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Robert Parris Moses

Civil rights leader and educator Robert Parris Moses was born on January 23, 1935 in New York City to Louise Parris and Gregory Moses. He graduated from Stuyvesant High School in 1952, and enrolled at Hamilton College in Clinton, New York, where he received a Rhodes scholarship. After receiving his B.A. degree in philosophy in 1956, Moses later earned his M.A. degree in philosophy from Harvard University.

Moses began teaching mathematics at the Horace Mann School in the Bronx, New York in 1958. In 1960, he became active in the Civil Rights Movement, joining the Southern Christian Leadership Council (SCLC) branch in Harlem. The following summer, Moses traveled to Atlanta where he worked for the SCLC and registered members for the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee’s (SNCC) fall conference. In 1961, Moses resigned from his teaching position at the Horace Mann School and returned to the South, where he worked to register black voters in McComb, Mississippi. Moses then became the co-director of the Council of Federated Organizations (COFO), and helped to launch the freedom vote, a mock gubernatorial election to register black voters in Mississippi.

In 1964, Moses helped to organize the Freedom Summer campaign, recruiting hundreds of student volunteers to conduct a black voter registration drive in Mississippi. That summer, Moses and others organized the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP) to challenge the all-white representation of the state at the 1964 Democratic National Convention in Atlantic City, New Jersey. Shortly after, Moses was actively recruited by the Vietnam draft board, but fled to Canada to avoid the draft. He spent two years in Canada working odd jobs until moving to Tanzania and working for the Ministry of Education. There, he served as chairperson of the mathematics department at the Same Secondary School. Moses returned to the United States in 1976, under President Jimmy Carter’s amnesty program for draft resisters. Moses settled in Cambridge, Massachusetts, where he resumed his doctoral studies at Harvard University and taught mathematics at a local high school.

In 1982, Moses received a MacArthur Fellowship, and launched the Algebra Project to improve mathematics competency for low-income students and children of color. By 1985, the Algebra Project was officially recognized by the Cambridge School Committee, and was incorporated in 1990. Two years later, Moses launched the Delta Algebra Project in Mississippi. In 1996, The Young People’s Project was founded in Jackson, Mississippi to train, employ and support high school students to become mathematics tutors. Moses also taught algebra and geometry at Lanier High School in Jackson, Mississippi, and published his 2001 book entitled, Radical Equations. In 2006, Moses was named a Frank H.T. Rhodes Class of ’56 Professor at Cornell University. That same year, he was awarded an honorary doctor of science degree from Harvard University.

Moses and his wife, Janet Jemmott, have four children: Maisha, Omowale, Tabasuri and Malaika.

Robert Parris Moses was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on November 16, 2018.

Accession Number

A2018.215

Sex

Male

Interview Date

11/16/2018 |and| 11/18/2018

Last Name

Moses

Maker Category
Middle Name

P.

Organizations
First Name

Robert

HM ID

MOS08

Favorite Season

In Boston, Fall.

Favorite Vacation Destination

Friend's island in middle of a lake in Maine.

Favorite Quote

Take Care.

Bio Photo
Birth Date

12/23/1935

Favorite Food

Cereal, his home baked biscuits. Beans, rice. Ugali (Tanzanian dish)

Short Description

Civil rights leader and educator Robert Parris Moses (1935 - ) launched the Algebra Project in 1982, to improve mathematics competency for low-income students and children of color.

Favorite Color

Blue

John E. Jacob

Civil rights leader and corporate executive John Edward Jacob was born on December 16, 1934 in Trout, Louisiana to Emory and Claudia Jacob. Jacob was raised in Houston, Texas and graduated from Jack Yates Senior High School in 1953. He went on to attend Howard University, where he received his B.A. degree in economics in 1957 and his M.S.W. degree in 1963.

Jacob first worked as a social worker for the City of Baltimore’s Department of Public Welfare in the early 1960s. In 1965, he joined the Washington, D.C. Urban League, where he served as director of education, and then as acting president. Jacob became president and chief executive officer of the San Diego, California Urban League in 1970, and was appointed president and CEO of the Washington, D.C. Urban League in 1975. In 1979, he was hired as executive vice president and chief operating officer of the National Urban League, Inc. Then, in 1982, Jacob was named president and chief executive officer of the National Urban League, replacing Vernon Jordan. As president and CEO of the National Urban League, Jacob fought cutbacks in federal social programs, solidified the League’s internal structure and expanded its outreach. He established the League’s Permanent Development Fund, the Whitney M. Young, Jr. Training Center, the Whitney M. Young, Jr. Race Relations Program, the Whitney M. Young, Jr. Commemoration Ceremony, and the NULITES youth-development program. During his time as president and CEO, Jacob also authored a syndicated column on national and international issues that appeared weekly in 600 newspapers.

In 1994, Jacob stepped down as head of the National Urban League and joined Anheuser-Busch Companies, Inc. as executive vice president and chief communications officer. Later, he was named executive vice president – global communications. There, he chaired Anheuser-Busch’s Charitable Contributions Committee and served as a member of the company’s Strategy Committee and Business Practice Committee. He retired in 2008.

Jacob has served on the boards of Anheuser-Busch Companies, Inc.; Coca-Cola Enterprises, Inc.; Morgan Stanley; LTV Corporation; NYNEX New York; Continental Corporation; National Westminster Bancorp; the Legal Aid Society; the Drucker Foundation; the National Conference of Christians and Jews; the Economic Policy Institute; the National Parks Foundation; the Local Initiative Support Corporation; and the PGA of America. In addition, he served as chairman of Howard University’s board of trustees.

Jacob’s honors include the National NAACP’s Lifetime Achievement Award, Howard University’s Distinguished Alumni Award, the National Network for Social Work Chauncey A. Alexander Lifetime Achievement Award, The National Action Network “Keeper of the Dream” Award, United Way of America’s National Professional Leadership Award, the Laurel Wreath Award from the Kappa Alpha Psi Fraternity, the International Civil Rights Walk of Fame, and numerous honorary degrees. In honor of Jacob’s corporate leadership and contribution, the Anheuser-Busch Foundation contributed a gift of $1 million to endow the Anheuser-Busch/John E. Jacob Chair in the Howard University School of Business, the first endowed chair in the university’s history. In addition, Anheuser-Busch established the John E. Jacob Community Service Award in recognition of his lifelong commitment to serving communities across the United States. In 2012, Jacob and his wife funded the John E. and Barbara S. Jacob Distinguished Professorship in the Howard University School of Social Work, the first funded distinguished professorship in the school’s history.

John E. Jacob was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on September 8, 2014.

Accession Number

A2014.202

Sex

Male

Interview Date

9/8/2014

Last Name

Jacob

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Edward

Schools

Douglass Elementary School

Dodson Elementary

Jack Yates High School

First Name

John

Birth City, State, Country

Trout

HM ID

JAC35

State

Louisiana

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Florida

Birth Date

12/16/1934

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Miami

Country

United States

Short Description

Civil rights leader and corporate executive John E. Jacob (1934 - ) was president and CEO of the National Urban League from 1982 to 1994.

Employment

Anheuser-Busch Cos, Inc.

National Urban League, Inc.

Washington, DC Urban League

San Diego, CA Urban League

Baltimore City Department of Public Welfare

Reverend Dr. C.T. Vivian

Reverend C. T. Vivian was born Cordy Tindell Vivian on July 30, 1924 in Howard County, Missouri. As a small boy he migrated with his mother to Macomb, Illinois, where he attended Lincoln Grade School and Edison Junior High School. Vivian graduated from Macomb High School in 1942 and went on to attend Western Illinois University in Macomb, where he worked as the sports editor for the school newspaper.

His first professional job was recreation director for the Carver Community Center in Peoria, Illinois. There, Vivian participated in his first sit-in demonstrations, which successfully integrated Barton's Cafeteria in 1947. Studying for the ministry at American Baptist College in Nashville, Tennessee in 1959, Vivian met Rev. James Lawson, who was teaching Mahatma Ghandhi's nonviolent direct action strategy to the Student Central Committee. Diane Nash, Bernard Lafayette, James Bevel, James Forman, John Lewis and other students from American Baptist, Fisk University and Tennessee State University executed a systematic non-violent campaign for justice. On April 19, 1960, 4,000 demonstrators marched on City Hall where Vivian and Diane Nash challenged Nashville Mayor Ben West. As a result, Mayor West publicly agreed that racial discrimination was morally wrong. Many of those students became part of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). In 1961, Vivian, now a member of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) participated in Freedom Rides replacing injured members of the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE). Vivian was appointed to the executive staff of the SCLC in 1963, when Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., named him national director of affiliates. Two years later, in an incident that would make national news, Vivian confronted Sheriff Jim Clark on the steps of the Selma courthouse during a voter registration drive. After an impassioned speech by Vivian, Clark struck him on the mouth, portraying Clark to the world as a racist. In 1969, Vivian wrote the first book on the modern-day Civil Rights Movement, entitled Black Power and the American Myth. During these years, he also started a program entitled Vision, sending students from Alabama to college; the program later came to be known as Upward Bound. By 1979, Vivian had organized and was serving as chairman of the board of the National Anti-Klan Network, which is known today as the Center for Democratic Renewal.

Vivian is also the founder of the Black Action Strategies and Information Center (BASIC), a workplace consultancy on race relations and multicultural training. In 1999, Vivian turned the leadership of BASIC over to one of his sons. Vivian recently launched a new organization (Churches Supporting Churches) in response to the help needed for the victims and churches affected by Hurricane Katrina.

Vivian lives in Atlanta, Georgia.

Vivian was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on March 7, 2004.

Accession Number

A2004.020

Sex

Male

Interview Date

3/7/2004 |and| 10/5/2016

Last Name

Vivian

Maker Category
Marital Status

Widow

Schools

Lincoln Elementary School

Edison Elementary School

Macomb Senior High School

Lincoln Grade School

Western Illinois University

First Name

C.T.

Birth City, State, Country

Howard County

HM ID

VIV01

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Missouri

Favorite Vacation Destination

Bahamas

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Birth Date

7/30/1924

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Atlanta

Country

United States

Favorite Food

None

Short Description

Civil rights leader and minister Reverend Dr. C.T. Vivian (1924 - ) was a close friend and lieutenant of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., and was an active member of both SNCC and the SCLC, participated in the Freedom Rides, and founded the Black Action Strategies and Information Center.

Employment

Helen Gallagher Foster Mail Order House

Southern Christian Leadership Conference

Shaw University Seminary

C.T. Vivian Leadership Institute, Inc.

Coalition for United Community Action

Vision Program

Urban Training Center for Christian Mission

Nashville News Star

Favorite Color

None

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of C. T. Vivian interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - C. T. Vivian's favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - C. T Vivian describes his mother's background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - C. T. Vivian remembers his mother

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - C. T. Vivian shares his ancestors' thoughts on education

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - C. T. Vivian shares family information

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - C. T. Vivian recalls his childhood in Macomb, Illinois

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - C. T. Vivian describes his childhood in Macomb, Illinois

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - C. T. Vivian discusses his education

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - C. T. Vivian recounts episodes with his childhood friends

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - C. T. Vivian describes the beginnings of his commitment to nonviolence

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - C. T. Vivian recalls his early social life

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - C. T. Vivian describes his early career aspirations

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - C. T. Vivian discusses his college years

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - C. T. Vivian discusses his early awareness of social inequities

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - C. T. Vivian discusses his college major

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - C. T. Vivian describes his early career path

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - C. T. Vivian details his call to the ministry while in college

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - C. T. Vivian describes his early involvement with the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - C. T. Vivian recalls the civil rights events that led up to the march from Selma to Montgomery, Alabama

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - C. T. Vivian details the activities in organizing the march from Selma to Montgomery, Alabama

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - C. T. Vivian tells of his role in the march from Selma to Montgomery, Alabama

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - C. T. Vivian talks about Bloody Sunday

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - C. T. Vivian details the second attempt at the Selma to Montgomery march

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - C. T. Vivian discusses his personal opinions about racism

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - C. T. Vivian recalls when he was attacked on the courthouse steps in Selma, Alabama

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - C. T. Vivian details more of the event on the courthouse steps in Selma, Alabama

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Slating of Reverend Dr. C.T. Vivian's interview, session 2

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Reverend Dr. C.T. Vivian recalls confronting Sheriff Jim Clark at the Dallas County Courthouse in Selma, Alabama, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Reverend Dr. C.T. Vivian recalls confronting Sheriff Jim Clark at the Dallas County Courthouse in Selma, Alabama, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Reverend Dr. C.T. Vivian remembers being attacked by Sheriff Jim Clark, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Reverend Dr. C.T. Vivian remembers being attacked by Sheriff Jim Clark, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Reverend Dr. C.T. Vivian describes the circumstances of his arrest

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Reverend Dr. C.T. Vivian talks about his early experiences of nonviolent action

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Reverend Dr. C.T. Vivian recalls the NAACP's challenge to the Caterpillar Tractor Company

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Reverend Dr. C.T. Vivian remembers meeting Reverend James Bevel for the first time

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Reverend Dr. C.T. Vivian recalls the dismissal of his case in Selma, Alabama, pt. 1

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Reverend Dr. C.T. Vivian recalls the dismissal of his case in Selma, Alabama, pt. 2

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Reverend Dr. C.T. Vivian remembers the march across the Edmund Pettus Bridge

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Reverend Dr. C.T. Vivian recalls preaching outside of Selma, Alabama

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Reverend Dr. C.T. Vivian remembers the killing of Jimmie Lee Jackson

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Reverend Dr. C.T. Vivian talks about the events leading up to the Selma to Montgomery March

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Reverend Dr. C.T. Vivian describes the City of Montgomery, Alabama

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Reverend Dr. C.T. Vivian talks about the arrest of Sheriff Jim Clark

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Reverend Dr. C.T. Vivian describes the start of the Upward Bound program, pt. 1

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - Reverend Dr. C.T. Vivian describes the start of the Upward Bound program, pt. 2

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - Reverend Dr. C.T. Vivian recalls Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King's decision to enter the ministry

Tape: 8 Story: 6 - Reverend Dr. C.T. Vivian talks about the Black Lives Matter movement, pt. 1

Tape: 8 Story: 7 - Reverend Dr. C.T. Vivian talks about the effectiveness of nonviolent action

Tape: 9 Story: 1 - Reverend Dr. C.T. Vivian talks about the Black Lives Matter movement, pt. 2

Tape: 9 Story: 2 - Reverend Dr. C.T. Vivian recalls the assassination of Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

Tape: 9 Story: 3 - Reverend Dr. C.T. Vivian talks about the National Council of Churches

Tape: 9 Story: 4 - Reverend Dr. C.T. Vivian describes the development of the Urban Training Center for Christian Mission

Tape: 9 Story: 5 - Reverend Dr. C.T. Vivian talks about the Urban Training Center for Christian Mission

Tape: 9 Story: 6 - Reverend Dr. C.T. Vivian remembers his move to Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 9 Story: 7 - Reverend Dr. C.T. Vivian describes his experiences in Chicago, Illinois, pt. 1

Tape: 9 Story: 8 - Reverend Dr. C.T. Vivian describes his experiences in Chicago, Illinois, pt. 2

Tape: 10 Story: 1 - Reverend Dr. C.T. Vivian talks about J. Archie Hargraves

Tape: 10 Story: 2 - Reverend Dr. C.T. Vivian recalls joining the Urban Training Center for Christian Mission in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 10 Story: 3 - Reverend Dr. C.T. Vivian talks about recruiting black ministers to the Urban Training Center

Tape: 10 Story: 4 - Reverend Dr. C.T. Vivian remembers well-known African American ministers in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 10 Story: 5 - Reverend Dr. C.T. Vivian talks about his early activism in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 10 Story: 6 - Reverend Dr. C.T. Vivian talks about his book, 'Black Power and the American Myth'

Tape: 10 Story: 7 - Reverend Dr. C.T. Vivian recalls the rivalry between the Nashville News Star and the Nashville Globe

Tape: 10 Story: 8 - Reverend Dr. C.T. Vivian recalls joining the Seminary Without Walls at Shaw University in Raleigh, North Carolina

Tape: 10 Story: 9 - Reverend Dr. C.T. Vivian talks about Reverend Gardner Taylor, pt. 1

Tape: 11 Story: 1 - Reverend Dr. C.T. Vivian talks about Reverend Gardner Taylor, pt. 2

Tape: 11 Story: 2 - Reverend Dr. C.T. Vivian recalls the production of audiotapes at the Urban Training Center

Tape: 11 Story: 3 - Reverend Dr. C.T. Vivian talks about his travels to Kenya

Tape: 11 Story: 4 - Reverend Dr. C.T. Vivian remembers founding the National Anti-Klan Network

Tape: 11 Story: 5 - Reverend Dr. C.T. Vivian recalls Reverend Jesse L. Jackson's presidential campaign

Tape: 11 Story: 6 - Reverend Dr. C.T. Vivian talks about President Barack Obama

Tape: 11 Story: 7 - Reverend Dr. C.T. Vivian describes his experiences as chairman Capitol City Bank and Trust Company in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 11 Story: 8 - Reverend Dr. C.T. Vivian talks about the need for financial growth and development in the African American community

Tape: 11 Story: 9 - Reverend Dr. C.T. Vivian reflects upon his legacy

DASession

1

DATape

5

DAStory

1

DATitle
C. T. Vivian talks about Bloody Sunday
Transcript
Sir, how did you find out about the--?$$I--the march--Bloody Sunday [March 7, 1965], I found it out on the TV set. I was home. Most of us were home. In fact, all of us were home for the weekend. And when we had a chance to make such a break, we left one staff member in town. That staff member was not supposed to leave. Alright. And--I'll tell you about later. I got caught in one of those things. But Hosea [Williams] had been wanting to march ever since the Jimmy Lee Jackson situation. Alright. Just a few days in between all of this. And--. (Simultaneously) Okay. And Jimmy Lee Jackson was killed by--.$$(Simultaneously) Yeah. That's right.$$Police officers in Marion [Alabama].$$(Simultaneously) In Marion, See that's where I was. I had been in Hosea's place the week or two before. The week before, I guess really. I never connect these things too well. But that's the week before. And I had left to go to Marion to give a speech. That's--behind that speech is when they walked out and the state police was waiting for them and beat them. And then went looking all over town supposedly for me. Ones--it's according to who's talking. Right. But they went all over town going in one place or the other. And Jimmy Lee Jackson tried to defend his mother from remarks and stuff. And they just shot him. Right. Is that--so the next week or so--we gotta get it right? 'Cause I'm not clear. But it was all in a short length of time. Is that when Hosea's in town. Alright. And Hosea decides he's gonna have the march. And he's gonna have it. He felt like he'd been wanting one. Alright. And so--but he wasn't really supposed to do that kind of action when we were away. We should all be doing that together. But John Lewis comes in town and begins to give him his excuse. And he--and so--'cause John Lewis was willing to do it. Mrs. [Amelia] Boynton [Robinson] was willing to do it (laughs). And so he talks about it was the people's will. And they asked the people and people said--Well I think all that needs some real sharp examination. Alright. So Bloody Sunday comes as a result. Now the reason the second march Martin [Luther King Jr.] turns the troops around and we come back.$$But let me backtrack just a minute.$$Yeah.$$Now how did you--How'd you feel about that? After it's--I mean you--When you--?$$(Simultaneously) Well I mean I'd been in the [Civil Rights] Movement a long time doctor. Stuff happens. Alright. You never know what's gonna happen. Alright. But what Reverend learned--what I learned is everything done to destroy us only becomes a means of developing us. Alright. If you live through it, you'll be able to see it. If you didn't, why you won't see it, but others will (laughs). Alright. But everything used to destroy us becomes a means of developing us. It's a basic lesson for me. I mean that's my line. But the point is I find it true. Alright. Is the--so as far as feelings is concerned, my feeling was it's done. So let's keep moving. Got to.

James Breeden

James Pleasant Breeden was born on October 14, 1934 in Minneapolis, Minnesota to Florence Beatrice Thomas, a secretary and homemaker, and Pleasant George Breeden, a railroad dining car waiter. He was raised by his mother and stepfather Noah Smith and attended Harrison Elementary School and Lincoln Junior High School, both in Minneapolis. In 1952, Breeden graduated from North High School in Minneapolis and attended Dartmouth College.

In 1956, Breeden graduated cum laude from Dartmouth College with his B.A. degree. Two years later, he married Jeanne Marie Savoye in Geneva, Switzerland. The following year, Breeden obtained a certificate from the University of Geneva in connection with his work at the Ecumenical Institute World Council of Churches in Bossey, Switzerland. In 1960, Breeden graduated from Union Theological Seminary with his M.Div degree and moved to Boston, where he joined the Episcopal Diocese of Massachusetts.

From 1960 until 1965, Breeden was a member of the Episcopal Diocese as a deacon, priest and canon at St. James Church and St. Paul’s Cathedral. He became an advisor to Bishop Anson Phelps Stokes in the area of civil rights. During this period, Breeden was heavily involved in the Civil Rights Movement. In 1961, he participated in the Freedom Rides and was arrested in Jackson, Mississippi for “action likely to cause a riot.” He and others were later freed when the case was dismissed. In 1963, Breeden helped organize the first “Stay out for Freedom” event in Boston protesting the city’s lack of quality public education for African American students. The following year, Breeden was involved in rent strikes against landlords who were taking advantage of their tenants.

Breeden joined the National Council of Churches’ activist leadership in 1965, where he would remain for two years coordinating non-violent mass protests. In 1967, Breeden became the Director for the Commission on Church and Race for the Massachusetts Council of Churches during the time of the Boston race riots. In 1969, Breeden joined the faculty at Harvard Graduate School of Education, and in 1972 he earned his Ed.D. degree from the school. Breeden moved to Tanzania and became Professor of Education at the University of Dar Es Salaam in 1973, where he set up a master’s degree program in education administration.

Breeden returned to Boston two years later, joining the Citywide Coordinating Council in 1976 and monitoring the Boston Public Schools’ compliance with the federal order to desegregate. In 1980, Breeden became a Senior Officer for Planning and Policy at Boston Public Schools. Breeden became a dean at Dartmouth College in 1984 of the William Jewett Tucker Foundation. In 1994, Breeden became a visiting scholar at the Howard Graduate School of Education, and in 2001 joined the School for International Training as adjunct faculty.

Breeden was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on September 12, 2007.

Accession Number

A2007.258

Sex

Male

Interview Date

9/12/2007

Last Name

Breeden

Schools

Dartmouth College

William H. Harrison Elementary School

Abraham Lincoln Junior High School

North High School

Harvard Graduate School of Education

Union Theological Seminary

First Name

James

Birth City, State, Country

Minneapolis

HM ID

BRE02

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Minnesota

Favorite Vacation Destination

Caribbean

Favorite Quote

If You Do Anything Significant In History, It’s Because Many People Were Working On It Before You; Or, If Anything Comes Out of It, It Will Be Because There Will Be Many People Working On It After You.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Massachusetts

Birth Date

10/14/1934

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Greenfield

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Curry

Short Description

Civil rights leader, academic administrator, and priest James Breeden (1934 - ) became a dean at Dartmouth College in 1984. In 1994, Breeden became a visiting scholar at the Howard Graduate School of Education, and in 2001 joined the School for International Training as adjunct faculty.

Employment

Diocese of Massachusetts

St. James Episcopal Church

Cathedral Church of St. Paul

University of Dar es Salaam

Citywide Coordinating Council

Boston Public Schools

Harvard Graduate School of Education

Howard University

School for International Training Graduate Institute

Favorite Color

Fall Colors

Timing Pairs
0,0:11463,104:12473,118:18080,151:18520,156:25022,213:27090,246:37006,395:37852,406:51145,503:57635,553:67600,637:73190,691:75936,706:76331,712:94084,926:95585,947:97876,997:99693,1075:100799,1094:107450,1138:108230,1153:108490,1158:109075,1169:109595,1179:113537,1214:114265,1224:117788,1248:125430,1301:126442,1313:128282,1340:129202,1351:134434,1397:148184,1567:159310,1706:165350,1764:166520,1782:174023,1856:174646,1865:177356,1891:179520,1909$0,0:0,6:320,11:640,16:960,28:3680,93:4960,109:5440,116:13676,164:15608,185:16160,192:17080,203:20790,217:21170,222:22405,263:24590,302:26812,314:27586,326:28790,343:29736,355:30596,367:31542,381:32058,388:36150,399:36510,404:39050,421:40562,441:41654,456:43082,474:43586,481:48002,494:52600,518:54532,534:57476,572:57844,577:60972,613:61800,623:62536,633:67715,651:69125,663:78428,741:78800,746:83391,763:84103,773:84459,781:85082,790:91110,821:92034,836:92790,847:93294,860:93966,870:95898,904:96402,912:97410,930:97830,936:102366,1014:109574,1081:111275,1107:111842,1116:113057,1238:113786,1249:114758,1264:115163,1270:123270,1346:125830,1355:126478,1365:126766,1370:131780,1416:133205,1432:134345,1446:135200,1453:135865,1462:136340,1468:140115,1491:143810,1529:146870,1565:147590,1574:148760,1589:159958,1668:165040,1805:165348,1810:166349,1828:167196,1844:168274,1861:168736,1871:169352,1883:170122,1894:171662,1919:175820,1929:176450,1938:176810,1943:177530,1953:185255,2039:185579,2044:186065,2052:197737,2191:207924,2303:213850,2348:215140,2356
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of James Breeden's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - James Breeden lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - James Breeden describes his mother's family background, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - James Breeden describes his mother's family background, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - James Breeden describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - James Breeden talk about how his parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - James Breeden describes his parents' personalities

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - James Breeden describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - James Breeden describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - James Breeden talks about the politics of Minneapolis, Minnesota

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - James Breeden describes his home life

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - James Breeden recalls the role of religion in his childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - James Breeden describes his involvement in the Boy Scouts of America

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - James Breeden recalls the entertainment of his youth

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - James Breeden remembers William H. Harrison Elementary School in Minneapolis, Minnesota

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - James Breeden recalls Abraham Lincoln Junior High School in Minneapolis, Minnesota

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - James Breeden describes North High School in Minneapolis, Minnesota

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - James Breeden remembers the World Scout Jamboree in Austria

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - James Breeden describes his social life at North High School in Minneapolis, Minnesota

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - James Breeden remembers graduating as salutatorian

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - James Breeden describes his experiences at Dartmouth College in Hanover, New Hampshire

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - James Breeden describes the political climate at Dartmouth College in Hanover, New Hampshire

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - James Breeden recalls his experiences of racial discrimination at Dartmouth College

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - James Breeden remembers the Dartmouth Christian Union

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - James Breeden recalls his mentors at Dartmouth College

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - James Breeden recalls his induction to the Palaeopitus Senior Society

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - James Breeden recalls the Union Theological Seminary in New York City

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - James Breeden talks about Operation Crossroads Africa

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - James Breeden recalls his trip to Nigeria with Operation Crossroads Africa

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - James Breeden reflects upon his experiences in Nigeria

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - James Breeden remembers his wedding in Switzerland

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - James Breeden talks about his travels in Africa

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - James Breeden recalls his mentors at the Union Theological Seminary in New York City

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - James Breeden remembers the Civil Rights Movement in New York City

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - James Breeden recalls his involvement in the Freedom Rides, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - James Breeden recalls his involvement in the Freedom Rides, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - James Breeden describes his role in the Civil Rights Movement in Boston, Massachusetts

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - James Breeden remember Bishop Anson Phelps Stokes III

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - James Breeden recalls the civil rights issues in Boston, Massachusetts

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - James Breeden recalls organizing rent strikes in Boston, Massachusetts

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - James Breeden remembers the Highlander Folk School in New Market, Tennessee

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - James Breeden talks about his training as a community organizer

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - James Breeden recalls his role in Massachusetts Governor John A. Volpe's election, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - James Breeden recalls his role in Massachusetts Governor John A. Volpe's election, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - James Breeden describes the school desegregation crisis in Boston, Massachusetts

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - James Breeden talks about the activist community in Boston, Massachusetts

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - James Breeden reflects upon the desegregation of schools in Boston, Massachusetts

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - James Breeden reflects upon the legacy of desegregation in Boston, Massachusetts

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - James Breeden describes his role at Harvard Graduate School of Education in Cambridge, Massachusetts

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - James Breeden recalls teaching abroad in Tanzania

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - James Breeden remembers Charles Willie

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - James Breeden recalls the William Jewett Tucker Foundation in Hanover, New Hampshire

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - James Breeden talks about The Dartmouth Review

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - James Breeden remembers his retirement

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - James Breeden talks about a former student

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - James Breeden describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - James Breeden reflects upon his life

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - James Breeden reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - James Breeden reflects upon his family

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - James Breeden talks about the black experience

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - James Breeden describes how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - James Breeden narrates his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$4

DAStory

6$9

DATitle
James Breeden recalls his involvement in the Freedom Rides, pt. 2
James Breeden recalls the civil rights issues in Boston, Massachusetts
Transcript
We were immediately arrested and taken to Jackson city jail [Jackson, Mississippi]. We stayed there six days 'til the trial occurred. One of the guys from Washington, D.C. was a very dark with short cut hair and when they asked him his race, he said, "Human." And so they interrogated him for about an hour to try to figure out which cell to put him in (laughter) and they finally figured out, correctly, that he was white (unclear) so they got him into the right cell unit. We were put on trial; the judge was an Episcopalian. He read to us from the prayer book about how we were supposed to obey the civil authorities. And found us guilty of, in some kind of weird thing, like behavior that was--that might cause civil disturbance or something like that, very vague kind of thing. And, anyway, there wasn't anybody there to disturb the civil (laughter) whatever, so we got bailed out, two stayed in. We got bailed--the rest got bailed out, several went to Detroit [Michigan] to the General Convention [General Convention of the Episcopal Church LX] to try to get some energy around some motions in the Episcopal--for the Episcopal church to take some positions, which was successful. They stopped off at a suburb of Detroit, which was a no blacks, probably no Jews, quota suburb, and probably significant number of Episcopalians to illustrate northern, you know, behavior of the Episcopal church. We stopped--I can't remember if it was that trip or not, but there had been a big controversy at Sewanee University [The University of the South], the Episcopal school in Tennessee [Sewanee, Tennessee] that had a theological unit to it. And all the theological faculty had resigned because the, the university wouldn't change its policies on race. We went there and visited with the, with the whatever rector or president of that, but at any rate, that was part of the, of the, of a kind of continuum.$Well, what were some of the issues here in Boston [Massachusetts] that you--$$Well, the, the biggest one was school desegregation. And twice I was to serve at the center of a a--an--a effort successful effort to get kids from the Roxbury [Boston, Massachusetts] schools, these would be the segregated schools, to stay out of school and go to alternative schools and churches, and social centers to call attention to the quality and lack of integration of schools in Boston Public Schools. So that was a big one. In housing, I paid most attention--my, I should say is a more general thing. My--I saw myself as primarily trying to figure out how to make things public and nonviolent and big so that I, I was always trying to figure how to make something larger enough so that it could be seen. So, for instance, when, when there was started to show up that there was trouble with landlords not taking care of their houses, and there were the housing that they were renting to people and so that housing was not meeting code. It was--there were, you know, vermin infesting it. People, women, who I knew from our parish [St. James Episcopal Church; St. John and St. James' Episcopal Church, Boston, Massachusetts], would be telling me stories of staying up all night with a, with a cast iron pan to hit a rat before it would bite one of their children something like that. And so, I learned that, you know, that these codes are just were not being, were not being enforced either out of laziness or bribery or whatever. So, what we did was adopt a--I think it actually started in New Jersey, rent strike. And the money would--for the rent would come to me and I would deposit it somewhere and then and (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) So you'd hold it in escrow for them--$$Yes, exactly right. And then that way we'd get leverage on the landlords to get them into court. And eventually that, that resulted in a state law that was much easier to enforce and made it legal. It was illegal to hold rent in escrow when we started it, that made it legal to do that so you could come into court and say the reason I haven't paid rent in X number of months is that there's this, you know, electricity cord is frayed or there're vermin in the apartment or whatever. And gave quite a considerable lev- leverage to, to people and, you know, to, to renters.

Amelia Boynton Robinson

Civil rights pioneer Amelia Boynton Robinson was born on August 18, 1911, in Savannah, Georgia. As a young lady, Robinson became very active in women’s suffrage. In 1934, at the age of twenty-three, Robinson became one of the few registered African American voters. In an era where literacy tests were used to discriminate against African Americans seeking to vote, Robinson used her status as a registered voter to assist other African American applicants to become registered voters.

In 1930, while working as a home economics teacher in the rural south, Robinson became re-acquainted with Sam William Boynton, an extension agent for the county whom she had met while studying at Tuskegee Institute. They married and began to work together to bring education, a higher standard of living, and voting rights to the African American poor, most of whom worked as sharecroppers. In 1936, Robinson wrote a play entitled Through the Years, to raise money for a community center that would be open to African Americans in a then-racially segregated Selma, Alabama. Through the Years tells the story of Robert Smalls (one of Robinson’s ancestors), through the character of Joshua Terrell, a slave, who gains his freedom and goes on to serve in the U.S. Congress.

On February 29, 1964, Robinson became the first African American woman ever to seek a seat in Congress from Alabama. She was also the first woman to run for this office in the state, winning ten percent of the vote when only five percent of the registered voters were African American. In 1965, Robinson was one of the civil rights leaders that led the famous first march across the Edmund Pettus Bridge which resulted in that day being called Bloody Sunday. Robinson was gassed and beaten; a wire photo of her left for dead on Edmund Pettus Bridge went around the world and helped to spark an outpouring of support for the Civil Rights Movement.

Robinson was introduced to the LaRouche Movement in 1983, and a year later, she became a board member and then vice-chairperson of the Schiller Institute. The Schiller Institute was founded to defend the rights of all humanity. The Schiller Institute published her book Bridges over Jordan in 1991. In 1992, Robinson co-founded the International Civil Rights Solidarity Movement, and has received worldwide recognition for her sincere service to humanity. In 1990, Robinson was awarded the Martin Luther King, Jr. Foundation Medal of Freedom; in 2003 she was awarded the National Visionary Leadership Award; and in 2005, Robinson and her deceased husband, Sam Boynton, were honored on the Fortieth Anniversary of Bloody Sunday in Selma. Robinson spent the latter part of her career touring the nation and worldwide, speaking on the behalf of the Schiller Institute to promote civil and human rights.

Amelia Boynton Robinson passed away on August 28, 2015.

Accession Number

A2007.244

Sex

Female

Interview Date

9/4/2007

Last Name

Robinson

Maker Category
Middle Name

Boynton

Occupation
Organizations
Schools

Beach-Cuyler School

Savannah State University

Tuskegee University

First Name

Amelia

Birth City, State, Country

Savannah

HM ID

ROB16

Favorite Season

Fall, Spring

State

Georgia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Bahamas

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Alabama

Birth Date

8/18/1911

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Tuskegee

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Seafood

Death Date

8/26/2015

Short Description

Civil rights leader Amelia Boynton Robinson (1911 - 2015 ) was one of the civil rights leaders that led the famous first march across the Edmund Pettus Bridge, which became known as Bloody Sunday. She was also the first African American woman ever to seek a seat in Congress from Alabama.

Employment

Camden County Training School

Americus Institute

U.S. Department of Agriculture

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:4428,60:5760,89:6426,100:6722,105:7388,124:7684,129:7980,134:8276,139:8868,149:13620,167:15311,204:19494,254:19850,259:21007,275:21630,283:22075,289:26258,349:34550,383:40030,464:46272,520:46951,530:55157,590:55643,598:67500,700:67860,707:68160,717:68460,723:84844,960:97256,1103:110281,1240:112084,1248:113470,1253:113774,1258:114154,1264:114534,1270:116662,1304:123290,1372:126520,1385:128050,1409:128662,1436:142334,1510:147635,1564:148300,1573:150580,1603:167555,1741:168666,1756:178480,1854:189360,1986$0,0:14854,208:54667,495:61164,633:62232,660:66440,702:72720,781:74449,803:74904,809:77180,818:85023,926:88113,965:89040,975:94480,1077:95872,1092:107589,1210:108075,1218:108399,1223:110667,1253:111072,1259:111882,1274:113583,1305:113907,1310:138164,1491:140188,1513:141292,1543:155318,1683:162414,1724:162846,1729:167400,1808
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Amelia Boynton Robinson's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Amelia Boynton Robinson lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Amelia Boynton Robinson describes her mother's family background, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Amelia Boynton Robinson describes her mother's family background, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Amelia Boynton Robinson describes her mother's family background, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Amelia Boynton Robinson describes her maternal family's land

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Amelia Boynton Robinson describes her mother

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Amelia Boynton Robinson describes her mother's conflict in South Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Amelia Boynton Robinson describes her mother's activism

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Amelia Boynton Robinson describes her father's family background and personality

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Amelia Boynton Robinson describes her father's career

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Amelia Boynton Robinson describes her father's education and later life

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Amelia Boynton Robinson describes how her parents met

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Amelia Boynton Robinson talks about her father's travels

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Amelia Boynton Robinson remembers her father's death

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Amelia Boynton Robinson lists her siblings, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Amelia Boynton Robinson lists her siblings, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Amelia Boynton Robinson lists her siblings, pt. 3

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Amelia Boynton Robinson describes her earliest childhood memory

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Amelia Boynton Robinson remembers visiting the circus

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Amelia Boynton Robinson recalls her childhood activities

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Amelia Boynton Robinson describes her neighborhood in Savannah, Georgia, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Amelia Boynton Robinson describes her neighborhood in Savannah, Georgia, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Amelia Boynton Robinson describes her early education

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Amelia Boynton Robinson describes the sounds of her childhood

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Amelia Boynton Robinson describes her family's lodgers

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Amelia Boynton Robinson describes her college education

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Amelia Boynton Robinson remembers the Great Depression

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Amelia Boynton Robinson remembers the Camden County Training School in St. Marys, Georgia

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Amelia Boynton Robinson recalls her challenges at the Camden County Training School

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Amelia Boynton Robinson recalls leaving the Camden County Training School

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Amelia Boynton Robinson recalls visiting her family

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Amelia Boynton Robinson remembers the Americus Institute in Americus, Georgia

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Amelia Boynton Robinson recalls being offered work at the U.S. Department of Agriculture

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Amelia Boynton Robinson remembers leaving the Americus Institute

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Amelia Boynton Robinson remembers encountering her former boss

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Amelia Boynton Robinson describes her work with the U.S. Department of Agriculture, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Amelia Boynton Robinson describes her work with the U.S. Department of Agriculture, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Amelia Boynton Robinson remembers registering sharecroppers to vote

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Amelia Boynton Robinson recalls meeting her husband, Samuel Boynton

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Amelia Boynton Robinson describes her activities at the Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute in Tuskegee, Alabama

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Amelia Boynton Robinson recalls working at the Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Amelia Boynton Robinson remembers George Washington Carver, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Amelia Boynton Robinson remembers George Washington Carver, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Amelia Boynton Robinson talks about the Tom Huston Peanut Company

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Amelia Boynton Robinson describes her husband

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Amelia Boynton Robinson talks about voter registration in Selma, Alabama

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Amelia Boynton Robinson describes voter registration requirements

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Amelia Boynton Robinson recalls holding a community sing in Selma, Alabama

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Amelia Boynton Robinson remembers 'Through the Years'

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Amelia Boynton Robinson talks about Robert Smalls, pt. 1

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Amelia Boynton Robinson talks about Robert Smalls, pt. 2

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Amelia Boynton Robinson recalls building a community center in Selma, Alabama

Tape: 7 Story: 9 - Amelia Boynton Robinson describes her home in Selma, Alabama

DASession

1$1

DATape

6$7

DAStory

1$5

DATitle
Amelia Boynton Robinson remembers registering sharecroppers to vote
Amelia Boynton Robinson remembers 'Through the Years'
Transcript
So in your job, it wasn't part of your job description, but because of the plight of the people you felt that you needed to help them find their own properties and so what happened? You said there was a problem once you started getting--$$As long as we were helping them to improve their homes that was my job, and the county agent helping them to produce more cattle, produce more crops and better crops, oh it was great; they thought a whole lot of us. But as soon as they found out that these good farmers who were doing the producing that they were leaving their farms where they had nobody, because they didn't know anything about farming, then we became as nothing. And they said, "Boynton, you're doing the wrong thing, trying to teach--trying to help these people to get off the farm. They're satisfied by the way we live." Yes, they were satisfied because they knew nothing else. Their children couldn't go to school--three months in the year. They had no recreation or anything; it was just work, and then two and three of them would sleep in one bed because they didn't have any space there for them. And they didn't like it because some of the people were moving off of the farm. Then we told them, "Well, you know you have to keep from being taken advantage of. You've got to be a first class citizen." Now the men would have to work the roads for three days. That is in the place of paying income tax--no, not income tax, poll tax, and poll tax is the tax that they used to pay to be able to vote. Now these people couldn't--they had no money so they had to work the road but they couldn't vote so it was just a matter of using them to work the roads. And they got--we told them you just have to be where you can rise up and be somebody. As it is now you are not a first class citizen; you're chattel. Well what can we do? We're going to show you how to fill these blanks out, so you can register, and oh the racists got up in arms. No, you've got to go.$So I said to my husband--I mean he wasn't my husband then--I said to Bill [Samuel William Boynton], "I'll write a play ['Through the Years,' Amelia Boynton]." So I thought about, why don't I write a play of history? And I sat and wrote this play. It's two hours long, and in it there are twenty Negroes spirituals, and all the scenes are related to spirituals. So we had--we played it and we got some--we did fairly well. People didn't have any money. That's one thing. It was during the Depression [Great Depression], and they had no money but they did come--some of them did come to the play. My mother [Anna Hicks Platts] said, "Bring it up here to Philadelphia [Pennsylvania], and I'll see that you have it played where you can raise some money." We did and we raised some money. Okay now we're going to Washington, D.C. and plead with the agricultural department [U.S. Department of Agriculture] to appropriate money that we might be able to build a community center.$$This was the WPA [Works Progress Administration; Work Projects Administration] that you were asking for the money?$$Well we--yes, either the WPA or PWA [Public Works Administration]. And my husband went twice they turned him down by just some frivolous thing. "Well, we're running out of money," or, "We don't have any more applications." And so he came up with the idea, "I'll tell you what. Let's get a white man to go up there." So we did, we said, "Well, we'll get Reverend E.W. Gamble." He was a minister of the white Presbyterian [sic. Episcopal] church and he said yes I'll do it if you pay my way. So we raised some money and we paid his way. And he went up, and we got it just like that. We had to do like Jews do, had to have somebody to front us. So we got it (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) Though you--

Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr.

Reverend Abraham Lincoln Woods, Jr. was born on October 7, 1928 to Maggie and Abraham Woods, Sr. in Birmingham, Alabama. Woods attended Parker High School and was given a scholarship to attend Morehouse College. Completing one year at Morehouse, Woods became ill and returned home. During this time, he acknowledged his call to the ministry. Woods received his B.A. degree in theology from the Birmingham Baptist College, his B.A. degree in sociology from Miles College in Birmingham, and his M.A. degree in American history from the University of Alabama. He also completed all the credits needed for his Ph.D.

Woods became a charter member of the Alabama Christian Movement and served as the vice president alongside Rev. Fred L. Shuttlesworth. He served as the director for the Miles College Voter Registration Project and would later become President of the Birmingham Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC).

Woods led the first sit-in at a department store in Birmingham and was jailed for five days. In the summer of 1963, he worked for Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. as the deputy director for the Southeast and helped to mobilize the historic March on Washington. He was often asked to speak on behalf of Dr. King because of his oratorical skills.

Woods would later recruit African Americans, especially those with prior military police experience to take the exam for the Birmingham Police Department. He and Dr. Jonathan McPherson assisted them in preparing for the test.

In 1968, Woods was the first African American to teach American history at the University of Alabama. He lectured on Dr. King’s non-violent and conflict resolution philosophy. Woods served for forty years as a faculty member at Miles College. He retired in 2002, and Miles College conferred upon him the Doctorate of Humane Letters.

Woods has been the pastor of St. Joseph’s Baptist Church in Birmingham for thirty-seven years. He is a member of the Trustee Board of Birmingham Bible College, the Baptist Ministers’ Conference, the United States Capital Historical Society and Phi Delta Kappa.

Woods passed away on November 7, 2008 at age 80.

Woods was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on March 23, 2007.

Accession Number

A2007.107

Sex

Male

Interview Date

3/23/2007 |and| 9/7/2007

Last Name

Woods

Middle Name

Lincoln

Schools

Morehouse College

Miles College

University of Alabama at Birmingham

Birmingham-Easonian Baptist Bible College

University of Alabama

First Name

Abraham

Birth City, State, Country

Birmingham

HM ID

WOO07

Favorite Season

Fall, Spring

State

Alabama

Favorite Vacation Destination

Orlando, Florida

Favorite Quote

I Can Do All Things Through Christ That Strengthens Me

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Florida

Birth Date

10/7/1928

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Longwood

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Fried Chicken

Death Date

11/7/2008

Short Description

Civil rights leader, american history professor, and minister Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. (1928 - 2008 ) was president of the Birmingham, Alabama chapter of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, and held sit-ins in Birmingham. Woods also helped in mobilizing the March on Washington.

Employment

Miles College

First Metropolitan Baptist Church

Atlanta Life Insurance Company

Molton Allen & Williams

McWare Cast Iron Pump Company

Favorite Color

Maroon

Timing Pairs
0,0:3995,44:7813,155:8394,163:24196,246:24786,252:27550,271:27975,280:31556,347:32074,355:32444,361:32888,368:54830,619:67630,830:90165,1039:98040,1107:98940,1122:102710,1161:103421,1174:106186,1227:106502,1232:108398,1264:114780,1315:115180,1320:118260,1337:124776,1370:130804,1404:131490,1412:138093,1482:140495,1497:146750,1598:147110,1603:150790,1626:154774,1662:155355,1671:156849,1703:157596,1712:162080,1747:171667,1888:175760,1921:178410,1941:180180,1979:188750,2066:195618,2145:195890,2150:196366,2159:209459,2285:209794,2291:216032,2364:216878,2375:232640,2602$0,0:4280,77:11528,130:12698,142:14687,160:26600,317:27800,333:35478,395:36388,406:39620,469:50496,559:50832,564:51252,570:76970,734:108216,1092:108568,1097:109008,1103:129695,1319:132100,1324:132802,1332:133270,1337:133738,1342:140867,1395:141771,1404:162864,1558:163488,1567:183255,1727:195208,1815:228582,2043:232060,2078:232560,2093:241240,2191:242824,2215:248565,2268:253828,2337:257970,2379:286280,2576
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr.'s interview, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. describes his mother

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. describes his parents' relationship

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. describes his father

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. lists his siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. describes his childhood home

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. recalls his family's financial difficulties

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. remembers his family's eviction, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. recalls his grandmother's bootlegging

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. remembers his family's eviction, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. remembers the East Thomas School in Birmingham, Alabama

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. recalls gang activity during his youth

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. recalls the Lincoln School in Birmingham, Alabama

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. recalls A.H. Parker High School in Birmingham, Alabama

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. recalls attending Atlanta's Morehouse College

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. remembers Benjamin Mays

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. recalls his aspirations at Morehouse College

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. remembers working at The Varsity

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. describes his religious education

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. recalls Birmingham Baptist College in Birmingham, Alabama

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. recalls joining the faculty of Miles College in Fairfield, Alabama

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. remembers meeting his wife

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. recalls being courted by his wife

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. remembers being dismissed by a jealous supervisor

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. remembers his call to the ministry

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. recalls founding the Alabama Christian Movement for Human Rights

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. describes his role in the Alabama Christian Movement for Human Rights

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. remembers Colonel Stone Johnson

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. recalls the wrongful arrest of Montgomery preachers

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. recalls the bombing of Reverend Fred Shuttlesworth's home

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. remembers desegregating the buses in Birmingham, Alabama

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. recalls the ousting of Bull Connor

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. recalls leading his first sit-in

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. remembers being arrested at sit-ins

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. recalls being assigned to manual labor in jail

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. remembers registering voters at Miles College in Fairfield, Alabama

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. recalls the civil rights activities at Miles College

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. remembers the University of Alabama at Birmingham

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. recalls the student march in Birmingham, Alabama

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. lists his children

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. recalls the impact of the student march in Birmingham, Alabama

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. remembers Reverend Fred Shuttlesworth's hospitalization

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. remembers organizing the March on Washington

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. recalls the crowd at the March on Washington

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. describes the I Have A Dream speech

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Slating of Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr.'s interview, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. recalls the impact of the March on Washington

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. recalls being hired at Miles College in Fairfield, Alabama

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. recalls directing a voting education project

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. recalls his decision to attend graduate school

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. recalls studying at the University of Alabama at Birmingham

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. recalls teaching at the University of Alabama at Birmingham

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. describes his organizational involvement

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. talks about the Alabama Christian Movement for Human Rights

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. talks about other civil rights organizations

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. recalls the SCLC's partner organizations

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. describes the surveillance of civil rights activists

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. remembers the 16th Street Baptist Church in Birmingham, Alabama

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. recalls the arrest of child protestors

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. recalls the first boycott in Birmingham, Alabama

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. recalls the activists at Miles College in Fairfield, Alabama

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. remembers the 16th Street Baptist Church bombing

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. recalls the aftermath of the 16th Street Baptist Church Bombing

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. recalls the mayoral election of Albert Boutwell

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. remembers Birmingham official David Vann

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. recalls his SCLC chapter presidency

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. recalls Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr.'s assassination

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. remembers the Civil Rights Act of 1964

Tape: 8 Story: 6 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. remembers Bloody Sunday

Tape: 8 Story: 7 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. recalls the police shooting in Hueytown, Alabama

Tape: 8 Story: 8 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. remembers Bonita Carter's death, pt. 1

Tape: 8 Story: 9 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. remembers Bonita Carter's death, pt. 2

Tape: 9 Story: 1 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. remembers David Vann's position on Bonita Carter's murder

Tape: 9 Story: 2 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. recalls organizing a march for Bonita Carter

Tape: 9 Story: 3 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. recalls asking Richard Arrington, Jr. to run for mayor

Tape: 9 Story: 4 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. describes Richard Arrington, Jr.'s mayoral campaign

Tape: 9 Story: 5 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. recalls the mayoralty of Richard Arrington, Jr.

Tape: 9 Story: 6 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. recalls advocating for Maggie Bozeman and Julia Wilder

Tape: 9 Story: 7 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. recalls Reverend Jesse L. Jackson's presidential bid

Tape: 9 Story: 8 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. recalls segregation at the Shoal Creek Golf and Country Club

Tape: 10 Story: 1 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. remembers being sued by George Sands

Tape: 10 Story: 2 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. recalls integrating the Shoal Creek Golf and Country Club

Tape: 10 Story: 3 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. recalls the 16th Street Baptist Church bombing investigation

Tape: 10 Story: 4 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. recalls the 16th Street Baptist Church bombing trials

Tape: 10 Story: 5 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. recalls the convictions of the 16th Street Baptist Church bombers

Tape: 10 Story: 6 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. recalls creating the Birmingham Civil Rights Institute, pt. 1

Tape: 10 Story: 7 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. recalls creating the Birmingham Civil Rights Institute, pt. 2

Tape: 10 Story: 8 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 10 Story: 9 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. shares a message to future generations

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$5

DAStory

7$9

DATitle
Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. recalls founding the Alabama Christian Movement for Human Rights
Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. describes the I Have A Dream speech
Transcript
All right, so, now you become the pastor of First Metropolitan Church [First Metropolitan Baptist Church, Birmingham, Alabama]. In fifty--and tell me what happens next? What happens next?$$All right. In the late 1950s, after the [U.S.] Supreme Court case, Brown v. the Board of Education [Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 1954], where the Supreme Court handed down the ruling and said separate but equal is inherently unequal, and overturned the Plessy v. Ferguson [Plessy v. Ferguson, 1896] ruling in the 1890s, I believe it was, and said that there had to be desegregation with all deliberate speed--well, at that time the NAACP [National Association for the Advancement of Colored People] here in Birmingham [Alabama] was attacked not only in Birmingham, but in the state was attacked. And the attorney general of the state asked the NAACP to turn over its membership roster to them, as if there was some shady persons--Communists, or this, that, and the other, who were part of the membership. They refused to do it, because they knew it was a witch hunt. Teachers were vulnerable, and other people who had jobs were vulnerable. And they had no problem with dismissing you from your job when you were a part of that kind of activity. So the NAACP refused to do it, and as a result, it was enjoined from operating in the State of Alabama. I had started working with a young lady who was working with Mr. Patton [W.C. Patton], and Mr. Patton was the voter education person for the national NAACP. And Reverend Shuttlesworth [HistoryMaker Reverend Fred Shuttlesworth] was a part of that organization, too. So after the NAACP was outlawed in the State of Alabama, Reverend Shuttlesworth called a mass meeting at the Sardis Baptist Church [Sardis Missionary Baptist Church, Birmingham, Alabama] and said we need an organization that will carry the struggle on. And he was criticized; some of the minsters criticized him, and other people criticized him. And one outstanding preacher said to him, he said "Shuttlesworth, the Lord told me to tell you that you should not organize this organization." And of course, Shuttlesworth shot back and said, "When has the Lord started giving you my messages?" (Laughter) And so he organized it and we embraced it. And I shall never forget, he said, "They killed the old hen," referring to the NAACP, "but before she died, she had some biddies." And the Alabama Christian Movement [Alabama Christian Movement for Human Rights] was one of those biddies, and it turned out to be a fighting rooster. This was now in the latter part of the 1950s.$And we marched to the Lincoln Memorial [Washington, D.C.], and I shall never forget. I found my place in the VIP section. I was standing in front of the huge statue of [President] Abraham Lincoln sitting there in the Lincoln Memorial. Some little distance from me was Martin [Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.] with the guards around him, and other people. And we were looking out on the Reflecting Pool [Lincoln Memorial Reflecting Pool, Washington, D.C.], and there were wall to wall folks all around the Reflecting Pool, some standing, some sitting with their feet in the water. And not only were there people around on the level land, but in all of the trees; there were people in the trees, everywhere. I'm telling you, that was a sight that made us glad. And of course the activities started, the singing. And one of the singers was Mahalia Jackson, and of course she had a soulful kind of way of singing. And there were others who did sing, too, but I remember Mahalia Jackson. And there were the speeches. And we got down to Martin Luther King, and he was introduced by none other than J. Philip Randolph [sic. A. Philip Randolph]. And if you have really heard about J. Philip Randolph, he was the dean of the civil rights struggle. He was head of the Pullman car porters, and it was really his idea that we have that march. And he had an eloquent sort of bass voice, a baritone voice, and he introduced King, "Martin Luther King, J-R," and Martin came to the podium, and he led up to I Have a Dream. Now, I know you've heard it on cassette tapes and you've seen it maybe video. But you just needed to have been there. It was something in the air, a kind of charge, some kind of electric in the air that was coursing up and down in our bodies, I'm telling you. King got into his speech with the kind of cadence that he, he used. I'm telling you, he lifted us. I guess we were sort of mesmerized, sort of in a hypnotic trance or something. He just lifted us out of ourselves. "And I have a dream that my little children will not be judged by the color of their skin, but by the content of their character." And of course, he talked about the promissory note that had come back with insufficient funds, and all of that. And he finally said that, he told us to go on back to the Delta Mississippi. Go on back to Stone Mountain in Georgia. Go on back to this, yonder and that. And he said, "When that day come, we will be able to sing the old spiritual with new meaning, 'Free at last, free at last. Thank God almighty, we're free at last.'"

Reverend Jesse L. Jackson

Prominent civil rights activist and political leader Reverend Jesse Louis Jackson, Sr. was born Jesse Louis Burns on October 8, 1941 in Greenville, South Carolina to Helen Jackson and Noah Robinson. His mother later remarried Charles Henry Jackson, who formally adopted Jackson and his brother Charles. Jackson received his high school diploma from Sterling High School in Greenville, and in 1959, he received an athletic scholarship to attend the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. After his first year, Jackson then transferred to North Carolina A&T University in Greensboro, North Carolina.

At North Carolina A&T, Jackson continued to excel in sports. He was an honor student and president of his student body. On December 31, 1962, Jackson married college classmate, Jacqueline Lavinia Brown, in Greenville. Returning to North Carolina A&T, he became involved in the Civil Rights Movement joining the Greensboro chapter of the Council on Racial Equality (CORE). In 1963, Jackson helped to organize several sit-ins, desegregating local restaurants and theaters in Greensboro. Jackson was chosen as field director of CORE's southeastern operations, and president of the North Carolina Intercollegiate Council on Human Rights. In 1964, he also served as a delegate at the Young Democrats National Convention. In the same year, Jackson graduated from North Carolina A&T with a B.S. degree in sociology. He then received a Rockefeller grant to begin his postgraduate studies at the Chicago Theological Seminary in Chicago, Illinois.

In 1965, Jackson left the seminary to join Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) to march in Selma, Alabama. At this time, Jackson became an ordained minister, although he had not returned to the seminary. In 1966, Dr. King appointed Jackson to SCLC's Chicago economic program, Operation Breadbasket. The goal of Operation Breadbasket was to foster the economy of African American business owners and provide employment growth for African American workers. On December 25, 1971, Operation Breadbasket was renamed Operation PUSH - People United to Serve Humanity.

Over the next decade, Jackson continued his involvement with local, national, and international politics. In 1983, Jackson negotiated the release of war prisoner, U.S. pilot Robert Goodman, in Syria. In 1984 and 1988, Jackson ran for President of the United States. As a Democratic candidate, he garnered massive support and exceeded expectations for the number of delegates received. Jackson’s electoral run also helped to register two million new voters.

Jackson moved to Washington, D.C. in 1989. At that time, the Washington City Council created two positions of shadow senator to lobby for the statehood of Washington, D.C. in the U.S. Congress. Jackson won one of the Senate seats, his first elected position.

In 1991, Jackson gained international acclaim again when he negotiated for the release of hundreds of foreign nationals in Kuwait under the regime of Saddam Hussein. In that same year, his likeness was put on a United States Post Office pictorial postal cancellation. Jackson is the second living person to ever receive such an honor. President Bill Clinton then appointed Jackson in 1997 as a special envoy for democracy in Kenya, later awarding him the Presidential Medal of Freedom in March 2000. Jackson hosted the CNN television program Both Sides With Jesse Jackson from 1992 to 2000. He has written numerous columns and authored/co-authored several books including Keep Hope Alive (1989) and It’s About The Money (1999).

Jackson and the Rainbow PUSH Coalition have organized numerous events over the years that bring attention to problems facing all Americans including economic advancement, workers rights, labor conditions, voter registration, education, and racial profiling. He has been awarded over forty honorary degrees, received the NAACP Springarn Award, and been listed as one of the top ten most respected Americans. In 2000, Jackson received an honorary Masters degree from his former school, Chicago Theological Seminary. The seminary recognized Jackson’s countless years of civic service to the American community.

In 2003, Jackson created the Wall Street Project. This project aims to build economic opportunities and advancements of African Americans influencing corporate America companies to increase economic growth and opportunity with minority communities and businesses. In 2004, Jackson became a radio host for the nationally syndicated radio talk show entitled, Keep Hope Alive.

Jackson and his wife, Jacqueline, currently divide their residency between Chicago, Illinois and Washington, D.C. They have five children, Santita Jackson, U.S. Congressman Jesse Jackson, Jr., Jonathan Jackson, Yusef Jackson, and Jacqueline L. Jackson.

Accession Number

A2006.031

Sex

Male

Interview Date

2/28/2006 |and| 3/1/2006 |and| 3/2/2006 |and| 3/9/2006 |and| 3/11/2006

3/9/2006 |and| 3/11/2006

Last Name

Jackson

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

L.

Organizations
Schools

Sterling High School

First Name

Jesse

Birth City, State, Country

Greenville

HM ID

JAC18

Favorite Season

Fall, Spring

State

South Carolina

Favorite Vacation Destination

None

Favorite Quote

I Am Somebody.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Illinois

Birth Date

10/8/1941

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Chicago

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Cornbread, Greens

Short Description

Civil rights leader and minister Reverend Jesse L. Jackson (1941 - ) worked with SCLC's Operation Breadbasket before leading and merging Operation PUSH with the National Rainbow Coalition. Jackson founded both organizations that have become the Rainbow/PUSH Coalition which advocate for economic opportunity and social justice. He has also been an active political leader, running for the U.S. presidency in 1984 and 1988.

Favorite Color

Blue

The Honorable Andrew Young

Andrew Jackson Young, Jr. was born March 12, 1932 in New Orleans, Louisiana. The son of Andrew Jackson Young, Sr., a dentist and Daisy Fuller Young, a teacher, Young grew up in a hostile multi-ethnic neighborhood where his father taught him how to box for survival. Graduating from Gilbert Academy in 1947, at age fifteen, Young was an avid reader who idolized Dr. Ralph Bunche. Attending Dillard University for a year, Young transferred to Howard University where he was on the track and swim teams. Graduating with a B.S. degree in pre-med in 1951, Young was admitted to Hartford Theological Seminary. In 1952, in Marion, Alabama, he met future wife, Jean Childs, as he pastored summer bible school, studied the works of Ghandi and agitated for voting rights. Later, Young met and befriended Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. He earned his B.D. degree from Hartford Theological Seminary in 1955.

A product of the United Church of Christ's American Missionary Association (AMA), Young’s first pastorate was at the AMA-founded Bethany Congregational Church in Thomasville, Georgia. In 1957, he went on to the National Council of Churches in New York to work as associate director for youth work and as an administrator for United Church of Christ’s Christian Education Program. Young moved to Atlanta in 1961 and joined the senior staff of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. Young played a key role in negotiating the 1963 Birmingham desegregation agreement. He would do likewise in Selma, Alabama. After Dr. King’s assassination in 1968, Young helped lead the Poor Peoples Campaign. In 1972, he was elected the first black congressman from Georgia since Jefferson Long, serving in the United States House of Representatives until1976. Young was appointed by President Carter as United States Ambassador to the United Nations from 1977 to 1979 and was Mayor of the City of Atlanta from 1982 to 1990. He was named chairman of the Southern Africa Enterprise Development Fund by President Clinton in 1995. In 1996, Young served as chairman of the Metro Atlanta Chamber of Commerce and co-chairman for the Atlanta Committee for the Olympic Games.

In 2003, Young was elected as the twentieth president of the National Council of Churches in New York. He has received numerous honorary degrees and awards including the Pax Christi Award from St John's University; the NAACP’s 1970 Springarn Medal; the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1981; the Alpha Kappa Alpha, Peace and Justice Award in1991; and the ROBIE Award in 1998. He is also a member of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc. Young is co-chair of Good Works International and a director of the Drum Major Institute. The Andrew Young School of Policy Studies at Georgia State University is one of the country's best policy schools.

Young who is an associate pastor of First Congregational Church in Atlanta, is married to the former Carolyn Watson. He and his first wife, the late Jean Childs Young, have four children, Andrea, Lisa, Paula, and Andrew, III.

Young was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on August 27, 2005.

Accession Number

A2005.209

Sex

Male

Interview Date

8/27/2005

Last Name

Young

Schools

Fort Hayes Metropolitan Education Center

Valena C. Jones Elementary School

Dillard University

Hartford Seminary

First Name

Andrew

Birth City, State, Country

New Orleans

HM ID

YOU04

Favorite Season

None

Sponsor

Herman J. Russell

State

Louisiana

Favorite Vacation Destination

None

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Birth Date

3/12/1932

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Atlanta

Country

United States

Favorite Food

None

Short Description

Civil rights leader, mayor, cabinet appointee, pastor, and U.S. congressman The Honorable Andrew Young (1932 - ) is a civil rights legend, former U.N. Ambassador, and the former mayor of Atlanta, Georgia.

Employment

United Church of Christ

National Council of Churches

Southern Christian Leadership Conference

Atlanta Community Relations Commission

United States Government

City of Atlanta

GoodWorks International

Main Sponsor
Main Sponsor URL
Favorite Color

None

Timing Pairs
0,0:2916,73:3645,87:4050,94:4374,99:4698,104:7938,175:11269,191:14257,241:14921,250:21229,371:31536,460:33593,470:37750,507:38150,514:39190,532:39670,539:53370,685:55410,771:68544,905:81082,1089:85592,1140:86450,1153:88790,1227:96668,1368:98306,1401:101192,1457:102128,1479:110856,1564:114500,1585:115397,1600:116294,1615:119813,1689:120296,1699:120917,1711:121538,1722:122159,1732:137004,1855:137434,1861:157110,1987:167216,2136:167952,2147:175820,2195:176276,2203:179018,2215:183664,2227:191815,2342:193515,2367:193940,2373:197170,2423:197595,2429:222514,2756:222922,2763:223398,2771:223806,2778:229632,2838:235193,2948:241778,3003:242314,3012:242850,3022:243118,3027:245513,3044:245898,3050:248747,3105:249363,3116:249825,3124:255364,3176:255652,3181:256372,3192:257020,3203:257740,3233:263760,3301$0,0:289,6:725,11:5160,39:25845,247:26440,256:32760,336:35532,389:36288,400:37044,413:47728,534:50598,576:51992,605:53468,616:54124,627:54616,634:56420,662:60983,671:61498,677:66684,719:67308,730:67620,735:68166,743:68712,751:74280,812:74700,823:93030,967:93810,1008:94290,1018:100498,1089:101810,1111:103286,1136:106298,1163:106802,1171:111266,1258:112130,1274:119050,1312:122600,1416:122968,1422:123612,1430:124992,1451:128488,1501:132444,1555:134652,1588:136492,1608:143550,1623:144075,1629:147225,1689:148170,1704:152310,1717:153840,1739:161215,1837:161670,1843:162216,1850:165686,1865:167654,1894:167982,1899:170032,1936:170852,1954:171426,1963:171918,1970:172902,1986:191946,2219:192468,2226:197601,2327:204122,2362:206761,2395:226418,2643:226770,2648:231786,2716:242808,2818:256782,3001:257860,3007
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating for The Honorable Andrew Young's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - The Honorable Andrew Young describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - The Honorable Andrew Young describes his childhood community in New Orleans, Louisiana

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - The Honorable Andrew Young recalls his relationship with his maternal grandmother

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - The Honorable Andrew Young talks about his philosophy of "Don't get mad, get smart"

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - The Honorable Andrew Young relates how his maternal ancestors supported themselves in New Orleans, Louisiana

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - The Honorable Andrew Young recalls how some of his maternal ancestors passed for white

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - The Honorable Andrew Young describes his father's family background

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - The Honorable Andrew Young talks about the moral codes of his father and paternal grandfather

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - The Honorable Andrew Young describes his paternal grandparents

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - The Honorable Andrew Young describes how his parents met

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - The Honorable Andrew Young recalls his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - The Honorable Andrew Young talks about the role of sports in his childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - The Honorable Andrew Young talks about his brother, HistoryMaker Dr. Walter Young

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - The Honorable Andrew Young describes the role of music in his childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - The Honorable Andrew Young describes his experiences at Valena C. Jones Elementary School in New Orleans, Louisiana

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - The Honorable Andrew Young recalls a disciplinary incident from third grade at Valena C. Jones Elementary School in New Orleans, Louisiana

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - The Honorable Andrew Young talks about the violent atmosphere of Valena C. Jones Elementary School in New Orleans, Louisiana

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - The Honorable Andrew Young describes his high school experiences at Gilbert Academy in New Orleans, Louisiana

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - The Honorable Andrew Young describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood in New Orleans, Louisiana

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - The Honorable Andrew Young describes his childhood responsibilities within the family

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - The Honorable Andrew Young remembers the murder of his uncle, Walter Fuller

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - The Honorable Andrew Young describes his childhood dreams and aspirations

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - The Honorable Andrew Young describes role models from his childhood in New Orleans, Louisiana

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - The Honorable Andrew Young describes his athletic career at Howard University in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - The Honorable Andrew Young explains his decision to transfer from Dillard University in New Orleans, Louisiana to Howard University in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - The Honorable Andrew Young describes his academic pursuits during his college years

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - The Honorable Andrew Young describes his first religious experience

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - The Honorable Andrew Young talks about the beginnings of his studies of religion

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - The Honorable Andrew Young talks about his social life at Hartford Theological Seminary in Hartford, Connecticut

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - The Honorable Andrew Young describes his experiences attending Hartford Theological Seminary in Hartford, Connecticut

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - The Honorable Andrew Young describes how he met his wife, Jean Childs Young, while assigned to pastor a church in Marion, Alabama

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - The Honorable Andrew Young reflects on his experiences living in Europe in 1952

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - The Honorable Andrew Young describes events from his senior year at Hartford Theological Seminary in Hartford, Connecticut

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - The Honorable Andrew Young describes an encounter with the Ku Klux Klan in Georgia

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - The Honorable Andrew Young talks about how the business community helps to promote social change

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - The Honorable Andrew Young talks about the birth of his first two children

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - The Honorable Andrew Young talks about his support for President Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - The Honorable Andrew Young talks about how he became involved with the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - The Honorable Andrew Young talks about working for the National Council of the Churches of Christ in the U.S.A. during the late 1950s

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - The Honorable Andrew Young describes running citizenship schools with the Southern Christian Leadership Conference

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - The Honorable Andrew Young talks about his tenure as executive director of Southern Christian Leadership Conference

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - The Honorable Andrew Young talks about how he led negotiations with the white community during the 1963 Birmingham, Alabama campaign

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - The Honorable Andrew Young talks about how he became comfortable negotiating with whites

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - List of sponsors for 'An Evening With Andrew Young'

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Introduction to 'An Evening With Andrew Young'

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - HistoryMaker Charlayne Hunter-Gault introduces Andrew Young

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - The Honorable Andrew Young talks about his childhood in New Orleans, Louisiana

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - A scene from the Honorable Andrew Young's childhood

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - The Honorable Andrew Young talks about the educational tradition in which he was raised

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - A scene from the Honorable Andrew Young's college years at Howard University in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - The Honorable Andrew Young talks about his calling to religious life

Tape: 7 Story: 9 - The Honorable Andrew Young describes meeting his wife, Jean Childs Young in Marion, Alabama

Tape: 7 Story: 10 - A scene from the Honorable Andrew Young's tenure as pastor of Evergreen Congregational Church in Beachton, Georgia

Tape: 7 Story: 11 - The Honorable Andrew Young describes how he first got involved in the Civil Rights Movement as a preacher

Tape: 7 Story: 12 - The Honorable Andrew Young recalls facing and defeating the Ku Klux Klan in Thomasville, Georgia

Tape: 7 Story: 13 - The Honorable Andrew Young describes his tenure working with the National Council of the Churches of Christ in the U.S.A.

Tape: 7 Story: 14 - The Honorable Andrew Young talks about returning to the South and getting involved in the Southern Christian Leadership Conference

Tape: 7 Story: 15 - A scene about the Honorable Andrew Young's work with the Southern Christian Leadership Conference

Tape: 7 Story: 16 - The Honorable Andrew Young describes how Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. assumed leadership of the Civil Rights Movement, pt. 1

Tape: 7 Story: 17 - The Honorable Andrew Young describes how Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. assumed leadership of the Civil Rights Movement, pt. 2

Tape: 7 Story: 18 - Film clip of the Honorable Andrew Young's political career

Tape: 7 Story: 19 - The Honorable Andrew Young talks about being elected to the United States Congress in 1972

Tape: 7 Story: 20 - The Honorable Andrew Young describes his tenure as United States Ambassador to the United Nations

Tape: 7 Story: 21 - The Honorable Andrew Young describes his tenure as mayor of Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 7 Story: 22 - The Honorable Andrew Young talks about his work with GoodWorks International, LLC in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 7 Story: 23 - The Honorable Andrew Young reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 7 Story: 24 - Credits for 'An Evening with Andrew Young'

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$5

DAStory

6$5

DATitle
The Honorable Andrew Young talks about the beginnings of his studies of religion
The Honorable Andrew Young describes an encounter with the Ku Klux Klan in Georgia
Transcript
Well, that's when [Reverend Dr.] Nicholas Hood [Sr.] had just entered my life. And so when I came back from Kings Mountain [North Carolina], he asked me to drive with him to Texas. Well, I still wasn't quite converted, and my roommate was from San Antonio [Texas]. So I figured I would drive out there with Nick, drop him off at the church conference and go on to San Antonio and, you know, party with my roommate. But we were near San Antonio, but it was about 150 miles more, and Nick Hood and I, two young, black men driving across Texas, and we had not seen anybody black since we left Dallas [Texas]. And this was up in the panhandle. And there was nobody at the conference black. And he said, "You not gonna leave me here by myself, are you?" (Laughter) He said, "You really don't wanna get on that road by yourself and drive another 150 miles." So I ended up staying there, and with daily worship services. And we started every day with a Bible study which he led. And it was though the Bible study was prepared for me--$$(Laughter).$$--though he swears it was something that he had done. I mean the verses, "You did not choose me, I chose you and appointed that you should go and bear fruit, and your fruit should abide." [John 15:16] That was one. "Consider the lilies of the field. They toil not, neither do they spin. Yet Solomon in all his glory is not arrayed like one of these. If God so loves the lilies of the field and the birds of the air, how much more does your Heavenly Father love you?" [Matthew 6:28-30]. I mean it was the first time the Bible actually spoke directly to my condition. And I left there feeling that there had to be a purpose in my life, and that it was probably a religious purpose. Now, because there were no other blacks there, and this was a program hoping to involve young people to recommit their lives to Christ, they invited me to volunteer as a field worker, 'cause there were no black volunteers. So I volunteered and they sent me to Camp [Alexander] Mack in [Milford] Indiana for training. And at Camp Mack, which is a Church of the Brethren camp, I read--somebody gave me my first book on [Mohandas] Gandhi, and then I was sent to Connecticut where I was living on the Hartford [Theological] Seminary [Hartford Seminary, Hartford, Connecticut] campus and decided, since most of my work was with young people after school, and I had nothing much to do until three [o'clock] in the afternoon, I went into the dean and asked if I could audit some courses 'cause I didn't know anything about the Bible. And he said, "Well, if you'd sign up for three, we can probably give you a scholarship. There's a Rockefeller Brothers [Fund] grant for the Negro ministry, and it gives you a year to decide whether you're interested in the ministry or not. And we could--if you'll take three courses, we can give you a scholarship." So I took Old Testament, New Testament and philosophy of religion.$$And so after your mountaintop experience, a defining moment in your life, after your field work or your experience in Texas at the camp and after your field work at Camp Mack, Indiana and your exposure to Gandhi, and your experience taking the courses at Hartford, you felt that your life really had direction.$$It seemed to have a direction.$And I went back then, went back to the same church I'd been at that summer in Thomasville, Georgia. And Maynard Jackson's grandfather [John Wesley Dobbs] was speaking at a voter registration rally--well, actually, I think it was a March of Dimes rally in Columbus [Georgia]. And I went up to hear him, and he asked me, in addition to working for the March of Dimes, he asked, would I be willing to lead a voter registration drive. And I said, sure. But the day I was supposed to--the weekend that I was supposed to lead the voter registration drive, we went up to Albany, Georgia and coming back on a back road, just as we turned around the curve at Doerun, Georgia, right outside of Moultrie [Georgia]. It looked like there were several hundred people with sheets on. There was a gathering of a [Ku Klux] Klan [KKK] rally. Well, I slowed down and eased through the crowd, but my wife [Jean Childs Young] and my three-month old baby [Andrea Young] were in the back seat. And on the way back, we were trying to decide, you know, we had not seen the Klan. We hadn't had any trouble until we put up these signs announcing a voter registration drive. So we figured they were coming to try to intimidate us about voter registration. And there were two things happened that were formative in my life. One, coming out of Hartford [Theological Seminary; Hartford Seminary, Hartford, Connecticut], and Jean was a good, country girl, and one of the things we used to do when we were courting was go back out in the woods with her .22 [rifle] and have a shooting contest. And she could always, I mean we'd stopped off in Coney Island [New York, New York] and at a moving target, she hit sixteen out of twenty. And everything we did was competitive. I mean she'd--so, I mean she could handle a gun with no problem. I said, "Look, if these people come here, you cannot sit here and let them burn down this house." We were in an old house, not unlike this one except that it had not been repaired. We had no carpets on the floor. We were in the process of putting down some linoleum, and putting up sheetrock, and if somebody had thrown a match in there, it would have gone up in smoke. And we were living on the second story. So I said, "I'm gonna go outside and talk to 'em, but I want you to point the gun at the guy that I'm talking to just so we can talk on even terms." This is my translation of Reinhold Niebuhr realpolitik, negotiating from a position of strength, see. And she says, "I'm not gonna point any gun at a human being. I don't care if he is a Klansman." I said, "Woman, well, what do you want? You want them to burn down our house or our baby, kill our three-month old baby? I'm not afraid to die, but there's no need in us running this risk." And she said, "If you don't believe the stuff you're preaching, we just as well fold up and go home. And if you're not gonna trust God in this kind of thing, then you got nothing to preach about." Well, that put me in my place.

Clayola Brown

Union and civil rights leader Clayola Brown was born Clayola Beatrice Oliver on August 4, 1948, in Charleston, South Carolina. Of Gullah ancestry, Brown attended school in Key West, Florida and Oxnard, California before graduating from Philadelphia’s Simon Gratz High School in 1966, where she was an athlete and majorette. At age fifteen, Brown joined her mother, Ann Belle Jenkins Shands, in a successful campaign to bring the Textile Workers Union of America (TWUA) to the Manhattan Shirt Factory in Charleston. Brown later attended Florida A&M University, graduating in 1970 with her B.S. degree in secondary education and physical education.

In 1970, Brown was hired by TWUA in their claims department in Opalaca, Alabama. Subsequently, Brown went on to play an organizing role in the seventeen-year struggle to unionize the textile giant, J.P. Stevens, culminating in 1980 with four thousand workers winning a contract through the newly formed Amalgamated Clothing and Textile Workers Union (ACTWU). Brown served as the ACTWU’s education director, civil rights director, and also, for thirteen years, as manager of the ACTWU’s Laundry Division. In 1991, Brown was elected international vice president of the ACTWU; a post which she was continually reelected to for over a decade. In 1994, President Bill Clinton appointed Brown to the National Commission on Employment Policy. In 1995, Brown helped merge the International Ladies Garment Workers Union (ILGWU) with ACTWU to form the Union of Needle Trades, Industrial and Textile Employees (UNITE, now UNITEHERE!). That same year, Brown was elected international vice president of the AFL-CIO. In 2004, Brown became the first woman to serve as national president of the A. Phillip Randolph Institute.

Brown served on the board of Amalgamated Bank, the Congressional Black Caucus Foundation, and SCLC. At the NAACP, Brown served on the Labor Ad Hoc, and NAACP Image Awards Committees. Brown also served on the Executive Committee of the Workers Defense League and as the first vice president of the Coalition of Black Trade Unionists (CBTU). Brown was honored with the NAACP Leadership and Keeper of the Flame Awards, the CBTU Woman of Valor Award, the SCLC Drum Major for Justice Award and many others.

Brown and her husband, Alfred Brown, have a son, Alfred, Jr.

Accession Number

A2005.161

Sex

Female

Interview Date

7/13/2005

Last Name

Brown

Maker Category
Schools

Simon Gratz High School

Hueneme High School

East Bay Elementary

Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University

First Name

Clayola

Birth City, State, Country

Charleston

HM ID

BRO28

Favorite Season

Spring

State

South Carolina

Favorite Vacation Destination

South Carolina

Favorite Quote

Let The Work I Do Speak For Me.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

8/4/1948

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Greens (Collard)

Short Description

Civil rights leader, labor leader, and union leader Clayola Brown (1948 - ) was vice president of the AFL-CIO, and the first female national president of the A. Philip Randolph Institute.

Employment

Textile Workers Union of America

A. Philip Randolph Institute

Manhattan Shirt Factory

Favorite Color

Green

DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Clayola Brown's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Clayola Brown lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Clayola Brown talks about her mother's side of the family

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Clayola Brown describes her maternal family's move between Vance and Charleston, South Carolina

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Clayola Brown describes her maternal grandfather

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Clayola Brown talks about the Gullah and Geechee languages

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Clayola Brown talks about her mother's upbringing in South Carolina

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Clayola Brown talks about her father's side of the family

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Clayola Brown describes how her mother and biological father met

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Clayola Brown talks about her stepfather's family

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Clayola Brown describes her parents' personalities

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Clayola Brown shares early childhood memories

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Clayola Brown describes the sights, sounds and smells of growing up

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Clayola Brown describes her early musical interests

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Clayola Brown remembers attending Vance Baptist Church with her family in Vance, South Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Clayola Brown describes how she takes after her mother

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Clayola Brown recalls her school experiences in Charleston, South Carolina and Key West, Florida

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Clayola Brown remembers her fourth grade teacher at East Bay Elementary in Charleston, South Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Clayola Brown describes moving between Florida, California, Pennsylvania and South Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Clayola Brown remembers Daisy Richardson, her mentor at Simon Gratz High School in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Clayola Brown remembers union organizing at Manhattan Shirt Factory in Charleston, South Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Clayola Brown describes Simon Gratz High School in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Clayola Brown describes her female role models

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Clayola Brown describes her independent and questioning mind

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Clayola Brown recalls music and literature that inspired her

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Clayola Brown remembers conversations with white teenagers at the Gloria Theater in Charleston, South Carolina

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Clayola Brown describes Charleston, South Carolina

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Clayola Brown recalls her introduction to Florida A&M University in Tallahassee, Florida

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Clayola Brown describes her experiences at Florida A&M University in Tallahassee, Florida, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Clayola Brown describes her experiences at Florida A&M University in Tallahassee, Florida, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Clayola Brown describes National Pan-Hellenic Council groups at Florida A&M University in Tallahassee, Florida

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Clayola Brown remembers her activism at Florida A&M University in Tallahassee, Florida

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Clayola Brown describes being hired by the Textile Workers Union of America in New York City

Tape: 3 Story: 12 - Clayola Brown remembers the assassination of Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Clayola Brown describes her employment with the Textile Workers Union of America

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Clayola Brown describes balancing her early career and her marriage

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Clayola Brown describes organizing workers at J.P. Stevens & Company in Roanoke Rapids, North Carolina

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Clayola Brown describes the decline of U.S. unions and job opportunities

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Clayola Brown describes J.P. Stevens & Company's organizing campaign

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Clayola Brown remembers her tenure at Amalgamated Clothing and Textile Workers Union

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Clayola Brown describes the qualities for effective labor organizing

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Clayola Brown describes the role of religion and party politics in unionization

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Clayola Brown describes her experience as an African American woman organizer

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Clayola Brown describes her mentors and board service

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - Clayola Brown shares her perspective on the NAACP Image Award

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Clayola Brown shares her concerns for the labor movement, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Clayola Brown shares her concerns for the labor movement, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Clayola Brown describes the trade union movement and Walmartization

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Clayola Brown shares her perspective on the effects of Walmartization

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Clayola Brown her leadership vision for the A. Philip Randolph Institute in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Clayola Brown describes her hopes for the African American community

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Clayola Brown reflects upon her life and legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Clayola Brown talks about her mother's support

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Clayola Brown describes how she would like to be remembered

Reverend Dr. Joseph Lowery

Outspoken civil rights activist the Reverend Joseph Lowery was born on October 6, 1921, in Huntsville, Alabama. Considered the dean of the Civil Rights Movement, Lowery began his education in Huntsville, spending his middle school years in Chicago before returning to Huntsville to complete high school. From there, Lowery attended Knoxville College, Payne College and Theological Seminary, and the Chicago Ecumenical Institute. Lowery earned his doctorate of divinity as well.

Lowery began his work with civil rights in the early 1950s in Mobile, Alabama, where he headed the Alabama Civic Affairs Association, an organization devoted to the desegregation of buses and public places. During this time, the state of Alabama sued Lowery, along with several other prominent ministers, on charges of libel, seizing his property. The Supreme Court sided with the ministers, and Lowery's seized property was returned. In 1957, Lowery and Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., formed the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) and Lowery was named vice president. H Lowery led the famous 1965 Selma to Montgomery March - the Bloody Sunday march - at the time that George Wallace was governor of Alabama.

Lowery was co-founder and former president of the Black Leadership Forum, a consortium of black advocacy groups. The Forum began protesting apartheid in South Africa in the mid-1970s, and continued their activities in that region until the election of Nelson Mandela. In 1979, during a rash of disappearances of Atlanta's African American youth, Lowery provided a calm voice to a frightened community. In 1990, Lowery was invited by the FBI to meet with director William Sessions to conduct a seminar on African Americans and the image of the FBI.

After serving his community for more than forty-five years, Lowery retired from the pulpit in 1997. Lowery also retired in 1998 from the SCLC as president and CEO. Despite his retirement, Lowery still remaind active; he worked to encourage African Americans to vote, and even recorded a rap with artist NATE the Great to help spread this message.

Lowery received numerous awards, including an NAACP Lifetime Achievement Award, and the Martin Luther King Center Peace Award. Essence twice named Lowery as one of the Fifteen Greatest Black Preachers. Lowery's wife, Evelyn Gibson Lowery, was also an activist in her own right.

Accession Number

A2003.185

Sex

Male

Interview Date

8/13/2003

Last Name

Lowery

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Organizations
First Name

Joseph

Birth City, State, Country

Huntsville

HM ID

LOW03

Favorite Season

All Seasons

State

Alabama

Favorite Vacation Destination

Anywhere Warm

Favorite Quote

Let's turn to each other and not on each other.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Birth Date

10/6/1921

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Atlanta

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Chicken, Rice, Gravy, Collard Greens

Short Description

Civil rights leader, minister, and nonprofit chief executive Reverend Dr. Joseph Lowery (1921 - ) was co-founder of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) and led the Selma to Montgomery March in 1965.

Employment

Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)

Black Leadership Forum

Favorite Color

Black, Gold, Green, Red

DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Joseph Lowery interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Joseph Lowery's favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Joseph Lowery discusses his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Joseph Lowery describes his paternal grandmother

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Joseph Lowery remembers his mother

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Joseph Lowery remembers his father's stories

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Joseph Lowery describes his childhood memories

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Joseph Lowery describes his childhood environs, Huntsville, Alabama

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Joseph Lowery shares memories from his school life

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Joseph Lowery discusses his early occupational options

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Joseph Lowery recalls his years at Knoxville College, Knoxville, Tennessee

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Joseph Lowery recalls being called to the ministry

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Joseph Lowery discusses his college transfer

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Joseph Lowery recalls his employment pursuits following college

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Joseph Lowery describes his Civil Rights efforts in Mobile, Alabama

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Joseph Lowery recalls the beginnings of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Joseph Lowery recalls the New York Times Company v. Sullivan Supreme Court ruling of 1964

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Joseph Lowery discusses his Civil Rights participation in Birmingham, Alabama, early 1960s

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Joseph Lowery remembers the Selma to Montgomery civil rights march, 1965

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Joseph Lowery discusses past and present issues regarding voters' rights

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Joseph Lowery reflects on the assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Joseph Lowery recalls a clash with the Ku Klux Klan at a 1979 protest march, Decatur, Alabama

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Joseph Lowery describes his collaboration with the FBI

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Joseph Lowery describes boycotts against South African companies during the apartheid era, late 1970s

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Joseph Lowery offers a pessimistic view on current domestic and international events

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Joseph Lowery shares political reflections on the 2000 and upcoming 2004 election cycle

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Joseph Lowery discusses the role of social justice in organized religion

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Joseph Lowery contrasts the lives of Nelson Mandela and Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Joseph Lowery compares and contrasts religion and spirituality

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Joseph Lowery considers his legacy