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Dr. Lloyd C. Elam

Founder of Meharry Medical College’s Psychiatry Department and retired college president Dr. Lloyd C. Elam was born on October 27, 1928 in Little Rock, Arkansas. His parents, Ruth Davis Elam and Harry Penoy Elam met in church in Little Rock. Elam attended Stephens School and graduated from Paul Laurence Dunbar High School in 1944 at age fifteen. He went to junior college in Little Rock before moving to Harvey, Illinois. There, Elam worked for the Maremont Automobile Plant and commuted to Chicago to attend classes at Roosevelt University where he graduated with his B.S. degree in zoology in 1950. After a stint in the United States Army, Elam earned his M.D. degree from the University of Washington School of Medicine in 1957. From 1957 to 1958, Elam completed an internship at the University of Illinois Hospital in Chicago, and from 1958 to 1961, he served as a resident in psychiatry at the University of Chicago Hospital.

Elam joined Chicago’s Billings Hospital as staff psychiatrist and instructor of psychiatry in 1961. From 1961 to 1963, he served as assistant professor and chairman of the Psychiatry Department of Meharry Medical College in Nashville, Tennessee. Becoming a full professor in 1963, Elam was appointed interim dean of the college in 1966. In 1968, he was selected president of Meharry Medical College and supervised the school’s growth in that capacity until 1981. From 1981 to 1982, Elam was college chancellor. He served as Distinguished Service Professor of Psychiatry from 1982 to 1995 when he retired to serve as a volunteer faculty member. Elam served as a fellow at the Center for Advanced Study in Behavioral Sciences at Stanford, California in 1982. He was made Professor Emeritus of the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences in 1996 and Chairman Emeritus in 1997. Elam is a member of the Tennessee Psychiatric Association, Tennessee Medical Association, American Medical Association, National Medical Association, American Psychiatric Association, American College of Psychiatrists, Black Psychiatrists of America, R.F. Boyd Medical Society and the American College of Forensic Examiners.

In 1973, Elam was presented an honorary Doctor of Laws from Harvard University. His other awards include honorary degrees from Meharry Medical College and St. Lawrence University; the 1988 National Board of Medical Examiners Distinguished Service Award; induction into the Alpha Omega Alpha Honor Society; the 1972 Nashville Club Man of the Year Award; the 1976 Human Relations Award from the National Conference of Christians and Jews and the 1988 Eleanor Roosevelt Key, Roosevelt University’s highest alumni award. Meharry Medical College established the Lloyd C. Elam Mental Health Center in his honor and that building now bares his name.

Elam and his wife, Clara Elam, R.N., have two daughters: Dr. Gloria Elam-Norris of Chicago and Dr. Laurie Elam-Evans of Atlanta. Elam passed away on October 4, 2008.

Elam was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on March 14, 2007.

Accession Number

A2007.089

Sex

Male

Interview Date

3/14/2007

Last Name

Elam

Middle Name

Charles

Schools

Paul Laurence Dunbar High School

University of Washington

Stephens Elementary School

Roosevelt University

University of Chicago

First Name

Lloyd

Birth City, State, Country

Little Rock

HM ID

ELA02

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Arkansas

Favorite Vacation Destination

Hawaii

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Tennessee

Interview Description
Birth Date

10/27/1928

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Nashville

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Peas (Black-Eyed)

Death Date

10/4/2008

Short Description

College president, psychiatrist, and psychiatry professor Dr. Lloyd C. Elam (1928 - 2008 ) founded Meharry Medical College’s Psychiatry Department, and served as the college's president until 1981.

Employment

Meharry Medical College

Dupont Corporation

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:791,12:5650,140:6102,145:30696,395:31860,409:34382,445:50022,646:61102,735:62510,753:74602,924:77122,960:78550,985:108414,1291:110898,1326:111634,1338:173850,2051$0,0:418,5:786,10:1522,20:2166,25:6950,98:8330,115:9250,129:12194,165:12654,171:13298,179:18562,205:25321,275:26926,295:36312,362:38063,367:38973,378:40429,394:41248,406:42249,418:46981,475:51258,511:65404,685:68060,726:69637,750:78069,816:78818,824:86000,847:86658,855:90418,908:91546,921:92016,927:96460,1013:102080,1052:103250,1066:103700,1072:104060,1077:104780,1086:121683,1244:128958,1339:129734,1348:130122,1353:130510,1358:131577,1372:143411,1472:156529,1610:214180,2006:251253,2276:254050,2284
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Dr. Lloyd C. Elam's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam describes his mother's community in Arkadelphia, Arkansas

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam describes his father's education and occupation

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam describes how his parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam describes his likeness to his parents

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam describes his father's lumber business

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam talks about race relations in Little Rock, Arkansas

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam describes his paternal grandfather's career as a stagecoach racer

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam describes his earliest childhood memories

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam describes his household

Tape: 1 Story: 14 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam recalls his refusal to eat meat

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam describes his childhood diet

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam recalls his transportation to school

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam remembers his family's road trips to Arkadelphia, Arkansas

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam recalls his experiences as a migrant farmworker

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam recalls attending Stephens Elementary School in Little Rock, Arkansas

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam describes his family's daily prayers

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam recalls selling newspapers

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam remembers his teacher, Leroy Christopher

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam remembers an influential teacher

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam recalls his community's emphasis on education

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam recalls his early interest in medicine and psychology

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam remembers his early understanding of mental health

Tape: 2 Story: 13 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam recalls the popular ideas about mental illness during his youth

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam recalls the beliefs about mental illness in rural Arkansas

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam recalls his decision to attend Roosevelt College in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam remembers his high school graduation

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam describes his experiences at Roosevelt College

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam remembers serving in the U.S. Army's Medical Service Corps

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam recalls the University of Washington School of Medicine in Seattle, Washington

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam remembers meeting his wife

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam recalls race relations at the University of Washington School of Medicine

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam describes the findings of his medical study of stress

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam recalls the psychiatry program at the University of Chicago

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam recalls his influential professors

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam talks about the treatments for mental illness

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam describes the perceptions of psychiatry in the African American community

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam recalls founding the Department of Psychiatry at Meharry Medical College

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam describes the changes in the cost of psychiatric care

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam recalls establishing a day hospital in Nashville, Tennessee

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam recalls his presidency of Meharry Medical College in Nashville, Tennessee

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam describes his challenges as the president of Meharry Medical College

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam describes Meharry Medical College's contributions to Nashville, Tennessee

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam talks about his community health concerns

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam describes the increase in African Americans seeking psychiatric care

Tape: 4 Story: 12 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam talks about his retirement

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam talks about the underrepresentation of African Americans in the medical field

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam reflects upon the psychological effects of the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam reflects upon his life

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam talks about his involvement at the First Baptist Church in Nashville, Tenneesee

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam describes his civic activities

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam describes how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam narrates his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$4

DAStory

11$7

DATitle
Dr. Lloyd C. Elam recalls his early interest in medicine and psychology
Dr. Lloyd C. Elam recalls his presidency of Meharry Medical College in Nashville, Tennessee
Transcript
Now how was high school [Paul Laurence Dunbar High School; Dunbar Magnet Middle School, Little Rock, Arkansas]? Were you active in clubs in high school or student government or sports or anything like that?$$I went to all the football games but most of the people in my--most of the guys in my class were active and I was not. I enjoyed studying (laughter). As a matter of fact, the way I got interested in medicine I was thirteen and kind of browsing in the library one day and saw a little book and the title of it was 'Physique and Personality' [ph.] and I said, oh, that sounds interesting. I read it, it was fascinating and it went on to show how whatever kind of physique you has, you have determines what kinds of adjustment possibilities are open to you. If you're a little athletic boy and somebody does something on the playground, you might hit him or push him or something and he stops doing it. And so you figure that works and so you become that kind of an outgoing person. If you are a little thin, scrawny guy and you try that, the guy will hit you back and say that, that won't work. So you decide to go to the library, (laughter) read books and so that determines your--another little boy on the playground tries pushing, gets hit, tries studying, reading, he's not smart so that doesn't work. So he becomes the jokester and so the little fat boy becomes a jokester. And so it was fascinating the way he wrote the book but it has some motivational kind of lesson. And his students really tried to, to do a scientific study of all of this but they went too far. But as you know, your physical does affect your personality. But that's how I got interested in psychology and then found out, if you're gonna do research in psychology, you should go on and be a psychiatrist so you can do all kinds of research. And that's how I got interested in that.$$Okay, so at age thirteen you were aware of what a psychologist was and--$$Yeah (simultaneous).$$--(simultaneous) in terms of that--$$Yeah.$$--because of that study?$$Yeah.$Now, just about the time that I got all of that going the--there was progress in civil rights and desegregation of schools. And people had the idea that all of the black schools were gonna merge into the others and you wouldn't need them so we had that kind of crisis. And that's when I moved into administration and bunch of us met every Saturday night for a year struggling with what, what would be an appropriate approach to this problem. It was a problem for us.$$The funding began to dry up or--for the black institutions?$$No, probably, I don't know but you know, black institutions have always had funding problems so I don't know if it was drying up or not. I was--this is before I was in administration. But the question is, why do you need two whatever kinds of institutions, you know, and so what we decided after that year of, of talking about the problem is that, sure enough, you did need historically black institutions [HBCUs]. If, if Meharry [Meharry Medical College, Nashville, Tennessee] stopped it's existence, then number of black persons going into medicine would drastically decrease and so that we did, indeed, need to continue this institution. And that's when I went into administration and decided that, if we were going to, we needed to be a niche institution. And we should address those illnesses and problems that were unique to the population that we served. And, in order to do this, we had to do a number of things. One, was to build a campus and that's what a good number of years of my administration was involved. But the other was to establish a Ph.D. program, research programs, and so on. And we did that. And it's--and they are going very well in addition to medicine and dentistry.$$How long did it take to establish those?$$I, let's see, I became president in '68 [1968] so we started building campus in '69 [1969] and we started the research in, in graduate studies in about '75 [1975] somewhere in there, middle '70s [1970s]. And then it became a school of graduate studies and research in about '76 [1976]. So--excuse me, let me see, '76 [1976], yep, that's right in '76 [1976]. And now we will graduate a significant percentage of black Ph.D.'s. in the biomedical sciences and of course we still have the medical program.

Gloria Rackley Blackwell

Educator and civil rights activist, Gloria Blackwell (Rackley) was born on March 11, 1927 in Little Rock, South Carolina. Her father, Harrison Benjamin Blackwell, was a barber and her mother, Lurline Olivia Thomas Blackwell, taught at the Little Rock Colored School. Blackwell attended Mather Academy in Camden, South Carolina, graduated from high school in Sumter, South Carolina in 1943 and then enrolled in Claflin College in Orangeburg, South Carolina. There, she was a favorite of President Randolph. Blackwell volunteered for NAACP Youth and was president of the Methodist Youth Fellowship. Leaving school to get married in 1944, Blackwell lived for a time in Chicago. She earned her B.S. degree in education from Claflin College in 1953 and taught in the segregated public schools of Orangeburg. In 1956, Blackwell obtained her M.A. degree in education from South Carolina State University, also in Orangeburg.

In the 1950s, Blackwell served as a recruiter for the Dillon County chapter of the NAACP. Visited often by Thurgood Marshall and Roy Wilkins, the Dillon County NAACP chapter made school integration their top priority. Inspired by the Brown v. the Board of Education decision, Blackwell, known to history as Gloria Rackley, began to participate and lead nonviolent demonstrations to desegregate the schools, hospitals and other public accommodations. In March of 1963, Blackwell joined more than 400 student demonstrators from Claflin College and South Carolina State University led by Charles McDew who marched to desegregate the downtown area. Supported by the community, but arrested countless times, Blackwell served time in prison and was fired from her job by white school officials in the spring of 1963. Blackwell’s daughter, Lurma, an honor middle school student, was arrested some sixteen times by the time she was thirteen years old. Blackwell and her daughter missed a court date when they were arrested for using the White Ladies Only restroom in the courthouse. The civil rights activities in Orangeburg attracted national attention, including a visit from Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. and an invitation for Blackwell to speak to the National Teachers Union in New York City. Ably defended by Matthew Perry and encouraged by the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, Blackwell accepted a job at Norfolk State University in Virginia in 1964.

At Norfolk, Blackwell served as a professor in the English Department and advised local civil rights efforts from 1964 to 1968. She was director of African American Studies at American International University from 1968 to 1970. She earned her Ph.D. in American Studies from Emory University in 1973 and went on to teach at Clark College until her retirement in 1993.

Blackwell, the mother of two grown daughters and two adopted boys, lived in Peachtree City, Georgia. She was featured along with the other heroes of the Orangeburg movement in the civil rights annals of black photographer Cecil J. Williams.

Blackwell passed away on December 7, 2010 at age 83.

Accession Number

A2006.094

Sex

Female

Interview Date

6/18/2006

Last Name

Blackwell

Maker Category
Schools

Boylan-Haven-Mather Academy

Sumter High School

Emory University

First Name

Gloria

Birth City, State, Country

Little Rock

HM ID

BLA11

Favorite Season

Spring

State

South Carolina

Favorite Vacation Destination

Washington

Favorite Quote

Do Unto Others As You Would Have Them Do Unto You.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Interview Description
Birth Date

3/11/1927

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Atlanta

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Grits

Death Date

12/7/2010

Short Description

Civil rights activist and english professor Gloria Rackley Blackwell (1927 - 2010 ) led nonviolent demonstrations to desegregate the schools, hospitals and other public accommodations in Orangeburg, South Carolina.

Employment

J.W. Wilcox & Follett Company

Clark Consulting

Favorite Color

Green

Timing Pairs
0,0:300,8:16974,219:19688,276:21436,304:21816,310:22500,322:23336,334:23716,340:27364,402:36161,503:44525,620:49978,682:50963,690:53060,695:53915,707:64194,802:64776,810:65746,822:70970,872:74660,922:83980,1010:102140,1210:102764,1220:103778,1240:106898,1293:109238,1348:112124,1418:112436,1423:119060,1483:119470,1496:122176,1549:122504,1554:123488,1570:128810,1603:129050,1608:140120,1666:144180,1690:145275,1707:152502,1829:155714,1894:160594,1939:161858,1966:162174,1971:167467,2058:171990,2082$0,0:11036,266:19430,326:21235,361:25362,391:27873,415:29826,487:40595,597:43806,674:44646,690:44982,695:55566,900:73438,1108:84093,1247:84646,1255:87663,1312:92778,1383:94452,1409:96126,1436:98823,1482:128480,1737
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Gloria Rackley Blackwell's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Gloria Rackley Blackwell lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Gloria Rackley Blackwell describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Gloria Rackley Blackwell describes her mother's childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Gloria Rackley Blackwell talks about her maternal grandmother

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Gloria Rackley Blackwell describes her maternal family's values

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Gloria Rackley Blackwell describes her father's family background, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Gloria Rackley Blackwell describes her father's family background, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Gloria Rackley Blackwell recalls her father's esteem in the community of Little Rock, South Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Gloria Rackley Blackwell describes the rumors about her paternal grandfather

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Gloria Rackley Blackwell describes her parents' relationship

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Gloria Rackley Blackwell recalls attending the World's Fair in 1933 and 1939

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Gloria Rackley Blackwell describes her parents' marriage

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Gloria Rackley Blackwell talks about the role of religion in her family

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Gloria Rackley Blackwell describes her brothers and their education

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Gloria Rackley Blackwell describes her childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Gloria Rackley Blackwell describes her parents' personalities and who she takes after

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Gloria Rackley Blackwell remembers being one of her mother's pupils

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Gloria Rackley Blackwell describes her experience at Mather Academy, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Gloria Rackley Blackwell describes her experience at Mather Academy, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Gloria Rackley Blackwell remembers her religious conversion

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Gloria Rackley Blackwell talks about Mather Academy

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Gloria Rackley Blackwell recalls her childhood pastimes

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Gloria Rackley Blackwell recalls her mother's role in the community

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Gloria Rackley Blackwell recalls her teenage mischief

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Gloria Rackley Blackwell recalls graduating high school at sixteen years old

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Gloria Rackley Blackwell remembers attending Claflin University

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Gloria Rackley Blackwell recalls her friendship with President Joseph B. Randolph

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Gloria Rackley Blackwell recalls marrying as a student at Claflin University

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Gloria Rackley Blackwell recalls moving to Chicago, Illinois with her husband

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Gloria Rackley Blackwell remembers working at a bookstore in Chicago

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Gloria Rackley Blackwell recalls the discrimination her husband faced in the U.S. Navy

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Gloria Rackley Blackwell recalls her parents' civil rights activities

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Gloria Rackley Blackwell remembers reviving the NAACP in Dillon County

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Gloria Rackley Blackwell reflects upon the impact of school desegregation

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Gloria Rackley Blackwell recalls working to desegregate South Carolina's schools

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Gloria Rackley Blackwell remembers reprisals against NAACP members

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Gloria Rackley Blackwell describes the Dillon County NAACP's network of support

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Gloria Rackley Blackwell recalls youth participation in the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Gloria Rackley Blackwell recalls the Civil Rights Movement's use of the media

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Gloria Rackley Blackwell remembers being sent to the penitentiary

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Gloria Rackley Blackwell recalls being fired for her activism

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Gloria Rackley Blackwell explains the significance of her termination

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Gloria Rackley Blackwell recalls the peaceful protest that ended in her imprisonment

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Gloria Rackley Blackwell recalls demonstrations in Charleston, South Carolina

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Gloria Rackley Blackwell talks about the safety of the student demonstrators

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Gloria Rackley Blackwell recalls the segregated Orangeburg Regional Hospital

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Gloria Rackley Blackwell recalls her civil disobedience at Orangeburg Regional Hospital

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Gloria Rackley Blackwell remembers her arrest at Orangeburg Regional Hospital

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Gloria Rackley Blackwell remembers her daughter's solitary confinement

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Gloria Rackley Blackwell recalls entering a courthouse's white restroom

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Gloria Rackley Blackwell recalls the aftermath of her daughter's sentencing

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Gloria Rackley Blackwell describes her parents' opinions of her activism

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Gloria Rackley Blackwell remembers how her husband lost his job

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Gloria Rackley Blackwell remembers the Civil Rights Movement in 1963

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Gloria Rackley Blackwell explains the importance of publicity for a movement

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Gloria Rackley Blackwell recalls the Civil Rights Act of 1964

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Gloria Rackley Blackwell remembers moving to Norfolk, Virginia

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Gloria Rackley Blackwell remembers the inaction of sympathetic whites

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Gloria Rackley Blackwell reflects upon the Civil Rights Movement, pt. 1

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Gloria Rackley Blackwell reflects upon the Civil Rights Movement, pt. 2

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Gloria Rackley Blackwell describes her work at Norfolk State College

Tape: 7 Story: 9 - Gloria Rackley Blackwell recalls moving to Atlanta to pursue her Ph.D. degree

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Gloria Rackley Blackwell explains the role of faith in the southern Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Gloria Rackley Blackwell reflects upon the Civil Rights Movement's timing and impact

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Gloria Rackley Blackwell recalls her decision to attend Emory University

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - Gloria Rackley Blackwell describes her dissertation at Emory University

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - Gloria Rackley Blackwell recalls being hired by Clark College

Tape: 8 Story: 6 - Gloria Rackley Blackwell describes her student's research on Modjeska Monteith Simkins, pt. 1

Tape: 8 Story: 7 - Gloria Rackley Blackwell describes her student's research on Modjeska Monteith Simkins, pt. 2

Tape: 8 Story: 8 - Gloria Rackley Blackwell reflects upon her life

Tape: 8 Story: 9 - Gloria Rackley Blackwell reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 8 Story: 10 - Gloria Rackley Blackwell describes her two adopted sons

Tape: 9 Story: 1 - Gloria Rackley Blackwell talks about the value of recording oral histories

Tape: 9 Story: 2 - Gloria Rackley Blackwell describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 9 Story: 3 - Gloria Rackley Blackwell remembers her mother's parenting style

Tape: 9 Story: 4 - Gloria Rackley Blackwell talks about the importance of family

Tape: 9 Story: 5 - Gloria Rackley Blackwell narrates her photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

7$8

DAStory

6$5

DATitle
Gloria Rackley Blackwell reflects upon the Civil Rights Movement, pt. 1
Gloria Rackley Blackwell recalls being hired by Clark College
Transcript
I don't think, I hope and pray, you know, Martin Luther King [Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.] prayed, God, please let us, please let them learn to, to love, he was talking about white people, God, please let them learn to love before we learn to hate because we, in the South had really a movement where people were controlling their anger, you know, and themselves. The, the, the vicious stuff started in the North, you know, after his death. But we, we were, we were really believing that our movement was Christian, was good for everybody, you know, we were not hurting anybody, we didn't. And he said, let, please let them learn to love before we learn to hate. And I hope, I hope that we can return to a sense of love and not feel that we can, you know, kill and fight. And I, I see so much of that in the country today, the, the viciousness. And I don't know how much spirit we have for being willing to sacrifice ourselves. Every time Martin Luther King went out, he was risking his life. Every time I went out I was risking, I, I, I was risking my life maybe and I, because--surely, I guess. But in my heart I was praying every time I had children on a picket line that that I would get killed or hurt and not one of them. I just did not want anybody, you know, any of these kids walking out, they're just kids right out of school, rushing down getting their things and, you know, going down. They could easily have, and they knew that. You know, we talked about all of that before, but, but they were willing to do that. That took, and those children, we have not got all of them together again but I have not found a child who was not a strong adult. There is something in the core (laughter) it seems to me of their character. They, they seem to be generous people, they give to causes, you know, they are mothers and fathers and the, but they are dedicated and they attach themselves still to humanitarian concerns. It's just, it's just something. Anywhere we go, anywhere we meet them, they're in, they're in work that is giving and, and serving.$So did you teach at Emory [Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia] then after you (unclear)--$$Yes, you know, you do when you're--$$Oh.$$--in school. So I, I was in the ILA which was the Institute of the Liberal Arts [sic. Institute for the Liberal Arts]. A wonderful program at Emory that still exists. And my professor and I became associates. We'd, we would team teach classes, we worked together at, at Atlanta University [Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta, Georgia] and at Emory we offered classes. And then, of course, I had classes of my own. And then a friend, Lurma [Lurma Rackley] had finished at Clark College [Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta, Georgia] and a teacher who was very nice to my daughter when she was down here in school, I became friends, I was always grateful to her because she was so nice to Lurma but she came over to tell me that they needed someone at Clark and the president had asked her to come over and see if I could recommend someone, you know, from the students passing through. And he, he said, "Tell Lurma's mother to, (laughter) to look out for us." So he, so I tried to offer someone and when she went back to tell him he said, "Well why can't, why don't we get Lurma's mother" (laughter). And I, I thought that, you know, maybe I shouldn't do that but he told me that with my history I could not stay (laughter) at Emory, I needed to come to Clark where I was needed and he put all that same spiel (laughter) that I have practically just given and, and I fell for it (laughter) and, and came over to Clark and stayed there then for, I guess, twenty years or I have, I finished my degree in '73 [1973] and I retired from Clark in '90 [1990], was it '93 [1993]? I guess, it was '93 [1993].

Linda Torrence

Television producer and public relations director Linda Torrence was born on November 23, 1944, and grew up in College Station, Arkansas. She graduated from Wrightsville High School in Wrightsville, Arkansas in 1962. Her father, Samuel Hudson, was the city’s first black police officer. Torrence attended Arkansas Baptist College and majored in business administration. She was the first black teller at the First National Bank in Little Rock from 1962 to 1967 and later managed the College Station Community Credit Union in 1972. Torrence was politically active after high school and was the first African American female to represent Arkansas at the Democratic Convention in 1972 as an officer of the Young Democrats Club. She also hosted a television talk show on ABC-TV in Little Rock.

Torrence worked in adult education at the Urban League in Rochester, New York, and in fundraising at CBS, WHEC-TV as Director of Public Affairs. Torrence served as assistant to the director in the Donor Resources Department of the American Red Cross in Portland, Oregon, and co-founded two companies, the Walker (Business) Institute and Belcher-Torrence, a human resource company. Both companies offered business development and marketing strategies to businesses in the Portland community. Torrence was vice president of marketing and communications for the Private Industry Council (PIC) and director of human resources for Rogers Cable Television, a subsidiary of Canada’s largest cable company. At Rogers Cable, Torrence was the host of the talk show, Women in Focus, which aired for three years.

Torrence joined the staff of WAGA-TV in 1990. In her position as director of community relations and public service, Torrence is the station’s liaison to the Atlanta community. Torrence manages FOX5’s sponsorships of non-profit organizations and serves as the point of contact for community related activities and issues. She is producer of The Georgia Gang, a weekly talk show of panelists who discuss Georgia politics, and directs the production of FOX5 Editorials.

Torrence serves on the board of the Boys and Girls Club of Metro Atlanta, DeKalb County Chamber of Commerce, Rollins School of Public Health at Emory University, Grady Hospital Foundation and Georgia Commission on Women. She is the recipient of numerous awards and citations and has been honored by the Center for Disease Control (CDC) for her role in the development of the America’s Youth Passport. Torrence is a mother and grandmother. She resides in DeKalb County with her husband Joseph Phillips.

Accession Number

A2006.027

Sex

Female

Interview Date

2/18/2006

Last Name

Torrence

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Schools

College Station Elementary School

Wrightsville High School

Arkansas Baptist College

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Linda

Birth City, State, Country

Little Rock

HM ID

TOR01

Favorite Season

Winter

State

Arkansas

Favorite Vacation Destination

Anywhere Near Water

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Interview Description
Birth Date

11/23/1944

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Atlanta

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Vegetables

Short Description

Human resources chief executive and public relations chief executive Linda Torrence (1944 - ) was the Director of Community Relations and Public Service for WAGA-TV in Atlanta, Georgia. She was the producer of, "The Georgia Gang," and directed the production of FOX5 Editorials.

Employment

First National Bank of Little Rock

College Station Community Credit Union

The Flint Spokeman

KGW-TV

WHEC-TV

American Red Cross Oregon Chapter

Belcher-Torrence

‘Women in Focus’

Rogers Cable

Portland Private Industry Council

WAGA-TV (Television station: Atlanta,Ga.)

'The Georgia Gang'

Favorite Color

Black, Brown

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Linda Torrence's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Linda Torrence lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Linda Torrence describes her mother

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Linda Torrence describes her father

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Linda Torrence describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Lina Torrence describes her brother and maternal grandfather

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Linda Torrence describes her earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Lina Torrence describes her siblings and maternal grandmother

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Linda Torrence describes College Station, Arkansas

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Lina Torrence remembers her early pastimes

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Lina Torrence describes her early experiences of religion

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Linda Torrence remembers celebrating the holidays, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Linda Torrence describes the African American community of College Station, Arkansas

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Linda Torrence remembers her family's homes in College Station, Arkansas

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Linda Torrence describes her elementary school teachers

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Linda Torrence remembers celebrating the holidays, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Linda Torrence describes her integrated neighborhood in College Station

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Linda Torrence describes her neighbors' occupations

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Linda Torrence recalls visiting Little Rock, Arkansas

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Linda Torrence remembers College Station Elementary School in College Station, Arkansas

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Linda Torrence describes her elementary school teachers and principal

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Linda Torrence recalls riding the bus to Wrightsville High School

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Linda Torrence describes her activities at Wrightsville High School

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Linda Torrence remembers becoming pregnant in high school

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Linda Torrence describes the sports teams at Wrightsville High School

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Linda Torrence recalls attending college and working while a single mother

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Linda Torrence recalls filing a racial discrimination lawsuit, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Linda Torrence recalls filing a racial discrimination lawsuit, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Linda Torrence recalls managing College Station Community Credit Union

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Linda Torrence recalls managing The Flint Spokesman newspaper in Flint, Michigan

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Linda Torrence recalls earning a degree from Arkansas Baptist College in Little Rock, Arkansas

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Linda Torrence describes her introduction to the television broadcast industry

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Linda Torrence describes her involvement in the 1972 Democratic Convention

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Linda Torrence recalls being motivated by the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Linda Torrence remembers managing work, school and mothering

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Linda Torrence describes her public affairs work at WHEC-TV

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Linda Torrence describes her early experiences of television and radio

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Linda Torrence remembers moving to Portland, Oregon

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Linda Torrence remembers obtaining her position at KGW-TV in Portland, Oregon

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Linda Torrence recalls the climate of Flint, Michigan and Rochester, New York

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Linda Torrence recalls her work at KGW-TV in Portland, Oregon

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Linda Torrence recalls serving on Portland Custodians' Civil Service Board

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Linda Torrence describes her community involvement in Portland, Oregon

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Linda Torrence describes the community of Portland, Oregon

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Linda Torrence recalls working for the American Red Cross in Portland, Oregon

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Linda Torrence reflects upon being a trailblazer

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Linda Torrence recalls founding the Belcher-Torrence consulting firm

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Linda Torrence describes her consulting firm, Belcher-Torrence

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Linda Torrence recalls becoming the human resources director of Rogers Cable Systems

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Linda Torrence remembers her talk show, 'Women in Focus'

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Linda Torrence recalls joining the Portland Private Industry Council

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Linda Torrence describes her duties at the Portland Private Industry Council

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Linda Torrence describes her coworkers at the Portland Private Industry Council

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Linda Torrence recalls founding the Walker Institute organization

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Linda Torrence recalls moving to Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Linda Torrence reflects upon her career

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Linda Torrence describes her move to Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Linda Torrence talks about her work at Atlanta's WAGA-TV station

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Linda Torrence describes her role as community relations director at WAGA-TV

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Linda Torrence describes her children

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Linda Torrence talks about her husband, Joseph Phillips

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Linda Torrence talks about The HistoryMakers project

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Linda Torrence talks about her religious faith

Tape: 7 Story: 9 - Linda Torrence describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Linda Torrence narrates her photographs, pt. 1

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Linda Torrence narrates her photographs, pt. 2

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Linda Torrence narrates her photographs, pt. 3

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$6

DAStory

3$3

DATitle
Linda Torrence describes her involvement in the 1972 Democratic Convention
Linda Torrence remembers her talk show, 'Women in Focus'
Transcript
When I was in Little Rock [Arkansas], I was somewhat involved in politics. I, at one time, was the first African American woman to represent the State of Arkansas, if--well, I shouldn't say at one time, I was the first African American woman to represent the State of Arkansas in the 1972 Democratic Convention [1972 Democratic National Convention, Miami, Florida].$$All right, so how did that come about?$$I was very actively involved in, in--first of all, I was very active in the young Democrats club. And at the time that I got involved, I was the only African American person that was an officer of the young Democrats club. I was the secretary for the young Democrats club.$$Now, was this attached to the school [Arkansas Baptist College, Little Rock, Arkansas], or was this just in the city (simultaneous)?$$(Simultaneous) Oh, no, this was, no, this was, this was a political organization of young people involved in the political process. And the other people were, were not people of color, so I was very active with them. I also was active in my, in my community, in terms of trying to work with the community to bring about change. For example, I told you that there was a lot of violence in College Station [Arkansas]. I remember a group of people in College Station got together and they called the sheriff down to talk about all of the violence and the killings. And as a result of that then, you know, my name was in the newspaper, like along with some other folk that were involved. And that was really the beginning of my political process. And as I grew older and left College Station and moved to Little Rock, I was still politically active. And, in fact, at one time, believe it or not, I was very seriously thinking about running for the state legislature. And my attorney told me at the time, the same guy that represented me in the lawsuit, that he said, "Linda [HistoryMaker Linda Torrence], you may not be as effective as a single woman," because at the time, I was single. And, but I did go on to the '72 [1972] Democratic Convention representing the State of Arkansas, and had a tremendous experience. It was in Miami, Florida that year. And that was also the first year that the Democratic Party decided that it would change its rules to include people under thirty, blacks, and people, and women, so I fit all three categories. I was under thirty, I was African American, and I happened to be a female. And so, that's exactly what they were looking for in terms of getting more into the democratic process, as far as the, the convention was concerned. So, I went to the convention representing the State of Arkansas.$$So--$$And I'm sure the man at the television station, having known me from working in the bank [First National Bank], having been aware, especially being in the media, that I was involved in politics. I'm sure, probably from his perspective, I would have been a good candidate that they could take a chance on at this television station. So, I, I would guess that, that was part of what fueled his desire, or his interest in me, in terms of working in that, in that television station.$$Okay.$$And, oh, I, I guess the other part of it, I've always had a very outgoing personality, always been a people person all of my life, love people, love working, interacting with people. So, I'm sure he saw that. And, of course, when you're, when you're hosting a television show, you want somebody that has, that had personality, and I think that's what I had. And so, I would imagine that he was looking at those things.$$And then, you were groomed immaculately also, right? You said your [maternal] grandmother [Mattie Rembert Williamson] always had your hair done.$$Oh, yeah.$$You always kept your hair in place and, you know, done--$$Oh, yeah.$$--really nice and then you, you actually looked the part. I want to ask, did the, did your involvement in the young Democratic club help to bring about the changes in the rules that the Democratic National Convention had, as regard to blacks, women, and people under thirty?$$You know, I really can't say that. I think that was just something that the Democratic Party overall was looking at. And I'm sure there were probably similar clubs like the one that we formed in Arkansas and other states. And that is not to say that they didn't have an impact, but I can't say that our particular group had an impact. We were probably a part, a small part of a, of a, an entire process.$While I was there, one of the program directors, one of the producers, rather, came up to me one day because I had interviewed her for a job. And she said, she said, "Linda [HistoryMaker Linda Torrence], you do an excellent job of interviewing." She said, "I thought you asked some great questions when you were interviewing me for this job." She said, "I think we ought to do a television show, and have you host it." And I said, "Oh, really," I said--she said--I said, "I, I would like to do that." And so, she developed a show, and it was a show that was geared toward women. And the name of the show was 'Women in Focus' with Linda Torrence, and I did that show for about--I don't know, three or four years. I didn't get extra pay for it, but I just did it because I thought it would be a fun thing to do.$$Good for the resume, too.$$Absolutely. And I should tell you, one of the persons that I hired in that company was Dan Rather's daughter. Her name was Robin Rather. I have no idea where Robin is right now. I have not seen or heard from her since I left that station but, yeah, I hired Dan Rather's daughter. She was a producer.$$Oh, my, okay. I wanted to ask a quick question here. Was it about around this time that human resources started that, that was a name for, you know, that department in corporations, so before that, it was called something else.$$Personnel.$$Yes.$$No, it was still personnel at the time because my title was director of personnel.$$Okay, all right, 'cause it was what, during the--well, sometime afterwards that it became human, the human resource department? Okay (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) Right, right, right, exactly.$$Duties didn't change, but the name changed?$$Right, right.$$And I think that change was just to make it--well, make it appear or to have it more people-oriented?$$Um-hm, um-hm.$$Okay. Now, how long did the show run, you say, human, 'Women in Focus'?$$I think I did that show probably for about three years.$$And it was on the cable station--$$Um-hm.$$--that you, that you had?$$Um-hm.$$And what type of, it was 'Women in Focus,' but some of the photos we saw, we saw a lot of men on the show (laughter).$$Well, some of the shows that we did were men who had women bosses. I mean, how do you, how do you--we would ask, you know, part of the show would be--well, as a man, how do you feel reporting to a woman? One of the shows we did were women who were, who had their first child at age forty.$$Okay.$$You know, things like that.$$All right. And how long did you stay with--what was the name of the company? We just said a cable company (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) At the time, it was called Rogers Cable Systems.$$Okay. So, how long did you stay with Rogers (simultaneous)?$$(Simultaneous) I think I was there for about six years.

David Levering Lewis

Pulitzer Prize winning historian David Levering Lewis was born on May 25, 1936, in Little Rock, Arkansas. Lewis’s father, Yale educated theologian John Henry Lewis, Sr., was the principal of Paul Laurence Dunbar High School and his mother was a high school math teacher. After attending parochial school in Little Rock, Lewis went to Wilberforce Preparatory School and Xenia High School, both in Ohio. Moving to Atlanta, Georgia, Lewis attended Booker T. Washington High School until he was admitted to Fisk University in Nashville, Tennessee, on a four year Ford Foundation Early Entrants scholarship. Graduating Phi Beta Kappa from Fisk University in 1956, Lewis then attended the University of Michigan Law School, but eventually earned his M.A. degree in history from Columbia University in 1959. Lewis earned his Ph.D. degree in modern European and French history from the London School of Economics and Political Science in 1962.

After serving in the United States Army, Lewis lectured on medieval history at the University of Ghana in 1963. Lewis taught at Howard University, Cornell University, the University of Notre Dame, Harvard University, and the University of California, San Diego, before joining Rutgers University in 1985 as the Martin Luther King, Jr., Professor of History. In 2003, Lewis was appointed Julius Silver University Professor and Professor of History at New York University.

Winner of two Pulitzer Prizes for his biographies of W.E.B. DuBois, Lewis also won the Bancroft Prize and the Francis Parkman Prize. Lewis received fellowships from the Center for Advanced Study of Behavioral Sciences; the National Endowment for the Humanities; the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars; the John Simon Guggenheim Foundation; the American Philosophical Society; the American Academy of Arts and Sciences; and the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation. Lewis also served as a trustee of the National Humanities Center; the commissioner of the National Portrait Gallery; and a former senator of Phi Beta Kappa. A former president of the Society of American Historians (2002-2003), Lewis serves on the board of the NAACP’s The Crisis magazine.

Accession Number

A2005.061

Sex

Male

Interview Date

3/10/2005 |and| 6/9/2005 |and| 4/17/2007

3/10/2005

6/9/2005

4/17/2007

Last Name

Lewis

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Levering

Schools

Wilberforce Preparatory School, Xenia High School

Xeina High School

Fisk University

London School of Economics

First Name

David

Birth City, State, Country

Little Rock

HM ID

LEW07

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Arkansas

Favorite Vacation Destination

Costa Del Sol, Spain

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Interview Description
Birth Date

5/25/1936

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New York

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Lamb

Short Description

Historian and history professor David Levering Lewis (1936 - ) is Julius Silver University Professor and Professor of History at New York University. He won two Pulitzer Prizes for his biographies of W.E.B. DuBois.

Employment

Howard University

University of Ghana

University of California San Diego

New York University

Rutgers University

University of the District of Columbia

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:4300,122:4816,129:7224,174:7568,179:12986,244:14190,260:14620,266:21758,367:22188,373:23564,393:32253,430:32648,436:33122,444:34149,456:36756,494:37625,510:39047,536:42760,591:43313,602:44261,629:44893,638:63771,871:65763,903:84380,1127:101413,1327:105600,1422:108681,1491:116795,1564:117280,1570:123779,1723:124458,1731:125331,1754:126883,1775:142040,1958:146600,2037:147240,2046:151960,2136:154200,2166:158360,2237:158920,2252:159960,2269:170694,2342:172214,2372:173050,2387:173582,2395:174038,2403:175482,2423:176546,2440:181106,2501:181486,2507:187110,2593:189770,2659:190150,2665:191594,2707:201040,2772:201490,2780:201865,2786:214465,3015:214765,3020:215740,3037:218140,3083:218665,3091:227740,3215:270910,3788$0,0:7002,85:7738,95:8290,103:8658,108:11694,128:14730,156:38716,452:39208,459:41914,499:49376,641:92186,1155:102532,1235:104004,1253:114328,1355:131904,1551:139560,1653:147020,1699:149578,1708:152502,1754:156028,1803:156458,1809:159210,1848:159640,1854:163618,1876:165242,1916:170362,1970:170878,2000:175110,2061
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of David Levering Lewis' interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - David Levering Lewis lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - David Levering Lewis describes his maternal family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - David Levering Lewis describes his mother's family

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - David Levering Lewis describes his parents' relationship

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - David Levering Lewis describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - David Levering Lewis describes his father's education

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - David Levering Lewis describes his mother's college experience

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - David Levering Lewis describes his childhood household

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - David Levering Lewis describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - David Levering Lewis shares his family's experience of the 1906 Atlanta riot

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - David Levering Lewis describes his father's role in advocating for equal teachers' salaries in Little Rock

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - David Levering Lewis recalls his childhood neighborhood in Little Rock, Arkansas

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - David Levering Lewis remembers learning to read late

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - David Levering Lewis remembers losing a friend due to segregation

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - David Levering Lewis recalls his childhood in Little Rock, Arkansas

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - David Levering Lewis recalls living in Wilberforce, Ohio

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - David Levering Lewis recalls his education Wilberforce, Ohio

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - David Levering Lewis remembers his acceptance to Nashville's Fisk University

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - David Levering Lewis names his schools

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - David Levering Lewis describes choosing Fisk University

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - David Levering Lewis remembers the faculty at Fisk University

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - David Levering Lewis remembers the speakers and culture at Fisk University

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - David Levering Lewis remembers being almost expelled from Fisk University

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - David Levering Lewis remembers studying at the College of Wooster in Ohio

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - David Levering Lewis remembers his Phi Beta Kappa induction at Fisk University

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - David Levering Lewis remembers applying to law school

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - David Levering Lewis remembers attending the University of Michigan Law School

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - David Levering Lewis describes his graduate school experience

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - David Levering Lewis remembers a trip with his father and his father's death

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - David Levering Lewis describes attending the London School of Economics

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - David Levering Lewis remembers his time in the U.S. Army

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - David Levering Lewis explains why he traveled to Ghana

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Slating of David Levering Lewis' interview, session 2

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - David Levering Lewis shares memories from his childhood

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - David Levering Lewis describes teaching at the University of Ghana

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - David Levering Lewis recalls the atmosphere at the University of Ghana

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - David Levering Lewis describes the political climate of Ghana in the early 1960s

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - David Levering Lewis describes the United States' involvement in Ghana's 1965 coup

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - David Levering Lewis describes returning to the United States in 1964

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - David Levering Lewis describes his visits to West African countries

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - David Levering Lewis recalls traveling between Ghana and the Ivory Coast

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - David Levering Lewis describes teaching at Howard University

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - David Levering Lewis describes meeting his wife and his mother's death

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - David Levering Lewis describes teaching at the University of Notre Dame

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - David Levering Lewis describes writing his biography of Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - David Levering Lewis describes the reception of 'King: A Critical Biography'

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - David Levering Lewis describes the FBI's surveillance of Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - David Levering Lewis describes his admiration for Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr.

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - David Levering Lewis recalls leaving Morgan College for Federal City College

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - David Levering Lewis remembers historian Benjamin A. Quarles

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - David Levering Lewis remembers his plan to write 'Prisoners of Honor'

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - David Levering Lewis recalls his son's medical diagnosis and working in France

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - David Levering Lewis recalls the reception of 'Prisoners of Honor'

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - David Levering Lewis describes his argument in 'When Harlem Was in Vogue'

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - David Levering Lewis remembers gaining access to Alain Locke's letters

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - David Levering Lewis reflects upon the organization of the Harlem Renaissance

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - David Levering Lewis describes the Dunbar News

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - David Levering Lewis describes his book on the history of Washington, D.C.

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - David Levering Lewis remembers the reception to 'When Harlem Was in Vogue'

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - David Levering Lewis describes difficult times in his personal life

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - David Levering Lewis describes his time at the University of California, San Diego

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - David Levering Lewis recalls his research trip to Ethiopia and Sudan

Tape: 8 Story: 6 - David Levering Lewis describes his book 'Race to Fashoda'

Tape: 8 Story: 7 - David Levering Lewis remembers returning to Howard University

Tape: 9 Story: 1 - David Levering Lewis remembers the genesis of his biography on W.E.B. Du Bois, pt. 1

Tape: 9 Story: 2 - David Levering Lewis remembers the genesis of his biography on W.E.B. Du Bois, pt. 2

Tape: 9 Story: 3 - David Levering Lewis remembers researching W.E.B. Du Bois in the Soviet Union

Tape: 9 Story: 4 - David Levering Lewis describes his time in the Soviet Union

Tape: 9 Story: 5 - David Levering Lewis describes interviewing members of W.E.B. Du Bois' family

Tape: 9 Story: 6 - David Levering Lewis describes W.E.B. Du Bois' romantic relationships

Tape: 9 Story: 7 - David Levering Lewis shares biographical details about W.E.B. Du Bois

Tape: 9 Story: 8 - David Levering Lewis remembers meeting W.E.B. Du Bois

Tape: 9 Story: 9 - David Levering Lewis describes W.E.B. Du Bois' early development

Tape: 10 Story: 1 - Slating of David Levering Lewis' interview, session 3

Tape: 10 Story: 2 - David Levering Lewis describes W.E.B. Du Bois' time at Harvard University

Tape: 10 Story: 3 - David Levering Lewis talks about William Monroe Trotter

Tape: 10 Story: 4 - David Levering Lewis describes W.E.B. Du Bois' studies in Germany

Tape: 10 Story: 5 - David Levering Lewis describes academia's response to W.E.B. Du Bois' dissertation

Tape: 10 Story: 6 - David Levering Lewis describes W.E.B. Du Bois' temperament

Tape: 10 Story: 7 - David Levering Lewis describes W.E.B. Du Bois' 'The Philadelphia Negro'

Tape: 10 Story: 8 - David Levering Lewis describes W.E.B. Du Bois' legacy in social science

Tape: 10 Story: 9 - David Levering Lewis describes W.E.B. Du Bois' 'The Souls of Black Folk'

Tape: 11 Story: 1 - David Levering Lewis describes W.E.B. Du Bois' development throughout his life

Tape: 11 Story: 2 - David Levering Lewis describes changes in W.E.B. Du Bois' position on economics

Tape: 11 Story: 3 - David Levering Lewis describes W.E.B. Du Bois' split with the NAACP

Tape: 11 Story: 4 - David Levering Lewis describes W.E.B. Du Bois' 'Black Reconstruction in America'

Tape: 11 Story: 5 - David Levering Lewis describes W.E.B. Du Bois' eccentricities

Tape: 11 Story: 6 - David Levering Lewis describes the end of W.E.B. Du Bois' life

Tape: 11 Story: 7 - David Levering Lewis reflects upon W.E.B. Du Bois' place in educational curricula

Tape: 11 Story: 8 - David Levering Lewis describes his book, 'God's Crucible'

Tape: 12 Story: 1 - David Levering Lewis remembers being in Morocco during 9/11

Tape: 12 Story: 2 - David Levering Lewis talks about the history of Islam, pt. 1

Tape: 12 Story: 3 - David Levering Lewis talks about the history of Islam, pt. 2

Tape: 12 Story: 4 - David Levering Lewis talks about Charlemagne's invasion of Al-Andalus

Tape: 12 Story: 5 - David Levering Lewis describes the inspiration for his book 'God's Crucible'

Tape: 12 Story: 6 - David Levering Lewis describes his book 'God's Crucible'

Tape: 12 Story: 7 - David Levering Lewis describes religious polarization in 11th century Europe

Tape: 12 Story: 8 - David Levering Lewis talks about the Moors

Tape: 12 Story: 9 - David Levering Lewis describes his position at New York University

Tape: 13 Story: 1 - David Levering Lewis describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community, pt. 1

Tape: 13 Story: 2 - David Levering Lewis describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community, pt. 2

Tape: 13 Story: 3 - David Levering Lewis reflects upon his life

Tape: 13 Story: 4 - David Levering Lewis reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 13 Story: 5 - David Levering Lewis talks about his family

Tape: 13 Story: 6 - David Levering Lewis describes his plans for the future

Tape: 13 Story: 7 - David Levering Lewis reflects upon the significance of his childhood pet

DASession

2$2

DATape

5$9

DAStory

8$7

DATitle
David Levering Lewis describes his visits to West African countries
David Levering Lewis shares biographical details about W.E.B. Du Bois
Transcript
Oh, I should mention by the way, that while I was in Ghana [at the University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana], I didn't spend the entire time in Ghana. And during one of the, those long breaks that the British academic calendar permits, I went off to Liberia and the Ivory Coast [Cote d'Ivoire] and a little bit of Mali in a Volkswagen with a Dutch colleague. And that was quite interesting, to see Liberia when it too was undergoing a great deal of superficial prosperity. I've forgotten the exact consolation and causes, but the Liberians finally had money to kind of dust off their, their old capital in Monrovia [Liberia]. And I remember that Van Dantzig [Albert Van Dantzig], and I, as we approached Monrovia, there was this skyscraper, sort of Trump-like, rising out of the, out of the savannah. What's this? We pull up, and a Frenchman comes out. And we break into French, and he says, "Would you like to see what we are doing?" Chandeliers, gold gilt, satin, everything--what, what was this? Well, this was to be the new presidential palace and also sort of parliament, everything would, would take place there, at no consideration for capital outlay well, so that was, that was kind of interesting, 'cause when you got into the town, the monies had not begun to seep down yet into the, the neighborhoods, the typical story, all too typical. And the bishop of, the A.M.E. [African Methodist Episcopal] bishop of Liberia was a student of my father's [John H. Lewis], and so we were welcomed and got a lot of the, the local gossip. And then we went on to Ivory Coast where we, we couldn't stay in the grand hotel, Ivoire [Hotel Ivoire; Sofitel Abidjan Hotel Ivoire, Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire], with its, with its ice skating rink and its five-star restaurant, and it's elegant French-speaking francophone staff. We stayed in the, sort of the ghetto. What was it called? I don't remember now. But it was an extraordinary experience because they had recreated Paris [France] in, in, in Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire. And the back, the Africans were in the front offices, but in the back offices the French were (laughter), were still running things, and, and, and repatriating huge sums of money because the Ivory Coast was one of the richest little countries in the world because of its cocoa monopoly. And so you thought well, you know, this won't, someday this will come to an end because what is happening is that a service class of very Europeanized people in a kind of artificial Golconda is being created. But, you know, the whole business of upward mobility, as ambitions grow, as people see what they're not benefiting from, they would have been quite happy if they didn't know what the others were having and that that would be problematic, and then too, of course, there were tribal fishers in Abidjan that you didn't have in--I mean in, in the Ivory Coast you didn't have in Ghana. We drove to the presidential palace compound outside Abidjan, Houphouet-Boigny [Felix Houphouet-Boigny], and he had just begun to lay the foundations for what would be, of course, the world's largest basilica [Basilica of Our Lady of Peace, Yamoussoukro, Cote d'Ivoire], the Catholic basilica there that dwarfs St. Peter's [St. Peter's Basilica, Vatican City]. And that again, you wondered if, how, how Catholic do you have to be to think that this is the best way to, to manage your GNP or GDP? So, and then in Guinea, where we were at, Sekou Toure [Ahmed Sekou Toure] was running things, and there you had a very different attitude. But you didn't have any prosperity at all because, of course, the French had embargoed everything, and so, he was--and his regime dependent on, on the Soviet Union. So all that was a, a quick impressionistic canvas of Africa in the mid-'60s [1960s].$What I found else about Du Bois [W.E.B. Du Bois] was simply that to be a genius, you really do have to work hard. And his, the organization of his life is quite fabulous. He got up at a certain time, and he went to bed at 10:00 without exception, the rest of his life, 10:00. If he found himself on a dais here in New York [New York] at town hall, and somebody is blabbering on when he's supposed to speak at 9:15, at 10 to 10, he would look at his pocket watch, and ostentatiously stand up, and walk off the platform. So people knew that if you have Du Bois here, all the bills comes later; let him, let him speak. And he was always a marvelous speaker, not emotional at all, but quite crisp and, and cogent. So he gets up. And I can't remember the order of the things now, but some much, so many hours are devoted to correspondence, so many hours to reading fiction, and the rest to research and, and writing. And he--I found rolls of an outline in blocks of everything he would do that month, and he did. So that--and yet there was a time for women, (laughter) a time for other things. The, this, the schematization of the life was a tour de force. So, on the other hand, the economy, he never wrote long letters, almost never, unless the letter was a policy letter, and so, and so that presents an imbalance in the correspondence. If he's writing to a woman he deeply loves, it's "Madam, as you know, I think well of you and, and plan to see you at this restaurant at 10:00 on Tuesday, November 10th. I hope you will present yourself there" (laughter), something like that. I'm caricaturing somewhat, but not by a lot. And the letter from the woman would be far more human, to be sure, so that if you looked at only Du Bois writing to people with whom he was emotionally engaged, you might miss that unless you paid attention to those letters and response, which are not always in the same box of course.$$Yeah, yeah, that, that's, that's interesting that we are known by not just what we do but how others respond to us.$$Right, yep.$$Right.

Samuel Massie

Organic Chemist Samuel Massie was born in Little Rock, Arkansas, on July 3, 1919; his mother, a teacher, and his father, a minister, instilled in him a love of education. By the age of thirteen, Massie had graduated from high school. Because he was denied admittance to the University of Arkansas because of his race, Massie went on to attend Agricultural Mechanical Normal College of Arkansas. He then attended Fisk University before being accepted to Iowa State University, where he received his Ph.D. in organic chemistry.

Massie attended Iowa State University at the height of World War II; during this time, he was summoned before the draft board. Massie was allowed to return to school, but he was assigned to the Manhattan Project, the program that created the first atomic bomb. After completing his Ph.D., Massie returned to Fisk University to teach; it was here that he met his future wife, Gloria. Over the years, Massie held positions at Langston University, Howard University, and the National Science Foundation. In 1963, Massie was named president of the University of North Carolina Central.

In 1966, Massie became the first African American professor at the U.S. Naval Academy; he then served as chair of the chemistry department from 1977 to 1981. In 1994, Massie retired from the Naval Academy, though he retained the title professor emeritus.

Massie was awarded with an NAACP Freedom Fund Award; a White House Initiative Lifetime Achievement Award; and was named one of the seventy-five outstanding scientists in the country by Chemical and Engineering News Magazine. Massie was also involved with the Smithsonian Institute, and spent more than two decades on the Maryland State Board for Community Colleges.

Samuel Massie passed away on April 10, 2005, three months after the passing of his wife, Gloria.

Accession Number

A2003.161

Sex

Male

Interview Date

7/19/2003

Last Name

Massie

Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

P.

Organizations
Schools

Paul Laurence Dunbar High School

Paul Laurence Dunbar Junior College

University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff

Fisk University

Iowa State University

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Samuel

Birth City, State, Country

Little Rock

HM ID

MAS03

Sponsor

National Science Foundation

State

Arkansas

Favorite Quote

Do the best you can with what you have.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Interview Description
Birth Date

7/3/1919

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Watermelon, Chicken

Death Date

4/10/2005

Short Description

Chemistry professor and organic chemist Samuel Massie (1919 - 2005 ) was the first African American professor at the Naval Academy. Massie also worked on the Manhattan Project earlier in his career.

Employment

Langston University Chemistry Department

Fisk University Chemistry Department

National Science Foundation (NSF)

Howard University Pharmaceutical Chemistry Department

North Carolina Central University

United States Naval Academy Chemistry Department

Main Sponsor
Main Sponsor URL
Favorite Color

Navy Blue

DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Samuel Massie

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Samuel Massie's favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Samuel Massie recalls his grandparents

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Samuel Massie relates the importance of education in his mother's family

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Samuel Massie describes his father

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Samuel Massie shares childhood memories

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Samuel Massie recalls his school days in Little Rock, Arkansas

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Samuel Massie discusses his options after graduating from high school at thirteen

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Samuel Massie recalls his time at the University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Samuel Massie describes his experiences at Fisk University

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Samuel Massie describes his experiences at Iowa State University

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Samuel Massie discusses his work with the Manhattan Project

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Samuel Massie recounts being the first black to work for Eastman Kodak Company

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Samuel Massie remembers the Manhattan Project

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Samuel Massie discusses his post-graduate career

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Samuel Massie recalls meeting Martin Luther King

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Samuel Massie discusses a potential biography

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Samuel Massie becomes the first black professor at the U.S. Naval Academy

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Samuel Massie discusses his accomplishments at the U.S. Naval Academy

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Samuel Massie discusses an elementary school being named in his honor

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Samuel Massie lists his honors

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Samuel Massie considers how he'd like to be remembered

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Samuel Massie discusses his honors in the field of chemistry

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Samuel Massie discusses the importance of black colleges

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Samuel Massie discusses his tenure as the Chairman for the Maryland State Board of Community Colleges

Tape: 3 Story: 12 - Samuel Massie remembers his work at Eastman Kodak Company

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Photo - Samuel Massie as a child with his father, Samuel P. Massie, Sr., and mother, Earlee Taylor Massie, ca. 1921

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Photo - Samuel Massie with his wife, Gloria Massie, ca. 1998

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Photo - Samuel Massie with his wife, Gloria Massie, at a formal event, ca. 1998

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Photo - Samuel Massie with his mother, Earlee Taylor Massie, and his brother, Jack Massie, not dated

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Photo - Samuel Massie in his chemistry lab at the U.S. Naval Academy

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Photo - Samuel Massie with his wife, Gloria Massie, at the U.S. Naval Academy, ca. 1990s

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Photo - Samuel Massie's three sons, James Massie, Herbert Massie, and Trei Massie, ca. 1963

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Photo - Samuel Massie in a portrait, ca. 1993

Dr. Roselyn Payne Epps

Dr. Roselyn Payne Epps was born in Little Rock, Arkansas. Both of her parents were educators, as were her grandparents. Epps attended elementary school at Powell Laboratory School in Savannah, Georgia, and afterwards attended Palmer Memorial High School in Sedalia, North Carolina, before enrolling at Howard University in Washington, D.C. She graduated with a B.S. in 1951, and obtained an M.S., also from Howard, in 1955.

Upon receiving her M.S., Epps became a rotating intern with the United States Public Health Service at Freedmen's Hospital in Washington (later renamed Howard University Hospital). In 1956, she began a pediatric residency with the hospital, and two years later became its chief resident.

In 1961, she became a medical officer with the District of Columbia Department of Health, and in 1973 earned an M.Ph. from Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore. She continued on with the District of Columbia Department of Health, and in 1980 was appointed the first acting commissioner of health of the District of Columbia.

That year also saw her become a professor of pediatrics and children's health at Howard, and a year later, she received an M.A. from American University in Washington, D.C. She would go on to become the chief of the Child Development Division and director of the Child Development Center at Howard. Among her accomplishments during her time there were overseeing a program that aided disabled children and their parents, and she was the founder of the High Risk Young People's Project, which brought together several university health science departments, community organizations, and government agencies within the district.

In 1988, she went to work for the National Cancer Institute in Bethesda, Maryland. Semi-retired since 1998, she serves s a consultant for the public and private sector. Epps has written more than ninety articles for medical publications, was a co-editor for The Women's Complete Handbook , and was the first African American and female president of the District of Columbia chapter of the American Academy of Pediatrics. She has been involved in various professional and philanthropic undertakings and is the recipient of more than sixty awards. The Council of the District of Columbia declared February 14, 1981, Dr. Roselyn Payne Epps Day in Washington, D.C.

Epps passed away on September 30, 2014, at the age of 83. She was married to Dr. Charles H. Epps, Jr. and they have four children.

Roselyn Payne Epps was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on March 16, 2003.

Accession Number

A2003.047

Sex

Female

Interview Date

3/16/2003

Last Name

Epps

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

H.

Occupation
Schools

Palmer Memorial High School

Powell Laboratory School

Sol C. Johnson High School

Howard University College of Medicine

Johns Hopkins University

American University

Howard University

First Name

Charles

Birth City, State, Country

Little Rock

HM ID

EPP01

Favorite Season

All Seasons

State

Arkansas

Favorite Vacation Destination

Florida

Favorite Quote

A Job Well Done Is Its Own Reward

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Interview Description
Birth Date

12/11/1930

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

USA

Death Date

9/30/2014

Short Description

Pediatrician Dr. Roselyn Payne Epps (1930 - 2014 ) was Professor Emerita of Pediatrics at Howard University.

Employment

Freedmen's Hospital, Howard University

District of Columbia Department of Health

District of Columbia District of Health

Howard University College of Medicine

National Cancer Institute

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Roselyn Epps' interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Roselyn Epps lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Roselyn Epps describes her mother, Mattie Beverly Payne, and her maternal family history

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Roselyn Epps describes her father, William Kenneth Payne

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Roselyn Epps describes her maternal grandfather, John William Beverly, the president of Alabama State College

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Roselyn Epps talks about her maternal grandmother's ancestral roots

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Roselyn Epps describes how her grandfather attended at Brown University and the impact of the American Missionary Association on black education

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Roselyn Epps describes how her parents met and their move from Alabama to Arkansas

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Roselyn Epps talks about her brother, William Kenneth Payne II

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Roselyn Epps describes memories of her childhood in Little Rock, Arkansas

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Roselyn Epps describes her relationship with her brother, William Kenneth Payne II

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Roselyn Epps describes her early elementary school years

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Roselyn Epps talks about growing up on the campus of Savannah State University in Savannah, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Roselyn Epps talks about taking her mother's card club on a tour of Washington, D.C.

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Roselyn Epps describes the sights, smells, and sounds of growing up in Savannah, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Roselyn Epps describes the development of her parents' careers as educators

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Roselyn Epps talks about her experience at Powell Laboratory School on the campus of Savannah State University

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Roselyn Epps describes her childhood personality and her early dreams of becoming a pediatrician

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Roselyn Epps talks about her experience at Palmer Memorial Institute in Sedalia, North Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Roselyn Epps talks about the Palmer Memorial Institute in Sedalia, North Carolina, and its founder, Dr. Charlotte Hawkins Brown

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Roselyn Epps remembers when Nat King Cole visited Palmer Memorial Institute with Maria Cole, Dr. Charlotte Hawkins Brown's niece

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Roselyn Epps talks about black boarding schools like Palmer Memorial Institute, Mary Potter School, Mather Academy, and Piney Woods Country Life School, which suffered after integration

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Roselyn Epps talks about close friends from her years at Palmer Memorial Institute in Sedalia, North Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Roselyn Epps talks about how her experience at Palmer impacted her formation

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Roselyn Epps describes her parents' influence on her decision to attend Howard University in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Roselyn Epps describes her summer activities as a youth including 4-H camps and dance lessons

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Roselyn Epps talks about her father and her husband's roles as academic administrators

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Roselyn Epps describes criminal activity at the campus post office while she worked there

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Roselyn Epps describes how her father resolved the issues at the post office and advocated for the students and faculty in his charge

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Roselyn Epps describes the academic and social environment at Howard University in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Roselyn Epps talks about the faculty at Howard University including university president Mordecai Johnson, Alain LeRoy Locke, Frank Snowden, Lois Mailou Jones, and HistoryMaker Lloyd N. Ferguson

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Roselyn Epps talks about the pre-med track at Howard University in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Roselyn Epps describes how she met her husband, HistoryMaker Dr. Charles H. Epps

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Roselyn Epps talks about her decision to attend Howard University College of Medicine

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Roselyn Epps talks about her experience as a woman at Howard University College of Medicine

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Roselyn Epps remembers an embarrassing experience in her neuroanatomy lab class with Dr. Moses Wharton Young

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Roselyn Epps talks about her studies at Howard University College of Medicine

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Roselyn Epps talks about Dr. Blanche Bourne and Dr. Ruth Ella Moore, two influential teachers at Howard University College of Medicine

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Roselyn Epps talks about Dr. Roland Scott, her mentor at Howard University School of Medicine

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Roselyn Epps talks about Dr. Roland Scott and his work on sickle cell disease

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Roselyn Epps talks about children's health issues in the 1960s and the importance of immunization

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Roselyn Epps describes obtaining a master of public health at Johns Hopkins University while working at the D.C. Department of Public Health

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Roselyn Epps describes the impact of urban migration in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Roselyn Epps talks about Freedmen's Hospital in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Roselyn Epps talks about distinguished interns and residents from Freedman's Hospital

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Roselyn Epps talks about medical ethics

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Roselyn Epps talks about her mentor Dr. Dorothy Boulding Ferebee and affiliating with the American Academy of Pediatrics

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Roselyn Epps remembers integrating the D.C. Chapter of the American Academy of Pediatrics

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Roselyn Epps talks about her community involvement and her work with Children International

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Roselyn Epps talks about her decision to study public administration and higher education at American University in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Roselyn Epps talks about evolution of public health while she was acting commissioner of health at the D.C. Department of Public Health

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Roselyn Epps talks about a shift in national attitudes about intellectual and developmental disabilities

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Roselyn Epps talks about the close of Junior Village, one of the unintended casualties of the Great Society programs

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Roselyn Epps describes the beginning of the High Risk Young People's Project

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Roselyn Epps talks about the impact of the High Risk Young People's Project

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Roselyn Epps describes how she implemented the NIH's smoking cessation program

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Roselyn Epps talks about her work on smoking cessation in pediatrics

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Roselyn Epps talks about the expansion of pediatric medicine

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Roselyn Epps talks about a study on hypertension in children and how the field of pediatrics has changed over the last few decades

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Roselyn Epps talks about the rising incidence of AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Roselyn Epps talks about cancer research in children and chronic pediatric issues

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Roselyn Epps talks about her work on "The Women's Complete Health Book"

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Roselyn Epps talks about Joycelyn Elders, the former Surgeon General of the United States

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Roselyn Epps talks about the importance of caring for the nation's children

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Roselyn Epps talks about the Hospital for Sick Children and learning to fundraise

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Roselyn Epps talks about Girls Inc.

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Roselyn Epps talks about lessons in leadership and her leadership roles over the years

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Roselyn Epps describes her work ethic

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Roselyn Epps talks about her exposure to significant African Americans and her experience during segregation

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Roselyn Epps talks about the importance of integration and its consequences

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Roselyn Epps shares her advice for aspiring medical professionals

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - Roselyn Epps describes the importance of historically black colleges and universities like Howard University in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - Roselyn Epps talks about how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 8 Story: 6 - Roselyn Epps narrates her photographs, pt.1

Tape: 9 Story: 1 - Roselyn Epps narrates her photographs, pt.2

DASession

1$1

DATape

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DAStory

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DATitle
Roselyn Epps talks about Dr. Roland Scott, her mentor at Howard University School of Medicine
Roselyn Epps talks about her work on smoking cessation in pediatrics
Transcript
But there were a lot of people who were kind and, you know, took in, and... Now when I became a resident in pediatrics, my chairman, Dr. Roland Scott, really was a person who had great influence on me.$$Can you talk about that?$$Yes. Roland Scott was the chairman of the department, and he also was the first African American, certified in pediatrics, and also the first to become a member of the Academy of Pediatrics. He died last year and he was about ninety-four, I think, but I learned a lot from him. This was a man who really came along at a time when there was no one else out front, you know. And he would go to all the meetings. He would take--he wrote publications. He had research. He had a private practice. And he--when he would go to conferences and meetings, he'd raise his hand, and he'd get up and make a comment or ask a question. Everyone knew he had been there. And no matter where we'd go out of the country and met somebody, they would say, well, do you know Dr. Roland? You're from Howard [University School of Medicine]--do you know Dr. Roland Scott? He's in sickle cell research. And I did research with him and practiced with him in his office for a year after I finished. And he taught me that you needed to take time. He says, publish new research and publish. He says if you don't do it while you don't have time--he said, but if you don't do it while you're a resident, you won't do when you finish. You just won't never be able to figure it out. And so, I wrote papers with him and did some research projects. And he had, had tremendous influence in terms of professional development and how one can just go. I mean he went to things, and he would get money for the residents to go to the pediatric meetings. And we would always have an exhibit and he would go to the sessions, and we would man the exhibit. But we got an opportunity to meet people. I remember the Academy of Pediatrics met in Chicago [Illinois] every year so we used to go. I forget the (unclear). I was the chief resident and we would go, and we would--and I would, in fact, it was so funny because one time I remember we were going to the meeting. And I think it was the first one, and I think he thought that--I know I probably would be tagging along looking for him. I'm talking about in the car--look for me, you know, help me or something. And so, when we got there to the airport, I went and got my bag and got on that bus and went into the Palmer House. I didn't--and so the next--when we were setting up the exhibit, he said, well, what happened to you? He said--I said, well, you know, we had arrived. I didn't want him to think that I was there and would be dependent on him to guide me around, you know. You didn't say, well, you know, let's share a cab or let's do this. So, I said, well, if we're on our own, I know how to do that, too. So, so I did but he--but he did, and then when my husband [Dr. Charles H. Epps] came back to be chief of orthopedics and they said, well, we got nepotism here [Freedman's Hospital, now Howard University Hospital, Washington, D.C.]. So I talked to him, and he says, well, why don't you go to look into public health? He said, but if you go into public health, he says, you get the degree that people in public health have got. And so, he called them [D.C. Department of Public Health] up and asked them if they had an opening. And I went down and interviewed and what-not and was hired, and as a well-baby clinic doctor.$$So he, he was a very good mentor.$$Oh, yeah, uh-hum.$$Okay.$But after I got there and there was no pediatrician there, I realized that smoking really begins during childhood, and that's it's really a pediatric problem. And yet I had--was familiar enough in pediatrics to know that nowhere had I heard any discussion about tobacco. So I said, what we need is a program to prevent onset of smoking, not just stop it after the people are addicted. So I said fine, you go on and you do it. And so, I called the Academy of Pediatrics, and I said we need to--we brought them in--for several of them in for a meeting, and I said we need to develop this program. And I said, we can do it several ways. I said you all can develop it and we'll publish it, or we can develop and publish it, or we can do it, whatever way you say. So I think they felt--well, nothing's going to happen here. So they said, well, won't you go on and do it, you know, and we'll look at it and see what we think about it. And so, I also knew that, you know, I was not a long-term researcher in, in tobacco control, and then that in order to get something that people will go and buy, and I couldn't just develop something out of the, out of the blue. So I tied it in--I'd been on several committees for the Academy of Pediatrics. And I knew that they had the guidelines of when children should come, so I just wrote the program so it coincided with normal periods of time that they'd be coming into the doctor anyway. And then added--they had four A's--ask, advise, assist, and arrange for smoking cessation. So I added "A", a fifth "A" for children which was anticipate, anticipate the developmental stage 'cause, you know, you're going from one station to another. The temptations will be different. And so, it made--sent it to the Academy of pediatrics said, well, will you look at it and review, and they, they got their substance abuse committee people to make a few suggestions. In the end, they were so thrilled with it 'cause we were publishing and disseminating and everything that they actually put their imprimatur on it as, as one of their official things. And so, that we were able to disseminate that and so.$$That was groundbreaking in many ways, right?$$Yes, oh, yeah, that was really--$$It's groundbreaking.$$Uh-hum.$$And it sort of led to a lot of the focus on, you know, on the--well, now people are trying to get billboards, but it was sort of the beginning--$$Oh, yeah, oh, yeah, all of that was going on simultaneously.$$Right.$$But the medical community was really out of the loop, but they didn't realize--I mean the advocates were out there with smoking cessation. Now I'm in my current role, semi-retired--I'm a consultant. There's a program funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation to the Department of Pediatrics at Howard [University School of Medicine, Washington, D.C.] now that's going to look at smoking in high risk populations. So, in other words, teenagers, kids who are in--out of school programs, kids who are in foster care, kids who are in job corps, kids who are really at risk, the ones who are more likely to smoke who don't have parents who will say, it's not good for you and that type of thing. And so, we're working on that now and going to develop a curriculum. I'm just a consultant on it now though. Mm-hm.

Ernest Green

Ernest G. Green was born in Little Rock, Arkansas, on September 22, 1941 to Lothaire S. and Ernest G. Green, Sr. His parents instilled in him confidence and self-respect that helped him to become a leader among his peers and a civil rights advocate. He was one of the first black students to integrate at Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas, following the Supreme Court ruling to desegregate in 1954. Green is the oldest of the "Little Rock Nine," a group of high school students who entered Central High School on the morning of September 25, 1957, with an escort of paratroopers. Governor Orval Faubus had summoned National Guardsmen to turn away the black pupils in direct defiance of the federal government, which had already approved a desegregation plan for the school. President Dwight D. Eisenhower, for the first time since Reconstruction, sent in federal troops to protect the rights of the beleaguered students, and the students ultimately prevailed.Green graduated from Michigan State University with a B.A. in 1962 and an M.A. in 1964.

In 1965, Green became involved in employment law with a building-trade apprenticeship for the Adolph Institute, a project to help minority women in the South find opportunities for professional careers. He then directed the A. Phillip Randolph Education Fund from 1968 to 1976. Between 1977 and 1981, he served as assistant secretary in the Labor Department under President Jimmy Carter. Since 1981, Green has worked in the private sector for consulting firms. He was a partner for Green and Herman from 1981 to 1985, owned E. Green and Associates from 1985 to 1986, and has been with Lehman Brothers since 1985.

Green has been on the boards of various organizations, such as the Winthrop Rockefeller Foundation, AfriCare and the African Development Foundation. He has received numerous awards and honors for his work, including the NAACP Spingarn Award, the Rockefeller Public Service Award, and honorary doctorates from Tougaloo College, Michigan State University, and Central State University.

He is married to Phyllis Green and they have three children, Adam, Jessica and McKenzie.

Accession Number

A2003.013

Sex

Male

Interview Date

1/22/2003

Last Name

Green

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Organizations
Schools

Central High School

Horace Mann High School

Michigan State University

First Name

Ernest

Birth City, State, Country

Little Rock

HM ID

GRE04

Favorite Season

September

State

Arkansas

Favorite Vacation Destination

Rome, Italy

Favorite Quote

Little Rock.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Interview Description
Birth Date

9/22/1941

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Gumbo

Short Description

Investment executive and civil rights leader Ernest Green (1941 - ) was one of the "Little Rock Nine," the first group of black students to integrate Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas.

Employment

Adolph Institute

A. Phillip Randolph Education Fund

United States Department of Labor

Green and Herman

E. Green and Associates

Lehman Brothers

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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Ernest Green's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Ernest Green lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Ernest Green describes his paternal family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Ernest Green describes his father

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Ernest Green describes his maternal family background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Ernest Green describes his family's involvement in a lawsuit against the Little Rock School District, led by Sue Cowan Williams

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Ernest Green describes his mother

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Ernest Green describes how the media in Arkansas responded to the "Brown v. Board of Education" decision in 1954

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Ernest Green describes his perception of the "Brown v. Board of Education" decision as a youth

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Ernest Green talks about his siblings and his upbringing

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Ernest Green describes his earliest childhood memories

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Ernest Green describes his childhood neighborhood in Little Rock, Arkansas

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Ernest Green describes his youth in Little Rock, Arkansas

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Ernest Green describes his childhood personality and interest in music

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Ernest Green describes his experiences traveling to the North for the first time

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Ernest Green describes his perception of the murder of Emmett Till

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Ernest Green describes how national and local civil rights activities affected him as a youth

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Ernest Green describes the influence of mother's educational experiences on his desire to enact change Little Rock, Arkansas

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Ernest Green describes his neighbor's negative reaction to his integrating Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Ernest Green describes his family's activism during the 1940s

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Ernest Green describes what motivated him to transfer to Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Ernest Green describes meeting with the Little Rock School Board prior to transferring to Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Ernest Green describes his experiences the summer prior to enrolling at Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Ernest Green describes the events leading up to his helping to integrate Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Ernest Green comments on the selection process of the Little Rock Nine

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Ernest Green describes his friends' reactions to his integrating Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Ernest Green describes the implications of integrating Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Ernest Green talks about Governor Orval Faubus' response to the integration of Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Ernest Green describes his first day at Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Ernest Green compares Central High School and Horace Mann High School in Little Rock, Arkansas

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Ernest Green describes his experiences studying physics at Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Ernest Green describes how attending Central High School affected his performance as a student

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Ernest Green describes his two semesters at Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Ernest Green describes the interaction between he and his white peers at Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Ernest Green describes graduating from Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Ernest Green describes enrolling at Michigan State University

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Ernest Green describes spending the summer in New York City, New York, prior to his undergraduate studies at Michigan State University

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Ernest Green describes the attention he received upon enrolling at Michigan State University in East Lansing, Michigan

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Ernest Green describes his experiences attending Michigan State University in East Lansing, Michigan

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Ernest Green considers his father's possible reaction to his integrating Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Ernest Green describes what motivated him to become involved in the Labor Movement

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Ernest Green describes his internship with "Look" Magazine, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Ernest Green describes his internship with "Look" Magazine, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Ernest Green describes the impact of the Workers Defense League's apprenticeship program

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - Ernest Green describes how integrating Central High School benefitted him as a young adult

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Ernest Green describes serving as director of the A. Philip Randolph Education Fund

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Ernest Green talks about introducing HistoryMaker Alexis Herman to her first labor-related experience in Pascagoula, Mississippi

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Ernest Green talks about being appointed as Assistant U.S. Secretary of Labor

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Ernest Green describes what he learned from Bayard Rustin

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Ernest Green talks about Bayard Rustin's role in the March on Washington

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Ernest Green talks about his accomplishments as Assistant U.S. Secretary of Labor

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Ernest Green describes his consulting firm with HistoryMaker Alexis Herman and being hired as an investment banker for Shearson Lehman Brothers

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Ernest Green describes how his educational background and networking skills benefitted him as an investment banker

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Ernest Green describes the impact of networking and building relationships

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Ernest Green describes how President William "Bill" Clinton was influenced by the Little Rock Nine

Tape: 5 Story: 11 - Ernest Green describes helping President William "Bill" Clinton strategize for the Illinois Primary during his presidential campaign

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Ernest Green notes how President William "Bill" Clinton built strategic relationships with the African American community

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Ernest Green describes his relationship with HistoryMaker Reverend Jesse Jackson

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Ernest Green describes his expectations of HistoryMaker Reverend Jesse Jackson's presidential campaign

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Ernest Green describes the turning point of HistoryMaker Reverend Jesse Jackson's presidential campaign

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Ernest Green comments on taking risks

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Ernest Green describes "The Ernest Green Story" biopic

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Ernest Green talks about the importance of recognizing and sharing the story of the Little Rock Nine

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Ernest Green talks about building a life beyond his experiences integrating Central High School

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Ernest Green comments on the state of the black community, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - Ernest Green comments on the state of the black community, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 11 - Ernest Green talks about his plans for the future

Tape: 6 Story: 12 - Ernest Green talks about the importance of highlighting contemporary African American achievers

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Ernest Green comments on the benefits of being a member of the Little Rock Nine

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Ernest Green comments on the importance of acknowledging the Little Rock Nine's experiences integrating Central High School

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Ernest Green talks about how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Ernest Green comments on integration and school bussing

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Ernest Green narrates his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$6

DAStory

6$3

DATitle
Ernest Green describes his first day at Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas
Ernest Green describes his expectations of HistoryMaker Reverend Jesse Jackson's presidential campaign
Transcript
Now your first day at school, when you finally, you know, got in. You were taken in through the, the side door.$$Right.$$What--did much happen that first day?$$Well the first day I was, I mean my focus those three weeks--cause I was the senior. I was really getting worried that I was losing time and wouldn't graduate. I mean I was--my main focus was graduating from high school and going to college. I didn't know where. I mean I hadn't picked a college. But I saw this time that I was losing really impacting negatively on my being able to get the credits and the hours and classes and all that. So that first day when we finally got in the school and stayed half a day, I think I was in my physics class and they sent a monitor to, to, to get--you heard some of the noise, depends on where you were in the school. The school is a huge building. And the--they sent a monitor to pull us out of class, this was right before noon. And we went to the principal's office and when--that's when they said they were having trouble keeping control of the mob out front and they wanted us to leave for our own safety. Well you know first I thought it was a ruse. I mean I'd spent three weeks trying to get into this school and now I'm finally in class and now they telling me I'm gone have to leave again. You know, but being a, a good, good boy, I followed orders. So when we got into the cars and sped out, we were all shocked at what was going on. And you know the, the hostility and anger on these people's faces. So when I finally got home again, the power of television, and saw you know, the turning over the police barricades and trying to run through them and overrun the Little Rock policemen, I, I really was beginning to worry that we'd never get back into this school 'cause Little Rock's local policemen were never gonna be powerful enough to protect us against, against these people. And then that night received the telegram from President [Dwight] Eisenhower. This was--let's see--my birthday, I turned--my birthday is on the 22nd of September. And I turned, turned seventeen, did I? No, I turned, yeah I turned sixteen because I was a year, I was a year advanced compared to my peers. So it was--I was fifteen going into the senior year, sixteen in '57 [1957], yeah, 'cause '41 [1941]. Yeah, so it would be--I turned sixteen that September. Anyway, the telegram came the night of my birthday and the 23rd was when we finally went into Central [High School, Little Rock, Arkansas].$Now when you got involved with Reverend [Jesse] Jackson [HM], what were you wanting to see happen? I mean what was the--sort of the game plan? What did--$$Well I wanted--you know I didn't know whether we could win the presidency, but I, I did think they underestimated Jesse's both personal ability and his political relationships. And it turned out--I always tell this story that the--a lot of the news organizations attached journalists to Jesse's campaign 'cause they figured it was gonna blow up and go away. Well it turned out that Jesse was the only one that went the distance. In fact he had a lot to do with a lot of, of journalistic careers. Jack White [HM], Boyd who's managing "New York Times". A lot of them began their career covering Jesse's political campaign. My expectation that he was gonna help democratize the Democratic party. I thought that in many ways, and probably is still the case, the black vote doesn't get its proper due. And that really it was--I was also interested in the mechanics of campaigning; the people who were running it. And so now you look at Donna Brazile [HM], Charles Duncan, people who have become--built reputations on, on how to run a campaign. Jesse was terribly important to create that and to create widening opportunities. So what I saw was again, raising the bar, widening the door and I think Reverend Jackson achieved that.

Doris Zollar

Doris L. Zollar, educator, social service administrator, and entrepreneur, is best known for her volunteerism and civic activity. She was born as Doris L. Love on December 7, 1930, in Little Rock, Arkansas, where her grandfather, Taylor Henson, defeated the attempts of whites to take his valuable farmland. Young Doris enjoyed a relatively comfortable and happy childhood, but was always encouraged by her family to take her education seriously and to give something back to the community.

Doris graduated as Valedictorian of Little Rock's Dunbar High School in 1947. She earned her B.A. with honors from Talladega College in Talladega, Alabama, in 1951. She was a graduate student at University of California at Los Angeles and at the University of Chicago.

She married Dr. Lowell Zollar in 1954 and started a family in Chicago, where she was employed as a public school teacher. She became executive assistant to the director of the Woodlawn Organization in 1974 and director of development for The Woodlawn Organization in 1976. Since 1976, Doris Zollar has been self-employed in contracting and vending ventures. In 1977, she established Triad Consulting.

It is Doris Zollar's volunteer activities that have made history. She is on the Women's Board of Operation PUSH, The Women's Board of the United Negro College Fund, the first black president of the United Nations Children's Fund Chicago, the Chicago Heart Association, the World Service Council of the YWCA, Deborah's Place (home for battered women), Chicago Academy of Performing Arts and was appointed to the board of the Chicago Port Authority by the late Mayor Harold Washington.

Well known in social, charitable and political circles, Zollar has been a guest at the White House and honored numerous times. She lives in Chicago with her husband and two successful grown children.

Accession Number

A2002.097

Sex

Female

Interview Date

5/17/2002

Last Name

Zollar

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Organizations
Schools

Paul Laurence Dunbar High School

First Name

Doris

Birth City, State, Country

Little Rock

HM ID

ZOL01

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Arkansas

Favorite Vacation Destination

Anywhere

Favorite Quote

It ain't over til the fat lady sings.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Illinois

Interview Description
Birth Date

12/7/1930

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Chicago

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Milk Shake (Chocolate), Candy

Short Description

Community leader and entrepreneur Doris Zollar (1930 - ) was on the Women's Board of Operation PUSH and the Women's Board of the United Negro College Fund. She was the first black president of the United Nations Children's Fund Chicago, and worked with the Chicago Heart Association, the World Service Council of the YWCA, Deborah's Place, Chicago Academy of Performing Arts, and was appointed to the board of the Chicago Port Authority.

Employment

Chicago Public Schools

Woodlawn Organization

Triad Consulting

Favorite Color

Green

DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Doris Zollar interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Doris Zollar gives some family background

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Doris Zollar shares a tragic tale of her grandfather's death

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Doris Zollar gives some background information on her grandfather

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Doris Zollar shares stories of her grandmother's background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Doris Zollar talks about her paternal grandmother

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Doris Zollar discusses her childhood travels during the Jim Crow era

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Doris Zollar remembers her childhood in Little Rock, Arkansas

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Doris Zollar reminisces about her school days

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Doris Zollar discusses Little Rock's black middle class population

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Doris Zollar discusses growing up in the Baptist church

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Doris Zollar remembers friends and teachers from her youth

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Doris Zollar details her high school years at Dunbar High School

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Doris Zollar laments the loss of subjects taught in secondary school

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Doris Zollar shares how she fortuitously attended Talladega College

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Doris Zollar gives the history of Talladega College

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Doris Zollar recalls some pivotal figures at Talladega College

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Doris Zollar spends a year as an exchange student at Cedar Crest College in Pennsylvania

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Doris Zollar remembers the impression she made as an exchange student

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Doris Zollar returns to Talladega and shares her impressions of Cedar Crest College

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Doris Zollar describes some AKA hazing incedents

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Doris Zollar recalls some good friends

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Doris Zollar remembers her UCLA classmates

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Doris Zollar details how she left California for Chicago

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Doris Zollar meets her future husband

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Doris Zollar begins teaching in the Chicago Public Schools

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Doris Zollar talks about motherhood

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Doris Zollar details her civic contributions

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Doris Zollar discusses her involvement with the Chicago Academy of Performing Arts

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Doris Zollar continues stories of her civic involvement

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Doris Zollar gives further detail about her life int he 1960s and 1970s

Tape: 3 Story: 12 - Doris Zollar recalls life in the Jackson Highlands neighborhood

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Doris Zollar details her consultancy with The Woodlawn Organization

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Doris Zollar discusses her involvement in various local and entrprenuerial programs

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Doris Zollar remembers the Harold Washington mayoral campaign

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Doris Zollar reminisces about the Harold Washinton administration

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Doris Zollar details her O'Hare Airport concession

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Doris Zollar gives further detail on the politics behind city contracts

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Doris Zollar gives a brief overview of some personal accomplishments

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Doris Zollar shares her views on the problems in the black community

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Doris Zollar continues with her commentary on problems in the black community

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Doris Zollar decries the lack of historical teaching among black people

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - Doris Zollar gives a prescription for what ails the black community

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Doris Zollar remembers meeting Nelson Mandela and Bishop Desmond Tutu

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Doris Zollar shares some asides from Mandela and Tutu

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Doris Zollar recalls meeting Bill Clinton and others

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Doris Zollar continues sharing stories of meeting celebrities

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Doris Zollar recalls the most impressive celebrity she's ever met

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Doris Zollar fondly recalls the John F. Kennedy family

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Doris Zollar contemplates her legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Doris Zollar is proud of her children

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Doris Zollar wants to be remembered as someone who helped others

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Doris Zollar's favorites

Tape: 5 Story: 11 - Doris Zollar values the HistoryMakers project

Tape: 5 Story: 12 - Photo - Doris Zollar in a construction hat

Tape: 5 Story: 13 - Photo- Doris Zollar with Senator Chuck Percy

Tape: 5 Story: 14 - Photo- Doris and Lowell Zollar's 40th Anniversary party

Tape: 5 Story: 15 - Photo - Doris Zollar and friends

Tape: 5 Story: 16 - Photo-Doris Zollar with friends at her 40th wedding anniversary

Tape: 5 Story: 17 - Photo-Doris Zollar's college friends

Tape: 5 Story: 18 - Photo - Partygoers at the 40th wedding anniversary party

Tape: 5 Story: 19 - Photo- More celebrants from the 40th Anniversary party

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Photo - Doris Zollar's 40th Anniversary party celebrants

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Photo - the Zollars and John and Eunice Johnson

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Photo - Doris Zollar's future in-laws and grandmother in 1954

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Photo - Doris Zollar with Ramsey Lewis and Irv Kupcinet

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Photo - Doris Zollar with Ramsey and Geri Lewis

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Photo - Doris Zollar with college friends

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Photo - Doris Zollar's daughter

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Photo - Doris Zollar's daughter after a swearing-in ceremony in 1992

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Photo- Doris Zollar with Jesse Jackson and John Bustamante

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - Photo - Doris Zollar in a newspaper photo

Tape: 6 Story: 11 - Photo- The parents of Doris and Lowell Zollar

Tape: 6 Story: 12 - Photo - Nikki Zollar and husband Bill Von Hoene

Tape: 6 Story: 13 - Photos- Doris Zollar's mother and son

Tape: 6 Story: 14 - Photo - Doris Zollar and Mary Rockerfeller

Tape: 6 Story: 15 - Photo- Doris Zollar models a fashionable hat

Tape: 6 Story: 16 - Photo-Doris Zollar's college portrait

Tape: 6 Story: 17 - Photo- Portrait of Harold Washington

Tape: 6 Story: 18 - Photo - Doris Zollar meets Nelson Mandela

Tape: 6 Story: 19 - Photo- Doris Zollar and Hillary Clinton

Tape: 6 Story: 20 - Photo- Doris Zollar and Bill Clinton

Tape: 6 Story: 21 - Photo - Chicago Mayor Jane Byrne and Doris Zollar

Tape: 6 Story: 22 - Photo - Zollar wedding photos

Tape: 6 Story: 23 - Photo - Doris Zollar fashion montage

Tape: 6 Story: 24 - Photo- Doris Zollar on the front page of N'Digo Magazine

Carlotta Walls LaNier

The oldest of three daughters, Carlotta LaNier was born on December 18, 1942 in Little Rock, Arkansas to Juanita and Cartelyou Walls. LaNier (then Walls) made history as the youngest member of the Little Rock Nine, those nine courageous African American students who integrated Little Rock Central High School in 1957. The world watched as these children and their families braved constant intimidation and threats. This defiant act followed the U.S. Supreme Court ruling in Brown vs. Board of Education.

Inspired by Rosa Parks and the desire to get the best education available, LaNier enrolled in Central High School. White students called her names and spat on her and armed guards escorted her to classes, but LaNier concentrated on her studies and protected herself throughout the school year. Governor Orval Faubus stopped the public schools from opening in September of 1958, and after a year of closure and controversy, the schools re-opened in 1959. LaNier returned to Central High, graduating in 1960.

LaNier attended Michigan State University for two years before moving with her family to Denver, Colorado. In 1968, she earned a B.S. from Colorado State College (now the University of Northern Colorado) and began working at the YWCA as a program administrator for teens. In 1977, she founded LaNier and Company, a real estate brokerage company. Her experience in real estate extends from constructing and remodeling properties to marketing and selling them. Cherry Creek Realtors hired her in 1987.

LaNier was awarded the prestigious Spingarn Medal by the NAACP in 1958. She has been a member of the Colorado Aids Project, Jack and Jill of America, the Urban League and the NAACP and the president of the Little Rock Nine Foundation, a scholarship organization dedicated to ensuring equal access to education for African Americans. She has also served as a trustee for the Iliff School of Theology. In 1999, President Clinton bestowed the nation's highest civilian award, the Congressional Gold Medal, to the members of the Little Rock Nine. In 2009, LaNier completed her book, A Mighty Long Way, a biography with forward by Bill Clinton. LaNier and her husband, Ira (Ike) LaNier, have two children, Whitney and Brooke.

LaNier was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on June 21, 2002.

Accession Number

A2002.117

Sex

Female

Interview Date

6/21/2002 |and| 7/8/2002

6/21/2002

7/8/2002

Last Name

LaNier

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Walls

Occupation
Organizations
Schools

Central High School

Michigan State University

First Name

Carlotta

Birth City, State, Country

Little Rock

HM ID

LAN01

Favorite Season

All Seasons

State

Arkansas

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Colorado

Interview Description
Birth Date

12/18/1942

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Denver

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Salad

Short Description

Civil rights leader Carlotta Walls LaNier (1942 - ) was part of the historic Little Rock Nine.

Employment

YWCA

Lanier and Company

Cherry Creek Realtors

Favorite Color

Jewel Tones, Red

Timing Pairs
0,0:1092,5:12852,177:13356,184:13692,189:25790,316:36950,396:42555,471:43220,479:55820,642:60600,676:64536,732:65110,741:75864,871:76168,876:76852,888:110374,1220:114024,1296:122419,1475:123660,1491:170005,1969:180400,2091$0,0:2288,38:10208,197:21264,287:30210,453:30636,464:31417,476:42355,615:44725,651:45278,659:45594,664:49307,740:63228,888:96880,1274:134660,1695
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Carlotta Walls LaNier narrates her photographs

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Carlotta Walls LaNier narrates her photographs

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Slating of Carlotta Walls LaNier's interview

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Carlotta Walls LaNier lists her favorites

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Carlotta Walls LaNier talks about her family

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Carlotta Walls LaNier describes her parents' backgrounds

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Carlotta Walls LaNier describes the sights, sounds, and smells of her childhood in Little Rock, Arkansas

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Carlotta Walls LaNier describes her household in Little Rock, Arkansas

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Carlotta Walls LaNier describes her personality

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Carlotta Walls LaNier comments on name-calling based on skin tone

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Carlotta Walls LaNier talks about skin tone terminology

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Carlotta Walls LaNier talks about light-skinned family members passing

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Carlotta Walls LaNier talks about her grandfather's career in construction

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Carlotta Walls LaNier recalls spending time with her grandfathers

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Carlotta Walls LaNier describes her school activities

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Carlotta Walls LaNier remembers encountering Thelonious Monk in New York City

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Carlotta Walls LaNier describes meeting Malcolm X

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Carlotta Walls LaNier describes what prepared her for the Little Rock Nine

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Carlotta Walls LaNier talks about school integration in the 1950s

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Carlotta Walls LaNier recounts how she became a member of the Little Rock Nine

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Carlotta Walls LaNier shares her perspective on enrolling at Little Rock Central High School

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Carlotta Walls LaNier talks about her family's reaction to her enrollment at Little Rock Central High School

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Carlotta Walls LaNier describes her first day at Little Rock Central High School

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Carlotta Walls LaNier recalls encountering the Arkansas National Guard at Little Rock Central High School

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Carlotta Walls LaNier recalls Daisy Bates' involvement with the Little Rock Nine

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Carlotta Walls LaNier describes the personalities of each person in the Little Rock Nine

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Carlotta Walls LaNier comments on the individuality within the Little Rock Nine

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Carlotta Walls LaNier talks about the administration at Little Rock Central High School

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Carlotta Walls LaNier describes the federal troops at Little Rock Central High School

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Carlotta Walls LaNier talks about her social life outside of the Little Rock Central High School

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Carlotta Walls LaNier talks about academics at the Little Rock Central High School

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Carlotta Walls LaNier describes the incident that led to Minnijean Brown's expulsion

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Carlotta Walls LaNier describes how she succeeded at Little Rock Central High School

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Carlotta Walls LaNier recalls when the Governor Orval Faubus closed all the schools in Little Rock

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Carlotta Walls LaNier shares her impressions of the white students at Little Rock Central High School, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Carlotta Walls LaNier shares her impressions of the white students at Little Rock Central High School, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Carlotta Walls LaNier talks about how being part of the Little Rock Nine affects her life now

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Carlotta Walls LaNier recalls harassment at Little Rock Central High School

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Carlotta Walls LaNier talks about visiting Little Rock, Arkansas later in life

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Carlotta Walls LaNier talks about how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Carlotta Walls LaNier describes her pride in the Little Rock Nine

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Carlotta Walls LaNier describes the individual accomplishments of the Little Rock Nine

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Carlotta Walls LaNier reflects upon the positive outcomes of the Little Rock Nine

DASession

2$2

DATape

5$5

DAStory

4$8

DATitle
Carlotta Walls LaNier talks about her social life outside of the Little Rock Central High School
Carlotta Walls LaNier recalls when the Governor Orval Faubus closed all the schools in Little Rock
Transcript
Now, when you got home, were you relatively free to roam your neighborhood like you usually did or were you a target?$$I did not roam the neighborhood. I did not do any of the things that most kids do when they come home from--I, other than fix me something to eat and turn on "American Bandstand" or the radio and start preparing my homework and for the next day. You see, I always felt that, given the same opportunity, same timeframe, same information, that I could compete with anyone, okay. Now, three weeks have gone by, and I was the antsy one in the group. It was bugging the heck out of me that a week had gone by now, now we're into the second week and they are getting ahead of us, meaning the white kids in school. They are learning every day. And I'm thinking to myself, "Here we go again. You got to be that super-Negro again." Okay. So once I got into school, not only did I have to catch up, and then maintain, okay. So I was an "A" and "B" student, and I intended to keep "As" and "Bs." And continue to be on the Honor Roll. And so I was--it was--it didn't--it was now a job, okay. I'm three weeks behind, and I've got to, you know, do all these things to stay with the group in my various classes. So I was coming home and doing homework. I was preparing for the next day. Did I get on the telephone and talk to my friends at Horace Mann [High School]? No. Did I get on the telephone or have a conversation with any white kid in any of my classes about a particular problem or homework assignment or what have you? No. I did not have that. I had my family, and thank God for that; but--my mother and my father and my two sisters. So that is what I did, you know. American Bandstand was probably my biggest outlet, okay, and Dick Clark. And so, anyway, that was how it was for me almost every day, okay. Now, we--for me, I did go to Horace Mann's homecoming game or a football game during the year. But as far as socializing, there was very little of that, for all of us. We socialized among each other, you know. That was about the extent of it.$So are you saying the school actually closed?$$Oh, yes.$$All right.$$The governor, again, closed all the schools in Little Rock, okay.$$You say going into your junior year?$$That was going into my junior year. So litigation took place again on the federal level. And, you know, people were thinking the schools would eventually open up in another month or so. Well, that didn't take place. What did take place is private schools popping up all over flying the Confederate Flag. Well, you knew you didn't belong there. And black kids either went to--over to North Little Rock's school system or to the country schools or they left the city. And parents were able to either send them somewhere else. And for me, I took correspondence courses through the University of Arkansas. I came to Chicago [Illinois] one--the summer of '58 (1958) and went to Hirsch High School and took two classes there. And then I went back into Central [High School] when the schools finally opened up again in the year of '59 (1959)-'60 (1960). I was a senior then. And I still needed one more credit, and I got that in St. Louis [Missouri] at Beaumont High School after I had participated in graduation in May of 1960. So that's how I completed my eleventh grade year, okay. Void of classroom activity, void of peers or conversation with others within a classroom. But it was important to me to receive that--that diploma which you took a picture of. So I have that to show. So it was three of us that out of the nine that really participated in the graduation exercises, and that was Ernest Green, the first; and Jefferson Thomas and I, who were sophomores when we started out. We finished up there.

Haki Madhubuti

Poet, essayist, and entrepreneur Haki Madhubuti embodies the true spirit of a renaissance man as he moves seamlessly through the worlds of literature, business and education. Born in Detroit, Michigan and moving to Chicago after his mother’s death, Madhubuti would sow the seeds that later led to his success. After graduation from high school, Madhubuti (known then as Don Lee) was drafted into military service, where he used books as his escape. After his tour of duty, he returned to Chicago and immersed himself in the black arts world.

Madhubuti became apprentice and curator at the DuSable Museum of African History in 1963 and worked closely with Margaret Burroughs, a scholar of pan-African history. During the four years he spent at the museum with Burroughs, Madhubuti met some of the most prominent forces in the African American arts community, including Gwendolyn Brooks, who encouraged him to publish a collection of his poetry. The result, Think Black, appeared in 1966 and was entirely self-published and distributed. After selling several hundred copies of Think Black within a week, Madhubuti realized that the dream of independent publishing -- free from established corporate interests -- could be attained. The following year, Madhubuti and two partners launched the Third World Press in the basement of his Chicago apartment with $400 and a mimeograph machine. In this humble setting, an institution was born.

Among the distinguished authors who Third World Press has published are celebrated playwright and essayist Amiri Baraka, scholar Chancellor Williams and renowned poet Gwendolyn Brooks, who has published the second volume of her autobiography and several books of poetry with the independent press. Among Madhubuti’s own writings to emerge from Third World are Black Men: Obsolete, Single, Dangerous?: The African American Family In Transition (1990); Claiming Earth (1994); GroundWorks (1996); and HeartLove: Wedding and Love Poems (1998). One of the many extraordinary aspects of Madhubuti’s career is that he has published more than twenty-two books of essays and poetry and has become one of the most prominent African American authors of his time without having ever relied on a larger, more-established publishing company.

Madhubuti serves as the director of the Gwendolyn Brooks Center at Chicago State University, which hosts the annual National Black Writers Conference. He and his wife, Safisha, are the founders of the Institute of Positive Education/New Concept School, a Chicago-based grade school that promotes an Afrocentric curriculum. Madhubuti is the recipient of fellowships from both the National Endowment for the Arts and the National Endowment for the Humanities. In 1984 he was presented with the Distinguished Writers Award from the Middle Atlantic Writers Association. He is also the 1993 recipient of the Paul Robeson Award from the African-American Arts Alliance.

Accession Number

A1999.006

Sex

Male

Archival Photo 1
Interview Date

12/20/1999 |and| 4/14/2002

12/20/1999

4/14/2002

Last Name

Madhubuti

Maker Category
Occupation
Organizations
Search Occupation Category
Speakers Bureau

Yes

Archival Photo 2
Speakers Bureau Availability

Depends on Schedule

First Name

Haki

Birth City, State, Country

Little Rock

HM ID

MAD01

Speakers Bureau Honorarium

Yes - $5,000 - $10,000

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Arkansas

Favorite Vacation Destination

Home

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Illinois

Interview Description
Birth Date

2/23/1942

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Chicago

Country

USA

Short Description

Author Haki Madhubuti (1942 - ) launched the Third World Press, in Chicago along with two partners, in 1967. Madhubuti and his wife, Safisha, are the founders of the Institute of Positive Education/New Concept School, a Chicago-based grade school that promotes an Afrocentric curriculum. Madhubuti has written more twenty-two books of essays and poetry in his lifetime.

Employment

DuSable Museum of African American History

Third World Press

Chicago State University

Cornell University

Howard University

Favorite Color

Earth Tones

Timing Pairs
0,0:3760,14:5288,38:7464,106:8040,137:8616,149:9000,157:16840,245:17425,255:17945,265:18270,271:18595,277:20610,307:22105,344:22560,352:23210,365:23990,381:26715,397:28754,411:30224,417:31106,428:35078,464:35483,470:37184,524:40590,550:40970,558:41730,580:48466,677:49258,693:51106,741:54274,837:60662,932:66289,1028:68557,1098:71860,1155:73225,1176:83210,1349:84610,1370:85910,1387:91360,1436:92980,1476:95230,1511:98650,1565:99820,1588:100270,1594:100720,1605:101800,1621:105458,1644:107488,1684:108126,1697:110784,1725:113040,1768:121394,1912:121714,1918:132479,2117:134019,2161:138494,2192:139586,2206:141680,2217:142889,2234:143960,2239:144836,2259:148778,2343:151701,2381:152016,2387:154795,2429:155320,2438:155620,2443:155995,2449:160738,2491:161530,2512:161890,2518:162322,2526:162610,2531:163330,2541:164338,2567:164770,2574:167794,2630:168226,2638:176210,2697:178480,2715:179720,2723:179980,2728:180435,2736:181930,2773:185816,2806:186474,2814:186850,2825:190498,2872:191227,2884:193171,2912:193495,2917:194062,2925:194386,2930:199003,2979$0,0:12270,187:12810,194:15832,222:16756,239:21640,322:23296,361:24055,383:27165,413:28290,440:28890,450:29565,456:29865,461:32265,524:32790,533:35940,562:36240,567:41912,654:42748,675:43432,680:45560,736:46016,743:51184,838:54072,921:54376,926:59558,967:59938,973:61914,1012:62294,1018:62598,1023:63054,1030:63358,1035:63662,1040:64726,1068:65030,1073:65638,1085:66474,1111:67918,1133:68222,1139:68526,1144:69438,1167:83164,1384:83803,1395:84087,1400:84442,1406:85010,1415:90118,1515:90438,1521:94598,1633:96134,1680:96454,1686:97542,1730:98886,1752:104751,1845:105086,1851:105488,1858:105756,1863:106024,1868:106560,1878:107029,1887:108771,1923:109106,1929:115337,2045:115873,2054:116811,2100:117079,2105:117682,2120:117950,2128:118486,2144:123312,2199:125116,2256:125690,2261:129872,2348:130446,2356:131102,2369:131512,2375:132332,2389:138400,2444:140346,2459:140868,2471:141622,2493:142086,2503:142666,2521:143014,2528:160701,2938:161577,2961:162015,2969:162453,2976:162745,2981:167068,3039:167644,3055:168156,3064:169564,3159:180130,3318:180760,3327:190558,3568:199004,3717:199578,3725:211065,3869:220341,3983:222343,4025:225500,4089:226501,4132:239174,4339:254684,4590:258004,4634:259975,4677:261070,4697:265018,4739:265462,4752:271752,4914:272122,4920:280102,4992:280386,4997:282445,5047:284078,5092:285214,5124:287841,5191:288125,5196:288693,5205:297400,5303:298765,5361:300000,5397:300260,5402:302590,5412:307683,5464:308919,5527:311172,5568:321562,5750:322990,5777:326404,5793:326776,5800:327458,5818:327706,5823:330000,5884:330248,5889:331922,5929:332604,5942:344376,6045:345156,6054:345468,6059:346014,6068:348038,6096
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Haki Madhubuti interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Haki Madhubuti's favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Haki Madhubuti talks about his mother and father

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Haki Madhubuti recalls his mother's jobs and eventual descent into prostitution

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Haki Madhubuti recalls being assaulted while trying to defend his sister

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Haki Madhubuti explains how Richard Wright's 'Black Boy' began his fascination with African American literature

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Haki Madhubuti describes losing his mother and his faith

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Haki Madhubuti describes his job as a traveling magazine salesman

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Haki Madhubuti describes his run-in with a drill sergeant on his first day in the Army

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Haki Madhubuti describes how his personal philosophy developed as a young man in the military

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Haki Madhubuti explains his motivation to become an activist in the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Haki Madhubuti describes how Malcolm X personally impacted him

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Haki Madhubuti describes his relationship with Dr. Margaret Burroughs and Charlie Burroughs

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Haki Madhubuti talks about his mentors during his early years of publishing poetry

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Haki Madhubuti describes the beginning of his friendship with Gwendolyn Brooks

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Haki Madhubuti explains the overall influence and effect of his mentors

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Haki Madhubuti explains how his early interest in reading led him to become a writer

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Haki Madhubuti explains how literature and the military helped him cope with his difficult childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Haki Madhubuti explains his complex relationship with his largely absent father

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Haki Madhubuti explains what inspired him to succeed and to raise a successful family

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Haki Madhubuti describes his participation in the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Haki Madhubuti explains how the Organization of Black American Culture helped to nurture African American writers

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Haki Madhubuti describes his experience as a writer in residence at Cornell University

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Haki Madhubuti explains how an article in 'Ebony' magazine helped to popularize his poetry

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Haki Madhubuti explains how his time at Howard University gave his work a global perspective

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Haki Madhubuti stresses the importance of ownership within the Black Arts Movement

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Haki Madhubuti explains how he was involved in Minister Louis Farrakhan's revival of the Nation of Islam

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Haki Madhubuti briefly discusses the importance of the Institute of Positive Education

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Haki Madhubuti describes the struggle to acquire funding for the Institute of Positive Education

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Haki Madhubuti describes his close relationship with his mentor, Gwendolyn Brooks

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Haki Madhubuti talks about meeting his wife and her involvement in institution building

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Haki Madhubuti describes earning a MFA degree at the University of Iowa

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Haki Madhubuti explains how his struggle has aided his career

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Haki Madhubuti credits his and his wife's successes to hard work and determination

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Haki Madhubuti talks about conflicts with magazine publisher John H. Johnson

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Haki Madhubuti discusses what he gained from Hoyt W. Fuller and other mentors

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Haki Madhubuti briefly shares his thoughts on the Nation of Islam

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Haki Madhubuti compares 'Ebony' magazine with his own publishing company

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Haki Madhubuti talks about why he chose poetry and publishing as careers

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Haki Madhubuti describes how his values and political views inform his publishing work

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Haki Madhubuti explains how he became involved in multicultural work

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Haki Madhubuti discusses the future of Third World Press

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Haki Madhubuti believes that he will continue with his multicultural men's work in the future

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Haki Madhubuti briefly discusses the advantages to working with whites again

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Haki Madhubuti discusses the impact of his schools

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Haki Madhubuti talks about the negative influences of materialism on the black middle class

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Haki Madhubuti talks about the effects of the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Haki Madhubuti believes most African Americans want to continue improving their lives

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Haki Madhubuti discusses the positive effects of the Million Man March

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Haki Madhubuti briefly voices his opinions on some of Spike Lee's films

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Haki Madhubuti pays tribute to Betty Shabazz and other inspirational African American leaders

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Haki Madhubuti hopes to use his resources to help empower African Americans and all people

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Haki Madhubuti discusses the contemporary situation of African American writers

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Haki Madhubuti evaluates his own works

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Haki Madhubuti explains how violence and corruption have changed his perspective and his writing style

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Haki Madhubuti briefly discusses the potential of rap music as an expressive political art form

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Haki Madhubuti discusses his legacy

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Haki Madhubuti describes the effects of finding his murdered mother's dead body

DASession

1$1

DATape

1$3

DAStory

6$8

DATitle
Haki Madhubuti explains how Richard Wright's 'Black Boy' began his fascination with African American literature
Haki Madhubuti describes the struggle to acquire funding for the Institute of Positive Education
Transcript
So during the same period [1950s], my mother [Maxine Graves Lee] had asked me to go to the Detroit Public Library [Detroit, Michigan] to check out a book by Richard Wright [author], and the title of the book was 'Black Boy,' and I refused to go primarily because I hated being black, you see. This was the problem of being raised in apartheid America that all the images, all the symbols, all my teachers, all those symbols of important were basically white, and every place I faced them, they were telling us that we were less than nothing, and so when my mother asked me to go check out Richard Wright's book, I refused, but eventually I did go. Didn't go to the librarian because at that time librarians were white. The Detroit Public Library [Detroit, Michigan] was less than about, maybe twenty-five blocks from our house, and I walked over there and found the book on the shelf, put it to my chest, walked to an un-peopled section of the library, and sat down and began to read. And for the first time in my life as I read 'Black Boy' by Richard Wright, I was reading words that were not insulting to my own personhood, words that in many cases were very liberating because I could identify with Richard Wright who was actually the protagonist of 'Black Boy'--it's semi-autobiographical. And, he was, you know, in the South, and I'm up in Detroit, but I could feel what he was feeling, you see, and checked the book out, went home, in the room that I shared with my sister read the book all night and finished it the next day. Now I was--what--fourteen, fifteen years old, the first book I had read by a black person, and it did not change me, but it forced me to begin to question the world differently, and as a result of 'Black Boy' by Richard Wright, I began to check out other books that he had published at that time, and he turned me on. After reading 'White Man, Listen!,' he turned me on to other books so I began to read, you know, Chester Himes [author] and Langston Hughes [poet, author], found Margaret Walker Alexander [author, poet], and eventually found Gwendolyn Brooks [poet] and Claude McKay [poet] and Jean Toomer [poet], and so this literature--for me it was fundamentally liberating because I had no idea that black folk had created a body of literature because at that time--this was in the '40s [1940s] and early '50s [1950s]--there weren't any black studies or nothing like that, and so as I began to read these books, I began to collect them, and being very poor--I mean, I think that in many cases our family defined poverty--a single mother, you know, working the nightlife, not having too much of anything, and so I would buy my clothes from the Salvation Army, second-hand stores, from Chinese laundry. I would buy my clothes, my shirts, my pants. It was a very painful time and a very difficult time and--but it was a defining time for me because the literature said that there's much more out there. There's a larger world out there.$So my involvement, my wife's involvement, Safisha Madhubuti, whose--actually she works out at Northwestern [University, Evanston, Illinois], Dr. Carol Lee. See, our view of struggle has always been if what we did was not supported by the people we are trying to impact, then we don't need to do it. So it was never about writing grants and trying to go to the people who don't even like you, you see, to pay for what you're trying to do. There was never even thought of so we said "okay, we're going to have to work these sixteen, seventeen hours a day to get this done." So all the money--I'm talking about all the money--that I earned from my poetry books, that I earned from speaking, that I earned from, you know, doing--and I've always taught at the college and university level--went into building these institutions, you see. So there's never--I'll never have to apologize--you see what I'm saying--that what we have here black folks built, all right, and I think that's one of the major reasons that I think that people have such respect for us because they know that we did this on our own, you see, through sheer gut and hard, hard work. When we got the place on Cottage Grove [Avenue, Chicago, Illinois], it was a shell. Now I'm not a carpenter, but I learned how to do carpentry work. We put a crew together and went in there and transformed that place, you see. And almost the same thing happened here [7822 S. Dobson Avenue, Chicago, Illinois]. We used to--we started--actually in terms of open space over there on 78th and Ellis [Chicago]. We had two storefronts right on the corner of 78th and Ellis. They're still there. We're not there now, but they're still there, and we rented those two spaces. One space was Third World Press [publishing company] and the other space was the Institute of Positive Education. Now we've always been very active in terms of health and stuff like so we used to three times a week--we saw ourselves as the cadre, all right, the young revolutionaries. We would run down here to Grand Crossing Park [Chicago, Illinois], and we'd do four or five miles at least four or five times, the women and the men, okay. And we'd run past this school over here, and we'd say "what could we do if we ever got that space? What could we do," all right. Well--as we know it's been on Cottage Grove for fifteen years. This space vacated. The Catholics got out, okay, so I found it that it was for sale so I went down to the archdiocese. This is about ten years ago, ten or eleven years ago [1988-1989], and I talked to the man in the real estate office and say "well, what do I need to do to get on the bid list so we can bid for this property," and he said "the bid is closed," you see. You know, by that time I was Haki Madhubuti, and he said "the name is closed." I said "well, when was it open," and he said "well, it's closed now," all right. Now having been in the struggle a long time, I know you don't talk to people like that so I just said "okay" and walked out, and I began to call some of my Catholic friends and say "who is the man? Who do I need to talk to," you see. And they said "well, you need to talk to Bishop [Wilton] Gregory." And I had faintly known about Bishop Gregory, but see, Bishop Gregory is black, okay. He was at this thing in South Holland, Chicago. So I started calling Bishop Gregory. Boom--"can I get an appointment? Can I get an appointment?" He never returned my calls, so I said "let me do this. Let me call"--I called him. I left Don L. Lee. I left that name. I got a call the next day, and his secretary said "well, are you the poet?" I said "yes." They said "Bishop Gregory can see you on such and such a day for fifteen minutes," all right. So I told my wife, "I'm gonna sell this deal," okay, so I got, you know, all the stuff together, books and everything, and went to see Bishop Gregory, and Bishop Gregory received me in a very formal way. Fifteen minutes turned into two hours. When I left, I had a letter in my hand from Bishop Gregory to [Joseph] Cardinal Bernardin stating that we not only should be on the list, we should be at the top of the list, okay. Got back to Cottage Grove. The white man from the real estate office called and said "I don't know what happened, but you're on the list now, but in order for you to stay on the list, you got to bring in $50,000 in a week." $50,000 in a week. So I'm not going to tell this guy I got $50,000, which I don't have $50,000, all right, so I called the brothers and sisters together. I say "look, they're trying to really jack us off," you know. I know that nobody else is putting $50,000 down, you see, but this guy is getting back at me, all right. So I say "let's do this," so my wife and I, we took a second mortgage on our house. We came up with over half the money. Other brothers and sisters came with the other part of the money so in three days I took him $50,000, all right, and with our bid, all right, and we knew that there weren't any other serious bids on this place. This is a half a block. That's at a school over there. That's that church, and that's this place right here, you see, and for us it's very valuable property. For them we know it's not that valuable, but they're gonna, you know, and at that time this place was occupied by some some brothers and sisters just doing some minor work, nothing very serious. Anyway our bid was accepted, you see. Now the next move was how do you find a half a million dollars? How do you find that in order to buy the place, you know, and that's just another whole struggle. I found it. We found the money. We got the money from South Shore Bank, all right, and Milton Davis [bank founder], you see, working with Milton, and I got the money, but it's always been a struggle. This place was a mess. One of the priests was raising pigeons in this place over here. We had to come in and fumigate the place and just completely just redo everything so struggle has taught me. This struggle has taught me that you take what you have and you make it better.