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Caroline Hunter

Anti-Apartheid activist and educator Caroline Hunter was born on September 5, 1946 in New Orleans, Louisiana. She attended Xavier University Preparatory School and graduated from Xavier University of Louisiana with her B.S. degree in chemistry in 1968.

After graduation, Hunter was hired as a research bench chemist for Polaroid Corporation in Cambridge, Massachusetts. In 1970, upon the discovery of her employer’s involvement in the South African apartheid system as the producer of the passbook photos, she and her future husband, co-worker Ken Williams, formed the Polaroid Revolutionary Workers Movement (PRWM). Hunter and Williams became the first American activists to challenge their employers’ South African investments. They led a seven-year boycott against Polaroid that included testifying before the United Nations and Congress about American corporations profiting from assisting the South African government. In 1971, Polaroid fired both Hunter and Williams, but the PRWM prevailed and by 1977 Polaroid completely pulled out of South Africa.

After her involvement in the PRWM, Hunter went on to work as an educator. She was a secondary science and math teacher, and volunteered on a number of school-community projects for at-risk youth, advocacy and support for diverse parents, and elimination of the achievement gap. She also taught math and science to Boston, Massachusetts’s public high school students in summers and Saturday workshops. In 1999, Hunter earned her M.Ed. degree from Harvard University’s Graduate School of Education and became the assistant principal of the Cambridge Rindge and Latin School.

Hunter was invited to give the keynote at the Dr. Effie Jones Memorial Luncheon at the AASA National Conference on Education, at the Music City Convention Center in Nashville, Tennessee, and received the Dr. Effie Jones Humanitarian Award from the AASA – The School Superintendents Association on February 14, 2014. Hunter received the 2012 Rosa Parks Memorial Award by the National Education Association for leading the effort that led to sanctions against apartheid in South Africa. The South African Partners presented the Amandla Award to Hunter in 2012, and the Massachusetts Teachers Association presented her with the Louise Gaskins Lifetime Civil Rights Award in 2011. In 1998, after her husband, Ken Williams, passed away, she and her daughter, Lisette, founded the Ken Williams Memorial Scholarship Fund (KWMS), of which Hunter served as secretary and the annual golf tournament coordinator. The KWMS Fund has awarded more than $30,000 in college scholarships to needy high school students from Cambridge and Martha’s Vineyard for outstanding social justice work and art.

Caroline Hunter was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on August 9, 2014.

Accession Number

A2014.246

Sex

Female

Interview Date

08/09/2014

Last Name

Hunter

Maker Category
Marital Status

Widow

Middle Name

Lisetta

Schools

Harvard Graduate School of Education

Antioch Graduate Center

Xavier University of Louisiana

St. Katharine Drexel Preparatory Academy

First Name

Caroline

Birth City, State, Country

New Orleans

HM ID

HUN10

State

Louisiana

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Massachusetts

Birth Date

9/5/1946

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Martha's Vineyard

Country

United States

Short Description

Civil rights activist and educator Caroline Hunter (1946 - ) established the Polaroid Revolutionary Workers Movement with her husband Ken Williams as a boycott effort that led to sanctions against apartheid South Africa.

Employment

Cambridge Rindge and Latin School

Harvard Graduate School, Masters of Teaching Program

Cambridge Workforce

SchoolWorks, Inc.

Boston Area Self-Help Education Committee (BAHEC)

Education Collaborative

New England Aquarium, World of Water Program

DARE, Inc. & BAHEC

Polaroid Corporation

William Pajaud

Artist and insurance executive William Etienne Pajaud, Jr. was born on August 3, 1925 in New Orleans, Louisiana. His father, William Etienne Pajaud, Sr., was a trumpet player and bandleader; his mother, Audrey DuCongé, a college professor of social work. Pajaud and his mother moved around in his youth, from Nashville to Chattanooga, Tennessee, and then to Tyler, Texas. He returned to New Orleans to attend Xavier University, where he graduated with his B.F.A. degree in 1946.

Upon graduation, Pajaud moved to Chicago, Illinois and worked as a sign artist and a freelance designer. In 1949, he relocated to Los Angeles, California, where he enrolled at the Chouinard Art Institute and earned a certificate in advertising and design while working as a postal clerk. Pajaud was the first African American to be admitted to Chouinard’s day school and to complete a degree.

In 1957, Pajaud was hired at the Golden State Mutual Life Insurance Company in Los Angeles, California, where he later became vice president of public relations and advertising. At Golden State, he developed and was curator of the company’s African American art collection, which was considered one of the most important in the world. In his free time, Pajaud painted and exhibited his own artwork in Los Angeles at places such as the Heritage Art Gallery, black-owned Brockman Gallery, and later at the M. Hanks Gallery in Santa Monica, California. He retired from the Golden State Mutual Life Insurance Company in 1987, but continued to paint and exhibit his art widely in museums and galleries throughout the United States.

Pajaud was a member of the Society of Graphic Designers, the Los Angeles County Art Association, and the National Watercolor Society, of which he served as president from 1974 to 1975. His honors include the 1969 PRSA Art Exhibition Award of Merit, the 1971 National Association of Media Women Communications Award, the 1975 University of the Pacific Honor, the 1978 Paul Robeson Special Award for Contribution to the Arts, the 1981 PR News Gold Key Award, the 1981 League of Allied Arts Corporation Artists of Achievement Award, and the 2004 Samella Award.

Pajaud passed away on June 16, 2015 at the age of 89.

William Pajaud was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on August 1, 2014.

Accession Number

A2014.231

Sex

Male

Interview Date

8/1/2014

Last Name

Pajaud

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Etienne

Schools

Corpus Christi Catholic School

Pearl-Cohn Entertainment Magnet High School

Xavier University of Louisiana

Chouinard Art Institute

First Name

William

Birth City, State, Country

New Orleans

HM ID

PAJ01

State

Louisiana

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

California

Birth Date

8/3/1925

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Los Angeles

Country

United States

Death Date

6/16/2015

Short Description

Artist and insurance executive William Pajaud (1925 - 2015 ) developed and was curator of the Golden State Mutual Life Insurance Company’s famous African American art collection. He was also an accomplished painter and exhibited his own artwork in Los Angeles, California and across the United States.

Employment

Golden State Mutual Life Insurance Company

U.S. Postal Service

Stephanie of _______

Danny Bakewell, Sr.

Broadcast Entrepreneur Danny Bakewell, Sr. was born in 1946 in New Orleans, Louisiana. Also raised in New Orleans, he graduated from St. Augustine High School in 1965, and went on to attend the University of Arizona.

At the age of twenty-one, he moved to Los Angeles, California, where he was hired as a community organizer with the Neighborhood Adult Participation Project. During this time, he also worked as the director of new careers at the University of California, Los Angeles before becoming involved with the Black Congress. In the early 1970s, Bakewell was named president and chief executive officer of the Brotherhood Crusade, a Los Angeles-based civil rights and community development organization, where he served until 2006. During his long tenure, he raised over $60 million for community initiatives. He also co-founded the National Black United Fund in 1974.

In 1982, Bakewell became chairman and chief executive officer of The Bakewell Company, one of the largest African American-owned development companies in the United States. In 1986, Bakewell was named president of the Cranston Securities Company, a national investment banking firm. Then, in 2004, he purchased the Los Angeles Sentinel, the oldest and largest African American newspaper on the West Coast. Soon after, in 2007, Bakewell purchased the New Orleans radio station WBOK and in 2009, he was elected chairman of the National Newspaper Publishers Association.

Bakewell also established the Brotherhood Crusade Business Development and Capital Fund, the African American Unity Center, and the Taste of Soul of Los Angeles. In memory of his daughter, Sabriya, who lost her life to leukemia, Bakewell founded the SABRIYA’s Castle of Fun Foundation for hospitalized children. The Foundation has established over 200 units in hospitals around the country.

Bakewell’s numerous awards include the Trumpet Award from the Trumpet Foundation, the JFK Profiles in Courage Award by the Democratic Party, the U.S. Congressional Black Caucus Adam Clayton Powell Award, the Roy Wilkins Award, and the Martin Luther King Drum Major Award, among others. He has also been honored by the NAACP and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, and was inducted into the International Civil Rights Walk of Fame. In addition, the Los Angeles Unified School District honored Bakewell by naming a school after him.

Bakewell lives in California with his wife, Alina. He has two children: Danny, Jr. and Brandi.

Danny Bakewell was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on July 29, 2014.

Accession Number

A2014.169

Sex

Male

Interview Date

7/30/2014 |and| 11/10/2014

Last Name

Bakewell

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Joseph

Schools

St. Augustine High School

University of Arizona School of Law

First Name

Danny

Birth City, State, Country

New Orleans

HM ID

BAK07

State

Louisiana

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

California

Birth Date

10/17/1946

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Los Angeles

Country

United States

Short Description

Broadcast entrepreneur Danny Bakewell, Sr. (1946 - ) was the founder and owner of The Bakewell Company, which included among its holdings the New Orleans radio station WBOK and the Los Angeles Sentinel newspaper. He was also president and chief executive officer of the Brotherhood Crusade for over thirty years.

Employment

Neighborhood Adult Participation Project

University of California, Los Angeles

The Brotherhood Crusade

The National Black United Fund

The Bakewell Company

Cranston Securities Company

The Los Angeles Sentinel

WBOK Radio Station

Andrea Roane

Broadcast journalist Andrea Roane was born on October 5, 1949 in New Orleans, Louisiana to Frederic and Ethel Roane. She attended the Holy Ghost Elementary School, and graduated from the Xavier University Preparatory School in New Orleans. Roane went on to receive her B.A. degree in secondary education in 1971, and her M.A. degree in drama and communications in 1973, both from LSU - New Orleans, now the University of New Orleans.

From 1971 to 1974, Roane worked as a middle school and high school English teacher. She was also coordinator of cultural services for the New Orleans Parish Public Schools, and served as an administrator and principal of the New Orleans Center for Creative Arts. In 1975, Roane was hired as an education reporter for the New Orleans public television station WYES, where she also hosted a weekly magazine show and was the station's project director of a federally funded education show. Roane then worked for WWL-TV, a CBS affiliate, as an education reporter from 1976 until 1978. She returned to WYES for one year, and, in 1979, was hired as a host and correspondent for WETA public broadcasting station. Then, in 1981, Roane was hired as the Sunday evening and weekday morning anchor for WUSA Channel 9 in Washington, D.C., where she went on to serve in a number of news anchor roles. In 1993, she initiated an innovative Washington, D.C. breast cancer awareness program called Buddy Check 9.

Roane has served as co-chair of the Kennedy Center Community and Friends Board; as a member of the Capital Breast Care Center Community Advisory Council; and as a trustee of the National Museum of Women In The Arts. She is also a sustaining director of the Prevent Cancer Foundation. She served on the Georgetown Lombardi Cancer Center Health Disparities Initiative Community Advisory Board; the National Catholic Education Association Board; and served as a trustee of the Catholic University of America. Roane is also a Dame of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta; and a member of the Women's Forum of Washington. She is a lifetime member of both the NAACP and the National Council of Negro Women, and a member of the LINKS, Inc, Metropolitan D.C. Chapter.

Roane has received many awards and honors for her work. She has won multiple Emmy and Gracie Awards. She was also named one of Washingtonian Magazine's "Washingtonians of the Year" in 2006, and was honored by the Sibley Memorial Hospital Foundation with its Community Service Award. In addition to being named the 2010 Rebecca Lipkin Honoree for Media Distinction by Susan G. Komen For the Cure, she received the 2012 Faith Does Justice Award from Catholic Charities.

Roane and her husband, Michael Skehan, live in Washington, D.C. They have two children: Alicia and Andrew.

Andrea Roane was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on January 27, 2014.

Accession Number

A2014.039

Sex

Female

Interview Date

1/27/2014

Last Name

Roane

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Schools

Holy Ghost School

St. Katharine Drexel Preparatory Academy

University of New Orleans

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Andrea

Birth City, State, Country

New Orleans

HM ID

ROA02

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Louisiana

Favorite Vacation Destination

Tuscany, France

Favorite Quote

Try It You May Like It.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

10/5/1949

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Soft Shell Crab

Short Description

Broadcast journalist Andrea Roane (1949 - ) served as a news anchor on WUSA-TV Channel 9 in Washington, D.C. from 1981.

Employment

WUSA-9 / Gannett

WETA / PBS

WYES / PBS

WWL / CBS

New Orleans Public Schools

Favorite Color

Egg Yolk Yellow

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Andrea Roane's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Andrea Roane lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Andrea Roane describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Andrea Roane talks about her Creole heritage

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Andrea Roane describes her maternal family's emphasis on education

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Andrea Roane talks about her mother's community in New Orleans, Louisiana

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Andrea Roane describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Andrea Roane describes her father's military service

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Andrea Roane talks about how her parents met

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Andrea Roane describes her parents' personalities and who she takes after

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Andrea Roane talks about her brother

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Andrea Roane describes her earliest childhood memory

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Andrea Roane describes her neighborhood in New Orleans, Louisiana

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Andrea Roane describes the sights, sounds and smells of her childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Andrea Roane describes her family's food traditions, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Andrea Roane describes her family's food traditions, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Andrea Roane remembers the music of New Orleans, Louisiana

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Andrea Roane remembers celebrating Mardi Gras

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Andrea Roane talks about the Mardi Gras krewes in New Orleans, Louisiana

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Andrea Roane recalls traveling with her paternal grandmother

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Andrea Roane remembers the Holy Ghost Catholic School in New Orleans, Louisiana

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Andrea Roane recalls her early interests and activities

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Andrea Roane remembers the assassination of President John Fitzgerald Kennedy

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Andrea Roane remembers the assassination of Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Andrea Roane recalls the exclusion of women of color from television news

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Andrea Roane remembers the Xavier University Preparatory School in New Orleans, Louisiana, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Andrea Roane remembers the Xavier University Preparatory School in New Orleans, Louisiana, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Andrea Roane recalls her decision to attend Louisiana State University in New Orleans

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Andrea Roane remembers her influential professors

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Andrea Roane talks about her teaching experiences in New Orleans, Louisiana, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Andrea Roane talks about her teaching experiences in New Orleans, Louisiana, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Andrea Roane describes her transition from teaching to education reporting

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Andrea Roane remembers her work at WYES-TV in New Orleans, Louisiana

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Andrea Roane talks about her programming for WYES-TV

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Andrea Roane remembers her time at WWL-TV in New Orleans, Louisiana

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Andrea Roane remembers moving to Washington, D.C.

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Andrea Roane remembers reporting on Hurricane David in Mobile, Alabama

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Andrea Roane recalls joining WETA-TV in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Andrea Roane describes her transition to WDVM-TV in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Andrea Roane remembers the notable journalists on WDVM-TV

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Andrea Roane describes her experiences as a news anchor on WDVM-TV

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Andrea Roane remembers her co-anchor, Mike Buchanan

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Andrea Roane remembers the changes in the community of Washington, D.C.

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Andrea Roane talks about the importance of balanced news coverage

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Andrea Roane remembers being removed from her news anchor position

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Andrea Roane recalls returning to the morning news at WUSA-TV in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Andrea Roane remembers the attacks of September 11, 2001

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Andrea Roane talks about her colleagues at WUSA-TV

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Andrea Roane talks about the Buddy Check 9 program, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Andrea Roane remembers her awards and honors

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Andrea Roane talks about the Buddy Check 9 program, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Andrea Roane reflects upon the highlights of her career

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Andrea Roane describes her production work on WUSA-TV

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Andrea Roane talks about the representation of minorities in the news

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - Andrea Roane talks about the changes in the media industry

Tape: 6 Story: 11 - Andrea Roane talks about her J.C. Hayward's experience of breast cancer

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Andrea Roane talks about the criminal charges against her son

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Andrea Roane reflects upon her life

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Andrea Roane describes her hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Andrea Roane reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Andrea Roane talks about her family

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Andrea Roane remembers her international travels

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Andrea Roane talks about President Barack Obama

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Andrea Roane describes her plans for the future

Tape: 7 Story: 9 - Andrea Roane describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 7 Story: 10 - Andrea Roane narrates her photographs, pt. 1

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Andrea Roane narrates her photographs, pt. 2

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$5

DAStory

8$5

DATitle
Andrea Roane remembers her time at WWL-TV in New Orleans, Louisiana
Andrea Roane describes her experiences as a news anchor on WDVM-TV
Transcript
So I wasn't sure I wanted to leave a place like that, but what did my father [Frederick Roane, Sr.] say? "Try it, you might like it." So I met with Mickey [Mickey Wellman], took me out to a fabulous lunch at Galatoire's in the French Quarter [New Orleans, Louisiana], one of the finest restaurants we have there, and offered me a job in the documentary unit, and I said, "Yes." And I, I wasn't really happy there. They were all very nice and my husband worked in the same--at the same studio, this is WWL-TV, the CBS affiliate. It was owned by Loyola University [Loyola University New Orleans, New Orleans, Louisiana] at the time, and--but I never got to see him 'cause he was in the news department and I was in doc, and--you know, it, it, it was okay. Everyone was nice, but I didn't really feel great about that assignment and when the opportunity came to go back to YES [WYES-TV, New Orleans, Louisiana], I jumped at it, and when I went back, I was given the opportunity of working on some MacNeil Lehrer shows which is now the news hour that you see with Judy Woodruff and [HistoryMaker] Gwen Ifill. It was the Robert MacNeil, Jim Lehrer 'NewsHour' ['The MacNeil/Lehrer News Hour'; 'PBS NewsHour'], and I co-anchored from New Orleans [Louisiana], with Robert MacNeil, a show on the emerging black Republican Party in the South, had never done a network anything, and this was network when you think about the PBS [Public Broadcasting Service] network. And their people (background noise) (pause)--I was asked to do a 'MacNeil/Lehrer News Hour,' and it was on the black Republican Party--the emerging black Republican Party in the South--had never done anything with any kind of network operation; this was network for PBS, and I was waiting to communicate with Robert MacNeil and the producers came in early in the morning and, "Oh, we're great--how do you say your name? Is it (pronunciation) Andrea, Andrea?" I said, "It's Andrea [HistoryMaker Andrea Roane]," and, "Oh, this is great. Where can we have lunch? Where do you recommend for lunch?" So went out to lunch with the producers and the director still had not talked with my co-anchor, Robert MacNeil, and when we got back, it's like maybe 3:30, 4:00, the phone call from--, "How do you say your name?" "Andrea." "Call me Robin, (pronunciation) Andrea, Andrea, Andrea, looking forward to talking with you on the air." That was it. And then we did the show, and it was a pretty good show, if I must say so myself, it was a really good show, and then they were gone. And didn't think any more about it, but then the phone started to ring and people had inquiries about me but I wasn't interested in leaving New Orleans [Louisiana] at all. And then had the opportunity to do another 'MacNeil/Lehrer,' this time Jim was the co-anchor and the subject was the wetlands in Louisiana. And who knew how important a subject matter that would be in the 1970s when we go forward to Katrina [Hurricane Katrina] and not having the wetlands and what that did as far as destruction. And we talked about that and after that, the phones really started ringing. So this is like '77 [1977], '78 [1978]. And opportunities came to go to Chicago [Illinois] with the NBC affiliate [WMAQ-TV]. Cleveland [Ohio] called and, and at this point, I was engaged to be married to my husband to be, Michael Skehan, and I wasn't interested in leaving my home town and besides, he was a news cameraman so I wasn't going to go anywhere where he couldn't go, and little did I know that there were friends at the station who knew people, and the woman who is my associate producer, she had been the secretary at one time for the guy who was the talent scout for NBC Chicago, and another friend, Dinney Bott [ph.], her cousin was vice president of radio for NBC, so all of these people were getting together and we ended up having an interview--my husband and I both had an interview. I said, "I'm not interested in leaving, plus I'm getting ready to be married; my husband's a cameraman, so--gotta find something for the two of us." "Where would you like to go?" I, you know, I said, "Washington, D.C.," that was his home town, "and New York [New York]." This is the number one market 'cause I knew it would never happen (laughter).$You went to the noon time show (unclear) (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Went to the noon time show with Bob Dalton.$$This is in '83 [1983] then, right? Not sure?$$Eighty-two [1982], '83 [1983]? And got pregnant again during the ratings book (laughter), and this time our son Andrew [Andrew Skehan] was born on the first day of the book, May 1st, 1983, and I was out for the entire ratings period. My news director said, "Never do that again." I said, "I promise I won't do it ever again." And came back doing the noon show, doing reporting, covering the arts, what to do on the weekend kind of things, those segments--substituting on the five P.M. show which we had now expanded the five from a half hour to an hour, substituting for J.C. Hayward on that show at six o'clock, substituting at times for [HistoryMaker] Maureen Bunyan and then the, the news wanted to do a four P.M. newscast, and--wow, how about that? I mean we had, we had done some things, I think I had proved myself, and I remember when the Challenger [Space Shuttle Challenger] exploded, I was getting ready to do the noon show, and my news director, Dave Pearce, came out and said, on camera, "Do this." And it was literally a sheet of paper (unclear), the Challenger has exploded, and I think it was--what was it, seventy-three or eighty-three seconds after takeoff. And to the camera--we were on even before CBS came on with their breaking news about this story. And--keep going, keep going, still didn't have a whole lot of wire copy, but luckily I had interviewed Christa McAuliffe and her backup Elizabeth Morgan [sic. Barbara Morgan], as the teachers in space--before, so I was able to, you know, just kind of stretch and stretch. So I, I thought I could do this job and I went into the news director's office and I said, "I'd like to be considered for the position of an anchor on that four o'clock newscast." And he said, "Thank you for letting me know."$$I'm interested in the time management aspect of this, 'cause these times mean that you're sleep- I mean the morning show for instance, what was your routine (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) The morning show wasn't as hard as it is now (laughter). That morning show--literally when we first started in, in '81 [1981], it was a cut in, so it was 6:25, 7:25. I was here like five o'clock in the morning, and then--I've never really been a nine to fiver. I may have always been a little bit earlier or just a little bit later, but then it became a little bit more of a normal hour when our second child was born, so from '83 [1983] to about I guess, until about 1995, it was pretty much a, a normal, middle of the day kind of thing, which worked well with the family. When my children were young, I was home early. When they were older, I was either working a shift where I could do mommy stuff for one school, my husband [Michael Skehan] would pick up the other school. He was home doing homework when I, you know--it kind of worked out. But the schedule has been all over the place, but mainly I've been a morning person and in 2000, when I went back to mornings, it just started to get earlier and earlier, and earlier. But let's not jump around too much.

Patricia Andrews-Keenan

Media and public relations executive Patricia Andrews-Keenan was born in 1954 to Pearline Henderson and James Andrews. She received her B.A. degree in journalism from Grambling State University in 1977, and went on to graduate from the Executive Leadership Development Program at UCLA’s Anderson School.

In 1990, Andrews-Keenan was hired as Director of Public Affairs at Jones Intercable; and, in 1996, she was appointed Vice President of Communications of AT&T Broadband in Deerfield, Illinois. A year later, Andrews-Keenan became Executive Director of Communications at Tele-Communications, Inc., where she served until 2002, when she was appointed as Comcast’s Vice President of Communications in Chicago, Illinois. Then, in 2007, she was hired as Vice President of Corporate Affairs at The Nielsen Company.

In 2008, Andrews-Keenan founded The Tallulah Group, a public relations, communications, media relations and community affairs firm, where she serves as President and Chief Strategist. Her clients have included Quarles & Brady, LLP, Merit Medical, Chicago State University, IlliniCare, LINK Unlimited, Columbia College Chicago, C. Cretors & Company, and the 100 Black Men of Chicago. Additionally, from 2008 until 2010, Andrews-Keenan was an adjunct professor at Columbia College Chicago, where she taught culture, race and media.

Andrews-Keenan has served on a number of organizational boards and committees. She has served on the board of directors of the Chicago Children's Choir, and was a past national president of the National Association for Multi-Ethnicity in Communications (NAMIC). She has also served on the boards of Volunteers of America, the Naperville Chamber of Commerce and the DuPage County Girl Scouts. Andrews-Keenan was a former board chair for the Quad County Urban League, and has been appointed to the YMCA’s Black and Latino Achievers Steering Committee. In addition, she holds memberships in the Executive’s Club of Chicago.

Andrews-Keenan has also received numerous awards for her community relations work, including both a Silver Anvil and Gold Anvil from the Public Relations Society of America, as well as several Beacon Awards from the Association of Cable Communicators (ACC).

Patricia Andrews-Kennan was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on January 23, 2014.

Accession Number

A2014.030

Sex

Female

Interview Date

1/24/2014

Last Name

Andrews-Keenan

Maker Category
Middle Name

Jean

Schools

Grambling State University

University of California, Los Angeles

Wright Elementary School

Tallulah High School

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Patricia

Birth City, State, Country

New Orleans

HM ID

KEE02

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Louisiana

Favorite Vacation Destination

New York, Paris

Favorite Quote

Do Unto Others As You Would Have Them Do Unto You.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Illinois

Birth Date

7/19/1954

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Chicago

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Savory Food, Spicy Food

Short Description

Media executive and public relations executive Patricia Andrews-Keenan (1954 - ) was the founder and chief strategist of the Tallulah Group. She worked as an executive in the cable and telecommunications industry for over twenty years.

Employment

Jones Intercable

AT&T

Telecommunications, Inc.

Comcast

Nielsen Media Research

Tallulah Group

Columbia College

News-Press

Denver Weekly News

Mountain Bell

Internal Revenue Service

Favorite Color

Red

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Patricia Andrews-Keenan's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Patricia Andrews-Keenan lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Patricia Andrews-Keenan describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Patricia Andrews-Keenan describes her mother's personality

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Patricia Andrews-Keenan describes the African American community in Tallulah, Louisiana

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Patricia Andrews-Keenan talks about her mother's education and aspirations

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Patricia Andrews-Keenan describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Patricia Andrews-Keenan describes how her parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Patricia Andrews-Keenan describes her parents' personalities and who she takes after

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Patricia Andrews-Keenan lists her siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Patricia Andrews-Keenan remembers the desegregation of Tallulah, Louisiana

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Patricia Andrews-Keenan describes the sights, sounds and smells of her childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Patricia Andrews-Keenan describes her experiences at Wright Elementary School in Tallulah, Louisiana

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Patricia Andrews-Keenan remembers her home life

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Patricia Andrews-Keenan recalls her early interest in reading

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Patricia Andrews-Keenan talks about her favorite books

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Patricia Andrews-Keenan remembers integrating Tallulah High School in Tallulah, Louisiana

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Patricia Andrews-Keenan remembers her teachers at Tallulah High School in Tallulah, Louisiana

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Patricia Andrews-Keenan describes her early aspirations

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Patricia Andrews-Keenan describes her family

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Patricia Andrews-Keenan describes her decision to attend Grambling State University in Grambling, Louisiana

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Patricia Andrews-Keenan describes her first impressions of Grambling State University in Grambling, Louisiana

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Patricia Andrews-Keenan recalls her extracurricular activities at Grambling State University

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Patricia Andrews-Keenan recalls her internship at The News-Press in Fort Myers, Florida

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Patricia Andrews-Keenan talks about her time at Grambling State University

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Patricia Andrews-Keenan describes her early career in Denver, Colorado

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Patricia Andrews-Keenan talks about her transition into the cable industry

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Patricia Andrews-Keenan talks about the acquisition of Syntel, Inc. by Jones Intercable

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Patricia Andrews-Keenan describes her position at Jones Intercable

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Patricia Andrews-Keenan talks about how she came to work for the Comcast Corporation

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Patricia Andrews-Keenan describes the changes in telecommunication laws

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Patricia Andrews-Keenan describes her position at the Comcast Corporation

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Patricia Andrews-Keenan talks about the Comcast Corporation's acquisition of AT&T Broadband LLC

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Patricia Andrews-Keenan talks about C. Michael Armstrong's role at AT&T Broadband LLC

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Patricia Andrews-Keenan talks about her involvement in the National Association for Minorities in Cable

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Patricia Andrews-Keenan describes her presidency of the National Association of Minorities in Cable

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Patricia Andrews-Keenan describes her role as vice president of communications at the Comcast Corporation

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Patricia Andrews-Keenan talks about her role at Nielsen Media Research

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Patricia Andrews-Keenan talks about the Tallulah Group

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Patricia Andrews-Keenan remembers teaching at Columbia College Chicago in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Patricia Andrews-Keenan reflects upon her career in the cable industry

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Patricia Andrews-Keenan talks about her civic involvement in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Patricia Andrews-Keenan talks about the future of the cable industry

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Patricia Andrews-Keenan reflects upon her life

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Patricia Andrews-Keenan describes her plans for the future

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Patricia Andrews-Keenan describes her experiences of workplace discrimination

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Patricia Andrews-Keenan describes her hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Patricia Andrews-Keenan reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Patricia Andrews-Keenan talks about her family

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Patricia Andrews-Keenan describes how she would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

5$1

DAStory

6$5

DATitle
Patricia Andrews-Keenan talks about the Tallulah Group
Patricia Andrews-Keenan describes the African American community in Tallulah, Louisiana
Transcript
And then in 2008 I decided to kind of strike out on my own and see what we could do with media (laughter) and PR [public relations] with all the things that I'd learned over the years, so.$$So you established the Tallulah Group [Chicago, Illinois]?$$The Tallulah Group.$$Okay.$$Yeah.$$And named after your hometown?$$Named after my hometown. I'd always said if I decided to do something on my own, you know, I just wanted to pay homage to where I came from and have people remember Tallulah [Louisiana] for being something other than Tallulah Bankhead, but then by that time, I think Tallulah Willis, Bruce Willis had a daughter named Tallulah too, so I'm like, okay. And then there's a restaurant in Chicago [Illinois] named Tallulah, I found out about the same time, so (laughter).$$Now Tallulah Bankhead has a kind of a wild history--$$She did. She was kind of racy for her time, so. So I think that's kind of a nice thing to have all those, you know, those different thoughts about that name, so. And I don't know anybody--you know there aren't too many companies named that that I know of, so I thought it was a good one.$$Okay. It's a memorable name. So, your clients have included Quarles and Brady LLP, Merit Medical [Merit Medical Systems, Inc.], Chicago State University [Chicago, Illinois], AtlantiCare, LINK Unlimited [LINK Unlimited Scholars], Columbia College [Columbia College Chicago, Chicago, Illinois], 100 Black Men [100 Black Men of America, Inc.]?$$Yeah. The nice thing about it is doing the work that I did for Comcast [Comcast Corporation], specifically, I had a lot of relationships in the marketplace, 'cause that's part of your job is to cultivate relationships. And one thing that Comcast was, was a big supporter of education and that kind of fits with who I am. So, specifically, a lot of those education concerns were companies that I'd worked with while I was part of Comcast and some of the other cable companies, so it kind of fits, it really fits. We're really about helping people tell their story, you know, helping them communicate with the media, helping them, you know, developing relationships with the media and helping them, you know, do the things that they do better. So it's been--it's been interesting, especially considering, you know, the kind of downturn we've been in, so everything, you know, same skills, same things, so it works really well. And then the other thing that I've tried to do is maintain the work with the not for profits as well, 'cause during the Comcast years, I was just involved with a ton of not for profits. And some of them, you know, are doing amazing work and I've been fortunate to stay involved with those as well.$$Okay, okay. I read--now I read here that social media plays a prominent role in your firm's outreach tactic?$$Yes. It's--I love social media. I think it is just so amazing. The one thing I think you always have to be willing to learn something new. So in 2008 as I was making this transition, you know, I just kind of immersed myself to see what was going on and what people were doing in social media. So I don't think there's a social media that I haven't done, I mean, you know, from Facebook to Twitter to LinkedIn to Quora to, you know, it's just been really fun, because it's just--to me it's all tactical. It's just another way to share a message to communicate to connect with people. So I found it immensely fun to kind of look at this and say how is this--some things I think never change, I mean, you always gonna have to know how to write a press release. And if there's anything bad about these things is the fact that people don't write like they used to. Everything's an abbreviation, everything's you know a little bit different than it used to be, but--but taken correctly and used correctly, I think it adds to all these things that you're doing. Chicago State University, I'll use them as an example. Last year they--they decided to hold a gala concert with [HistoryMaker] Smokey Robinson, and we were able to use, you know, Facebook, specifically, and just really increase the visibility and really get people engaged. We were doing things like every day we were sending out old Smokey songs or putting out old pictures of Smokey, you know, with The Miracles, or telling his Motown [Motown Records] history. So it's just--I just think social media is a great way to kind of share with people and engage with people, so. It's been, it's been a lot of fun kind of learning those things, so.$Are there any family stories about what life was like in Madison Parish [Louisiana]?$$In Madison Parish?$$I mean in terms of the black community and (unclear)?$$Oh, yeah, yeah. Now we, you know, again, small southern town. And when I grew up, you know, still a lot of the vestiges of things, you know, from the, from, from the integration. I can--and I can barely remember them, but it seems to me that there was still a few signs I can remember, you know, kind of black and white things. Definitely, we lived on one side of the proverbial railroad track, which was actually, literally, a railroad track. So we lived on one side of town and, you know, the white population, for the most part, lived on the opposite side of town. Through the middle of Tallulah, Louisiana, there runs the brushy bayou. We're a river town so, you know, you can go maybe twenty miles and hit the Mississippi River on the one side and then in our town, there's brushy bayou, which kind of separated the town. So you know we lived on one side, the white community lived on the other side. I remember growing up and we would go to the little grocery store, you know, you'd have your neighborhood grocery store and we had a good--we had an interesting black community because one of the first black police chiefs in the country, Zelma Wyche, was from Tallulah, Louisiana, one of the early elected black officials.$$This is a man?$$Yeah, Zelma Wyche. I didn't even know I remembered that (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) W--W-Y-C-H?$$C-H, yeah.$$Okay. C-H-E, I guess?$$Yeah, I think so. I'm going to have to go back and look at that. But yeah, he was one of the first black elected police chiefs in Louisiana. And I want to say maybe, you know, pretty close to in the country, so I definitely remember that that was kind of--that was a really big deal for us, but you know, it's still cotton fields--still we're in--in our town. And when I was young, I used to go with my uncle [Andrews-Keenan's maternal great uncle, James Rucker]. In the summer when I got older (laughter), I made the mistake of saying, "Well, I want to make some money." He would take people to the field to chop cotton. And I remember I got to be a teenager. And it was like, "I want to make some money." He's like, "Well you can go with us." Oh, what a mistake. I'm like why did I choose to (laughter)--but yeah, still cotton field right across from my house. I could see it every day and people were still, you know, wasn't all mechanized then, it was still--there was still cotton being picked, people were going to manually chop cotton. When my c- my older cousin was coming along, and he was probably about ten or fifteen years older than I, there were still times when people, they let kids out of school to do that. Yeah, there was still that time when they might take a part time out of school when it was harvesting season. It didn't happen (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) It's a time sensitive crop.$$Right, right. It wasn't--when I came along we didn't do that; but I remember those kids, that were like ten years older than I was. Yeah, that was still that time when I was a little kid, so.

Radm. Stephen Rochon

U.S. Coast Guard Rear Admiral Stephen W. Rochon was born in New Orleans, Louisiana and enlisted in the U. S. Coast Guard in 1970. He received a commission as an ensign in 1975 from the Officer Candidate School at Yorktown, Virginia. He then was assigned to Marine Safety Office (MSO) in California as assistant port operations and intelligence officer. In 1979, he served in the Coast Guard Reserve while attending Xavier University of Louisiana and graduated from there with his B.S. degree in business administration. Rochon then graduated from the National Defense University’s Industrial College of the Armed Forces (ICAF) in 1999 with his M.S. degree in national resource strategy. In 2002, he also completed the Harvard University John F. Kennedy School of Government Senior Executive Program for National and International Security, and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology School of Management.

In 1984, Rochon returned to active duty and served as Chief of the Reserve Training Branch of the Ninth Coast Guard District in Cleveland, Ohio. In this capacity, Rochon organized the Coast Guard’s first combat skills course with the Marine Corps in Quantico, Virginia and served on temporary duty in the Middle East to train the Royal Jordanian Coast Guard. Rochon served as the Coast Guard's director of personnel management in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina and Hurricane Rita in 2005 where he provided support for Coast Guard personnel and their families. In 2006, Rochon became the Commander of Maintenance and Logistics Command at the U.S. Coast Guard’s Atlantic Headquarters; and, in, 2007, he was named Director of the Executive Residence and Chief Usher at the White House for former President George W. Bush. The first African American to hold the position, Rochon ran the executive mansion for four years for Presidents George W. Bush and Barack Obama, executing all major events at the White House and preserving the nation’s most historic home.

His military awards include the Distinguished Service Medal, three Legion of Merit Medals, two Meritorious Service Medals, two Coast Guard Commendation Medals, two Department of Transportation 9/11 Medals, two Coast Guard Achievement Medals, two Commandant’s Letter of Commendation Ribbons, among twenty service and unit awards. His civilian awards include the 1989 Coast Guard Equal Opportunity Achievement Award, the 1990 United Negro College Fund Leadership Award, the 1997 Port of Baltimore Vital Link Award, the 1998 Vice President Gore Hammer Award, the 1998 NAACP Roy P. Wilkins Renowned Service Award, the 2001 World Trade Center New Orleans C. Alvin Bertel Award, the 2002 Greater New Orleans Barge Fleeting Association Maritime Person of the Year, the 2007 Ellis Island Medal of Honor, and the 2009 Spirit of Hope Award.

U.S. Coast Guard Rear Admiral Stephen W. Rochon was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on August 8, 2013.

Accession Number

A2013.184

Sex

Male

Interview Date

8/8/2013

Last Name

Rochon

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Wayne

Occupation
Schools

Blessed Sacrament School

St. Katharine Drexel Preparatory Academy

Xavier University of Louisiana

National Defense University (ICAF)

University of Maryland

Northeastern High School

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Stephen

Birth City, State, Country

New Orleans

HM ID

ROC02

Favorite Season

Christmas

State

Louisiana

Favorite Vacation Destination

Bahamas, Jamaica

Favorite Quote

Find The Good And Praise It.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

3/7/1950

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Shrimp Po' Boy

Short Description

Rear admiral Radm. Stephen Rochon (1950 - ) served as director of personnel management in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina and Hurricane Rita in 2005, and went on to become the first African American director of the Executive Residence and usher at the White House where he served under Presidents George W. Bush and Barack Obama.

Employment

Delete

Unites States Customs and Border Protection

White House

United States Coast Guard

United States Coast Guard Marine Safety Office

United States Coast Guard Ninth District

United States Department of Transportation

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:2112,39:35228,357:35623,363:55744,644:60602,693:60890,698:63542,727:63814,732:78826,924:82069,959:85520,1024:90888,1099:95560,1166:98066,1208:99698,1229:109226,1328:109694,1343:110006,1348:110474,1355:110786,1360:111956,1382:118304,1501:122074,1544:122398,1549:123370,1560:124099,1570:125071,1588:125395,1593:125719,1598:126043,1603:128797,1689:137363,1783:151501,1959:154412,1991:155924,2029:157148,2056:179665,2366:179965,2371:181315,2394:192838,2518:202690,2615$0,0:4107,47:4761,57:5197,62:19650,219:36717,438:39958,479:54080,705:92180,1034:132897,1492:133301,1497:137885,1542:142590,1596:151035,1676:157248,1756:164700,1812:199950,2182:217708,2393:230550,2554
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Stephen Rochon's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Stephen Rochon lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Stephen Rochon describes his mother's family background, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Stephen Rochon describes his mother's family background, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Stephen Rochon talks about his maternal grandfather and his job as a Pullman porter

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Stephen Rochon talks about his mother's growing up in Baltimore, Maryland and New Orleans, Louisiana

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Stephen Rochon describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Stephen Rochon talks about how his parents met, his father's success as a pharmacist, his parents' divorce and his relationship with his father

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Stephen Rochon talks about his siblings, his similarities to his mother and his maternal grandfather, and his step-father's name

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Stephen Rochon describes his earliest childhood memories of taking trips with his mother and brothers in his mother's car

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Stephen Rochon discusses racism and segregation in the South, and contrasts this with his trip to Washington, D.C.

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Stephen Rochon talks about the schools that he attended in New Orleans, Louisiana

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Stephen Rochon talks about his elementary school in New Orleans, Louisiana

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Stephen Rochon describes the sights, sounds and smells of growing up in New Orleans, Louisiana

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Stephen Rochon describes Mardi Gras in New Orleans while he was growing up, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Stephen Rochon describes Mardi Gras in New Orleans while he was growing up, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Stephen Rochon talks about the practice of throwing coconuts in the Mardi Gras parade

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Stephen Rochon talks about his interest in chemistry in grade school

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Stephen Rochon talks about his high school in New Orleans, Louisiana

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Stephen Rochon talks about his interest in music and his family's musical inclinations

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Stephen Rochon talks about running for student body president and playing sports in high school

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Stephen Rochon talks about his interest in music, Xavier University's pharmacy department and joining the U.S. Coast Guard

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Stephen Rochon recalls Dr. Martin Luther King's assassination

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Stephen Rochon describes his experience at Xavier University, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Stephen Rochon describes his experience at Xavier University, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Stephen Rochon discusses his decision to join the U.S. Coast Guard

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Stephen Rochon talks about joining the U.S. Coast Guard in 1970

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Stephen Rochon talks about his early experience in the U.S. Coast Guard and his promotion after three years

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Stephen Rochon talks about his early promotion, working in the U.S. Coast Guard recruiting office and his decision to stay in the service

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Stephen Rochon talks about the end of his first marriage, his parents' support, and raising his son

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Stephen Rochon talks about raising his son in California, resigning from active Coast Guard duty, and his father's business going bankrupt

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Stephen Rochon talks about working in real estate, returning to Xavier University and going back into active duty in the U.S. Coast Guard in 1984

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Stephen Rochon talks about his tour as Chief of the Reserve Training Branch of the U.S. Coast Guard's 9th District in Cleveland, Ohio

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Stephen Rochon talks about his tour as Chief of the Port Security Branch at the U.S. Coast Guard headquarters in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Stephen Rochon talks about his tours as Chief of Officer Recruiting and Chief of the Officer Programs Branch, and his promotion to lieutenant commander

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Stephen Rochon talks about the Haitian migrant crisis of the early 1990s

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Stephen Rochon talks about his first day at the U.S Coast Guard headquarters and Alex Haley's significance in the Coast Guard

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Stephen Rochon discusses the absence of an African Americans in the U.S. Coast Guard when he joined in the 1970s

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Stephen Rochon discusses his interest in black history in the U.S. Coast Guard, his mentor, Alex Haley, and dating and marrying his second wife

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Stephen Rochon talks about his service as deputy commander of MIO/Activities in Baltimore and attending the National Defense University

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Stephen Rochon describes his experience as the commanding officer of the U.S. Coast Guard Marine Safety Office in New Orleans, and becoming a rear admiral

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Stephen Rochon talks about becoming the second African American rear admiral in the history of the U.S. Coast Guard, after Erroll Brown

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Stephen Rochon describes his service and experience in the U.S. Department of Transportation

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Stephen Rochon recalls the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Stephen Rochon talks about the Department of Transportation and becoming the acting director of the Office of Intelligence and Security

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Stephen Rochon describes his experience as the acting assistant commandant for Intelligence in the U.S. Coast Guard

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Stephen Rochon reflects upon the communication between U.S. Intelligence agencies

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Stephen Rochon discusses his assignment as the director of Personnel Management, his command in Norfolk, Virginia, and Hurricane Katrina

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Stephen Rochon talks about being recruited as the Chief Usher of The White House, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Stephen Rochon talks about being recruited as the Chief Usher of The White House, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Stephen Rochon describes the history of the role of the Chief Usher of The White House

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Stephen Rochon talks about demographics of the White House staff members, and their longevity of service, pt. 1

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Stephen Rochon talks about demographics of the White House staff members, and their longevity of service, pt. 2

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Stephen Rochon describes his responsibilities as the Chief Usher of the White House

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Stephen Rochon describes how the White House transitions between presidents, pt. 1

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Stephen Rochon describes how the White House transitions between presidents, pt. 2

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Stephen Rochon describes his experience in the White House with the Obama family, pt. 1

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Stephen Rochon describes his experience in the White House with the Obama family, pt. 2

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Stephen Rochon talks about picking a swing set for President Barack Obama's daughters and the basketball court in the White House

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Stephen Rochon talks about working in collaboration with the Secret Service at the White House

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Stephen Rochon describes his experience at the White House State dinner for the Queen of England in 2007

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Stephen Rochon describes his experience during Pope Benedict's visit to the White House

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - Stephen Rochon talks about the differences between the Bushes' and the Obamas' stay in the White House

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - Stephen Rochon talks about his family's reaction and support of his service as the chief usher of the White House

Tape: 8 Story: 6 - Stephen Rochon talks about his decision to retire as the chief usher of the White House

Tape: 8 Story: 7 - Stephen Rochon talks about the subject matter for his book, pt. 1

Tape: 8 Story: 8 - Stephen Rochon talks about the subject matter for his book, pt. 2

Tape: 8 Story: 9 - Stephen Rochon talks about the film, 'Lee Daniels' The Butler', pt. 1

Tape: 9 Story: 1 - Stephen Rochon talks about the film, 'Lee Daniels' The Butler', pt. 2

Tape: 9 Story: 2 - Stephen Rochon reflects upon his life

Tape: 9 Story: 3 - Stephen Rochon reflects upon opportunities in the U.S. Coast Guard

Tape: 9 Story: 4 - Stephen Rochon talks about The Rochon Group, LLC

Tape: 9 Story: 5 - Stephen Rochon describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 9 Story: 6 - Stephen Rochon reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 9 Story: 7 - Stephen Rochon talks about his family

Tape: 9 Story: 8 - Stephen Rochon talks about how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 9 Story: 9 - Stephen Rochon describes his photographs, pt. 1

Tape: 10 Story: 1 - Stephen Rochon describes his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$6

DAStory

1$7

DATitle
Stephen Rochon talks about joining the U.S. Coast Guard in 1970
Stephen Rochon describes the history of the role of the Chief Usher of The White House
Transcript
Okay, so [U.S.] Coast Guard, you met a brother in bell bottoms (laughter)?$$Yeah, yeah, 6'2" [height]. I'll never forget him, SK-1, Henry Dillsworth, D-I-L-L-S-W-O-R-T-H. And he was the first one when I walked in that office. And I said, God, that's an impressive man, tall guy in these bell bottoms, and got this flack tie, kerchief around his neck and white piping, you know, coming down here, and I said, man, that looks pretty sharp. And so we started talking, and I said, my cousin told me I should check this out, you know. And he said, Ah, Rochon, you know, it's a good outfit. And I says, well, tell me what those stripes mean on your arm. He had an arm full of stripes we call hash marks, and each stripe means four years of service. But the rank was up here, and I said, what is that? He said, I'm a second-class petty officer. And I said, oh, okay, that sounds impressive. I says, what's the next step from there. He says, you become a first class. So I said, well, how long does it take to become a first class? And he says, well, you won't have to worry about that Rochon because you have you--you have to wait till your second term, your second hitch. He said, I've been in, you know, a good fifteen years, and I'm second class. So I says, well, how quickly can you make first class? And he says, well, there're some people that make it in under four years, and we call 'em "slick arm first." In other words, they have nothing on this arm 'cause they don't have enough years to have even one stripe representing four years. So sometimes people make it in less than four years. He said, but don't worry about that. That doesn't happen. I said, but is it possible? And he says, yeah. And I said, okay, great, not realizing he gave me my first big goal in the service. So to make a, to make it short, I signed up. Two weeks later, I told my mother [Ursula Bernice Carrere] good-bye, and my buds, gave my drums away to the church and went off to Alameda, California.$$Now, how did your mother feel about you joining the Coast Guard?$$Well, she knew it was either that or the [U.S.] Army. And she says, the lesser of two evils in her mind. And she said, my son might come back alive, if he's on a patrol boat. Now, there was a waiting list in the Coast Guard to get to Vietnam 'cause we had these patrol boats, and they, we had some significant casualties over there. But there were so many people that wanted that duty on the river that I thought my chances of going over there were kind of slim. And I was right.$$Okay, okay, so this is 1970?$$1970--$$And--$$November 21st.$Okay, okay, give us some little history on the origin of that position [Chief Usher of The White House] and what it entails?$$Well, it, the way it started, it was not a job titled "chief usher." There were ushers, and they actually, during the time of [President] Thomas Jefferson and other presidents, they--and [President] John Adams, people would be able to come knock on the front door of The White House and say I'd like to have an audience with the president. And so the person that answered the door would usher them in to the sitting room, and they would wait their turn to speak with the president. Now, there would be a few million people knocking on the front door, but that's the origin of that job. And then over time, it grew as the requirements of the house grew. It needed someone to run the staff, the chefs and the butlers and the housekeepers, and then the physical plant. And it was around 1886 that that title "chief usher" was given. I'm trying to think of the, I know J.B. West was one of them. The one just before me was Gary Walters, behind him was Rex Skalton (ph.), J.B. West, Dens Moore, you know, there were a couple other ones. But as years progressed, and after the Truman [President Harry S. Truman] renovation, and after the executive residence became an official ceremonial place, not just the home of the president, but where you would entertain heads of state, with state dinners, and entertainers, the staff had to grow to keep up with that. So that position now is the director. It's like the general manager of a five-star hotel, except you have some pretty important guests. And it does require a full team of engineers and carpenters and painters and butlers and chefs and florists and housekeepers and curators to preserve that house for hopefully, two--400 years from now. So it was a major responsibility, and it was a 12-14 hour days often, average, 11, 11-hour days for eight hours pay, by the way.$$Okay.$$But the house was riddled with loyalty and you just stayed. Not everybody got overtime, certainly not the ushers or the chief usher never got overtime. But you had a job to do, and it was putting a face on America that, when you have a foreign minister or foreign head of state, you wanna make sure the president and this country--that head of state leaves this country realizing that everything ran perfectly. And it was a great visit, and it facilitated maybe some major decisions in the Oval Office because of the whole experience of being there. So we took the job very seriously.

Joseph Francisco

Chemical physicist Joseph Salvadore Francisco was born on March 26, 1955 in New Orleans, Louisiana. He was raised by his grandparents, Merlin and Sarah Walker in Beaumont, Texas. He graduated from Forest Park High School in 1973. After earning his B.S. degree in chemistry from the University of Texas at Austin in 1977, Francisco went on to receive his Ph.D. degree in chemistry from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in 1983. Francisco worked as a research fellow at Cambridge University in England from 1983 to 1985, and then returned to MIT where he served as a provost postdoctoral fellow.

In 1986, Francisco was appointed as an assistant professor of chemistry at Wayne State University. He then served at California Institute of Technology as a visiting associate in the Planetary Science Division in 1991, and as a John Simon Guggenheim Fellow in the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in 1993. In 1995, Francisco was appointed as a full professor at Purdue University; and, in 2005, he became the William E. Moore Distinguished Professor of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences and Chemistry. In addition, Francisco served as a senior visiting fellow in the Institute of Advanced Studies at the University of Bologna; as a Professeur Invité at the Université de Paris; as a visiting professor at Uppsala Universitet in Sweden; and was chosen as an honorary international chair and professor by National Taipei University in Taiwan.

Francisco co-authored the textbook Chemical Kinetics and Dynamics published by Prentice-Hall and translated later in Japanese. He has also published over 475 peer reviewed publications in the fields of atmospheric chemistry, chemical kinetics, quantum chemistry, laser photochemistry and spectroscopy. Francisco served as editor of the atmospheric and ocean science section of Pure and Applied Geophysics, and on the editorial advisory boards of Spectrochimica Acta Part A, Journal of Molecular Structure: THEOCHEM, and Theoretical Chemistry Accounts, and the Journal of Physical Chemistry.

From 1994 to 1996, Francisco was appointed to the Naval Research Advisory Committee for the Department of Navy. He served as president and board member of the National Organization for the Professional Advancement of Black Chemists and Chemical Engineers and the American Chemical Society. President Barack Obama appointed Francisco as a member of the President’s Committee on the National Medal of Science from 2010 to 2012. He also served as a member of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences and is an honorary life member of the Israel Chemical Society.

Francisco was elected as a fellow of the American Chemical Society, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the American Physical Society, and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Francisco received the Percy L. Julian Award for Pure and Applied Research, the McCoy Award, the Edward W. Morley Medal, and the Alexander von Humboldt Award. He also received Honorary Doctorate of Science Degrees from Tuskegee University, the University of Arkansas at Little Rock, the University of South Florida, and Knox College.

Chemical physicist Joeseph Salvadore Francisco was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on June 28, 2013.

Accession Number

A2013.176

Sex

Male

Interview Date

6/28/2013

Last Name

Francisco

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

S.

Occupation
Schools

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

The University of Cambridge

University of Texas at Austin

Forest Park High School

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Joseph

Birth City, State, Country

New Orleans

HM ID

FRA11

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Louisiana

Favorite Vacation Destination

Southern France

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Nebraska

Birth Date

3/26/1955

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Lincoln

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Seafood

Short Description

Chemical physicist Joseph Francisco (1955 - ) , the William E. Moore Distinguished Professor of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences and Chemistry at Purdue University, served as a fellow of the American Physical Society and president of the American Chemical Society.

Employment

Purdue University

Wayne State University

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Joseph Francisco's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Joseph Francisco lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Joseph Francisco describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Joseph Francisco describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Joseph Francisco describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Joseph Francisco talks about his household as a child

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Joseph Francisco describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Joseph Francisco talks about growing up in Beaumont, Texas

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Joseph Francisco talks about raising animals as a child

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Joseph Francisco talks about his summers visiting his mother and grandfather

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Joseph Francisco talks about his elementary school

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Joseph Francisco describes becoming interested in chemistry

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Joseph Francisco talks about his childhood experiments

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Joseph Francisco talks about his grandfather

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Joseph Francisco talks about his jobs as a child and teenager

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Joseph Francisco describes working at a pharmacy in junior high and high school

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Joseph Francisco describes choosing his high school

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Joseph Francisco remembers the assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Joseph Francisco talks about the low expectations for him during high school

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Joseph Francisco talks about his high school science fair project pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Joseph Francisco talks about his high school science fair project pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Joseph Francisco describes meeting Dr. Richard Price

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Joseph Francisco describes the mentoring of Dr. Richard Price

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Joseph Francisco talks about the mentoring of John Flannery

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Joseph Francisco describes his lack of college counseling in high school

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Joseph Francisco describes his decision to attend the University of Texas at Austin

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Joseph Francisco describes how he came to work in Dr. Raymond Davis' Laboratory pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Joseph Francisco describes how he came to work in Dr. Raymond Davis' Laboratory pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Joseph Francisco talks about his freshman roommate at the University of Texas at Austin

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Joseph Francisco describes working in Dr. Raymond Davis' laboratory

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Joseph Francisco describes being selected to spend a summer at Argonne National Laboratory

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Joseph Francisco describes earning the money for a plane ticket to go to Argonne National Laboratory for a summer

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Joseph Francisco describes his involved in research at the University of Texas at Austin

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Joseph Francisco describes his graduate school search

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Joseph Francisco describes why he chose to attend the Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Joseph Francisco talks about his year working for Monsanto

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Joseph Francisco describes the transition from Texas to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Joseph Francisco describes his doctoral program at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Joseph Francisco talks about his doctoral research pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Joseph Francisco talks about his doctoral research pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Joseph Francisco describes working with Robert Gilbert

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Joseph Francisco describes selecting Cambridge University for his postdoctoral fellowship

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Joseph Francisco describes his doctoral research

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Joseph Francisco describes becoming interested in atmospheric chemistry pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Joseph Francisco describes becoming interested in atmospheric chemistry pt. 2

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Joseph Francisco describes his decision to focus on atmospheric chemistry for his independent career pt. 1

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Joseph Francisco describes his decision to focus on atmospheric chemistry for his independent career pt. 2

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Joseph Francisco describes discovering the key fragment species of chlorofluorocarbon pt. 1

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Joseph Francisco describes discovering the key fragment species of chlorofluorocarbon pt. 2

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Joseph Francisco describes the reaction to his research on chlorofluorocarbon

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Joseph Francisco describes collaborating with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Joseph Francisco talks about the use of lasers in his research

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Joseph Francisco describes the underlining theme of his research

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Joseph Francisco describes the fragment species of chlorofluorocarbon

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Joseph Francisco describes being recruited by Purdue University

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Joseph Francisco describes how he derives research questions

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - Joseph Francisco describes how innovation in laser technology has impacted research

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - Joseph Francisco reflects on his professional accomplishments

Tape: 8 Story: 6 - Joseph Francisco describes revolutionizing the field of computational atmospheric chemistry

Tape: 8 Story: 7 - Joseph Francisco talks about dual-use chemistry

Tape: 9 Story: 1 - Joseph Francisco talks about his involvement in chemistry education pt. 1

Tape: 9 Story: 2 - Joseph Francisco talks about his involvement in chemistry education pt. 2

Tape: 9 Story: 3 - Joseph Francisco talks about STEM curricula in the United States

Tape: 9 Story: 4 - Joseph Francisco describes being elected president of the American Chemical Society pt. 1

Tape: 9 Story: 5 - Joseph Francisco describes being elected president of the American Chemical Society pt. 2

Tape: 9 Story: 6 - Joseph Francisco describes his accomplishments as president of the American Chemical Society pt. 1

Tape: 9 Story: 7 - Joseph Francisco describes his accomplishments as president of the American Chemical Society pt. 2

Tape: 10 Story: 1 - Joseph Francisco describes his next steps

Tape: 10 Story: 2 - Joseph Francisco talks about the American Chemical Society

Tape: 10 Story: 3 - Joseph Francisco talks about the legacy of Henry Hill in the American Chemical Society

Tape: 10 Story: 4 - Joseph Francisco describes the role of the National Organization for the Professional Advancement of Black Chemists and Chemical Engineers

Tape: 10 Story: 5 - Joseph Francisco describes becoming the president of the National Organization for the Professional Advancement of Black Chemists and Chemical Engineers

Tape: 10 Story: 6 - Joseph Francisco reflects on his legacy

Tape: 10 Story: 7 - Joseph Francisco describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 11 Story: 1 - Joseph Francisco describes his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

7$9

DAStory

6$2

DATitle
Joseph Francisco describes collaborating with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory
Joseph Francisco talks about his involvement in chemistry education pt. 2
Transcript
And so what happened was, the guys from Jet Propulsion Laboratory [Pasadena, California] invited me over to spend the week with them. They wanted to learn more about what we were doing. They wanted me to learn a little bit about what they were doing. And they felt that instead of me going out there as the lone wolf, you know, fighting against some big institutions, that they wanted to sort of give me a little bit of guidance along--I mean it was a new area for me, atmospheric chemistry. I'd never been in that community, but I knew my lasers. I knew my theory. They knew the lasers. They didn't know the theory, and they wanted to see where the opportunities were to really, you know, forge a collaboration. And so I saw an opportunity that if I could help them with their work, you know, by helping with their work, I could learn a little bit how they approach problems, and, you know, how they approach problems I can really take that in terms of my own work, and really strengthening how, you know, I make cases for, you know, our work. So I used that as an opportunity to learn how they were really successful and really branding, you know, themselves as Jet Propulsion Laboratory, as a world-class institution and recognized in atmospheric chemistry. And I learned a little bit about the secret of what they do. And so I wanted to really learn as much as--from working with them, collaborating on their work and bringing some of our work in to help them strengthen their case and at the same time too, bring some of what I learned from them back over into our own work.$$So how did you do that then? What actually happened as a result of that?$$Well, so I would--every summer I would leave Detroit [Michigan] and spend the summer out at Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Then they gave me a visiting associate at Cal-Tech [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California], spent time in the geological and planetary science (unclear). So I had to learn about atmospheric modeling, and what I learned is what really makes them successful and what guides them is a real interesting push and pull between developing instruments that go up into the atmosphere, make measurements of the chemistry, but then they complement those measurements with laboratory studies, but those laboratory studies are guided by, you know, what they're seeing in the measurements. So that really adds focus and relevance and importance to the laboratory work that they're doing, but the big overview of those two is the modeling which really gets at the, where and the impact of that chemistry. So I really saw this sort of three pillars that were really key. Most people, if you're working in just, you know, theoretical chemistry, they don't see that, you know, and they don't see that connection. If they're working in the laboratory and trying to break into atmospheric, they don't see the connection between the atmospheric modeling and the, and the field measurements of how that's really informing. They just see, "Wow, these guys have done some important stuff that everybody is interested in, and they think it's important." But they don't see how it came about as being important and really seeing the importance. And I got a sense of that, and I learned a little bit about each one of those, and I also learned how to really judge the literature on each one of those and really guide, defining, you know, what are really the important abstract problems that we would work on, that would really have some real impact in informing the chemistry and the community and getting the community excited about the work that you do. But what I learned from JPL [Jet Propulsion Laboratory] and Cal-Tech that was really important, that whatever I do in that arena, that I push the envelope and the work that I do in terms of accuracy and precision and preciseness. And so that, that forced us to up our game two notches to really, you know, push things to the limit with the best work that we can possibly do.$And the person came in a couple of times and really looked at what I was doing, gave me some feedback. They thought I was doing a great job, but she said, "You know, I'd like to come back to your class again. I saw something." I said, "Well, do I have to pay for this?" So she said, "No, you don't have to pay for it, but she said, I saw something, and I just wanna come and sit in your classroom." So she came back a couple of more times, sat at various places. She was watching, you know, what I had learned and, and doing. She thought, gave me feedback, I was doing a great job. But she said, "I was watching the students in the classroom, and clues that you were giving and things that you were delivering, they were not responding the way, from an educational psychologist standpoint, that they should have been responding and that-" So she wanted to get at some of that. And so we decided to develop a little diagnostic to try to probe on certain delivery things that I was doing to engage students, what the students were doing, you know, and what they were getting out of the that delivery and collected a lot of data. And actually, the real interesting thing I learned was that students were doing different things. They were seeing different things. They were learning different things. And one amazing thing I learned, that if I got up in front of the classroom and just wrote a lecture on the blackboard, I was only engaging about a third of the class because you have some students who are very good listeners. You have some students who are very kinetic, that are writing and taking notes. They learn in that way. Some, through hands on, some students are hands on. So when I go into a lecture, I realize that if I'm going to reach a classroom more than a third, I have to engage in activities in delivering that material in different ways that play to their learning styles. So, just going up and giving a lecture is not gonna cut it, but I have to have, you know, people give PowerPoint's. They think they're pretty, and they're doing a great thing, but they're tuning out a third of the class because some kids, when you write something on the board, the act of writing triggers a learning event, you know, for them. And so that work was just very interesting because it actually started me in generating a series of papers getting into learning styles in the classroom. And I learned that the problem just wasn't me, but, you know, the problem is that you have to deliver your lecture in different formats in order to engage the kids. But I also, too, learned in the process that the kids have to know how to take notes. If we assume as a professor, that in a high school and junior high school, they know how to take notes, well, I learned that many of them don't know how to take notes. I assumed that they know how to listen, you know, for those clues. Well, I learned that, you know, a lot of them don't know to do it. I assumed that because they've been taking tests for (laughter), elementary school, junior high school, and high school, that kids know how to take a test and that really when a kid takes a test, and, you know, that test is a measure of whether they know the material, well, I learned that that's not the case. It's a combination of how good they are taking tests or how they're not good at taking tests, plus the material. So they may know the material very well, which that young lady, I believe, but what crippled, she did not know how to take a test. And that hurt her. And it wasn't that she didn't know the material, but she didn't know how to take a test. So as an instructor, you know, I took that really rather serious in really getting at, you know, why my students didn't do well. You know, a lot of students wanna complain. They wanna put all the blame on the professor. And I really, I was ready to accept that blame, provided I really understood enough of what was going on, not only from my perspective, but from the students' perspective. And so that series of work triggered us off into really venturing out into learning styles, learning skills in the chemistry classroom. So we published about, you know, six, about five or six papers in 'Chemical Education,' really getting at research to form how one can deliver better pedagogy or frame the class work where students can learn, you know, better.

Joseph N. Boyce

Newspaper editor Joseph N. Boyce was born on April 18, 1937 in New Orleans, Louisiana to Sadie Boyce. He studied biology at Roosevelt University and attended John Marshall School of Law in Chicago from 1965 to 1967.

In 1961, Boyce joined the Chicago police force, where he served for five years as a patrolman, district vice detective, evidence technician and police academy law instructor. In 1966, he was hired as the first African American reporter at the Chicago Tribune, where he covered the Nigerian Civil War and the Democratic National Convention of 1968. Time magazine recruited Boyce as a correspondent at the publication’s Chicago bureau in 1970, where he wrote a series of articles on the emergence of urban gangs. Within three years, he was promoted to chief of the San Francisco bureau, where he covered the Patricia Hearst kidnapping and trial, the assassination attempts on President Gerald Ford, and the Moscone-Milk assassinations.

Boyce became chief of Time’s Atlanta bureau and southern region in 1979 and moved on to the position of deputy chief of Time’s New York bureau in 1985. The Wall Street Journal then hired him as senior editor for public and social policy in 1987, making him the first African American senior editor at the paper. He retired from the Wall Street Journal in 1998 and became an adjunct professor at the Columbia University Graduate School of Journalism in 1999. In 2001, Boyce was hired as an adjunct professor at Indiana/Purdue University’s Indianapolis School of Journalism where he won the Alfred Bynum award for mentoring in 2006.

Boyce has been a member of various associations, including the National Association of Black Journalists, the Indianapolis Association of Black Journalists, and the Indiana Pro Chapter of the Society of Professional Journalists. He was also a founding member of the National Association of Minority Media Executives (NAMME), and served as a consultant to the Wall Street Journal.

Boyce lives in Indianapolis with his wife Carol, with whom he has four children.

Joseph Boyce was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on December 12, 2012.

Accession Number

A2012.256

Sex

Male

Interview Date

12/12/2012

Last Name

Boyce

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Occupation
Schools

Roosevelt University

John Marshall Law School

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Joseph

Birth City, State, Country

New Orleans

HM ID

BOY03

Favorite Season

June

State

Louisiana

Favorite Vacation Destination

New York, New York

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Birth Date

4/18/1937

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Atlanta

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Fried Chicken, Steak, Pastry

Short Description

Newspaper editor Joseph N. Boyce (1937 - ) was the first African American reporter at the Chicago Tribune, the first African American bureau chief for Time magazine, and the first African American senior editor of the Wall Street Journal.

Employment

Chicago Police Department

Chicago Tribune

Time, Inc.

Wall Street Journal

Columbia University

Indiana University - Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI)

Favorite Color

Green

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Joseph Boyce's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Joseph Boyce lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Joseph Boyce talks about his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Joseph Boyce describes his maternal grandparents

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Joseph Boyce talks about his mother's siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Joseph Boyce details his maternal grandfather's education, grocery store, and real estate holdings

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Joseph Boyce talks about his grandfather's loan to a local Ford dealership and his being an honorary deputy sheriff

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Joseph Boyce describes his uncle, Cecil Nelson, who won the Croix de Guerre and became the first black national officer for the Illinois American Legion

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Joseph Boyce talks about his grandfather's children from his third marriage

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Joseph Boyce outlines his mother's education and teaching career at Prairie View A&M University and Xavier University

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Joseph Boyce talks about how his parents met and his father's family

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Joseph Boyce recalls living in a rooming house in Central Illinois, his mother's employment challenges as an African American, and moving to Chicago

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Joseph Boyce talks about his father, a priest, the dynamics of his parents' relationship and his own rocky relationship with his father

Tape: 1 Story: 14 - Joseph Boyce remembers how he and his brother both worked full-time jobs while attending grade school to make ends meet after his mother had a stroke

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Joseph Boyce talks about Sadie Nelson, his mother and his hero

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Joseph Boyce describes his older brother, Robert, who served in the U.S. Navy, the U.S. Army, and the U.S. Air Force

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Joseph Boyce talks about his mother's independence from her family

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Joseph Boyce describes how his mother made ends meet by selling her inheritance

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Joseph Boyce describes the sights, sounds, and smells of growing up

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Joseph Boyce talks about behavioral problems in his school classroom and the demographic of Danville, Illinois

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Joseph Boyce talks about being the only black student in grade school and how it impacted him

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Joseph Boyce talks about living in a white part of town and being called an "Uncle Tom"

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Joseph Boyce recounts the paper routes and lawn cutting business he had as a youth in Danville, Illinois

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Joseph Boyce discusses systematic racial and gender discrimination in America and how it affected his vocational aspirations

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Joseph Boyce talks about black newspapers and how he handled his paper routes

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Joseph Boyce describes his fight with a white paper boy

Tape: 2 Story: 13 - Joseph Boyce describes his mother's influence on how he spoke and his love of reading

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Joseph Boyce talks about exercising his right to service at a soda shop in Danville, Illinois with the help of his mother and a good friend

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Joseph Boyce describes his natural curiosity and how it led him into journalism

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Joseph Boyce remembers facing discrimination at an Episcopal church in Danville, Illinois

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Joseph Boyce talks about being a good student in grade school, but a poor student in high school

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Joseph Boyce describes the teachers and classmate that influenced him in grade school

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Joseph Boyce recalls moving to Chicago's Sutherland Hotel when his mother took a new job

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Joseph Boyce talks about playing instruments with his brother and discovering the vibraharp

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Joseph Boyce describes the mechanics of the vibraharp, and the diversity of people and opportunity he saw in Chicago

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Joseph Boyce talks about working as a stock boy and at the Sutherland Hotel, and seeing musicians like Miles Davis and Thelonius Monk

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Joseph Boyce remembers taking vibraphone lessons from Marvin Kaplan of the Civic Opera, exploring Chicago's arts scene, and his first music gigs with Herbie Hancock and Don Goldberg

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Joseph Boyce talks about taking a break from his studies at Roosevelt University to go on tour with the Dozier Boys from 1956 to 1957

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Joseph Boyce talks about Lionel Hampton and Milt Jackson, two influential vibraphonists

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Joseph Boyce talks about how music and partying were his priorities at Roosevelt University, and how he switched his major from biology to psychology

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Joseph Boyce talks about his marriage, his two daughters, and his interest in working for the Chicago Police Department

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Joseph Boyce talks about the Summerdale Scandal, joining the Chicago Police Department in 1961, and supplementing his income by working at the post office

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Joseph Boyce describes corruption in the Chicago Police Department

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Joseph Boyce talks about attending John Marshall Law School, political demonstrations in Chicago, and the Willis Wagons

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Joseph Boyce talks about how a chance encounter with the Chicago Tribune's foreign correspondent inspired him to become a journalist

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Joseph Boyce shares the story of how he was hired at the Chicago Tribune in 1966

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Joseph Boyce describes leaving the Chicago Police Department to work for the Chicago Tribune in 1966

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Joseph Boyce talks about participating in Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.'s housing march in Gage Park in 1966 and the political orientation of Chicago newspapers

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Joseph Boyce talks about refusing to be confined to covering the black community by working on the breadth of his coverage while at the Chicago Tribune

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Joseph Boyce remembers how he changed an editor's racist opinion of him

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Joseph Boyce talks about covering the Black Panther Party, working with Ovie Carter, and leaving the Chicago Tribune for TIME magazine in 1970

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Joseph Boyce remembers a lesson from Don Starr, foreign editor for the Chicago Tribune

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Joseph Boyce talks about his foreign assignment to cover the Nigerian-Biafran war in 1969

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Joseph Boyce describes a couple of dangerous encounters in Nigeria while covering the Nigerian-Biafran War

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Joseph Boyce remembers his attempts to enter Biafra to cover the Nigerian-Biafran War

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Joseph Boyce talks about the Nigerian-Biafran War, and how Hollywood and the movies affected his perception of Africa

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Joseph Boyce talks about his interactions with Nigerian citizens while he was covering the Nigerian-Biafran War in Lagos

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Joseph Boyce describes his coverage of the murders of Fred Hampton and Mark Clark who were members of the Black Panther Party

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Joseph Boyce talks about Lu Palmer, Betty Washington, and how Chicago's liberal newspapers were not as liberal as they purported to me

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Joseph Boyce describes black journalists at the Chicago Tribune including Vernon Jarett, Pam Johnson, and Angela Parker, and the paper's hire of Clarence Page

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Joseph Boyce talks about his friendship with Clarence Page

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Joseph Boyce talks about covering the 1968 Memphis SCLC convention after Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.'s death, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Joseph Boyce talks about covering the 1968 Memphis SCLC convention after Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.'s death, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Joseph Boyce describes the SCLC Mule Train, and the events leading up to protests outside of the Conrad Hilton Hotel in Chicago during the 1968 Democratic National Convention

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Joseph Boyce recounts the protests outside of the Conrad Hilton Hotel in Chicago during the 1968 Democratic National Convention

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Joseph Boyce talks about how the Chicago Tribune suppressed a story on the Conrad Hilton Hotel protest during the 1968 Democratic National Convention

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Joseph Boyce talks about a censored story of the black student takeover of the Bursar's Office at Northwestern University

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Joseph Boyce discusses instances of censorship by the "old guard" at the Chicago Tribune

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Joseph Boyce talks about his decision to move to Resurrection City during the 1969 Poor People's Campaign in response to drive-by journalism in Chicago papers

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Joseph Boyce describes life in Resurrection City during the Poor People's Campaign

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Joseph Boyce talks about leaving the Poor People's Campaign in Resurrection City and writing a front page story about his experience

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Joseph Boyce discusses the success of The Civil Rights Movement, and the critical distinction between desegregation and integration

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Joseph Boyce talks about his decision to leave the Chicago Tribune for TIME magazine in 1970

Tape: 7 Story: 9 - Joseph Boyce talks about working for TIME magazine and becoming the first bureau chief of color at TIME, Inc.

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Joseph Boyce talks about his story on Jim Thompson during his time at TIME Magazine's Chicago office from 1973 to 1979

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Joseph Boyce talks about how the Republican Party has changed over the years

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Joseph Boyce discusses the impact of Jesse Jackson's contributions on the black community and some of Jackson's shortcomings, pt. 1

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - Joseph Boyce discusses the impact of Jesse Jackson's contributions on the black community and some of Jackson's shortcomings, pt. 2

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - Joseph Boyce talks about his promotion to chief of the TIME's San Francisco bureau, securing credibility as a black boss, and Olivia Stewart, his administrative assistant

Tape: 8 Story: 6 - Joseph Boyce talks about stories that broke while he was TIME's San Francisco bureau chief: the attempted assassination of President Ford, the Patty Hearst kidnapping, and the Symbionese Liberation Army

Tape: 8 Story: 7 - Joseph Boyce talks about the assassinations of Mayor George Moscone and Harvey Milk

Tape: 8 Story: 8 - Joseph Boyce remembers being racially profiled by police outside the People's Temple in San Francisco

Tape: 8 Story: 9 - Joseph Boyce describes running TIME's West Edit operation out of the Los Angeles bureau

Tape: 8 Story: 10 - Joseph Boyce talks about covering the Alaskan pipeline in Prudhoe Bay and disabusing TIME's New York office of some geographical stereotypes

Tape: 8 Story: 11 - Joseph Boyce talks about being transferred TIME's Atlanta bureau as chief and the Atlanta Child Murders

Tape: 9 Story: 1 - Joseph Boyce describes theories surrounding Wayne Williams' involvement with the Atlanta Child Murders

Tape: 9 Story: 2 - Joseph Boyce talks about stories in the South while he was TIME's Atlanta chief

Tape: 9 Story: 3 - Joseph Boyce describes the stories surrounding former South Carolina Senator Jesse Helms

Tape: 9 Story: 4 - Joseph Boyce remembers fixing personnel problems at TIME's New York office and leaving TIME for The Wall Street Journal in 1987

Tape: 9 Story: 5 - Joseph Boyce talks about adjusting to his job as senior editor of The Wall Street Journal

Tape: 9 Story: 6 - Joseph Boyce talks about The Wall Street Journal's irrelevance to black businessmen

Tape: 9 Story: 7 - Joseph Boyce talks about working to increase The Wall Street Journal's relevance among black professionals

Tape: 9 Story: 8 - Joseph Boyce recalls collaborating with Black Enterprise Magazine to run a black entrepreneurship forum, and his retirement in 1998

Tape: 9 Story: 9 - Joseph Boyce talks about his second wife, Carol Boyce

Tape: 9 Story: 10 - Joseph Boyce shares the story of meeting his second wife, Carol Boyce

Tape: 9 Story: 11 - Joseph Boyce talks about how he met his second wife, Carol Boyce, and the dissolution of his first marriage

Tape: 10 Story: 1 - Joseph Boyce talks about his courtship with his second wife, Carol Boyce nee Hill

Tape: 10 Story: 2 - Joseph Boyce talks about his teaching experience as well as fellow colleagues Vernon Jarrett, DeWayne Wickham, Les Payne, Paul Delaney, Francis Ward, and himself

Tape: 10 Story: 3 - Joseph Boyce describes his decision to leave the National Association of Minority Media Executives (NAMME) because he did not want to fundraise through grants

Tape: 10 Story: 4 - Joseph Boyce talks about the Alfred Byron Teaching Award and his commitment to diversifying journalism as well as Pam Johnson and her mentor, Les Brownlee

Tape: 10 Story: 5 - Joseph Boyce talks about playing with Herbie Hancock, Leslie Rout, Billie Johns, and Billie Quinn in high school

Tape: 10 Story: 6 - Joseph Boyce talks about Herbie Hancock and Donald Stewart

Tape: 10 Story: 7 - Joseph Boyce describes his music career and how Herbie Hancock became a member of the Miles Davis Quintet

Tape: 10 Story: 8 - Joseph Boyce shares the story of his first gig with Rahsaan Roland Kirk

Tape: 11 Story: 1 - Joseph Boyce talks about moving back to Atlanta and his children there

Tape: 11 Story: 2 - Joseph Boyce talks about his children

Tape: 11 Story: 3 - Joseph Boyce talks about his daughter Beverly Griffith, and his son, Nelson Boyce

Tape: 11 Story: 4 - Joseph Boyce talks about his mother, Sadie Nelson, and her passing in 1979

Tape: 11 Story: 5 - Joseph Boyce discusses what he might do differently and the impact of racism on the job market

Tape: 11 Story: 6 - Joseph Boyce reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 11 Story: 7 - Joseph Boyce talks about how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 11 Story: 8 - Joseph Boyce shares advice for young black journalists

Tape: 11 Story: 9 - Joseph Boyce talks about the disparity in the black community

Tape: 11 Story: 10 - Joseph Boyce continues to talk about the disparity in the black community

Tape: 11 Story: 11 - Joseph Boyce talks about his hopes for the African American community

DASession

1$1

DATape

7$4

DAStory

1$6

DATitle
Joseph Boyce talks about how the Chicago Tribune suppressed a story on the Conrad Hilton Hotel protest during the 1968 Democratic National Convention
Joseph Boyce describes corruption in the Chicago Police Department
Transcript
All right, all right, okay, continue.$$So, meanwhile, like I said, it was chaos. And then all of a sudden, the police start pushing the crowd--the crowd back on the sidewalk at the Conrad Hilton [Hotel] to get them back up on the sidewalk. What they didn't realize was there was no place for them to go. They were up against the building. And as the police were pushing these people back, they were pushed up against the plate glass windows of the drugstore and the stores at the Conrad Hilton, and they broke the plate glass window. Some of these people were delegates. They broke the plate glass windows and fell in, and when the--you could hear the plate glass windows crack and shatter. Then the police really went crazy 'cause they thought that the demonstrators were breaking the windows. And they were beatin' people with clubs, and a photographer from the Chicago Defender ran up to the police commander and said stop your men; stop your men; these people have no place to go; you're, you're pushin 'em up. And the commander, he was lost. And he looked and he told his men to stop. They were beyond control. They didn't listen to him, and he went over to his own men and began physically pulling them off of people. Meanwhile, people were falling inside the stores in the Conrad Hilton and, of course, they were running in the stores trying to get out. Some of 'em were cut and so forth. And then the police went crazy. So that's what happened. That's what caused it. Meanwhile, the Mule Train that I was with said, let's get out of here; let's get out of here. And so they hooked up the horses--the mules--and they broke through the crowd going south and turned right at the south end of the Conrad Hilton, and I went with him. And just as we got around the corner there was a 15-year-old boy on the mule train, and he passed out in my arms. And I waited 'til somebody looked after him on, on the--on the ground, and then I started to go back to work. I went to police headquarters first, and I ran into Paul Delaney with the New York Times, who was covering it. Then I saw a woman that I knew. She had lived in Cuba. She was a lawyer. And I knew her and I told her to go home--get out of the area as fast as she can--and then I went to the Chicago Tribune. And I remember going into the city room, and I'm saying you are not gone believe what happened out there. And I started telling people in the city room what had happened, and so somebody said you need to talk to--and his last name was Murray; I can't remember his first name--who was the news editor. And he was a big kinda gruff conservative guy--said you need to talk to him to tell him what happened; that's a story. So I, I--he came over and I told him--explained what happened. And I never will forget he only had one comment to make. He said, I cannot believe that the Chicago Police would ever behave in that fashion, and he turned around on his heel and walked away. And if you look at the newspapers back at that time, every paper in Chicago, including papers also in New York and other places had that story and the Chicago Tribune did not have it. The only time the Chicago Tribune wrote about it was at the end of the week they put out a special issue on the convention. And one of the editors was a young reporter/writer who later became a columnist by the name of Michael Killian. And Michael got that story in the paper. But nobody ever came back to me and asked me what happened. What it was written from was accounts that had been in other newspapers. But that's not the first time that the Chicago Tribune changed a story I did or did something. There was one other time, and other than that it's a great paper. It was a great paper with me, but there were just a couple of the old guard there that you just couldn't deal with. One of them was Don Maxwell, who was the editor. He was the first editor after Robert McCormick.$You had a lot of them [Chicago police officers] who worked the post office and then you had a lot of them who worked the street, if you understand what I mean. I chose not to work the street, and as a result, some of my colleagues--I thought I had a reputation as a good cop, but, but you had to be careful because even, even with the reforms, there was still a lot of corruption. Years later I met a cop, and he said I know you, when I was introduced. And I said, have we met? He said no. I said well, how do you know me? And he said, you were in 3rd District, right? I said yeah. And he said, I was on the shift after yours. He said one day you were getting out of your squad car down below--Grand Crossing was on 75th and, and Maryland at that time, and the cars used to double park when they changed shifts--and he said their captain, a guy by the name of Ronnie Nash, called the whole roll call over the window and pointed me out to them as I was gettin' out of the squad car--said watch him; he's from IID-Internal Investigations Division. And the reason that he pointed me out as from being downtown is because I didn't take money, and they figured because I didn't take money that I had to be a spy.$$Now who did you--(simultaneous)--$$And this is the captain telling them that, a captain, so who could you go to?$$Yeah, I've, I've heard lots of these kinds of stories. And when you were in the department, I believe--were you there the same--you were--you were the same time as Ed Palmer [Edward L. "Buzz" Palmer], right? bu--bu--Buzz (unclear)--$$Buzz came after me.$$Did he? Okay, so you, you, you--$$Yeah, I was there from '61 [1961]--$$--had left before--$$--to '66 [1966]. I think we might have overlapped the last year or two, but I didn't know Buzz.$$What, what about ja--ja--Jack DeBonnett or DeBonnet or (laughter)?$$No, I didn't know him, uh-um. I mean, I knew most of the guys in Grand Crossing. And then after a couple of years, I became an evidence technician. And I did that for a couple of years, and then I became an instructor in law in the police academy.

Stephen McGuire

Nuclear physicist and physics professor Stephen C. McGuire was born on September 17, 1948 in New Orleans, Louisiana. McGuire was the first generation of his family to attend high school and college. McGuire’s parents were supportive of his education and inspired him to high achievements. By the time that McGuire graduated as valedictorian of his class at Joseph S. Clark Senior High in New Orleans, Louisiana, he knew that he wanted to pursue a career in physics. McGuire went on to attend Southern University and Agricultural and Mechanical (A&M) College on a four-year academic scholarship. He received his B.S. degree in physics, magna cum laude, in 1970. McGuire then continued his education at the University of Rochester where he studied under Professor Harry W. Fulbright and graduated with his M.S. degree in nuclear physics in 1974. In 1979, McGuire obtained his Ph.D. degree from Cornell University in nuclear science with a focus on low energy neutron physics under the guidance of Professor David D. Clark.

Between 1979 and 1982, McGuire conducted research as a staff scientist at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. In 1982, McGuire joined the faculty at Alabama A&M University in the department of physics and applied physics, and he began research with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). McGuire was honored by NASA in 1987 with its Office of Technology Utilization Research Citation Award. While at Alabama A&M, he also served as a consultant to the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the U.S. Department of Energy, and spent time as a physics researcher at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). In 1989, he became the first African American faculty member at the endowed College of Engineering at Cornell University. In 1992, he became a charter fellow of the National Society of Black Physicists (NSBP). With research focusing on experimental nuclear physics and nuclear radiation and microelectronics, McGuire was appointed to be a visiting scientist at the Center for Neutron Research at the National Institute of Standards and Technology in 1998.

Since 1999, McGuire has served as professor and chair of the department of physics at Southern University and A&M College in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. McGuire has pursued his interest in optical materials as part of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO). During his tenure with the university, McGuire has led the establishment of the partnership between LIGO and Southern University and A&M College, and he served as the LIGO Scientific Collaboration Principal Investigator (PI). He considers this his greatest achievement. McGuire is a Fellow of the American Physical Society. He is married to the former Saundra E. Yancy. They have two adult daughters, Carla and Stephanie.

Stephen McGuire was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on August 18, 2012.

Accession Number

A2012.187

Sex

Male

Interview Date

8/18/2012

Last Name

McGuire

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Craig

Occupation
Schools

Joseph S. Clark Preparatory High School

Columbia University

University of California, Los Angeles

Southern University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

University of Rochester

Cornell University

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Stephen

Birth City, State, Country

New Orleans

HM ID

MCG04

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Louisiana

Favorite Vacation Destination

Florida Keys

Favorite Quote

It is better to put your trust in God than to put confidence in men.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Louisiana

Birth Date

9/17/1948

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Baton Rouge

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Tilapia (Grilled), Rice (Brown), Vegetables

Short Description

Nuclear physicist Stephen McGuire (1948 - ) led the establishment of the partnership in materials research and science education between the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory and Southern University. He is a Fellow of the American Physical Society.

Employment

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

Stanford Linear Accelerator Center

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

Alabama A&M State University

Cornell University

Southern University Baton Rouge

California Institute of Technology

Favorite Color

Gray

Timing Pairs
0,0:1319,5:3363,128:5188,181:14295,298:15945,328:16695,351:18270,391:18795,399:19695,415:22020,482:27109,501:28022,514:29931,550:33002,597:39003,688:39822,696:40641,707:50362,796:52560,814:53235,824:53610,830:57100,861:57424,868:57640,873:57856,879:58450,894:59152,909:60448,942:63858,986:64466,996:65454,1016:65910,1024:66366,1032:67734,1048:68874,1065:74352,1122:75054,1141:75486,1152:77214,1181:79222,1192:80358,1211:82275,1248:82843,1258:83553,1269:85560,1274:86366,1290:87873,1303:88422,1317:89337,1334:89764,1343:93440,1390:94496,1421:99946,1483:103176,1524:103448,1529:103720,1534:104128,1541:104536,1548:106110,1554:110974,1669:112126,1696:112510,1704:116478,1808:116734,1813:121166,1841:122231,1858:122586,1864:123225,1875:123722,1884:124290,1894:124716,1910:126491,1950:127343,1967:128124,1979:133450,2048$170,0:980,11:5300,164:5930,173:31834,541:32450,550:33506,570:33858,575:34474,584:34826,589:36498,619:39138,658:46515,775:46775,780:50805,852:63398,999:63714,1004:64899,1019:65768,1029:66242,1036:68914,1057:70024,1080:70320,1085:74168,1167:75204,1182:77720,1248:101234,1618:101522,1623:102170,1634:105986,1717:109860,1755
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Stephen McGuire's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Stephen McGuire lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Stephen McGuire describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Stephen McGuire describes how his parents met, and their early life in New Orleans, Louisiana

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Stephen McGuire talks about his mother's life in New Orleans, Louisiana

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Stephen McGuire describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Stephen McGuire talks about his father's hard work, and his parents' emphasis on education

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Stephen McGuire describes his parents' personalities and who he takes after

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Stephen McGuire talks about his siblings and describes his childhood home in New Orleans, Louisiana

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Stephen McGuire describes the sights, sounds and smells of growing up

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Stephen McGuire talks about attending Mt. Zion Baptist Church as a child in New Orleans, Louisiana

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Stephen McGuire talks about his elementary school and the strong African American community in New Orleans

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Stephen McGuire talks about the quality of African American teachers found in the segregated schools in New Orleans, Louisiana

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Stephen McGuire talks about the teachers who influenced him in school in New Orleans, Louisiana

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Stephen McGuire talks about race relations, schools, libraries and how New Orleans differed from other Southern cities in terms of its segregation

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Stephen McGuire talks about the desegregation of high school sports in the New Orleans school system in the 1960s

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Stephen McGuire describes his childhood interests and how his introduction to NASA and space shuttles encouraged his interest in science and physics

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Stephen McGuire talks about his decision to study physics instead of playing college basketball

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Stephen McGuire talks about playing basketball in high school

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Stephen McGuire talks about how he was influenced by his high school teachers

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Stephen McGuire describes why he chose Southern University for college

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Stephen McGuire talks about Felton Clark, the president of Southern University

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Stephen McGuire describes how he met his wife at Southern University

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Stephen McGuire talks about Dr. King's assassination and the moon landing

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Stephen McGuire talks about graduating from from Southern University and the prominent academicians and athletes who graduated from there

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Stephen McGuire describes his experience at the University of Rochester

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Stephen McGuire describes his decision to pursue a Ph.D. degree in nuclear science at Cornell University

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Stephen McGuire describes his master's degree research on f-p shell nuclides

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Stephen McGuire describes his Ph.D. dissertation research on spin-forbidden isomers in Uranium-236

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Stephen McGuire talks about Ithaca, New York, and describes his research at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Stephen McGuire describes his experience at Alabama A&M University and at Marshall Space Flight Center

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Stephen McGuire describes his research at Cornell University on neutrons and x-rays, to understand the physics of materials

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Stephen McGuire describes his involvement in science education and minority education at Cornell University

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Stephen McGuire describes his experience as a visiting professor at Wayne State University in Detroit, Michigan

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Stephen McGuire describes his decision to return to Southern University in Baton Rouge, Louisiana to chair the physics department - part one

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Stephen McGuire describes his decision to return to Southern University in Baton Rouge, Louisiana to chair the physics department - part two

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Stephen McGuire describes his decision to leave Cornell University in order to chair the physics department at Southern University

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Stephen McGuire explains the significance of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO)

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Stephen McGuire describes student involvement with the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO)

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Stephen McGuire describes his involvement with the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) and other professional organizations

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Stephen McGuire talks about his goals for the future

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Stephen McGuire talks about the graduate program in physics at Southern University

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Stephen McGuire reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Stephen McGuire describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Stephen McGuire reflects upon his choices

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Stephen McGuire talks about his family

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - Stephen McGuire describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 6 Story: 11 - Stephen McGuire talks about how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Stephen McGuire describes his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$6

DAStory

7$1

DATitle
Stephen McGuire talks about the desegregation of high school sports in the New Orleans school system in the 1960s
Stephen McGuire explains the significance of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO)
Transcript
High school [Joseph S. Clark Senior High School, New Orleans, Louisiana]. Now, I don't want to get too far away from what your question is. In high school, I'll just give another example, I played basketball (clears throat). Now, you know, basketball is played out in the open on the playground courts in the city. So after while, you know, we go down to St. Aloysius [school] and we're playing basketball with just, you know, the white guys who were there. We're just playing just to have fun. Somebody saw this. We showed up one day and the basketball goal was taken away, cut off at the concrete and concreted over so we couldn't play basketball there anymore. Let me give you another example of just where we were in time. Today you take for granted interscholastic--interscholastic sports, okay, and Louisiana being integrated, no problem, okay. During that time, there were two schools in New Orleans. One was Jesuit and the other one was St. Augusta. St. Augusta was known for being a very strong school, even to this day, okay, academically and also athletically. Well the principals at these schools decided, "Look, we have to do something to break down this barrier of segregation in our schools. Let's do it by just simply playing a basketball game between our two schools, and making that a demonstration of what can happen without incident." St. Augusta at that time was the number one ranked school in the black league. Jesuit was the number one ranked school in the white league. They played that game behind closed doors successfully. St. Augusta won the game, okay. But they played it successfully--successfully. The parents of the players didn't come in and stage a protest. They had to play it behind closed doors because you couldn't just open it up it up--something like that to the public. But it demonstrated the basic principle, that two groups of kids, you know, with these similar interests, could get together, play a competitive basketball game appropriately refereed, and you not have an incident.$What's the significance of the research with LIGO [Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory, in Livingston, Louisiana]? I mean, what are hoping we will find out about the, you know--I mean, there's a lot--lots of things we don't know or need to find out about, but what's the significance?$$But the idea behind LIGO is that, if we can in fact see this, when we see this gravitational radiation, you will see a new type of radiation. It's not electromagnetic, and it doesn't require its source to be hot and luminous. It can be cold and dark. So given the idea that the vast majority of the matter in the universe, 95 percent of it is cold and dark, then you have a chance of opening up a whole new window on this universe that we live in, if you can--when you make these detections. So you're bound to see, I believe, phenomena that we just don't know about right now. The other aspect of it that's extremely important is that, if you see the stochastic remnants of the big bang in your data, then you will have looked back further towards creation, that's never been done before in the history of mankind, and we anticipate that that in itself will yield valuable information in terms of our understanding of the evolution of the universe, as it turns out. So those two ideas that we're opening up a whole new window on the universe, I think--I think make for a strong or either a very compelling argument for this particular experiment. There's direct evidence that gravitational radiation exists and [Albert] Einstein was right. But we want make routine and direct measurements of this so as to just generate a body of data and knowledge that will help us move toward a deeper understanding of this universe that we live in. Right.

Tyrone Mitchell

Chemist and federal government administrator Tyrone D. Mitchell was born on May 6, 1939 in New Orleans, Louisiana. Mitchell was taught by an excellent chemistry teacher at L.B. Landry High School who reinforced his interest in science. He received his B.A. degree in chemistry from Dillard University in New Orleans and earned his M.S. degree in organic chemistry from the University of Pittsburgh in 1964. Mitchell then joined General Electric Company (GE) as a process chemist. In 1971, he became an associate staff chemist at General Electric R & D Center. Mitchell received his Ph.D. degree in polymer chemistry from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in Troy, New York.

After completing his education, Mitchell joined General Electric Silicones as a senior chemist. In 1990, after twenty-five years, he left GE, with the company, having co-authored sixteen technical publications. During his time there, he received more than twenty-five United States patents in the areas of organosilicon chemistry, polymer chemistry and the synthesis of adhesion promoters for use in silicone sealants. The products he helped to develop produced over $100 million in annual sales in 1990. He joined Corning Incorporated where he worked in developing new coatings for optical fibers. Mitchell held a number of management positions in the Science & Technology Division at Corning, where he sought out new technology to improve Corning’s research and development projects. In 2000, he retired from Corning to serve as a program officer in the Organic and Macromolecular Chemistry Program at the National Science Foundation (NSF). In 2003, he was promoted to program director of the Organic and Macromolecular Chemistry Program.

Mitchell has served on the Board of Directors of the National Organization for the Professional Advancement of Black Chemists and Chemical Engineers, the Center for Advanced Materials Processing at Clarkson University and the Technology Transfer Society. He was a member of the Chemistry Section Committee of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and a member-at-large to the Industrial Science & Technology Section of AAAS. In 2006, he was inducted as an AAAS fellow. Mitchell is married to Sandra Parker Mitchell and they have three children: Tracey, Tyrone, Jr. and Todd.

Tyrone D. Mitchell was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on June 27, 2012.

Accession Number

A2012.152

Sex

Male

Interview Date

6/27/2012 |and| 7/17/2012

Last Name

Mitchell

Maker Category
Marital Status

Marrried

Schools

L.b. Landry High School

Dillard University

University of Pittsburgh

Rennselaer Polytechnic Institute

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Tyrone

Birth City, State, Country

New Orleans

HM ID

MIT12

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Louisiana

Favorite Vacation Destination

New Orleans, Louisiana

Favorite Quote

There are a lot of things I don't do, but nothing I won't do.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

5/6/1939

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Gumbo (New Orleans)

Short Description

Chemist and federal government administrator Tyrone Mitchell (1939 - ) serves as the National Foundation program director of Organic and Macromolecular Chemistry and holds twenty-five patents in the field of silicone and polymer chemistry.

Employment

National Science Foundation (NSF)

Corning Incorporated

General Electric Company

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:3972,60:6702,141:10874,177:15324,237:16248,248:29818,397:31382,430:31790,438:32946,468:33558,482:62295,968:62750,977:64440,1014:65285,1036:65935,1049:66260,1055:67365,1093:75414,1214:76584,1233:77598,1245:77988,1251:79080,1276:84940,1328:92300,1458:92620,1463:99660,1558:114810,1735:116000,1764:116350,1770:116700,1776:117120,1784:117610,1793:120830,1889:129356,1984:129736,1990:130040,1995:130344,2000:135403,2070:135695,2075:144820,2292:148397,2373:157602,2530:161130,2629:173950,2812:174503,2819:177900,2881:178374,2888:188392,2997:189222,3014:190633,3037:192957,3081:194700,3088$0,0:3510,75:4666,106:8162,146:8570,153:12582,213:12990,220:13398,227:14690,253:15030,259:15914,281:17954,317:19722,351:20334,362:20674,368:21014,374:23190,414:26522,477:34271,539:36097,601:41409,665:41907,673:42654,682:43567,697:48298,786:53486,809:53990,817:54422,829:54782,835:56510,887:60542,995:61550,1015:62486,1032:62774,1037:68561,1080:68916,1086:70052,1116:70691,1127:71259,1136:72040,1153:73105,1176:73531,1184:73815,1189:74170,1195:74880,1210:83659,1322:83967,1327:84352,1333:86277,1361:87894,1376:89588,1413:97552,1480:111002,1603:111590,1611:112766,1639:113186,1645:119220,1719:119635,1726:120880,1754:127022,1855:130093,1905:130923,1916:143993,2158:146747,2249:167630,2405:189872,2635:192988,2679:199945,2726:200529,2735:205128,2831:205639,2840:207537,2883:216748,2999:218268,3030:218800,3042:220548,3094:222448,3138:227270,3169:227814,3181:233798,3324:240130,3411:240955,3430:242080,3451:243505,3472:246150,3483:246840,3494:250566,3559:254699,3607:255034,3613:259992,3740:260662,3752:260997,3758:261868,3780:262136,3785:263342,3809:265955,3875:273181,3953:277120,3993:277600,4005:278800,4051:285791,4170:286330,4178:287254,4193:287793,4201:288948,4227:295262,4359:303803,4466:306356,4523:306839,4541:307874,4557:308978,4577:317602,4670:318150,4675:330314,4825:331810,4858:332602,4873:333130,4880:338870,4933:339398,4945:343160,5047:351841,5155:361100,5292:364454,5340:372968,5471:373398,5478:377390,5504:377908,5512:378880,5523
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Tyrone Mitchell's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Tyrone Mitchell lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Tyrone Mitchell describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Tyrone Mitchell describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Tyrone Mitchell talks about his father's work experience

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Tyrone Mitchell talks about how his parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Tyrone Mitchell talks about his siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Tyrone Mitchell talks about his parents' personalities

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Tyrone Mitchell describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Tyrone Mitchell describes the neighborhoods where he grew up

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Tyrone Mitchell describes the sights, sounds, and smells of growing up - part one

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Tyrone Mitchell describes the sights, sounds, and smells of growing up - part two

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Tyrone Mitchell talks about his involvement in church

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Tyrone Mitchell talks about his childhood activities

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Tyrone Mitchell describes his early education

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Tyrone Mitchell describes his interdiction to science

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Tyrone Mitchell describes his thoughts about college as a young person

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Tyrone Mitchell talks about living with his Aunt Edna

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Tyrone Mitchell talks about L. B. Landry High School

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Tyrone Mitchell talks about his high school interests and activities

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Tyrone Mitchell talks about the space race and the focus on science in the 1950s

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Tyrone Mitchell talks about the guidance and advice he received from his high school teachers

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Tyrone Mitchell talks about his decision to attend Dillard University

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Tyrone Mitchell describes the chemistry department at Dillard University

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Tyrone Mitchell describes his research of azides with Dr. Jan Hamer

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Tyrone Mitchell talks about his organic chemistry courses

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Tyrone Mitchell talks about his decision to attend graduate school

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Tyrone Mitchell describes the faculty at the University of Pittsburgh

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Tyrone Mitchell talks about his preparation for graduate school and his mentor, Dr. Claiborne Griffin

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Tyrone Mitchell talks about being hired to work for General Electric

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Tyrone Mitchell describes his work at General Electric

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Tyrone Mitchell talks about his doctoral studies (part 1)

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Tyrone Mitchell talks about his doctoral studies (part 2)

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Tyrone Mitchell describes his doctoral research on reactions of esters with amines

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Tyrone Mitchell talks about his patents and his work with aminosilanes at General Electric

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Tyrone Mitchell talks about silicon breast implants

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Tyrone Mitchell summarizes his work at General Electric

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Tyrone Mitchell describes his decision to work at Corning Incorporated

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Tyrone Mitchell talks about his efforts to improve diversity at Corning Incorported

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Tyrone Mitchell talks about Corning's efforts to increase the minority representation in graduate school

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Tyrone Mitchell talks about Corning's efforts to improve conditions for women

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Slating of Tyrone Mitchell's interview

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Tyrone Mitchell talks about his decision to work at Corning Incorporated

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Tyrone Mitchell talks about his work at Corning Incorporated

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Tyrone Mitchell talks about Corning Incorporated's efforts to employ more women and minorities

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Tyrone Mitchell talks about the leadership at Corning Incorporated

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Tyrone Mitchell talks about Historically Black Colleges and Corning Incorporated

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Tyrone Mitchell compares General Electric and Corning International

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Tyrone Mitchell talks about leaving Corning Incorporated's employment

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Tyrone Mitchell talks about going to work for the National Science Foundation

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Tyrone Mitchell talks about his wife and his family life

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Tyrone Mitchell describes his work as program director for the National Science Foundation

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Tyrone Mitchell talks about the nation's focus on STEM and federal funding

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Tyrone Mitchell talks about his move to the National Science Foundation

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Tyrone Mitchell discusses the presence of African Americans at the National Science Foundation

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Tyrone Mitchell talks about honors he has received

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - Tyrone Mitchell talks about funding for the National Science Foundation

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - Tyrone Mitchell talks about the importance of research for smaller institutions

Tape: 9 Story: 1 - Tyrone Mitchell talks about resources available to small schools

Tape: 9 Story: 2 - Tyrone Mitchell talks about Historically Black Colleges and the importance of a research focus

Tape: 9 Story: 3 - Tyrone Mitchell talks about his legacy

Tape: 9 Story: 4 - Tyrone Mitchell reflects on his career

Tape: 9 Story: 5 - Tyrone Mitchell shares his hopes and concerns for the African American Community

Tape: 9 Story: 6 - Tyrone Mitchell talks about his children (part 1)

Tape: 10 Story: 1 - Tyrone Mitchell talks about his children (part 2)

Tape: 10 Story: 2 - Tyrone Mitchell tells how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 10 Story: 3 - Tyrone Mitchell describes his photos

DASession

1$2

DATape

3$7

DAStory

7$2

DATitle
Tyrone Mitchell talks about his organic chemistry courses
Tyrone Mitchell talks about going to work for the National Science Foundation
Transcript
But like I say, Dr. Hamer was outstanding. And he actually left Dillard and went to, became a professor at Tulane [University], once he got established. But we were fortunate enough to get him for organic chemistry, and like I say, he became, he became a mentor and made sure that we learned what we had to learn because at the time he taught organic chemistry, but desegregation of some of the schools was happening during our time in college. And there was a new school. It's called LSU New Orleans. LSU [Louisiana State University] had a campus in New Orleans. And one of his good friends, Dr. Jack Stocker, S-T-O-C-K-E-R, was teaching a summer course. And it was the same course he taught. He taught an organic chemistry course. Dr. Jack Stocker was gonna teach an organic chemistry, the summer course, which was the same course he taught, except he's teaching it out of a new book by, called, by authors 'Morrison and Boyd.' Now, Morris and Boyd became like the bible of organic chemistry during my time, and every, most schools were using that because it taught chemistry in a different way. It taught organic chemistry in a different way, (unclear) mechanistically. Before organic chemistry was memorization. But they taught using mechanisms and things of that sort. So Hamer insisted, not insisted, but he encouraged Sandra and I to go to LSU in New Orleans and take the summer course from Dr. Stocker. And it was like, the school had just integrated. So after, the summer after we took organic chemistry from him, we went to, I took that summer at LSU in New Orleans, which now is called the University of New Orleans, but then it was LSU-NO, in New Orleans. So I took the course, and I did quite well in the course. But the interesting thing about that is that the class was all white students, and Sandra and I were the only black students in that class. And these white students had never been to class with blacks before. So they accepted it, but one thing that they would do is when we--if they got to class before us, wherever we sat, they would move, get up all and move to the other side of the room or to the back of the room or to the corner of the room. So we used to play games with them. We'd wait till they get seated, then we go in, and we'd sit down. And they would (laughter), they would all get up and move. So, but we'd, that was the whole summer. But, but, you know, Dr. Stocker was fair, and he taught the course, and I did very well. I worked the problems and made, made a decent grade in that course. And that was--$$I'm just saying, this is the first time, this is the first time that LSU was integrated like that?$$Yeah, they'd just integrated LSU, yes.$$Okay.$$It'd just been integrated. And, and Dr. Hamer told us, encouraged us to go and take the course that summer 'cause he knew we would learn--and that course is really what got me, cemented my interests in organic chemistry and actually helped me to be more competitive when I went to graduate school. And it really prepared me very well for going to graduate school.$And one of the things I thought, I always wanted to do, well, all my whole career, I wanted to teach in a university. I wanted to, and I thought having been in industry for thirty-some years, I thought that--and having worked with the interns and with young people, I saw it as a value to take and go and teach at a university and try to bring these skills and bring these connections I had and try to help those students to plan their careers, whether they wanted to go into research or industry or whatever they wanted to do, and to be aware of the landscape. And I thought I could help them with that in becoming, into making that transition and understanding what is required when you go to work anywhere, you know, any kind of work that you go to do. You know, you have to, you have to understand the culture that you're going into, and the other thing I always tell students is that you, there's no substitute for working hard. You have to work hard. Okay, there's just no way to get around that. And I always point out that even though I've been in my career for all these years, I still end up working nights and weekends because you have goals to meet, and you have to meet those goals. And it becomes, you know, if you're self-motivated, then you'll do that. And a lot of young people that I mentor have done quite well and been successful by following that advice. So I thought I wanted to do something differently. And so I got, I worked to get my, put a CV together, and I started sending it out. And I sent it to, I, I was, I guess I was a little naive because I sent it to two schools that I thought I definitely would like to, to work at, that I thought had the infrastructure, and I thought that I could really bring a lot of value to that school as a research scientist and as a chemist and as a person that worked with young people and a person who had contacts and knew the industrial area and knew, and, and having the technology transfer stuff, I had a lot of contacts at universities and so I put together a CV, and I sent it to two schools. Maybe I should have blanketed it, sent it to more schools. But I sent it to two schools that I was interested in, two HBCUs [Historically Black Colleges and Universities] that I was interested in transitioning to. And to my surprise, I never heard back from them. And after a few months, I called them, and they said, oh, we lost your, must have misplaced your CV. And they, they said, send us another copy. So meanwhile, when this is, when this was going on, I had served on a number of boards, okay. And I was on a board of, when I was at Corning, I served on the Center for Advanced Materials processing. It's a board, it was an entity at Clarkson University that was funded by the state. And the State of New York funds a number of different centers, about ten or twelve centers throughout the state. And they get something like a million dollars a year or something in that ballpark, and New York Centers of Excellence. And each of these centers are located at universities throughout the State of New York. And they all have an expertise that, that university will take and, area they'd work in, to try and develop technology in the state and make jobs in those regions that they're located. Well, Clarkson, being in upstate New York, had a Center for Advanced Materials Processing. When I was on the board of that center, one of the things Corning was a supporter, and in my technology assessment capacity, I managed a lot of those activities in terms of giving funding. So I managed the funding that went to these different university centers, like there was one at Cornell, one at SUNY Albany [State University of New York, Albany], and if part of the money that I'm, part of the Vice President of Research's budget, then I managed those activities and sat on the boards and things of that sort. Well, the director of the Center for Advanced Materials Processing had, had stepped down as the director of that. He had been there the whole time I was there, and I know him, knew him very well. And he had come to NSF [National Science Foundation] to do a rotation as a program director, as a program director in the chemistry division. And when I was waiting to hear from these universities, he contacted me. He said, Ty, you really should look at doing a rotation as a program director at NSF, as a rotator 'cause they brought in rotators. NSF brings in people from universities to come in and spend a couple of years helping with the, with the review process and funding process. But they didn't, they didn't recruit many people from industry. And my, my friend from Clarkson, what was his name? Ray, Ray--I've forgot his name at the moment, he, he actually encouraged me to send my CV to NSF. And when I did, they invited me in to give a talk. I came in, and I talked about some of the research I had done at Corning. I also talked about the management, some of the management activities I had done. And, and lo and behold, I got an offer from them to come and be a rotator at NSF. And meanwhile, I still hadn't heard from the universities that I was interested in transitioning to. So I decided to do that for a couple, for at least two years--it was a two-year appointment, while I sought out the other part of, of going, becoming part of a university faculty. And after working there, I enjoyed the work, and I saw an opportunity to really, to really make a difference in some of the funding activities.