith talks about his father's education</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611137">Tape: 2 Story: 7 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith describes his earliest childhood memory</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611138">Tape: 2 Story: 8 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611139">Tape: 2 Story: 9 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith recalls his early education</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611140">Tape: 2 Story: 10 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith describes his early musical interests</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611141">Tape: 3 Story: 1 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith talks about his sisters' radio show on WLAK Radio in Lakeland, Florida</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611142">Tape: 3 Story: 2 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith recalls attending Robert Hungerford Normal and Industrial School in Eatonville, Florida</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611143">Tape: 3 Story: 3 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith remembers meeting William H. Gray, Jr.</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611144">Tape: 3 Story: 4 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith describes his decision to study law</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611145">Tape: 3 Story: 5 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith talks about his academic accomplishments</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611146">Tape: 3 Story: 6 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith remembers enlisting in the U.S. Army</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611147">Tape: 3 Story: 7 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith describes his experiences in the U.S. Army</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611148">Tape: 3 Story: 8 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith talks about his discharge from the U.S. Army</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611149">Tape: 4 Story: 1 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith talks about why he moved to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611150">Tape: 4 Story: 2 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith recalls his study of group dynamics at Temple University in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611151">Tape: 4 Story: 3 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith remembers applying for law school</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611152">Tape: 4 Story: 4 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith talks about his admittance to the University of Washington School of Law</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611153">Tape: 4 Story: 5 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith describes his experiences in Olympia, Washington</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611154">Tape: 4 Story: 6 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith recalls meeting his wife, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611155">Tape: 4 Story: 7 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith recalls meeting his wife, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611156">Tape: 5 Story: 1 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith describes his position as a deputy prosecuting attorney in King County, Washington</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611157">Tape: 5 Story: 2 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith talks about Washington's criminal justice system</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611158">Tape: 5 Story: 3 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith remembers prosecuting drug related cases</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611159">Tape: 5 Story: 4 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith describes his experiences with racial discrimination</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611160">Tape: 5 Story: 5 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith recalls being recruited by Robert F. Kennedy</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611161">Tape: 5 Story: 6 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith talks about Dave Beck and the International Brotherhood of Teamsters</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611162">Tape: 5 Story: 7 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith describes the feud between Robert F. Kennedy and Jimmy Hoffa</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611163">Tape: 6 Story: 1 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith describes the reasoning behind Jimmy Hoffa's pardon</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611164">Tape: 6 Story: 2 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith recalls the Jimmy Hoffa case he tried in Chicago, Illinois</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611165">Tape: 6 Story: 3 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith describes the tensions between J. Edgar Hoover and Robert F. Kennedy</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611166">Tape: 6 Story: 4 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith remembers J. Edgar Hoover</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611167">Tape: 6 Story: 5 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith recalls his appointment to the Municipal Court of Seattle</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611168">Tape: 6 Story: 6 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith describes his role in decriminalizing public intoxication, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611169">Tape: 7 Story: 1 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith describes his role in decriminalizing public intoxication, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611170">Tape: 7 Story: 2 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith recalls his appointment to the King County Superior Court</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611171">Tape: 7 Story: 3 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith remembers a murder case he presided over in the King County Superior Court, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611172">Tape: 7 Story: 4 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith remembers a murder case he presided over in the King County Superior Court, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611173">Tape: 7 Story: 5 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith describes the sentencing criteria in the State of Washington</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611174">Tape: 7 Story: 6 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith recalls his cases while serving on the King County Superior Court</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611175">Tape: 7 Story: 7 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith talks about Seattle's discriminatory housing practices, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611176">Tape: 7 Story: 8 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith talks about Seattle's discriminatory housing practices, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611177">Tape: 7 Story: 9 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith recalls his further judicial studies and education</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611178">Tape: 8 Story: 1 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith describes his judicial appointment in the U.S. Marine Corps</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611179">Tape: 8 Story: 2 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith remembers one of his U.S. Marine Corps cases</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611180">Tape: 8 Story: 3 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith talks about the differences between civilian and military courts</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611181">Tape: 8 Story: 4 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith describes his teaching schedule at the University of Washington School of Law</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611182">Tape: 8 Story: 5 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith talks about the University District Defender Services clinical program</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611183">Tape: 8 Story: 6 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith describes his work as a commentator on KOMO Radio and KOMO-TV</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611184">Tape: 8 Story: 7 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith recalls his television segments on KOMO-TV in Seattle, Washington</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611185">Tape: 8 Story: 8 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith describes his work on the Juvenile Justice Standards Commission</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611186">Tape: 9 Story: 1 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith talks about the enforcement of constitutional rights for juveniles</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611187">Tape: 9 Story: 2 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith describes the juvenile courts in the State of Washington</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611188">Tape: 9 Story: 3 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith recalls one of his juvenile court cases</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611189">Tape: 9 Story: 4 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith shares his stance on incarceration</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611190">Tape: 9 Story: 5 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith talks about Gary Ridgway's trial</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611191">Tape: 9 Story: 6 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith remembers one of his King County Superior Court cases</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611192">Tape: 10 Story: 1 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith describes the American Baptist Churches USA</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611193">Tape: 10 Story: 2 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith talks about the memberships of Baptist churches in Seattle, Washington</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611194">Tape: 10 Story: 3 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith describes the National Interreligious Task Force on Soviet Jewry</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611195">Tape: 10 Story: 4 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith recalls his involvement with various Washington task forces</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611196">Tape: 10 Story: 5 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith remembers his appointment to the Washington Supreme Court</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611197">Tape: 10 Story: 6 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith recalls his tenure on the Washington Supreme Court</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611198">Tape: 11 Story: 1 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith describes his experiences with discrimination in the Washington Supreme Court, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611199">Tape: 11 Story: 2 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith describes his experiences with discrimination in the Washington Supreme Court, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611200">Tape: 11 Story: 3 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith talks about his colleagues at the Washington Supreme Court</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611201">Tape: 11 Story: 4 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith remembers the executive committee of the Washington Supreme Court</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611202">Tape: 11 Story: 5 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith reflects upon his status in the Washington Supreme Court</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611203">Tape: 11 Story: 6 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith talks about the civil rights leaders in Seattle, Washington</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611204">Tape: 11 Story: 7 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith recalls the World Trade Organization Ministerial Conference protests</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611205">Tape: 12 Story: 1 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith reflects upon his judicial career</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611206">Tape: 12 Story: 2 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith talks about the importance of community programs</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611207">Tape: 12 Story: 3 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith reflects upon his legacy</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611208">Tape: 12 Story: 4 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith talks about his family</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611209">Tape: 12 Story: 5 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith describes how he would like to be remembered</a>

DASession

2$2

DATape

8$10

DAStory

8$6

DATitle
The Honorable Charles Z. Smith describes his work on the Juvenile Justice Standards Commission
The Honorable Charles Z. Smith recalls his tenure on the Washington Supreme Court
Transcript
Seventy-three [1973], you also served as co-chairperson of the Juvenile Justice Standards commission [IJA/ABA Joint Commission on Juvenile Justice Standards]. Now, that's, that sounds very important and, with the juvenile court over a hundred--we were talking about it before we started--$$Yeah.$$--doing this interview.$$Well, my background had included service in the juvenile court. When I was on the King County Superior Court, I was assigned on rotation to the juvenile court. So I had a background in juvenile courts. The American Bar Association and the Institute of Judicial Administration [New York, New York] had foundation grants to conduct an extensive study on juvenile practices. And I was initially a member of the commission, and through a transition of changes, I became co-chairperson of the, of the commission in the last five years of its existence. But we conducted studies. We hired researchers to do studies, but we had meetings of lawyers--the commission consisted of lawyers, judges, psychiatrists, social workers. And we would have a meeting somewhere around the country every three months. And all of this was, you know, developed and cataloged, and over a period of about--that started in '73 [1973]. Nineteen seventy-eight [1978] we published thirty-seven volumes of books on juvenile court practices. It was initially published by Ballinger Publishing [Ballinger Publishing Company] in Boston [Massachusetts]. And it was circulated throughout the country. And the Ballinger company was going to destroy the printing plates and the American Bar Association purchased the printing plates. So back in those days, we had printing plates. So it has been republishing, and since 1978, there is a current version of those juvenile justice standards, thirty-seven volumes. I, I pulled off the shelf a copy of it to give you some idea of what the volumes were like. But it's not necessary for this particular interview, but after it, I'll show you what it amounted to. But they sort of set the tone for creating a new approach to the treatment of juveniles and particularly, after a case called In re Gault [In re Gault, 1967], G-A-U-L-T where the United States Court of Appeals in the District of Columbia [U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit] had a ruling that indicated that juveniles are entitled to constitutional rights. And up until that time, juveniles were not entitled to constitutional rights. And in the Gault case, very simply, Gerald Gault was charged with disorderly conduct for making an obscene telephone call to a neighbor woman. He was charged with a felony in Arizona. He went before the judge, and the judge says, you don't need to deny it. I know you did it. You're guilty and sentenced him to detention in the juvenile system until he reached the age of twenty-one years. And Gerald Gault then was sixteen years old. That case was appealed by a volunteer lawyer who took it all the way to the United States Supreme Court, and they ended up saying that juveniles had a constitutional right. And that changed the tone of juvenile courts throughout the country. And so the Juvenile Justice Standards commission was sort of using the Gault case as a platform for saying we have to do things differently now than we have been doing it in the past. And so that's what the Juvenile Justice Standards commission was, and we completed our work in 1978, published our materials and the commission itself went out of existence.$So what were the highlights of your term on the supreme court of the State of Washington [Washington Supreme Court]? And I don't know if that's the best way to ask it, but what happened there? What were the significant events, I guess, for you?$$Well, the--it's, again, an interesting thing. I was on the court for fourteen years, and I wrote 350 opinions. And the most--and I cannot remember any particular one. You know, if someone called one to my attention, I would remember, but the collegiality on the court, we have nine justices on the supreme court, and you either get along with them or you don't get along with them because everything is done by group. All opinions are based upon the consensus of the group, so that even though I might write an opinion, and I recommend it to the others, they have to vote on it. And if I write an opinion and we take a vote on it, if I get five votes, then that becomes the court's opinion. But if I don't get five votes, it shifts. And it's not my opinion anymore. But the--it's sort of like, I guess, a fencing game. It's parry right, parry left, and you touche and you (laughter), you win your point by scoring. And with a supreme court such as ours and most supreme courts operate in the same way, it's a matter of intellectually convincing your colleagues of a position that you take on a particular case. Our cases are preassigned. And so at the beginning of a term, I knew, which cases were assigned to me, but they weren't assigned to me because of background. They're randomly assigned. Someone in the clerk's office pulls a, literally pulls a name out of a hat and says, this goes to Smith [HistoryMaker Charles Z. Smith], this goes to this person, this goes to that person, so that at the beginning of a term, I would get my assigned cases. So I had two judicial clerks, law clerks who worked with me doing the research, reading everything relating to the case, the briefs and other documents and things like that. Then I would prepare a presentence report, which was distributed to the other judges prior to the hearing. And then we would have the hearing where the lawyers would appear. And then we would go into recess to consider a case based upon the prehearing memorandum, prepared by the judge responsible for the case and the arguments presented by counsel. And then a recommendation is made for a result, and then the vote is taken. The chief justice presides over those meetings. So that's the way it would go. I found that, that experience was a good experience. I had some non-good experiences on the supreme court, but it had nothing to do with the routine process. And I have threatened to write a book called 'The Dark Side of the Temple,' and the Temple of Justice [Olympia, Washington] is where our supreme court is located. And the word dark has many meanings. I'm not white. Therefore, I am dark. As the junior justice on the court, I was assigned the worst courtroom, worst chambers in the building, next to the helicopter pad, and little things would happen. And then there was a cabal, C-A-B-A-L, against me from five of the nine justices, the chief justice and four of the others on a committee that ostensibly was based on seniority. And I had seniority over two of the people (laughter) in the group. But they were making decisions that affected me, and, and I chose not to make an issue of it while I was on the court and decided after I retired I would write a book. But I haven't had the time, energy nor inclination to begin writing the book yet. But when I write the book, I will tell of the negative experiences I had on the court. But--and they had nothing to do with race, which is very interesting. And I think it had to do with, one, my credentials, and two, my arrogance. I, I never took a second seat to anyone from an intellectual standpoint, and nobody on the court had my credentials. The highest ranking [U.S.] military person on our court was a first lieutenant in the Second World War [World War II, WWII]. And none of them had been law professors, and I was a full tenured law professor (laughter). And so I came to the court with a lot of credentials. My international activities, all those other things were unique in the sense that compared to other members on the court, who were provincial. And so these things created an atmosphere of resentment against me.

Col. Roosevelt J. Lewis

Colonel and federal government appointee Roosevelt Joseph Lewis, Jr. was born on August 25, 1943, in Greenville, Alabama to Clara Nell Mitchell Lewis and Roosevelt Joseph Lewis, Sr. Lewis and his family moved to Toulminville, Alabama when he was four years old; and he graduated as valedictorian from Heart of Mary High School in 1960. In 1964, Lewis received his B.S. degree in chemistry from Tuskegee University (formerly the Tuskegee Institute) in Tuskegee, Alabama. He earned his M.A. degree in transportation and business management from the University of Alabama in Tuscalossa, Alabama.

While attending Tuskegee University, Lewis enrolled in the United States Air Force Reserve Officer Training Corps and met aviation pioneer Alfred “Chief” Anderson, who was the chief flight instructor and mentor to the Tuskegee Airmen of World War II. By 1968, Lewis gained recognition for his superior performance in the ROTC and was elected "Best Major in Command" by his unit in 1968, 1969, 1982 and 1988.

Lewis served the United States government's Department of Defense in five Pentagon positions, including the Office of the Secretary of Defense. As the chief of Vehicle Programs, he purchased the $3.4 billion vehicle fleet for the U.S. Air Force and managed a $34.8 billion budget as Executive Officer of the Logistics Engineering branch, Headquarters U.S. Air Force.

Lewis was a presidential scholar at the University of Alabama and served as a congressional intern with the Public Works & Transportation Committee for the U.S. House of Representatives. Lewis has also taught transportation courses for Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University and the University of Maryland. In addition, he was previously former secretary of the Alabama Aeronautics Commission.

Since his retirement in 1991, Lewis has focused his efforts on aviation training for new pilots and has guided over 300 of them in obtaining their licenses. Lewis also serves as chairman and CEO of Air Tuskegee Ltd. and Global One Jets. He also owns historic Moton Field, where most of the Tuskegee Airmen, including his mentor, “Chief” Anderson, learned how to fly.
Roosevelt Joseph Lewis Jr., was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on September 6, 2007.

Accession Number

A2007.246

Sex

Male

Interview Date

9/6/2007

Last Name

Lewis

Schools

Heart of Mary High School

Toulminville Elementary School

St. James Major Catholic School

Tuskegee University

University of Alabama

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Roosevelt

Birth City, State, Country

Greenville

HM ID

LEW11

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Alabama

Favorite Vacation Destination

Beaches

Favorite Quote

There Are These Three: Faith, Hope And Love, And The Greatest Of These Is Love.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Alabama

Interview Description
Birth Date

8/25/1943

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Coden

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Blue Bell Ice Cream

Short Description

Colonel and federal government appointee Col. Roosevelt J. Lewis (1943 - ) served the United States in five Pentagon positions, including the Office of the Secretary of Defense. He is chairman and CEO of Air Tuskegee Ltd. and Global One Jets. He is also the owner of Moton Field, where most of the Tuskegee Airmen were trained as pilots.

Employment

United States Air Force

Tuskegee University

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/113621">Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Col. Roosevelt J. Lewis' interview</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/113622">Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Col. Roosevelt J. Lewis lists his favorites</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/113623">Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Col. Roosevelt J. Lewis talks about his maternal family history, pt.1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/113624">Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Col. Roosevelt J. Lewis talks about his maternal family history, pt.2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/113625">Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Col. Roosevelt J. Lewis describes his great-grandmother Lula Lewis</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/113626">Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Col. Roosevelt J. Lewis talks about his two maternal grandfathers</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/113627">Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Col. Roosevelt J. Lewis shares memories of his maternal grandparents and annual family reunions in Greenville, Alabama</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/113628">Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Col. Roosevelt J. Lewis recalls her mother's generosity in his childhood neighborhood in Mobile, Alabama</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/113629">Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Col. Roosevelt J. Lewis talks about his mother's childhood</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/115592">Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Col. Roosevelt J. Lewis talks about his maternal ancestry</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/115593">Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Col. Roosevelt J. Lewis describes his father's childhood in Greenville, Alabama</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/115594">Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Col. Roosevelt J. Lewis describes his father, Roosevelt Lewis, Sr., pt.1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/115595">Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Col. Roosevelt J. Lewis describes his father, Roosevelt Lewis, Sr., pt.2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/115596">Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Col. Roosevelt J. Lewis talks about his father's career at the International Paper Company</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/115597">Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Col. Roosevelt J. Lewis talks about his father's death and his respect for his parents</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/113636">Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Col. Roosevelt J. Lewis talks about his father's training as a medic in the U.S. Army</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/113637">Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Col. Roosevelt J. Lewis describes how his paternal great-grandmother, Lula Lewis, lost her land</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/113638">Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Col. Roosevelt J. Lewis describes his earliest childhood memory</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/113639">Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Col. Roosevelt J. Lewis recalls his experience of growing up on a farm</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/113640">Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Col. Roosevelt J. Lewis talks about how his parents met and their courtship</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/113641">Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Col. Roosevelt J. Lewis talks about his parents' move to Mobile, Alabama where his father worked at the International Paper Company</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/113642">Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Col. Roosevelt J. Lewis talks about his family's move back to Mobile, Alabama after his father returned from military service</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/113643">Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Col. Roosevelt J. Lewis describes his siblings, pt.1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/113644">Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Col. Roosevelt J. Lewis describes his siblings, pt.2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/113645">Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Col. Roosevelt J. Lewis describes his family's first home in Toulminville, at that time a suburb of Mobile, Alabama</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/113646">Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Col. Roosevelt J. Lewis remembers watching his neighbor, Hank Aaron, play broom ball</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/113647">Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Col. Roosevelt J. Lewis describes the sights, sounds, and smells of his childhood neighborhood in Toulminville, a suburb of Mobile, Alabama</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/113648">Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Col. Roosevelt J. Lewis talks about his childhood experience of segregation in Mobile, Alabama</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/113649">Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Col. Roosevelt J. Lewis describes the stores and schools in Toulminville, Alabama</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/113650">Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Col. Roosevelt J. Lewis remembers learning to play tennis</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/113651">Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Col. Roosevelt J. Lewis describes his elementary school years at Toulminville Elementary School, originally a Rosenwald one-room schoolhouse</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/113652">Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Col. Roosevelt J. Lewis talks about his father's work and education</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/113653">Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Col. Roosevelt J. Lewis talks about his family's conversion to Catholicism and his Catholic schooling</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/113654">Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Col. Roosevelt J. Lewis talks about his experience at Heart of Mary High School in Mobile, Alabama</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/113655">Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Col. Roosevelt J. Lewis recalls winning scholarships that enabled him to go to college</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/113656">Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Col. Roosevelt J. Lewis remembers a tragic fire in his childhood home</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/113657">Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Col. Roosevelt J. Lewis describes the aftermath of a tragic fire in his childhood home</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/113658">Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Col. Roosevelt J. Lewis describes his first days at Tuskegee Institute in Tuskegee, Alabama</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/115598">Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Col. Roosevelt J. Lewis describes his first flight with C. Alfred "Chief" Anderson</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/115599">Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Col. Roosevelt J. Lewis talks about C. Alfred "Chief" Anderson</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/115600">Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Col. Roosevelt J. Lewis talks about his experience at the Tuskegee Institute in Tuskegee, Alabama</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/115601">Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Col. Roosevelt J. Lewis talks about his early years in the U.S. Air Force</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/115602">Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Col. Roosevelt J. Lewis remembers being attacked by the Ku Klux Klan in Mobile, Alabama</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/115603">Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Col. Roosevelt J. Lewis describes another incident with the Ku Klux Klan, and why he did not participate in the Civil Rights Movement</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/113665">Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Col. Roosevelt J. Lewis remembers getting shot at while working for TISEP, The Tuskegee Institute Summer Education Program</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/113666">Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Col. Roosevelt J. Lewis talks about why he chose a behind-the-scenes role during the Civil Rights Movement</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/113667">Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Col. Roosevelt J. Lewis talks about being stationed at Scott Air Force Base in Illinois</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/113668">Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Col. Roosevelt J. Lewis talks about his decision to go to the University of Alabama in Tuscaloosa, Alabama</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/113669">Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Col. Roosevelt J. Lewis talks about his wife and his daughter</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/113670">Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Col. Roosevelt J. Lewis talks about C. Alfred "Chief" Anderson, who introduced him to many Tuskegee Airmen</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/113671">Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Col. Roosevelt J. Lewis talks about his involvement with the East Coast Chapter of Tuskegee Airmen, Inc. while interning in the U.S. House of Representatives</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/113672">Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Col. Roosevelt J. Lewis talks about the influence of the Tuskegee Airmen on him and his "P's of Success"</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/113673">Tape: 7 Story: 9 - Col. Roosevelt J. Lewis talks about the importance of the Tuskegee Airmen's story and his role in telling it</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/115604">Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Col. Roosevelt J. Lewis talks about his early career and his two-year tour at Seymour Johnson Air Force Base in North Carolina while working for the Pentagon</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/115605">Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Col. Roosevelt J. Lewis talks about working at the Pentagon and his time with the U.S. Air Force in the Philippines</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/115606">Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Col. Roosevelt J. Lewis recalls his promotion to the rank of colonel</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/115607">Tape: 8 Story: 4 - Col. Roosevelt J. Lewis describes how the Tuskegee Airmen influenced him in his U.S. Air Force career</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/115608">Tape: 8 Story: 5 - Col. Roosevelt J. Lewis talks about his responsibilities in the Philippines as a U.S. Air Force Colonel, and in Operation Earnest Will</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/115609">Tape: 8 Story: 6 - Col. Roosevelt J. Lewis describes his decision to return to Tuskegee University to save Moton Field and to teach air science</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/115610">Tape: 8 Story: 7 - Col. Roosevelt J. Lewis talks about his aviation students at Tuskegee University in Tuskegee, Alabama</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/115611">Tape: 8 Story: 8 - Col. Roosevelt J. Lewis talks about his goals at Tuskegee University and the establishment of the Tuskegee Airmen National Historic Site</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/113682">Tape: 9 Story: 1 - Col. Roosevelt J. Lewis talks about the importance of a flight training program at Tuskegee University in Tuskegee, Alabama</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/113683">Tape: 9 Story: 2 - Col. Roosevelt J. Lewis recalls outstanding students that he has trained</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/113684">Tape: 9 Story: 3 - Col. Roosevelt J. Lewis describes his concerns for the African American community</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/113685">Tape: 9 Story: 4 - Col. Roosevelt J. Lewis reflects upon the influence of his parents and C. Alfred "Chief" Anderson on his life</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/113686">Tape: 9 Story: 5 - Col. Roosevelt J. Lewis reflects upon his legacy</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/113687">Tape: 9 Story: 6 - Col. Roosevelt J. Lewis shares his advice for youth</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/113688">Tape: 9 Story: 7 - Col. Roosevelt J. Lewis narrates his photographs</a>

DASession

1$1

DATape

6$8

DAStory

1$5

DATitle
Col. Roosevelt J. Lewis describes his first flight with C. Alfred "Chief" Anderson
Col. Roosevelt J. Lewis talks about his responsibilities in the Philippines as a U.S. Air Force Colonel, and in Operation Earnest Will
Transcript
So you're on the field [Moton Field, Tuskegee, Alabama] and you see Chief Anderson?$$Yes, C. Alfred Anderson, "Chief" Anderson to those who were in the Tuskegee Aviation experiment, America's first black military pilots got their first seventy hours of flight training at Moton Field, a field owned by Tuskegee Institute [now Tuskegee University in Tuskegee, Alabama]. This man had just landed in his airplane and totally ignored the three young men who had shown up, and he gassed the airplane up and we were standing there and we got closer and closer and closer and finally we're standing next to the airplane and we're looking never saying anything, but just looking. Chief Anderson turned around says, "Hi, I'm Chief Anderson," put his hand out, said "Would you like to go for a flight?" The other two guys just kinda almost fell down getting back out of the way, Chief nudged my elbow, helped me in the left seat, told me to put the seat belt on, put your heels on the floor, toes on the rudder pedals, left hand on the wheel, right hand on throttle, crank the airplane up, when he got in the other side and off I went in this airplane all over the place, it was like an anaconda snake or something but Chief Anderson was an individual who was just an absolutely incredible instructor. I know now as a pilot that he put his shoes on the outside of the rudder pedals and I could only do so much with the airplane, but he would have you think that you were actually flying the airplane and more and more he would turn over the airplane to you as you gain hand and eye coordination and skills and what have you, but I went for this first magical flight for thirty, forty minutes over Tuskegee, came back in and landed and it had truly broadened my horizons. I was truly struck by the fact that I no longer saw Tuskegee as this big place that I had to walk from one end down here all the way up to the Tompkins Hall and over to the Chapel and what have you. I found out that Tuskegee was a finite place, I saw the borders. I asked questions, I was totally fascinated with the idea of flying an airplane. He taught me how to turn the airplane, how to make the airplane climb gradually, how to make the airplane descend gradually, how to maneuver the airplane and told me about controls and speeds and what have you. You can only get so much in a short period, but in that flight I think the realization came over me that "I think I can do this," then "I know I can do this," and then "I have to do this," so from that point on flying became an absolute integral part of who I was.$So is that what happened with your next position?$$Yes, in the Pacific, I was sent out there--twofold reasons. Number one, I had all of this Pentagon experience; they needed a senior colonel on the ground in the Philippines to make sure that the [Corazon] Aquino Government was supported. I worked with the Embassy; they knew I knew logistics so the Pentagon needed somebody there very quickly to fix things in case that is what was needed. My "day-time job," not working with the Embassy, my day-time job was overseeing the DOD [Department of Defense] Air Lift Operation and the mobility program in the Pacific [theater]. So for half the world I was responsible for mobility, and I had the Eighth Mobile Aerial Port Squadron there and the 74th Strategic Airlift Squadron there, so I was a group commander, and I had all of the detachments out there in the Pacific responsible for air lift operations. I kept fresh fruits and vegetable parts all of that in front of the [U.S.] Navy task forces, I fed the [U.S.] Army any air lift things they needed to come in, the Navy, the [U.S.] Marines--I air lifted them for mobility, all of those kinds of things. And also in the Pacific, Operation Earnest Will, a one-baker-one [ph.] presidential directive, the first one I saw in my entire career, but I was responsible directly to the Pentagon for getting to Diego Garcia [Air Force Base] and running this operation. I don't know if you remember this but there was the mining of the Persian Gulf by Khomeyni in Iran. This was an international incident, the world was on pins and needles because nobody knew what anybody else was gonna do. Khomeini mined the Persian Gulf; the oil tankers could not come through there. President [Ronald] Reagan said, "this will not stand." President Reagan wanted France to let us have overflight rights. They wouldn't let us do it, so we had to airlift minesweeping helicopters that dragged boards we call them, in the water to get rid of the mines. We had to airlift them three quarters of the way around the world from the States, East Coast all the way around the world on a C-5, multiple C-5s we did that. I received them, they came through in the (unclear) received them, was there, we got the job done, but most of the world doesn't know that President Reagan had five cocked B-52s orbiting over the area during that operation, but the USS Guadalcanal, a carrier, a small carrier was on the way to the Persian Gulf, turned around and came back. This was supposed to be super-secret, nobody knew anything. And on CNN, right after I pulled the helicopters off of the C-5s and the Navy guys got the, got them airworthy and they flew them and put them on the Guadalcanal, it was on CNN that the USS Guadalcanal has just come into the lagoon at, oh my--Diego Garcia, so I was involved in this absolutely incredible thing, it worked out thank goodness, but I came back from the Philippines to a job after a bit of an epiphany.

Gloria Toote

Gloria E.A. Toote, attorney and real estate developer, was born on November 8, 1931, in New York City. Toote has been advisor to four American presidents. She is a graduate of Howard University where she received her B.A. degree in 1952 and went on to receive her J.D. degree in 1954. To complete her studies, she also attended Columbia University, where she received her M.A. degree in 1956. Toote, a conservative Republican, has held positions in the Nixon, Ford and Reagan presidential administrations.

From 1966 to 1970, Toote served as president of Toote Town Publishing Company and Town Recording Studios, Incorporated. From 1971 to 1973, she was Assistant Director of ACTION, and from 1973 to 1975, she was Assistant Secretary for Equal Opportunity in the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development. In 1976, she served as an uncommitted New York State delegate to the Republican National Convention and gave the seconding nominating speech for Reagan as president. During the Reagan administration, Toote was vice chairman of the United States Office of Private Sector Initiatives. She is a founding member of the board of governors of the National Black United Fund and a member of the steering committee for Citizens for the Republic. In the late 1980s when Toote began developing real estate in New York City, she became the president of TREA Estates and Enterprises, Incorporated, an apartment building operating firm.

Toote received special achievement awards from the National Association of Black Women Attorneys; and in 1992, the National Political Congress of Black Women recognized her contributions for furthering the participation of African American women in the political process.

Toote lived in New York City.

Toote passed away on May 18, 2017.

Accession Number

A2006.150

Sex

Female

Interview Date

11/29/2006

12/4/2006

Last Name

Toote

Maker Category
Schools

P.S. 119

Junior High School 136

Howard University School of Law

Columbia Law School

George Washington High School

Howard University

First Name

Gloria

Birth City, State, Country

New York

HM ID

TOO01

Favorite Season

Fall

State

New York

Favorite Vacation Destination

Palm Desert, California

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Interview Description
Birth Date

11/8/1931

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New York

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Macaroni and Cheese, Chitterlings, Lasagna

Death Date

5/18/2017

Short Description

Real estate entrepreneur, lawyer, and federal government appointee Gloria Toote (1931 - 2017 ) served as an advisor to four American presidents. She was vice chairman of the United States Office of Private Sector Initiatives during the Reagan administration, and was president of TREA Estates and Enterprises, Inc., an apartment building operating company in New York City.

Employment

Greenbaum, Wolff and Ernst

Time magazine

Town Sound Recording Studio

Toote Town Publishing Company

U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development

ACTION

President's Advisory Council on Private Sector Initiatives

Favorite Color

Blue, Red

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/572874">Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Gloria Toote's interview, session 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/572875">Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Gloria Toote lists her favorites</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/572876">Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Gloria Toote describes her mother's family background</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/572877">Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Gloria Toote describes her maternal family's professions</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/572878">Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Gloria Toote describes her mother's siblings</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/572879">Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Gloria Toote remembers her father's role in the community, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/572880">Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Gloria Toote remembers her father's role in the community, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/572881">Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Gloria Toote describes her father's activism</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/572882">Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Gloria Toote recalls her relationship with Adam Clayton Powell, Jr.</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/572883">Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Gloria Toote recalls her father's relationship with Marcus Garvey, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/572884">Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Gloria Toote recalls her father's relationship with Marcus Garvey, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/572885">Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Gloria Toote talks about her family background</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/572886">Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Gloria Toote remembers her father's personality</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/572887">Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Gloria Toote describes her father's church in New York City's Harlem neighborhood</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/572888">Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Gloria Toote remembers her father's death</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/572889">Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Gloria Toote remembers her first watch</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/572890">Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Gloria Toote describes her early memories of New York City's Harlem neighborhood</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/572891">Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Gloria Toote describes the housing conditions in New York City's Harlem neighborhood</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/572892">Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Gloria Toote remembers Reverend Major Jealous Divine</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/572893">Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Gloria Toote talks about her early education</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/572894">Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Gloria Toote recalls her enrollment at George Washington High School in New York City</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/572895">Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Gloria Toote talks about her junior high school experiences</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/572896">Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Gloria Toote recalls her experiences of racial discrimination as a lawyer</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/572897">Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Gloria Toote describes her early experiences of racial discrimination</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/572898">Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Gloria Toote remembers her mentor at Junior High School 136 in New York City</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/572899">Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Gloria Toote recalls a childhood friend</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/572900">Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Gloria Toote remembers learning to play golf</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/572901">Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Gloria Toote describes her maternal grandmother's bakery</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/572902">Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Gloria Toote recalls the influence of a family friend</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/572903">Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Gloria Toote describes her parents' roles in her college decision</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/572904">Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Gloria Toote recalls the mentorship of Adam Clayton Powell, Jr.</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/572905">Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Gloria Toote recalls her admission to Howard University in Washington, D.C.</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/572906">Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Gloria Toote recalls her introduction to southern segregation in Washington, D.C.</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/572907">Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Gloria Toote talks about her sinus condition</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/572908">Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Gloria Toote recalls her experiences of discrimination in Washington, D.C.</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/572909">Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Gloria Toote talks about her preparation for college</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/572910">Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Gloria Toote describes her studies at Howard University in Washington, D.C.</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/572911">Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Gloria Toote remembers her mentor, Eudora Williams Webster</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/572912">Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Gloria Toote recalls her decision to attend law school</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/572913">Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Gloria Toote remembers her involvement in the Howard University Players</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/572914">Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Gloria Toote recalls her vocal training at Howard University</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/572915">Tape: 4 Story: 11 - Gloria Toote recalls her experiences at the Howard University School of Law</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/572916">Tape: 4 Story: 12 - Gloria Toote recalls interviewing James Edwards for The Hilltop newspaper</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/572917">Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Gloria Toote recalls her challenges during law school</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/572918">Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Gloria Toote remembers Professor George E.C. Hayes</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/572919">Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Gloria Toote talks about her role as a law research assistant, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/572920">Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Gloria Toote talks about her role as a law research assistant, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/572921">Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Gloria Toote describes her work for the NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund, Inc.</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/572922">Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Gloria Toote describes her experiences as a female law student</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/572923">Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Gloria Toote recalls her role on the census advisory council</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/572924">Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Gloria Toote talks about President Ronald Wilson Reagan</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/572925">Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Gloria Toote recalls the decision of Brown v. the Board of Education of Topeka</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/572926">Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Gloria Toote remembers passing the bar examination</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/572927">Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Gloria Toote narrates her photographs, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/572928">Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Gloria Toote narrates her photographs, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/572929">Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Slating of Gloria Toote's interview, session 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/572930">Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Gloria Toote recalls her experiences at the Howard University School of Law</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/572931">Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Gloria Toote recalls her mentors in New York City's Harlem community, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/572932">Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Gloria Toote recalls her mentors in New York City's Harlem community, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/572933">Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Gloria Toote recalls her influences in New York City's Harlem community</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/572934">Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Gloria Toote describes her role on the Coordinating Council for Negro Performers</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/572935">Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Gloria Toote recalls the political corruption in New York City</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/572936">Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Gloria Toote remembers joining the Republican Party</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/572937">Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Gloria Toote recalls her challenges as an African American Republican</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/572938">Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Gloria Toote remembers the intellectual community in New York City's Harlem neighborhood</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/572939">Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Gloria Toote recalls writing for the New York Amsterdam News</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/572940">Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Gloria Toote reflects upon her interest in law</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/572941">Tape: 7 Story: 9 - Gloria Toote remembers writing for Time magazine</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/572942">Tape: 7 Story: 10 - Gloria Toote describes her social life</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/572943">Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Gloria Toote recalls her decision to purchase a recording studio</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/572944">Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Gloria Toote recalls the construction of the Town Sound Recording Studio, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/572945">Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Gloria Toote recalls the construction of the Town Sound Recording Studio, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/572946">Tape: 8 Story: 4 - Gloria Toote reflects upon her experiences in the music industry</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/572947">Tape: 8 Story: 5 - Gloria Toote remembers the fire at the Town Sound Recording Studio, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/572948">Tape: 8 Story: 6 - Gloria Toote remembers the fire at the Town Sound Recording Studio, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/572949">Tape: 8 Story: 7 - Gloria Toote recalls representing L. Joseph Overton</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/572950">Tape: 8 Story: 8 - Gloria Toote recalls her role as the assistant director of ACTION</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/572951">Tape: 8 Story: 9 - Gloria Toote recalls her experiences of discrimination at ACTION</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/572952">Tape: 9 Story: 1 - Gloria Toote talks about objective-based management</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/572953">Tape: 9 Story: 2 - Gloria Toote talks about President Richard Nixon's affirmative action initiatives</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/572954">Tape: 9 Story: 3 - Gloria Toote recalls her experiences of discrimination at ACTION</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/572955">Tape: 9 Story: 4 - Gloria Toote recalls the influence of President Richard Nixon</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/572956">Tape: 9 Story: 5 - Gloria Toote recalls her appointment to the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/572957">Tape: 9 Story: 6 - Gloria Toote describes her role at the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/572958">Tape: 9 Story: 7 - Gloria Toote recalls President Richard Nixon's meetings with the Congressional Black Caucus</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/572959">Tape: 9 Story: 8 - Gloria Toote reflects upon her time at the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/572960">Tape: 9 Story: 9 - Gloria Toote recalls her resignation from the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/572961">Tape: 10 Story: 1 - Gloria Toote describes her initiatives at the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/572962">Tape: 10 Story: 2 - Gloria Toote describes her initiatives at the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/572963">Tape: 10 Story: 3 - Gloria Toote describes her career after leaving the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/572964">Tape: 10 Story: 4 - Gloria Toote recalls her role on the board of the Hoover Institution on War, Revolution, and Peace</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/572965">Tape: 10 Story: 5 - Gloria Toote talks about her political ideology</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/572966">Tape: 10 Story: 6 - Gloria Toote recalls her role in the creation of Martin Luther King Day Jr. Day</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/572967">Tape: 10 Story: 7 - Gloria Toote talks about President Ronald Reagan's relationship with the black community</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/572968">Tape: 10 Story: 8 - Gloria Toote describes the misconceptions about President Ronald Reagan</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/572969">Tape: 10 Story: 9 - Gloria Toote remembers President Ronald Reagan's visit to Vernon E. Jordan, Jr. in the hospital</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/572970">Tape: 10 Story: 10 - Gloria Toote recalls her role in President Ronald Reagan's administration</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/572971">Tape: 11 Story: 1 - Gloria Toote describes her role in President George Herbert Walker Bush's administration</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/572972">Tape: 11 Story: 2 - Gloria Toote reflects upon her role as a black Republican, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/572973">Tape: 11 Story: 3 - Gloria Toote reflects upon her role as black Republican, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/572974">Tape: 11 Story: 4 - Gloria Toote describes her hopes and concerns for the Republican Party</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/572975">Tape: 11 Story: 5 - Gloria Toote describes her plans for the future</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/572976">Tape: 11 Story: 6 - Gloria Toote remembers Clarence Thomas</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/572977">Tape: 11 Story: 7 - Gloria Toote reflects upon her career</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/572978">Tape: 11 Story: 8 - Gloria Toote reflects upon her life</a>

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$5

DAStory

2$3

DATitle
Gloria Toote talks about her junior high school experiences
Gloria Toote talks about her role as a law research assistant, pt. 1
Transcript
When I was in junior high school [Junior High School 136, Harriet Beecher Stowe Junior High School, New York, New York], I was--I don't want to say a science genius, but I was good in science. And I was slated for The Bronx High School of Science [Bronx, New York]. I was gonna be a doctor, and thank you God, thank you God. But it was an experience that children should not have to encounter. I'm making all--not all A's in all courses. I'm making A's in courses I like and courses I don't like, I slough. So I don't want any further in math, I'm good. I'm bad, but science, crackerjack. I had a history teacher who sits there every day writing love letters to her boyfriend. No, she's a substitute for the science teacher who became ill who was scheduled to teach. For one year, I had a history teacher who knew nothing about science. For one year, the board of education [New York City Board of Education; New York City Department of Education] made no effort to replace her, and she sat there every day and gave us twenty pages to read. Well, heck, I'm a speed reader. I was a speed reader before people were talking about speed reading. So I read my twenty pages and mischief, you know. I was--she almost got into trouble 'cause she wanted to hit me with a ruler. And the students had to stop her because my seat was right in front of her desk. 'Cause it was science. So I wanted to be right up front, I wanted to see everything. And I'd sit there and hum. Her boyfriend's name was Johnny [ph.]. (Sings) "Oh, Johnny, Oh, Johnny, how you can love." Very soft, softer than that, much softer than that. Only folks, kids close to me could hear. "Oh, Johnny, Oh, Johnny." Give me that exam, I read my twenty pages, so I wanted to make my grade. And one day she just, I don't know what was wrong with her. But she got up with her ruler. She was going to hit me. And the other students stopped her. So that ended my career in science, because I needed that last year of junior high to prepare me to pass the test. Very difficult test for The Bronx High School of Science. Later in life, I found out I can't stand blood. That's number one; and number two, I most certainly wouldn't have been a surgeon; and number three, most of your finest doctors don't live long. They save their patients, but with each patient that they save, they give a part of themselves and they die considerably younger than anyone else. So the Lord, I hope he knew what he was doing when he sent me in another direction.$How did I meet Thurgood Marshall? I gotta sch--I was a scholarship student [at Howard University School of Law, Washington, D.C.], I was assigned to work on Brown versus the Board of Education [Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 1954], Bolling versus Sharpe [Bolling v. Sharpe, 1954], I had my briefs, my [U.S.] Supreme Court brief signed, and the, the law school, my class had, was assigned--particularly, the better students--assigned the responsibility of the research. And I was fortunate enough to have a bulk of work, and, therefore, when, the two faculty members, George E.C. Hayes and Jim Nabrit [James M. Nabrit, Jr.], who was then my law professor, became professor of law school, he was secretary of the university when he was a law professor, then became president of Howard University [Washington, D.C.]. When they came, he and, and, and George Hayes came to New York [New York]. I had to travel with them. I got a--listen, I don't read all these little pieces of paper, you know. You gotta have your flunkee. They didn't think of me as that, but that's really what my job was. I'm not trying to impress anybody. But again, it was that exposure. And we'd come up, they stayed at the Algonquin Hotel [New York, New York] in the '40s [1940s]. And the NAACP [National Association for the Advancement of Colored People] office was the opposite Bryant Park [New York, New York] down there in the four--they were in the lower 40s, on the other side of Bryant Park, the Algonquin was about, coming uptown, let's say like about 46th [Street] and they were about 41st [Street], NAACP office. And we'd work until, they'd come in on a train, we'd come in on a train, and work all night almost. They'd go get some sleep, I'd come home, and set the time, be back there again. And that was work. I mean, I earned my--know whatever I did, I sure did well. I enjoyed every moment of it. And, what at Constance Baker Motley, Judge Motley who died a couple years ago, brilliant woman, good attorney, sweetheart of a person. Husband [Joel Wilson Motley, Jr.] had an office. While she was sitting on the federal bench, her husband's office was on 8th Avenue on what you call Frederick Douglass Boulevard and 130--I had a building on 134th Street--133rd [Street], 8th Avenue on the east corner, east, north corner. And he sold-- they sold insurance. He predominantly handled insurance, but the whole office was his. And I met her, and, and it was just a marvelous experience. So when I finished law school, I was so impressed with George E.C. Hayes, that I got use Glor- and I found out I had another middle name. I had a name from my mother's mother [Frances Tooks] and my father's mother [Clarita North Toote]. I knew about my father's mother, and I just added the initial from the other one and I became Gloria E.A. Toote [HistoryMaker Gloria Toote]. And I made everybody say E.A. And I will always remember George E.C. Hayes had the dullest class, one of the worst classes that I've ever had to take in life. And it was at eight o'clock in the morning.

The Honorable Michael Powell

The Honorable Michael Kevin Powell was born on March 23, 1963 in Birmingham, Alabama, the only son and eldest child of General Colin Powell and Alma Vivian Johnson Powell. Powell’s father was serving in Vietnam when Powell was born. He attended the College of William and Mary thanks to an ROTC scholarship, and graduated in 1985 with a degree in government. While attending William and Mary, Powell dated Jane Knott, who he would later marry. After college, he served in the 2nd Armored Cavalry Regiment in Amberg, Germany as a cavalry patrol officer. In 1987, while traveling in a convoy on the Autobahn in Germany, Powell’s jeep crashed and severely injured his pelvis and spine. After being stabilized in Nuremburg’s U.S. Army hospital, Powell spent one year recovering at Walter Reed Army Medical Center.

This injury curtailed his military career, and Powell returned to civilian work with two years as a policy advisor to the U.S. Defense Secretary, Richard Cheney. He then decided to go to law school, attending Georgetown University’s Law Center, where he graduated from in 1993 with a J.D. degree. He initially worked as a clerk in Washington, D.C.’s U.S. Court of Appeals for the Honorable Harry T. Edwards. He was then hired in 1994 as an associate in the Washington, D.C. office for the Los Angeles based law firm O’Melveny & Myers until 1996. While working at O’Melveny & Myers, Powell specialized in telecommunications and antitrust law. The following year, Powell became the chief of staff for the U.S. Justice Department’s Antitrust Division, advising the Assistant Attorney General on criminal investigations, policy development, and mergers.

On July 31, 1997, President William Jefferson Clinton appointed Powell to serve as a commissioner for the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), and in 2001, President George W. Bush appointed him Chairman of the FCC, the second African American to hold the position. As Chairman, Powell intended to modernize FCC regulations and emphasize the importance of the shift from analog to digital technologies. He also encouraged market-driven solutions to promote consumer interest, which involved a general deregulation of the marketplace; Powell’s philosophy highlighted the idea that regulation limits consumer choice. Powell’s well-known accomplishments were the establishment of a “Do-Not-Call” list to avoid telemarketers and forcing wireless carriers to allow consumers to maintain their phone numbers even when switching services. Powell was also responsible for overseeing the Commission’s National Security Emergency Preparedness utility. Powell left the FCC in 2005.

Powell is Senior Advisor with Providence Equity Partners and Chairman of the MK Powell Group. He is Rector of the College of William and Mary. Powell is also an Aspen trustee and serves on the Rand Corporation Board.

Powell lives in Fairfax Station, Virginia with his wife, Jane Knott Powell, and their sons, Jeffrey and Bryan.

Accession Number

A2006.010

Sex

Male

Interview Date

2/2/2006

Last Name

Powell

Maker Category
Middle Name

K.

Schools

Bel Air Elementary School

George M. Hampton Middle School

Lake Braddock Secondary

The College of William & Mary

Georgetown University

First Name

Michael

Birth City, State, Country

Birmingham

HM ID

POW07

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Alabama

Favorite Vacation Destination

Cape Cod, Massachusetts

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Interview Description
Birth Date

3/23/1963

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Chocolate

Short Description

Telecommunications lawyer and federal government appointee The Honorable Michael Powell (1963 - ) is the former commissioner and chairman of the Federal Communications Commission (FCC).

Employment

The M.K. Powell Group

Federal Communications Commission

Department of Justice

O'Melveny & Myers

U.S. Army

Arnold & Porter

Williams & Connolly

U.S. Court of Appeals

Favorite Color

Purple

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/360536">Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of The Honorable Michael Powell's interview</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/360537">Tape: 1 Story: 2 - The Honorable Michael Powell lists his favorites</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/360538">Tape: 1 Story: 3 - The Honorable Michael Powell describes his mother's family background</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/360539">Tape: 1 Story: 4 - The Honorable Michael Powell describes his father's family background</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/360540">Tape: 1 Story: 5 - The Honorable Michael Powell describes his father's childhood</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/360541">Tape: 1 Story: 6 - The Honorable Michael Powell talks about his grandparents</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/360542">Tape: 1 Story: 7 - The Honorable Michael Powell describes his earliest childhood memory</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/360543">Tape: 1 Story: 8 - The Honorable Michael Powell remembers his childhood in Dale City, Virginia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/360544">Tape: 1 Story: 9 - The Honorable Michael Powell recalls his childhood personality and interests</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/360545">Tape: 2 Story: 1 - The Honorable Michael Powell describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/360546">Tape: 2 Story: 2 - The Honorable Michael Powell recalls Bel Air Elementary School in Dale City, Virginia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/360547">Tape: 2 Story: 3 - The Honorable Michael Powell talks about his sisters</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/360548">Tape: 2 Story: 4 - The Honorable Michael Powell describes his upbringing in a military family, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/360549">Tape: 2 Story: 5 - The Honorable Michael Powell describes his upbringing in a military family, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/360550">Tape: 2 Story: 6 - The Honorable Michael Powell recalls moving frequently as a child</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/360551">Tape: 2 Story: 7 - The Honorable Michael Powell remembers when his father became a general</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/360552">Tape: 2 Story: 8 - The Honorable Michael Powell recalls his decision to leave his Boy Scout troop</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/360553">Tape: 3 Story: 1 - The Honorable Michael Powell describes his gymnastic career</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/360554">Tape: 3 Story: 2 - The Honorable Michael Powell describes his experience at Lake Braddock Secondary School</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/360555">Tape: 3 Story: 3 - The Honorable Michael Powell describes his high school activities and mentors</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/360556">Tape: 3 Story: 4 - The Honorable Michael Powell remembers political events of the 1970s and 1980s</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/360557">Tape: 3 Story: 5 - The Honorable Michael Powell recalls deciding to attend College of William & Mary</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/360558">Tape: 3 Story: 6 - The Honorable Michael Powell remembers how he met his wife</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/360559">Tape: 3 Story: 7 - The Honorable Michael Powell explains how the College of William & Mary influenced him</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/360560">Tape: 3 Story: 8 - The Honorable Michael Powell recalls his college graduation and U.S. Army training</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/360561">Tape: 3 Story: 9 - The Honorable Michael Powell remembers his accident on the German Autobahn</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/360562">Tape: 4 Story: 1 - The Honorable Michael Powell describes his surgery at Walter Reed Army Medical Center</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/360563">Tape: 4 Story: 2 - The Honorable Michael Powell remembers his year spent in recovery</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/360564">Tape: 4 Story: 3 - The Honorable Michael Powell describes his orthopedic rehabilitation and wedding</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/360565">Tape: 4 Story: 4 - The Honorable Michael Powell describes his work in The Pentagon</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/360566">Tape: 4 Story: 5 - The Honorable Michael Powell remembers attending Georgetown University Law Center</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/360567">Tape: 4 Story: 6 - The Honorable Michael Powell describes how he became a law clerk to Harry T. Edwards</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/360568">Tape: 4 Story: 7 - The Honorable Michael Powell remembers the case of Boodoo v. Cary, 1994</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/360569">Tape: 4 Story: 8 - The Honorable Michael Powell describes his role as a law clerk</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/360570">Tape: 4 Story: 9 - The Honorable Michael Powell talks about his mentor, Harry T. Edwards</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/360571">Tape: 4 Story: 10 - The Honorable Michael Powell remembers meeting Thurgood Marshall</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/333331">Tape: 5 Story: 1 - The Honorable Michael Powell reflects upon the career of Thurgood Marshall</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/333332">Tape: 5 Story: 2 - The Honorable Michael Powell explains his interest in communications and antitrust law</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/333333">Tape: 5 Story: 3 - The Honorable Michael Powell describes his role in the U.S. Department of Justice, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/333334">Tape: 5 Story: 4 - The Honorable Michael Powell describes his role in the U.S. Department of Justice, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/333335">Tape: 5 Story: 5 - The Honorable Michael Powell describes the U.S. Department of Justice's antitrust cases</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/333336">Tape: 5 Story: 6 - The Honorable Michael Powell describes his appointment to the Federal Communications Commission</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/333337">Tape: 5 Story: 7 - The Honorable Michael Powell recalls his early work at the Federal Communications Commission, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/333338">Tape: 5 Story: 8 - The Honorable Michael Powell recalls his early work at the Federal Communications Commission, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/333339">Tape: 6 Story: 1 - The Honorable Michael Powell recalls his appointment as Federal Communications Commission chairman</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/333340">Tape: 6 Story: 2 - The Honorable Michael Powell describes his leadership of the FCC</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/333341">Tape: 6 Story: 3 - The Honorable Michael Powell talks about the thirty-five percent rule, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/333342">Tape: 6 Story: 4 - The Honorable Michael Powell describes public regard for federal regulation in the early 2000s</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/333343">Tape: 6 Story: 5 - The Honorable Michael Powell describes the 35 percent rule, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/333344">Tape: 6 Story: 6 - The Honorable Michael Powell describes how Congress modified the thirty-five percent rule</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/333345">Tape: 6 Story: 7 - The Honorable Michael Powell describes his FCC University staff training program</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/333346">Tape: 7 Story: 1 - The Honorable Michael Powell reflects upon changes in broadcast media</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/333347">Tape: 7 Story: 2 - The Honorable Michael Powell reflects upon rapidly advancing communications technology</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/333348">Tape: 7 Story: 3 - The Honorable Michael Powell reflects upon the impact of new technologies</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/333349">Tape: 7 Story: 4 - The Honorable Michael Powell shares his concerns about the proliferation of choice in media</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/333350">Tape: 7 Story: 5 - The Honorable Michael Powell reflects upon his political career</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/333351">Tape: 7 Story: 6 - The Honorable Michael Powell reflects upon his father's political stance</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/333352">Tape: 7 Story: 7 - The Honorable Michael Powell reflects upon his political ideology</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/333111">Tape: 8 Story: 1 - The Honorable Michael Powell reflects upon the impact of race in his profession</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/333112">Tape: 8 Story: 2 - The Honorable Michael Powell describes his work with young African American attorneys</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/333113">Tape: 8 Story: 3 - The Honorable Michael Powell reflects upon his legacy</a>

DASession

1$1

DATape

1$4

DAStory

3$7

DATitle
The Honorable Michael Powell describes his mother's family background
The Honorable Michael Powell remembers the case of Boodoo v. Cary, 1994
Transcript
I want you to tell me about your mother [HistoryMaker Alma Powell] and what you know about her background and her growing up?$$Wow. My mother, to me, is an extraordinarily special person for reasons I think most people may not immediately grasp. You know, when you grow up the son of a military man [HistoryMaker General Colin L. Powell], who goes to war two and three times in your lifetime, there are these huge periods, year-long periods, where you never see your father. And those are formative moments of your childhood. And your mother is your everything. And my mother taught me how to throw a baseball. My mother was at certain events. And so she's always considered this, this anchor point in our lives, and when you sort of never know what might happen in the next military conflict or excursion, you know, she's, she's sort of that part you almost look to, to be permanent. So she's really, really special to me in the way that only a military child might appreciate. I also think she's the finishing school in our upbringing as children, meaning, I--you know, whenever somebody says, well, if you had one word for your mother, I would say grace. And I think it's a word rarely used today when people think about people. But I think she's a woman of grace who sort of has a, a quiet elegance about her and a, and a certain calm serenity, and a sort of stability in a storm that I really, really admire. And, you know, she's dedicated her life as, you know, being the other half of my father's world, but I don't think he'd have a world without her because I think she contributes in an incredibly significant way these attributes that keep things balanced and stable and egos in check and humility appropriately persevered. So that's really important to me. I also think in some ways we had really two really interesting family traditions. And my father saw it as the kind of immigrant story, you know. It's the, it's the Jamaicans that come from another country, who come to New York [New York] searching for a better life. And his world derives principally from that experience. My mother's in some way is my connection to the African American experience in the United States. Her, her lineage goes to Birmingham, Alabama. I mean I'm born in Birmingham, Alabama in 1963, you know, where--while my father's in Vietnam, where three months after I'm born, you know, the 16th Street Baptist Church [Birmingham, Alabama] blows up while we're in church three blocks away. And we used to go every summer to Birmingham. And my grandfather [Robert Johnson] was the principal of the only black high school [A.H. Parker High School] at the time in Birmingham, Alabama. Her mother [Mildred Bell Johnson] was a pioneer for black girls in Birmingham. So a lot of my experiences with civil rights and race and the American experience that is so popularly understood by people, really comes through her connection to me. So that's really special too because there's certain things I derive only from, from her upbringing, her experiences.$$Now, do you remember any of her stories about growing up? Did she tell, talk about that?$$You know, not as much as I wish she did, which I think is kind of a (laughter) attribute of that generation. I would encourage them to do so more. I think as she's gotten older, and we've gotten older, we hear a little bit more of them. I remember very clearly 'cause I'd gone with my cousin, my mother's niece. We got to go to see the day view of Spike Lee's '4 Little Girls' documentary about the Baptist church bombing. And suddenly connections started surfacing that somehow I had not made. One, the sudden realization, wait a minute, we were there. Two, that one of the little girls' fathers was a famous photographer in Birmingham, and all of our pictures have his name on 'em. And I suddenly remembered the name on the little corners of every family photo I've ever seen. I remember coming home, saying, you know, what do you know about this? Where were you? She goes, well, we were there. And all of a sudden, all these things I had no idea that--how close her connection was. She knew every one of the little girls. She knew their families. She was--we were downtown when this happened, her and I, me as an infant, trying to get out of town just after this has happened. I said, what--where did all this come from? But I think that her generation, or at least her view--and maybe this is part of the military experience too, was to protect you and to keep your life happy and joyful and unencumbered. And I think sometimes that gets taken to the point of not sharing experiences that have pain laced in them. And we were always moving. So, you know, there wasn't this sort--what might, people--some people might call a tradition. You know, we, we were a very, you know, pick up and go kind of family; you're here today, gone tomorrow. So there wasn't as much of that kind of lineage or permanence or a location you thought of a home. And I think that undermined the storytelling a little bit. And my father's side is very gregarious about storytelling, very, very Jamaican, very--big parties when you're in New York or every relative you've ever heard of. And, you know, they sort of were the dominant part of the storytelling. And her family's smaller and you had less inter- you know, fewer points of interaction. But I think most of that's been corrected. I mean she's, she's told me a lot now. I'm sure there's a lot more I could learn.$I remember one day we had a case--I won't be any more lengthy about this, but it was a really weird, boring case normally. It was like a bus accident case which almost never comes to a court of appeals. Because it was D.C. [Washington, D.C.], and D.C. is not a state, these things come to the federal system. And a woman had lost a relative when the metro bus hit her, hit the car, and the lower judge had--the jury found for her, but then the judge overturned it because he said the evidence didn't support the--so this should have--the appellate courts hate these kinds of cases, you know. They're routine. What do we need to be bothered with this for? I kept reading it, and it bothered me a lot. It bothered me a lot, and the more I read it, I thought, the judge has misunderstood something 'cause there was an expert who was Korean, didn't speak good English, and I kept reading. And I said, I don't think he's--the judge thought that they had conceded stuff that I didn't think he had. So I went to the judge [Harry T. Edwards], and I said, "You know, judge, I hate to tell you this, but I think we should overturn this thing. I think they're wrong." He goes, "Oh, come on." And I, I said, "No, I really do." And I showed what I'd done. And he said, he said, "Well, I don't care much about it so if that's what you want to--you know, if that's what you want to argue, fine. Write it up," and--this is before the oral argument, I wrote my, what we call bench memos, these big things. And I said we should find for the woman. So we go have the oral argument. The case gets argued. Judges always go vote immediately, so he comes back after the voting, goes, "Well, you lost, you know, they, they, they're not buying. So, you know, I, what do I care, I'm just gonna vote with them, so it'll be three to zero. And Judge Williams [ph.] or whoever is gonna write the opinion." I said, ah, I went back to my--and it bugged me. It just kept bugging me. And so I kept looking at the record, and they were measuring skid marks. So I started doing the math like, if the skid marks--the bus had to be going this fast. I just couldn't stop thinking this woman was right. So I kind of went back to him, and I said, "I have to take it--I got to argue with you about this." I said, "Look," and I with--and he said, "Well, all right. We'll dissent, all right. Write the opinion. I'll tell the court we're dissenting. And I'll vote the way you want me to vote." So I think all right, that's cool. So I go to write the opinion. It was hard, you know, I put math in it and everything, and I remember I went into this office. And I was in my office--we, you know, 'cause it was a quiet chamber and I had my door closed. And I heard his door open--I'll never forget this day. And he goes--'cause the case had a funny name. It was Stella V. Boodoo [Stella V. Boodoo et al. v. Jerome Cary Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority, 1994], Stella versus Boodoo (laughter), we used to always laugh. And I heard this door open, and he'd been pretty dour, 'cause this was in the first three months. He said, "Stella V. Boodoo. Well, damn if Mike Powell [HistoryMaker Michael Powell] might not be a lawyer after all." And he was just so excited about the opinion and thought how well it--he goes, "He knocked this out of the park. Well, well, well, look who we have here." And I opened my door, and he was just like, "Well, you nailed that one." And he just walked back in his office. And I just--it was the warm--it was like, oh, my God.$$Was it because of what you had written?$$Yeah, he read it, he said, "Oh, you got it, you got it nailed." So we circulated the opinion. And he said, he came into me, he--we had a rule. You were not allowed to talk to other chambers about opinions. He wanted everybody to do their--he goes, "You go try to convince the other clerks this is right." So I talked to them, and they--he recirculated the opinion. Long story, short, we persuaded them, and we flipped the whole thing. So it went from three to two against this woman to three to two for her and we overturned the court. You know, and this was a poor woman had gotten--her husband was killed in the--I was just--there was just a sense of justice that we'd gotten right finally, and that just transformed me forever. And then he became--at that, from that moment on, we were mentor and mentee for the rest of my life. He's my dearest friend in the world and my wife's [Jane Knott Powell] dearest friend. Whenever we need a good slapping around, you call him up, and--$$That's a pretty amazing story. Now talk about (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Yeah, a great teacher.

Constance Berry Newman

Constance Ernestine Berry Newman was born on July 8, 1935, in Chicago, Illinois. Her mother was a social worker and nurse and her father was a physician. Wanting to play a more active role in the civil rights movement, her father relocated the family to Tuskegee, Alabama. Newman attended Tuskegee Institute High School, located on the campus of the Tuskegee University, where she was an honor roll student and active in the Government Club. She earned her high school diploma in 1952. In 1956, Newman earned her B.A. degree in political science from Bates College, where she was active on the debate team and pre-law club. In 1959, she earned her law degree from the University of Minnesota Law School and then moved to France with her husband, who was a member of the United States Air Force.

Returning to the United States, Newman moved to Washington, D.C., in 1962, and despite having a law degree, the only employment she was able to obtain was as a clerk typist with the United States Interior Department. She remained at the Interior Department until 1967, working her way through the ranks serving as a personnel assistant and eventually personnel manager. From 1967 until 1969, Newman worked for the Office of Economic Development working with migrant farmers and then served as Special Assistant to Elliott Richardson, who headed what is now known as the Department of Health and Human Services. In 1971, she was appointed by former President Richard Nixon to serve as director of VISTA (Volunteers in Service to America), the domestic Peace Corps. From 1973 until 1976 she served as the director of the Consumer Product Safety Commission.

Between 1976 and 1977, Newman oversaw the consumer unit focused on Indian and elderly affairs as the assistant director of the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. In 1977, she co-founded Newman and Hermanson Company, a consulting firm specializing in the government regulatory procedures. From 1982 until 1984, Newman worked for the Institute of American Business. In 1984, Newman served as a private consultant to on issues related to Africa, working on a World Bank project in which she lived and worked in the South African country of Lesotho. In 1989, President George H.W. Bush appointed her director of the Office of Personnel Management, and in 1992, she served as Under Secretary of the Smithsonian Institute.

In 2001, Newman was sworn is an Assistant Administrator for Africa of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), the government agency that administers economic and humanitarian assistance worldwide. In 2004, Newman was appointed Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs and sworn in by Secretary of State Colin Powell. She resigned in April 2005.

Accession Number

A2004.252

Sex

Female

Interview Date

12/9/2004

Last Name

Newman

Maker Category
Middle Name

Berry

Organizations
Schools

Chambliss Children's House at Tuskegee Institute

Tuskegee Institute High School

Bates College

University of Minnesota Law School

Tuskegee Institute Middle School

First Name

Constance

Birth City, State, Country

Chicago

HM ID

NEW02

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Illinois

Favorite Vacation Destination

Africa

Favorite Quote

Really now.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Interview Description
Birth Date

7/8/1935

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Sushi

Short Description

Cabinet appointee and federal government appointee Constance Berry Newman (1935 - ) has served in numerous government posts starting in 1962. Newman has been the director of VISTA, a special assistant to the Secretary of Health and Human Services, and Assistant Secretary of State African Affairs.

Favorite Color

Purple

DAStories

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/11332">Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Constance Newman interview</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/11333">Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Constance Newman lists her favorites</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/11334">Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Constance Newman recalls her mother</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/11335">Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Constance Newman recalls her father and the family's move to Alabama</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/11336">Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Constance Newman talks about about her ancestors</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/11337">Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Constance Newman contrasts experiences in Minnesota and Alabama during her childhood</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/11338">Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Constance Newman talks about her siblings and memories of family life during her childhood</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/11339">Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Constance Newman recalls neighborhoods from her childhood as well as sights, smells and sounds</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/11340">Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Constance Newman discusses her early formal education</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/11341">Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Constance Newman talks about her career aspirations and her impressions of Thurgood Marshall</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/11342">Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Constance Newman details her early rejection of organized religion</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/11343">Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Constance Newman discusses her grammar school years in Tuskegee, Alabama</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/11344">Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Constance Newman recalls her youth and her close relationship with her brother</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/11345">Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Constance Newman talks about her high school experiences in Tuskegee, Alabama</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/11346">Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Constance Newman recalls her decision to attend Bates College in Lewiston, Maine</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/11347">Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Constance Newman describes her experiences at Bates College in Lewiston, Maine</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/11348">Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Constance Newman talks about her father's sudden death and her family's move back to Minnesota</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/11349">Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Constance Newman recalls her experiences at the University of Minnesota Law School</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/11350">Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Constance Newman describes her year residency in France after law school</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/11351">Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Constance Newman details her work with the U.S. Department of the Interior and the Kerner Commission</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/11352">Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Constance Newman talks about various governmental positions she's held</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/11353">Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Constance Newman describes her work with the Department of Heath and Human Services in the late 1960s</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/11354">Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Constance Newman recalls her duties at VISTA in the 1970s</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/11355">Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Constance Newman details the rigors of the Senate confirmation process</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/11356">Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Constance Newman discusses governmental opportunities for women in the 1970s and forming her consulting company</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/11357">Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Constance Newman details her work with the African Development Foundation</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/11358">Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Constance Newman describes her work with the Office of Personnel Management and her appointment to the Smithsonian</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/11359">Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Constance Newman talks about her business called Upstart, part I</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/11360">Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Constance Newman talks about her business called Upstart, part 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/11361">Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Constance Newman details her involvement with USAID</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/11362">Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Constance Newman discusses the perception of Africa in the United States and in the African American community</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/11363">Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Constance Newman talks about U.S. interests in the Middle East in relation to those in Africa</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/11364">Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Constance Newman expresses her hopes and concerns for Africa</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/11365">Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Constance Newman discusses her current role as the Assistant Secretary of State for Africa</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/11366">Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Constance Newman talks about the highlights of her life and career</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/11367">Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Constance Newman reflects on her legacy and how she wishes to be remembered</a>

George Haley

Attorney George Williford Boyce Haley was born on August 28, 1925, in Henning, Tennessee. He grew up on a number of college campuses, as both his parents were university professors. As a young boy living at Alabama A&M at Normal, Alabama, he met Dr. George Washington Carver. While a student at J. C. Corbin High School in Pine Bluff, Arkansas, he played the french horn with the Arkansas AM&N College marching band. In 1943 Haley moved to Bordentown, New Jersey and graduated from Bordentown High School, a military boarding school. Two months after graduation, he was drafted into the U.S. Military and served for the next three years.

From 1946 until 1949, Haley attended Morehouse College with Dr. Benjamin Elijah Mays as president, and fellow students Martin Luther King, Jr., and Lerone Bennett. After receiving his bachelor of arts degree, he accepted a challenge from his father and became the third African American student admitted to the University of Arkansas Law School where he was one of five African Americans at the school.

While at Arkansas, he endured horrendous acts of racism, including having a bag of urine thrown in his face and facing daily verbal insults. At the end of his first year he scored the highest marks on his final examinations and by the end of his second year he was writing articles for the Law Review. He received his law degree in 1952, becoming the second African American to graduate from Arkansas.

After receiving his law degree, he joined the firm of Stevens Jackson in Kansas, who are often referred to as the architects of the landmark civil rights case, Brown v. the Board of Education. While still working in private practice, Haley served as Deputy City Attorney from 1954-1964. He then embarked on a political career and was elected as a Kansas State Senator. He held that post from 1964-1968.

In 1966, Haley unsuccessfully ran for the U.S. Congress; nonetheless he still landed in Washington, D.C. In 1969, Haley was appointed Chief Counsel of the Urban Mass Transportation Administration (Federal Transit Administration) by President Richard Nixon. From 1973-1976, he served as Associate Director for Equal Employment Opportunity at the United States Information Agency (USIA). Upon leaving USIA, he became a partner in the law firm of Obermayer, Rebmann, Maxwell and Hippel of Philadelphia and Washington, D.C. before establishing his own firm in 1981. In 1986, he made another unsuccessful bid for the U.S. Senate in Maryland.

In 1990, President George H. W. Bush appointed Haley as Chairman of the Postal Rate Commission, where he served for the next eight years, after being re-commissioned by President Bill Clinton. In April of 1998, President Clinton named him U.S. Ambassador to The Gambia in West Africa, where he served until 2001. Haley also served as the executor of the estate of Pulitzer Prize winning novelist Alex Haley, his brother.

Haley passed away on May 13, 2015 at his home in Silver Spring, Maryland. He was 89.

George Haley was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on May 20, 2004.

Accession Number

A2004.054

Sex

Male

Interview Date

5/20/2004

Last Name

Haley

Maker Category
Organizations
Schools

Bordentown High School

Morehouse College

P.W. Moore High School

Booker T. Washington High School

University of Arkansas Law School

J.C. Corbin Laboratory School

First Name

George

Birth City, State, Country

Henning

HM ID

HAL07

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Tennessee

Favorite Vacation Destination

Cruises

Favorite Quote

I'm Only One, But I Am One. I Can't Do Everything, But I Can Do Something. And Because I Cannot Do Everything, I Will Not Refuse To Do The Something That I Can Do.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Interview Description
Birth Date

8/28/1925

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Southern Fried Chicken

Death Date

5/13/2015

Short Description

Federal government appointee George Haley (1925 - 2015 ) served as a Kansas State Senator, was appointed Chief Counsel of the Urban Mass Transportation Administration as well as Chairman of the Postal Rate Commission, and was Ambassador to the Republic of The Gambia in West Africa.

Employment

Stevens, Jackson, Davis, and Haley

City of Kansas City

Kansas Senate

Urban Mass Transportation Administration

United States Information Agency

Obermayer, Rebmann, Maxwell & Hippel

Postal Rate Commission

United States Department of State

UNESCO

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/216148">Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of George Haley's interview</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/216149">Tape: 1 Story: 2 - George Haley lists his favorites</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/216150">Tape: 1 Story: 3 - George Haley talks about his mother and how his parents met</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/216151">Tape: 1 Story: 4 - George Haley shares his childhood memories</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/216152">Tape: 1 Story: 5 - George Haley describes his mother's death</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/216153">Tape: 1 Story: 6 - George Haley talks about his father, pt.1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/216154">Tape: 1 Story: 7 - George Haley talks about his father, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/216155">Tape: 1 Story: 8 - George Haley talks about his father's background</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/216156">Tape: 1 Story: 9 - George Haley describes his relatives telling stories of their ancestors</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/216157">Tape: 1 Story: 10 - George Haley describes stories he was told about his ancestors</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/216158">Tape: 2 Story: 1 - George Haley describes how Alex Haley became inspired to do genealogical research</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/216159">Tape: 2 Story: 2 - George Haley lists his siblings and explains the origin of their names</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/216160">Tape: 2 Story: 3 - George Haley describes the different places he lived growing up</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/216161">Tape: 2 Story: 4 - George Haley describes growing up on college campuses</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/216162">Tape: 2 Story: 5 - George Haley describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/216163">Tape: 2 Story: 6 - George Haley talks about his elementary school friends, including HistoryMaker Gerald Lamb</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/216164">Tape: 2 Story: 7 - George Haley talks about his teachers and playing piano</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/216165">Tape: 2 Story: 8 - George Haley talks about his aspirations and what he was like as a child and student during elementary school</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/216166">Tape: 2 Story: 9 - George Haley talks about his and his maternal grandfather's relationship with the Christian Methodist Episcopal Church</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/216167">Tape: 3 Story: 1 - George Haley talks about his participation in the Christian Methodist Episcopal (CME) Church</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/216168">Tape: 3 Story: 2 - George Haley describes attending P. W. Moore Junior-Senior High School in Elizabeth City, North Carolina and J. C. Corbin High School in Pine Bluff, Arkansas</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/216169">Tape: 3 Story: 3 - George Haley recalls attending Booker T. Washington High School in Memphis, Tennessee</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/216170">Tape: 3 Story: 4 - George Haley explains why he completed high school at Bordentown High School in Bordentown, New Jersey</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/216171">Tape: 3 Story: 5 - George Haley describes his frustration at having to enter the U.S. military instead of going to college after high school graduation</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/216172">Tape: 3 Story: 6 - George Haley recalls his experience at Morehouse College in Atlanta, Georgia and the influence of Dr. Benjamin Mays</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/216173">Tape: 3 Story: 7 - George Haley recites the words of Dr. Benjamin Elijah Mays</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/216174">Tape: 3 Story: 8 - George Haley talks about his decision to attend the University of Arkansas Law School in Fayetteville, Arkansas</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/216175">Tape: 4 Story: 1 - George Haley talks about Silas Hunt and Jackie Lamond Shropshire integrating the University of Arkansas</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/216176">Tape: 4 Story: 2 - George Haley talks about changing race relations at the University of Arkansas Law School in Fayetteville, Arkansas</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/216177">Tape: 4 Story: 3 - George Haley remembers being harassed at the University of Arkansas Law School in Fayetteville, Arkansas</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/216178">Tape: 4 Story: 4 - George Haley describes the impact of his attendance at the University of Arkansas Law School in Fayetteville, Arkansas</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/216179">Tape: 4 Story: 5 - George Haley talks about his law practice at Stevens, Jackson, Davis, and Haley and becoming Deputy City Attorney for the City of Kansas City, Kansas</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/216180">Tape: 4 Story: 6 - George Haley talks about the legacy of Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1954)</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/216181">Tape: 4 Story: 7 - George Haley tells a story about his maternal grandmother to demonstrate changes in moral standards</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/216182">Tape: 5 Story: 1 - George Haley recalls becoming a Kansas State Senator in 1964</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/216183">Tape: 5 Story: 2 - George Haley describes his move from state politics to federal politics</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/216184">Tape: 5 Story: 3 - George Haley talks about the response he received from Reader's Digest article, 'George Haley: The Man Who Wouldn't Quit,' by Alex Haley</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/216185">Tape: 5 Story: 4 - George Haley reflects on the success of his brother, Alex Haley's book, 'Roots: The Saga of an American Family' and his family</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/216186">Tape: 5 Story: 5 - George Haley talks about starting his own law firm in Washington, D.C.</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/216187">Tape: 5 Story: 6 - George Haley talks about UNESCO</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/216188">Tape: 5 Story: 7 - George Haley describes serving on the U.S. Postal Rate Commission</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/216189">Tape: 5 Story: 8 - George Haley describes his experience as the U.S. ambassador to the Gambia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/216190">Tape: 5 Story: 9 - George Haley describes some of his projects in the Gambia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/216191">Tape: 6 Story: 1 - George Haley describes his projects underway in 2004 on behalf of his brother, Alex Haley's estate</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/216192">Tape: 6 Story: 2 - George Haley talks about his hopes for strengthening economic and cultural ties between African Americans and Africans</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/216193">Tape: 6 Story: 3 - George Haley talks about the influence of 'Roots' on the popularity of genealogical research</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/216194">Tape: 6 Story: 4 - George Haley describes how he would like to be remembered</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/216195">Tape: 6 Story: 5 - George Haley talks about the importance of history</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/216196">Tape: 6 Story: 6 - George Haley narrates his photographs</a>

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$5

DAStory

1$8

DATitle
George Haley describes how Alex Haley became inspired to do genealogical research
George Haley describes his experience as the U.S. ambassador to the Gambia
Transcript
Mr. [HistoryMaker George] Haley, if you will, just tell us a little bit about, of course, you know, you have an ancestor that we're all very familiar with, Kunta Kinte. Tell us a little bit about some of the stories you heard about him growing up.$$Yes. We heard about the African pretty much, how certain kinds of things happened to him. As, as I said, well, growing up we'd come there [Henning, Tennessee] every summer from wherever we were. I'm saying now, my brother Alex [Haley], myself, and then as my young brother, Julius [Haley], grew up. And grandma [Cynthia Murray Palmer] and Aunt Liz [Elizabeth B. Murray] the two persons who lived in the house, would sit and talk, you know how old folk sitting out talking and they'd say, "Oh, you know, he would do this." I mean not only him, but as they, the, the people in the family talking in terms of, of Kizzy and the African as, as they came to talk a little bit about their ancestors. And actually, I didn't think too much of it to be frank with you. I mean, we knew at that time, we'd listen to them, and as we grew up and Alex started working on it again, we brought some of this back to our attention more. Although as I said, we knew it existed, you know, that that was part of the discussion. And when it really came to, had more bearing, was after Alex decided to look into the family heritage again. Alex would say--he did 'The Autobiography of Malcolm X' [Malcolm X and Alex Haley], and he used to say, "If you've done something like that, he said you feel like a mother who has birthed a child and you're empty." And he said that he went by the [National] Archives [Building] one day here in Washington [D.C.]. Somehow he looked into the archives and saw people who were just poring over, you know, their heritage and whatnot. And he said, "I decided I was gonna look into grandma's," 'cause he now remembered that we, that he or we had had, listened to them. And, and he saw Tom [Murray] and Irene Murray, which were grandma's parents, and he looked--they had eight children but only seven were there. And he says well he couldn't figure out what happened to Cynthia, okay. But Cynthia is our grandmother who was the eighth child. And so it just started fascinating him to the extent of now really deciding he was gonna do this. So he went back down to grandma and still Aunt Liz is there. And Cousin Georgia and now this is when I kind of got into the act again with him. I was practicing law in Kansas City [Kansas] at that time and that's where Cousin Georgia was. And it just became really fascinating to listen to them. Fortunately, they were still around to give us versions again of the African, Kizzy, and I can't even think of his name now, I had called his name earlier, but at any rate that's, that's how it really started going.$What were your experiences like in Africa (simultaneous)?$$(Simultaneous) Just fantastic. I had been to Africa several times in various capacities, speaking commitments and whatnot. All over Africa: Kenya, Zimbabwe, Botswana, Johannesburg [South Africa], Lesotho, and all down the west coast of Africa, of course. And my having gone this time though as ambassador, is just completely different, you know, you go and you're saying well, in three weeks I'll be back home and this kind of thing. But when you go as an ambassador in Africa, I would say other places, of course, this is the only place, only place I've been as ambassador, but you, you sit down and it's hey look, I'm here (laughter). I'm here now in a different capacity for years, you understand. And it's--you have a different kind of feeling about it. My experience, of course, of going to The Gambia was fantastic. Where my ancestors had come from, and, of course, that was part of the symbolism of my coming to the Gambia, from Kunta Kinte now seven generations later the same family sends home its ambassador. It was a very emotional thing for me, for the Gambian people, and on that scene, of course, they said you're a Gambian who has come home, you know. And they expected me to do really, more than I was able to do. Because I had to remind them that I am here representing the United States of America with its policies, with its laws to represent this country. Now, you have to keep this in mind, and I promise you that I will do everything I can to help the country under those circumstances. And we did. I'm saying we now because my wife [Doris Moxley Haley] was with me, who helped assiduously. We did a lot of things for the Gambia.

Arthur Fletcher

Civil rights activist and affirmative action champion Arthur A. Fletcher was born in Phoenix, Arizona, in 1924. As a child, Fletcher's parents moved frequently. Fletcher graduated from high school in Junction City, Kansas; from there he attended Washburn University, earning degrees in political science and sociology. Fletcher later went on to earn his law degree and his Ph.D. in education.

Fletcher organized his first civil rights protest while still in high school after being told that African American student photographs would be included in the back of the yearbook. After graduating from high school, Fletcher served in World War II under General George Patton and earned a Purple Heart. Fletcher joined the Los Angeles Rams in 1950 and later became the first African American to play for the Baltimore Colts.

Fletcher entered politics in 1954, when he worked on Fred Hall's gubernatorial campaign, and took a position working for the Kansas Highway Commission; he took the knowledge of government contracts he gained there to encourage African American businesses to bid on contracts. After moving to Washington, Fletcher worked a number of government jobs, eventually becoming the special assistant to the governor in 1969. That same year, President Richard Nixon appointed Fletcher to the office of assistant secretary of wage and labor standards in the Department of Labor. While serving in this capacity, Fletcher devised the Philadelphia Plan, which enforced equal employment and business opportunities for minorities. In 1972, Fletcher joined the United Negro College Fund as executive director, and coined its slogan, “A mind is a terrible thing to waste.” Fletcher later returned to government service when President Gerald Ford appointed him to the office of deputy of urban affairs. In this role, Fletcher came to be known as the father of the affirmative action enforcement movement.

Fletcher was appointed to the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights in 1990, where he served until 1993 as chairman and a commissioner. In 1996, prompted by Senator Bob Dole's reversal of his forty-year affirmative action policy, Fletcher made a run for the presidency; he later became president and CEO of Fletcher's Learning Systems and publisher of USA Tomorrow/The Fletcher Letter.

Fletcher spent a great deal of time touring the country for speaking engagements on equal opportunity rights and the benefits of affirmative action, and served as the chairman of the National Black Chamber of Commerce. Fletcher wrote several articles that appeared in magazines such as Ebony and Fortune, in addition to authoring a book entitled My Hour of Power.

Arthur A. Fletcher passed away on July 12, 2005; he was survived by his wife, Bernyce Fletcher.

Accession Number

A2003.111

Sex

Male

Interview Date

5/29/2003

Last Name

Fletcher

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

A.

Organizations
Schools

Junction City Junior/Senior High School

Washburn University

LaSalle Extension University

First Name

Arthur

Birth City, State, Country

Phoenix

HM ID

FLE02

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Arizona

Favorite Vacation Destination

Kansas

Favorite Quote

It is a very poor dog that won't wag his own tail.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Interview Description
Birth Date

12/22/1924

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Potatoes

Death Date

7/12/2005

Short Description

Federal government appointee and foundation chief executive Arthur Fletcher (1924 - 2005 ) was appointed by President Gerald Ford as deputy of urban affairs where he became known as the father of affirmative action. In 1972, Fletcher joined the United Negro College Fund as executive director and coined its slogan, "A mind is a terrible thing to waste."

Employment

Los Angeles Rams, Baltimore Colts

Kansas Highway Commission

Department of Labor

United Negro College Fund

Civil Rights Commission

Favorite Color

Red

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DAStories

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/17834">Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Arthur Fletcher interview</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/17835">Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Arthur Fletcher's favorites</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/17836">Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Arthur Fletcher describes his father's background</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/17837">Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Arthur Fletcher talks about growing up in a military environment</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/17838">Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Arthur Fletcher describes his mother's background</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/17839">Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Arthur Fletcher recalls his earliest childhood memory</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/17840">Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Arthur Fletcher talks about his brother</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/17841">Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Arthur Fletcher remembers his childhood in Langston, Oklahoma</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/17842">Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Arthur Fletcher describes the impact of the G.I. Bill of Rights</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/17843">Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Arthur Fletcher talks about his childhood interest in the trumpet and in jazz</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/17844">Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Arthur Fletcher discusses former Buffalo Soldiers</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/17845">Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Arthur Fletcher details his early educational career</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/17846">Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Arthur Fletcher talks about his childhood personality</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/17847">Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Arthur Fletcher remembers being influenced by Mary McLeod Bethune</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/17848">Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Arthur Fletcher discusses his athletic abilities and experiences</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/17849">Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Arthur Fletcher explains the integration policies of Kansas schools in the 1940s</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/17850">Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Arthur Fletcher recalls encountering racism while playing sports in Kansas</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/17851">Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Arthur Fletcher tells of memorable teachers</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/17852">Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Arthur Fletcher remembers his football career at Fort Knox</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/17853">Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Arthur Fletcher talks about his musical involvement in the military</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/17854">Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Arthur Fletcher discusses D-Day and the invasion of Europe during World War II</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/17855">Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Arthur Fletcher details experiences as a combat MP in World War II</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/17856">Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Arthur Fletcher tells of his post-military plans</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/17857">Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Arthur Fletcher explains his decision to attend Washburn University</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/17858">Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Arthur Fletcher discusses his reasons for studying political science</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/17859">Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Arthur Fletcher explains his involvement with the Republican Party</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/17860">Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Arthur Fletcher details his role in the establishment of the Civil Rights Commission</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/17861">Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Arthur Fletcher talks about his professional football career</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/17862">Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Arthur Fletcher recalls the racial climate during his professional football career</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/17863">Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Arthur Fletcher tells of his various career moves after playing professional football</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/17864">Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Arthur Fletcher explains his early political involvement</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/17865">Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Arthur Fletcher talks about his position with the Kansas Highway Commission</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/17866">Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Arthur Fletcher discusses Fred Hall's gubernatorial campaign</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/17867">Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Arthur Fletcher recalls a dark period in his family life</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/17868">Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Arthur Fletcher talks about his successes in educational reform, part 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/17869">Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Arthur Fletcher details his successes in educational reform, part 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/17870">Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Arthur Fletcher explains his involvement in an urban renewal project</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/17871">Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Arthur Fletcher tells of his campaign for lieutenant governor of Washington</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/17872">Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Arthur Fletcher discusses his position within the Department of Labor</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/17873">Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Arthur Fletcher explains why he revised the Philadelphia Plan</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/17874">Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Arthur Fletcher shares his thoughts on affirmative action</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/17875">Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Arthur Fletcher stresses the importance of continued progress in diversity and affirmative action</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/17876">Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Arthur Fletcher explains the importance of the Community Reinvestment Act</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/17877">Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Arthur Fletcher talks about problems with the Community Reinvestment Act</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/17878">Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Arthur Fletcher talks about his involvement with the United Negro College Fund</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/17879">Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Arthur Fletcher discusses Gerald Ford's commitment to affirmative action</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/17880">Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Arthur Fletcher gives his thoughts on the current status of the Republican Party</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/17881">Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Arthur Fletcher talks about being an African American Republican</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/17882">Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Arthur Fletcher shares his hopes for the black community</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/17883">Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Arthur Fletcher explains how he helps the black community from within the Republican Party</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/17884">Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Arthur Fletcher considers his legacy</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/17885">Tape: 7 Story: 9 - Arthur Fletcher reflects on his life</a>

DASession

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Arthur Fletcher details his role in the establishment of the Civil Rights Commission
Arthur Fletcher explains why he revised the Philadelphia Plan
Transcript
You didn't ask this, but let me make sure that I drive this home. Because we were effective, we tried to get [Dwight D.] Eisenhower to pass a bill creating the, the Civil Rights Commission before he got reelected. We came back here and did our best to get him. He said, no. He wouldn't do that. He'd gone as far as he was gonna go with the, with the Arkansas school thing, okay, desegregating that. After the election, after he got elected, we put the full-court press on again and finally convinced him that the federal government ought to study racism. We finally convinced him he ought to do it, us, plus some others. But it was the Kansas delegation of young black Republicans that came back there, back here and convinced him that he ought to sign legislation creating the Civil Rights Commission. Now, he agreed to do it provided we didn't ask for enforcement powers. We pressed for enforcement powers, but we couldn't get it. Now, he then signed the bill. Now, the significance of signing that bill and a lot of brothers and sisters don't understand, this was the first time, signing that bill was the first time that the federal government in modern time in particular, that the federal government was admitting it had a race problem (laughter), now you see that. Here's the federal government saying, we're going to create an entity to study this, this anathema called race. Now, what was the benefit there? One, it wasn't a P foundation, a non-profit entity trying to convince the government they had a problem. It wasn't the Rockefeller Foundation. It was none of those foundations. Here is a federal government entity saying we need to acknowledge we have this problem, and let's see what its nature, its shape, etcetera, is. He signed it in '57 [1957]. It became the law of the land. We, we came back and worked it real hard to get it done, and he signed it. And we used the fact that the we got the Kansas Fair Employment Practice Commission in existence in his home state to convince him that we ought to study it at the national level. They agreed to do that, and after they agreed to do that, then here comes the riots in the '60s [1960s], okay. And for the first time, the government studied the problem with its own agency, the Civil Rights Commission. They were the ones that came out with the Kerner Re--they were the ones that, that worked with the Kerner [Commission] Report to see to it that it dealt with the problem. Now, had it not been for that, then the chances of the '64 [1964] Civil Rights Act ever becoming the law of the land, it would not have happened. The fact that the '64 [1964] Civil Rights Act became the law of the land is because a federal government agency called the Civil Rights Commission (chuckle), okay, worked with the Kerner Commission to put that report together and justified the need for a '64 [1964] Civil Rights Act. A lot of, a lot of so-called knowledge civil righters don't know that. That's how that happened.$I issued the revised Philadelphia Plan. You say, why was it revised? Because the original Philadelphia Plan had no enforcement measures. It was a volunteer program in which you depend on the contractor's good will to the degree that he'll create or she will create an environment where goodwill will pervade and your coworkers will work with you, in spite of your color or your gender.$$And the Philadelphia Plan had come out of--$$The Philadelphia Plan came out of the [Lyndon B.] Johnson administration.$$Okay.$$Okay, and, again, they knew it was flawed, all right, even though--.$$Who was involved with that? Do you--?$$Who was involved with, with?$$With the original Philadelphia Plan?$$With the original Philadelphia Plan. I think Cliff Alexander had something to do with it, but I'm not sure. But he, it was, he got--when he tried to implement it, the, the--I'll call his name any minute, the, the, not the inspector general. I'll call his name in a minute, killed it. The, the Congress's budget office killed it because they said it violated the quota provisions in Title VII, all right. And for some reason Cliff and, and his brain power or either Willie Wilson with the Labor Department, wouldn't let them put an enforcement provision in it, all right. So when I come along, I clearly understand that if it isn't enforceable, it isn't going anywhere. I also understand that you can't use Title VII of the '64 [1964] Civil Rights Act. You got to use procurement law, and you can use procurement law and get away from the no quota provision by setting aside hours for minorities and women to work, without ever telling the contractor how many minorities and women to hire to work those hours. It's up to him or her to decide. They have to decide, they got to have that portion of the contract finished on a date certain. And there's twenty-seven, twenty-eight, twenty-nine or a hundred thousand hours in the contract for that particular work, and we provided them with information in the census tracks that they recruited from. We identified the households in which minorities who had met their qualifications lived. How did we know? 'Cause they had gotten money from the Department of Labor to train them. So we didn't tell 'em to hire them and not them where to hook--look. We told them to hire them and here's the census tracks to look in. Now, if they're hired, by the time you finally get there, if some other contractor has beaten you, then you do something else in procurement law. And what is that? You ask for a contract change. It's called a change order. And the change order is based on the fact that when you looked--and they got to give us a report. How many hours you spent looking, what was the salary of the person, that you spent looking and--how many hours and what was his sophistication. How did we measure that? Their--contractors always ask for change orders. So we don't have to go outside that contractor to, to find out what some other contractor did. When's the last time you asked for a train--change order? Well, we asked for a change order because a certain brand of paint that we agreed to put on that wall wasn't on the market when it was time to put it up. So we had to find another brand. And we came and got your permission to find another brand and then we went searching to find that branch, and then we did it. Now, how many hours did you spend searching? What was the skill tech of the professional person doing the searching, and what did you pay him? We want you to compare your seriousness over here with your seriousness or lack of seriousness over here. So a lot of the brothers and sisters had good faith effort. There was a lot of you know what, not so. It is a bonafide part of the contracting process, and if you understand how a contractor, what he has to do to go through the process of proving that he made a good faith effort, you'll see, we only applied contract law in an area that had never been tried before. And, and those contractors who came in and tried to fool us on good faith effort, the minute we made the comparative analysis and then threatened to debar them for five years, from ever contracting again, that's when they got serious. But it was all contract law, had nothing to do with Title VII and fluffy social justice. It's all contract law. And it's all about hours and the amount of money in each contract tied to the hours for paying each craft. That's how it was done and, and [President Richard] Nixon bought into that the minute he realized that it was based on pure procurement contract law and economic equity. We're paying more taxes into the system than we're getting out by way of job opportunity. That's when he bought into it. Otherwise, he would never have bought into it. And that basically is the reason the courts have not killed affirmative action for thirty-three years, and I got a sneaking suspicious they're not gonna kill it this time.

Audrey Manley

Audrey Forbes Manley was born March 25, 1934, in Jackson, Mississippi, to Ora Lee Buckhalter Forbes and Jesse Lee Forbes. She reached the height of public service in medicine while serving as the U.S. Deputy Surgeon General and Acting Surgeon General before assuming the helm of Spelman College as President.

After a childhood spent in Tougaloo, Mississippi, Manley (then Forbes) moved to Chicago, Illinois, where she graduated from Wendell Phillips High School in 1951. Manley received a B.A. at Spelman College in Atlanta, Georgia, in 1955 and went straight to Meharry Medical College in Nashville, Tennessee. After earning her M.D., Manley moved back to Chicago and completed her residency at Cook County Children's Hospital in 1963. While a resident, Manley taught pediatrics at the Cook County School of Nursing, foreshadowing her future career in education.

Manley began practicing privately in 1965, while working at the North Lawndale Neighborhood Health Center. In 1967, she became the assistant medical director at the Woodlawn Child Health Center. Two years later, she moved to San Francisco and continued her pediatric practice at Mt. Zion Medical Center. After marrying Dr. Albert E. Manley in 1970, she moved back south and became Chief of Medical Services at Grady Memorial Hospital's Emory University family planning clinic in Atlanta, Georgia.

Dr. Manley then turned her considerable skills toward the federal government. She became a commissioned officer of U.S. Public Health in 1976 with a rank of Captain. At the Washington, D.C., office of the U.S. Health Resources and Services Administration, Manley studied sickle cell and other genetic diseases and eventually became the National Health Service Corps Director. She again focused on education by consulting on three movies about sickle cell disease and teaching Howard University students about pediatrics, as well as earning an M.P.H. from Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland in 1987.

In 1989, Manley began working within the U.S. Public Health Service in Washington, D.C., She worked her way up from Principal Deputy Assistant for Public Health, becoming the Deputy Surgeon General and Acting Deputy Assistant Secretary for Minority Health in 1994. She also was a member of the U.S. Delegation to UNICEF and the UNICEF/WHO Joint Committee on Health Policy from 1990 to 1993. From 1995 to 1997, Manley served as U.S. Deputy Surgeon General and Acting Surgeon General, advising the nation on matters of health and medicine. Finally, in 1997, Manley chose to serve her alma mater as President of Spelman College.

Accession Number

A2002.022

Sex

Female

Interview Date

3/14/2002

Last Name

Manley

Maker Category
Organizations
Schools

Daniel Hand School at Tougaloo College

Wendell Phillips Academy High School

Spelman College

Meharry Medical College

Johns Hopkins University

First Name

Audrey

Birth City, State, Country

Jackson

HM ID

MAN02

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Mississippi

Favorite Vacation Destination

Caribbean

Favorite Quote

To whom much is given, much is required.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Nevada

Interview Description
Birth Date

3/25/1934

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Las Vegas

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Banana Pudding

Short Description

College president and federal government appointee Audrey Manley (1934 - ) began working within the U.S. Public Health Service in Washington, D.C., in 1989, and later served as U.S. Deputy Surgeon General and Acting Surgeon General, advising the nation on matters of health and medicine from 1995 to 1997. Manley then returned to her alma mater as President of Spelman College.

Employment

Cook County Children's Hospital

Delete

University of Chicago

Mount Zion Hospital

Emory University Grady Memorial Hospital

United States Health Resources and Services Administration

United States Public Health Service

Spelman College

Favorite Color

Blue

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DAStories

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/18636">Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Audrey Forbes Manley interview</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/18637">Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Audrey Forbes Manley's favorites</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/18638">Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Audrey Forbes Manley talks about her immediate family background</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/18639">Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Audrey Forbes Manley recalls childhood memories</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/18640">Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Audrey Forbes Manley remembers elementary school</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/18641">Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Audrey Forbes Manley discusses her childhood personality</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/18642">Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Audrey Forbes Manley explains her family's migration to Chicago, Illinois</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/18643">Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Audrey Forbes Manley talks about the environment of Tougaloo, Mississippi</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/18644">Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Audrey Forbes Manley remembers factors surrounding her move to Chicago, Illinois</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/18645">Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Audrey Forbes Manley describes leaving the segregated South for Chicago, Illinois</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/18646">Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Audrey Forbes Manley discusses the white religious faculty at Spelman College and Tougaloo College</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/18647">Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Audrey Forbes Manley talks about her religious background</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/18648">Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Audrey Forbes Manley remembers high school experiences</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/18649">Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Audrey Forbes Manley tells of segregation on Chicago's South Side</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/18650">Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Audrey Forbes Manley recalls favorite teachers at Wendell Phillips High School</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/18651">Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Audrey Forbes Manley explains her early interest in studying medicine</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/18652">Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Audrey Forbes Manley talks about her involvement in the Baptist Church</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/18653">Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Audrey Forbes Manley remembers her years at Spelman College</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/18654">Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Audrey Forbes Manley talks about policy concerns she had at Spelman College</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/18655">Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Audrey Forbes Manley explains long lasting working relationships with Morehouse College students</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/18656">Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Audrey Forbes Manley describes her transition into Meharry Medical College</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/18657">Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Audrey Forbes Manley discusses summer jobs</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/18658">Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Audrey Forbes Manley remembers early struggles at Meharry Medical College</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/18659">Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Audrey Forbes Manley recalls experiences with various classmates at Meharry Medical College</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/18660">Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Audrey Forbes Manley talks about her internship in Gary, Indiana</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/18661">Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Audrey Forbes Manley discusses her residency at Cook County Hospital, Chicago, Illinois</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/18662">Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Audrey Forbes Manley talks about reconnecting with Dr. Albert Manley</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/18663">Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Audrey Forbes Manley explains how she returned to the public health community</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/18664">Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Audrey Forbes Manley tells of experiences working in Chicago's inner-city medical community</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/18665">Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Audrey Forbes Manley remembers working in San Francisco</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/18666">Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Audrey Forbes Manley details her career with the federal government</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/18667">Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Audrey Forbes Manley explains the U.S. Public Health Service</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/18668">Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Audrey Forbes Manley talks about progress and downfalls in health care during her career</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/18669">Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Audrey Forbes Manley discusses her plans for retirement</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/18670">Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Audrey Forbes Manley considers Spelman College's legacy</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/18671">Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Audrey Forbes Manley considers her legacy</a>

DASession

1$1

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DATitle
Audrey Forbes Manley talks about her internship in Gary, Indiana
Audrey Forbes Manley remembers working in San Francisco
Transcript
So what happened now, you, was it this--you got your resident, internship right, at Cook County [Hospital, Chicago, Illinois]?$$No, I did my internship in Gary, Indiana--,$$In Gary, okay.$$--at St. Mercy Hospital, St. Mary Mercy Hospital.$$Okay. And was that, you know, are those chosen by lottery or whatever?$$Not then. Not then.$$Oh no, and all of this is new business today.$$Okay. So why did you go there?$$No you would, you would write, sit down just like I found the Jessie Smith Noyes Foundation you would canvas your friends and word of mouth for internships where, where they were accepting. Now remember this was in 1959. We were still in a segregated society. At this point black medical school graduates were assured places in about a handful of institutions. You knew you could get a residency at [George W.] Hubbard Hospital at Meharry [Medical College, Nashville, Tennessee]. There was Homer G. Phillips [Hospital] in St. Louis [Missouri], there was Provident in Chicago, there was Mercy-Douglass [Hospital] in Philadelphia [Pennsylvania] and then about a handful of black hospitals where you knew you could go if you applied and you were a good enough student you could get a residency. And there was Howard, Howard [University] Hospital [Washington, D.C.]. Some residency, residencies were more, were harder to get than others, let's say, surgery, OB-GYN [obstetrics and gynecology] very difficult to get into, very competitive. And black physicians you know fought hard to get them but I forgot Howard. Howard was a big draw for training. We had not yet gotten to the point where you could apply anywhere you wanted to apply and hoped to get in and there was no such thing as a lottery. I learned about the internship program in Gray--in Gary through another physician who had did her internship there the year before me. They never--they had one year with a black intern and she had done very well. Now that was another thing you want to talk about being the first, how you have to always do good, be almost perfect, walk on water because you're opening the door for others. Her name was Georgia Mitchell. She went to Meharry and she worked in Gary because she got married and her husband was in Gary. And they accepted her at Mercy Hospital. Again, Catholic hospitals came first and she did a very good job. So she called, she came back to Meharry to recruit and she said this was a good internship program and you know encouraged us to apply. The thing about it that attracted me, it paid a little better than the others. I think, now I think at Cook County then we were making a hundred and twenty five dollars a month you know that's the slave wages. And this program paid maybe like three hundred dollars a month and they gave you an apartment and all the food you could eat and everything so they really--for an internship that was great. So I said well that's close to Chicago, gets me closer to home, closer to my mother and so I applied and I was accepted. That was a great internship. I was on call every fourth night. That, that means when you're on call every fourth night that's the forty-eight hour shift that you got to pull.$Other things happened you will see San Francisco [California] I got--that was a call. They had a big problem in San Francisco. Now I'm going to see myself now not as a stationary person in one place but as someone who is going to engage with many different situations, San Francisco. I had no thought of going to San Francisco but when the flower children started getting out of the Haight Ashbury [San Francisco neighborhood] they were leaving behind those who couldn't get out and these were fifteen and sixteen-year-old girls with babies and small children. Some of these women were tripped out on speed for two and three weeks and they needed a pediatrician, someone who could deal with those kinds of problem. Well I, you know, Cook County [Hospital, Chicago, Illinois] and Woodlawn [Maternal and Child Heath Center, Chicago, Illinois] I had some good experience. Went out to visit, loved San Francisco and decided I would go. I went out there and spent a couple of years [1969-1970] but San Francisco was too far and the problems in San Francisco were worse than I had ever seen anywhere, that's the truth. So--.$$You mean because of the drug culture?$$Well because of the drugs yes. We saw in San Francisco first what would later sweep the nation, there's no question. But I saw it in 1969 and '70 [1970] before it got the way it is now across the nation. But yes, that was early, speed and we didn't have the crack then it was mostly speed and, and marijuana and these young women who were just wasted by the experience in Haight Ashbury and their children. And the project was supported by Mount Zion Hospital and the University of California, San Francisco. And it was, it was one of those things that you know again, a good experience but I don't think I would have stayed there indefinitely. Don't know how long I would have stayed if Dr. [Albert] Manley hadn't asked me to marry him and that's what happened. You know, he says you're going so far, why are you going so far away? And you know we got married and I came back to Atlanta [Georgia], so you know the rest.$$No, but--,$$Know the rest.$$--no, the thing is you were, at that point you're already serving on the [Chicago] Board [of Health] though right? But I resided from the board.$$You resigned from the board. I resigned from the board, right.