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Ollie Taylor

Elementary school teacher, Ollie M. Taylor was born on September 14, 1937 Tallahassee, Florida to Major and Mary Thompson. She is the oldest of four children: Albert, Douglas and Major, Jr. Taylor attended Bond Jr. High School and graduated from Florida A & M University High School in Tallahassee, Florida in 1956. In 1957, she married Willie J. Taylor and relocated to Chicago, Illinois. Taylor and her husband had their first, Anthony Taylor, in 1958. Their second child Angela Taylor was born three years later, and their youngest, Valerie Taylor, was born in 1963. In 1970, Taylor attended Kennedy King College in Chicago, Illinois where she completed her A.A. degree in 1972. She then transferred to National Louis University in Evanston, Illinois and earned her B.S. degree in education in 1975, and her M.S. degree in education in 1989.

From 1964 to 1969, Taylor began working in clerical positions for Spiegel Inc. in Chicago, Illinois. Then, in 1970, she began her career as an educator at the Chicago Urban Day School in Chicago, where she implemented the Montessori curriculum. In 1975, she joined the Chicago Board of Education and began teaching Head Start early developmental classes for children at Goldblatt Elementary School Chicago. Beginning in 1982, Taylor accepted a position at Melody Elementary School Chicago, where she taught kindergarten for several years. Taylor transferred to Ray Graham Training Center in Chicago.

Taylor received many awards for her outstanding work with students and parents throughout her teaching career. She retired from teaching after more than three decades of service at the age of sixty-six. Taylor resides with her husband, daughter and two of her four grandchildren in Bryan, Texas.

Ollie Taylor was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on 08/13/2012.

Accession Number

A2012.189

Sex

Female

Interview Date

8/13/2012

Last Name

Taylor

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Schools

Bond Elementary School

FAMU Developmental Research School

Kennedy–King College

National Louis University

First Name

Ollie

Birth City, State, Country

Tallahassee

HM ID

TAY11

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Florida

Favorite Vacation Destination

St. Lucia

Favorite Quote

Scoot The Boot.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Texas

Birth Date

9/14/1937

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Bryan/College Station

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Fish

Short Description

Elementary school teacher Ollie Taylor (1937 - ) taught elementary school students for twenty-eight years.

Employment

Spiegel, Inc.

Chicago Board of Education

Favorite Color

Black

Timing Pairs
0,0:6534,257:21192,464:49108,661:52510,793:55434,864:56250,886:58562,946:58834,951:59174,957:59786,968:60398,980:60670,986:60942,995:87300,1151:88035,1160:91970,1220:100614,1349:102660,1363$0,0:1540,46:3780,100:5940,149:8100,193:10100,222:23824,365:24903,397:31543,629:41504,767:41900,772:49550,849:60257,1017:60695,1024:65523,1084:77856,1260:80573,1361:81189,1370:82652,1398:83653,1415:84192,1420:84654,1427:101225,1679:101581,1684:102293,1694:133530,2010:141608,2144:159230,2439:161300,2536:170880,2690
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Ollie Taylor's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Ollie Taylor lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Ollie Taylor describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Ollie Taylor remembers lessons from her maternal family

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Ollie Taylor talks about her mother's career

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Ollie Taylor describes her mother's community in Tallahassee, Florida

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Ollie Taylor describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Ollie Taylor remembers the Bond community near Tallahassee, Florida

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Ollie Taylor talks about her paternal grandfather's career

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Ollie Taylor recalls her paternal grandparents' deaths

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Ollie Taylor describes her father's personality

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Ollie Taylor describes her father's role in the bus boycotts

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Ollie Taylor remembers celebrating Emancipation Day

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Ollie Taylor recalls her father's relationship with her paternal grandfather

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Ollie Taylor describes her father's career during World War II

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Ollie Taylor talks about her parents' relationship

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Ollie Taylor describes her likeness to her father

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Ollie Taylor talks about her racial identity

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Ollie Taylor describes her earliest childhood memory

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Ollie Taylor lists her siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Ollie Taylor describes the sights, sounds and smells of her childhood, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Ollie Taylor describes the sights, sounds and smells of her childhood, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Ollie Taylor describes the sights, sounds and smells of her childhood, pt. 3

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Ollie Taylor recalls the celebrity visitors to Florida Agricultural and Mechanical College for Negroes

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Ollie Taylor remembers Bond Junior High School in Tallahassee, Florida, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Ollie Taylor remembers Bond Junior High School in Tallahassee, Florida, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Ollie Taylor remembers World War II

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Ollie Taylor recalls her social activities

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Ollie Taylor recalls facing discrimination from her black teachers

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Ollie Taylor describes the treatment of black teachers in the South

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Ollie Taylor remembers her early mentors

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Ollie Taylor talks about her early aspirations

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Ollie Taylor recalls an influential teacher at Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University High School

Tape: 3 Story: 12 - Ollie Taylor remembers the music of her youth

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Ollie Taylor talks about the options for social activities in the segregated South

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Ollie Taylor talks about her nomination for Ms. FAMU High

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Ollie Taylor recalls playing sports at the Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University High School

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Ollie Taylor remembers her extracurricular activities

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Ollie Taylor describes her employment as a youth

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Ollie Taylor remembers leaving her hometown of Tallahassee, Florida

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Ollie Taylor remembers meeting her husband

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Ollie Taylor recalls the births of her children

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Ollie Taylor remembers meeting Ora Higgins

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Ollie Taylor talks about the Bridgeport neighborhood of Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - Ollie Taylor remembers the assassination of Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Ollie Taylor recalls the start of the black pride movement

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Ollie Taylor talks about her experiences at Kennedy-King College in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Ollie Taylor recalls her husband's graduation from the Illinois Institute of Technology

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Ollie Taylor describes the start of her career in education

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Ollie Taylor describes her experiences of discrimination during her early teaching career

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Ollie Taylor talks about the politics of the Chicago Public Schools

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Ollie Taylor describes her experiences as a teacher in Chicago Public Schools

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Ollie Taylor talks about her philosophy of teaching

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Ollie Taylor describes the highlights of her teaching career

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Ollie Taylor talks about her challenges as a teacher

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Ollie Taylor remembers Chicago Mayor Harold Washington's administration

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Ollie Taylor talks about volunteering at the eta Creative Arts Foundation

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Ollie Taylor remembers volunteering at her children's schools

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Ollie Taylor talks about her family

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Ollie Taylor reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Ollie Taylor reflects upon her life

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Ollie Taylor describes her hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Ollie Taylor narrates her photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$2

DAStory

12$3

DATitle
Ollie Taylor remembers the music of her youth
Ollie Taylor recalls her father's relationship with her paternal grandfather
Transcript
What kind of music did you like in high school [Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University High School; Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University Developmental Research School, Tallahassee, Florida]?$$It was all kinds. Well, it--we enjoyed blues, would you think--the young kids--blues.$$Like who?$$Well, [HistoryMaker] B. B. King is my favorite.$$Um-hm. Now was he a favorite in high school?$$Yeah. We used to listen. It was--who is this little song that we used to dance off all the time--and I don't remember the name of it--I mean, the person [Hank Ballard] but it was 'Work with Me, Annie.'$$Oh, yeah, I remember that, yeah, right, I remember that.$$Oh, and Johnny Ace, 'The Clock.' Who else, 'cause we used to go the fountain then and dance in the morning, and come to the class smelling like bugs. And the teachers told the man who owned it, that he would have to close it in the morning. We couldn't go over there, it was just right across the street, you know, from the school. And who else did we--$$Was Ray Charles big then?$$Oh, yeah, yeah, yeah, Ray Charles. Let's see who else.$$This is the beginning of what they call rock and roll or, you know, R and B [rhythm and blues], you know, as such I guess right. Sort of the, kind of transitioning from the band music to, you know, more bands--I mean smaller bands.$$But smaller bands.$Now did your dad [Major Thompson, Sr.] finish school himself or--?$$Unh-uh.$$Okay.$$He only went to about sixth or seventh grade.$$Okay.$$But he was really, you know, how it was--long time ago people were gifted, they was smart.$$Right, yeah--so he (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) And sometimes you didn't go, you know.$$Did he work with his--$$He was a self made person, huh?$$Yeah, did, did he work with his father [Hinton Thompson] on the development of those houses or anything?$$(Shakes head) Unh-uh, unh-uh.$$He didn't?$$(Shakes head) Unh-uh.$$What--did they have--way you're sha- shaking your head, they may not of had a close relationship, is that--$$No, they didn't.$$Oh, okay. What happened? Was that--$$I don't remember, I don't, you know, I don't know what happened. I was close--not what you would say--'cause I was a lil' girl. I mean, you know, I had more dealings interactions with my Grandma Fannie [Fannie Holloman Thompson] than I did with Grandpa Hinton. 'Cause they always said that he was really smart also, so--$$Yeah, I think he would if he had all that property.$$Um-hm (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) Yeah.$$Um-hm.$$I mean (unclear) so--but your father and your grandfather had some kind of a falling out or something?$$I don't know. 'Cause my father was headstrong. And I guess he didn't do the--what--he was the youngest. I remember that part, and he didn't do what was--things that family expected him to do so--$$Now did your father come from a big--was there--did he have a lot of brothers and sisters?$$Let me see. Alec, Solomon, Alice, Effie [Effie Thompson Rogers]--$$You can name 'em out loud if you want to.$$Oh!$$'Cause this is for your family on tape, so--$$Oh, okay, it was Alec [Alexander Thompson], Luke [Luke Thompson], Alice [Alice Thompson], Stella [Stella Thompson Collins]. Did I say Solomon [Solomon Thompson], and my father he was the youngest [sic.]. So it was--I remember six of them, I think.$$Six, okay.$$Um-hm.$$All right. And I didn't ask you this but what--did your mother [Mary Davis Thompson] have a big family too or were there--$$She came from--her family--I think it was five.$$That's (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Let's see--$$You can go ahead, name 'em.$$Son [Nelson Davis], Buddy [Randy Davis], my mother (unclear) Rainse, Edith [Edith Davis Brim], Samuel [Samuel Davis III], it was five of them.$$Okay.$$Um-hm.$$And those really aren't big families for those days (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) No.$$It's just--$$Um-hm.$$--pretty ordinary families, but.$$Right.$$Nowadays it might be considered a big family but (laughter)--$$(Laughter) Yeah.$$In those days people were at like ten, twelve kids.$$Kids, um-hm.

Marvis Kneeland Jones

Elementary school teacher, travel agent, and public relations manager Marvis Kneeland-Jones was born on February 1, 1941 in Chicago, Illinois. She was born and raised in Memphis, Tennessee and graduated from Hamilton High School with honors. After the landmark Supreme Court case Brown v. Board of Education mandated the desegregation of the Southern school system, Kneeland-Jones was among the first eight African American students to pass the entrance exam and enroll in Memphis State University. She and her fellow students eventually became known as the Memphis State Eight.

Kneeland-Jones graduated from Memphis State University with her B.S. degree in elementary education in 1974, after a four-year hiatus caused in part by the neglect and discrimination she experienced in her time there. During her time at Memphis State, Kneeland-Jones worked as a secretary for the NAACP. She went on to receive her M.S. degree in education and teach in the Memphis Public School system for the next twenty-five years. Kneeland-Jones also organized voter registration drives in Shelby County and worked to help her husband, Rufus E. Jones, run a successful campaign for State Representative in Tennessee, a position he held for sixteen years. Upon retirement from teaching, Kneeland-Jones went to work as Public Relations Manager for the government relations consulting company REJ & Associates, which her husband had founded.

Kneeland-Jones has been involved with numerous charitable and civic organizations, among them the Links Inc., the Friends of Memphis and Shelby County Libraries, Washington Chapel Church Christian Methodist Episcopal Church, and the National, Tennessee, and Memphis Education Associations. Kneeland-Jones has been awarded lifetime membership in the NAACP, has been named a Civil Rights Pioneer Honoree, and has been honored with the Arthur S. Holman Lifetime Achievement Award by her alma mater, Memphis State University. Memphis State University also established the Memphis State Eight Best Paper Prize in 2000, for the best historical paper on the African American experience, in honor of Kneeland-Jones and her colleagues. In 2006 the Memphis State Eight were invited back to Memphis State to see the prize awarded at a conference on African American history and be honored for their pioneering roles in desegregation.

Accession Number

A2010.086

Sex

Female

Interview Date

7/27/2010

Last Name

Kneeland-Jones

Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

LaVerne

Schools

Hamilton High School

LeMoyne-Owen College

University of Memphis

Hamilton Elementary School

Douglass K-8 Optional School

Trevecca Nazarene University

First Name

Marvis

Birth City, State, Country

Chicago

HM ID

KNE01

Favorite Season

Birthday

State

Illinois

Favorite Vacation Destination

Anywhere

Favorite Quote

God Help Me.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Tennessee

Birth Date

2/1/1941

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Memphis

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Salad

Short Description

Travel agent, elementary school teacher, and public relations manager Marvis Kneeland Jones (1941 - ) helped to desegregate Memphis University and worked to promote civil rights and education throughout Memphis.

Employment

Memphis Public School System

For All Seasons

REJ & Associates

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:2387,55:7436,147:8426,160:12089,280:13277,293:24015,351:24355,356:38030,503:48130,628:52313,689:67755,822:72816,848:74046,869:76834,912:85286,1015:110530,1215:110790,1400:111115,1433:112090,1453:113715,1500:123980,1619:126814,1656:135290,1784:135610,1789:139050,1850:139450,1856:140330,1873:149545,1975:156983,2065:173741,2310:175743,2336:182200,2409:182800,2416:196280,2563:202805,2675:216520,2826:218104,2865:218808,2941:219248,2947:219688,2953:223052,2978:225382,2995:247690,3294:274206,3556:274574,3561:274942,3566:283982,3672:293300,3855:294690,3861$0,0:1245,54:50369,654:54720,672:55868,797:59312,899:59640,904:60214,912:60542,917:76421,1090:82645,1148:83041,1153:89575,1312:100988,1465:101332,1470:107340,1504:110654,1539:110994,1545:111266,1550:120300,1645:120628,1650:121120,1658:123416,1690:146656,1986:147344,1996:148118,2006:148462,2032:150440,2050:151128,2059:151730,2068:152418,2077:153278,2086:153794,2124:162950,2276:172588,2372:174884,2410:179230,2417:179746,2424:182498,2482:183960,2515:185078,2541:186024,2555:188690,2601:194366,2734:194968,2742:195312,2747:202604,2785:204073,2800:204525,2805:208593,2875:223476,3033:224064,3042:224484,3048:227844,3119:230448,3193:230784,3198:236732,3316:239554,3414:265925,3883:266225,3888:267200,3905:267500,3910:268550,3928:269150,3938:271775,4036:275460,4055:276435,4076:286714,4158:296642,4354:306960,4469:318153,4585:323900,4665
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Marvis Kneeland Jones' interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Marvis Kneeland Jones lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Marvis Kneeland Jones describes her mother's family background, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Marvis Kneeland Jones describes her mother's family background, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Marvis Kneeland Jones talks about her mother's teaching career

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Marvis Kneeland Jones describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Marvis Kneeland Jones talks about her father's upbringing

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Marvis Kneeland Jones describes her parents' marriage

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Marvis Kneeland Jones remembers her mother's death

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Marvis Kneeland Jones talks about the deaths of her maternal family members

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Marvis Kneeland Jones describes her parents' personalities and who she takes after

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Marvis Kneeland Jones remembers the Douglass community in Memphis, Tennessee

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Marvis Kneeland Jones describes the sights, sounds and smells of her childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Marvis Kneeland Jones describes her experiences at Hamilton Elementary School in Memphis, Tennessee

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Marvis Kneeland Jones recalls her childhood activities in Memphis, Tennessee

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Marvis Kneeland Jones describes her early involvement in Memphis' Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Marvis Kneeland Jones talks about the civil rights leadership in Memphis, Tennessee

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Marvis Kneeland Jones remembers her early participation in sit-in protests

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Marvis Kneeland Jones recalls the desegregation of the city buses in Memphis, Tennessee

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Marvis Kneeland Jones remembers moving to the Douglass community of Memphis, Tennessee

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Marvis Kneeland Jones describes her experiences at sit-ins in Memphis, Tennessee

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Marvis Kneeland Jones recalls the discriminatory admissions practices at Memphis State University

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Marvis Kneeland Jones describes the NAACP's first attempt to integrate Memphis State University

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Marvis Kneeland Jones describes the formation of the Memphis State Eight

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Marvis Kneeland Jones recalls her reluctance to enroll at Memphis State University

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Marvis Kneeland Jones talks about the Great Migration

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Marvis Kneeland Jones remembers her first day at Memphis State University

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Marvis Kneeland Jones describes her experiences of racial discrimination at Memphis State University, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Marvis Kneeland Jones describes her experiences of racial discrimination at Memphis State University, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Marvis Kneeland Jones recalls her academic experiences at Memphis State University

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Marvis Kneeland Jones recalls graduating with honors from Memphis State University

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Marvis Kneeland Jones remembers meeting her husband

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Marvis Kneeland Jones talks about her marriage

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Marvis Kneeland Jones recalls the assassination of Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Marvis Kneeland Jones recalls her graduation from Memphis State University

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Marvis Kneeland Jones describes her career as an educator

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Marvis Kneeland Jones talks about her children's education and careers

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Marvis Kneeland Jones talks about the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Marvis Kneeland Jones remembers her students

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Marvis Kneeland Jones describes her husband's legislative career

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Marvis Kneeland Jones talks about Mayor W.W. Herenton of Memphis, Tennessee

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Marvis Kneeland Jones talks about the need for education reform

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Marvis Kneeland Jones describes her hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Marvis Kneeland Jones reflects upon her life

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Marvis Kneeland Jones reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 11 - Marvis Kneeland Jones talks about the need for job training programs

Tape: 5 Story: 12 - Marvis Kneeland Jones describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Marvis Kneeland Jones narrates her photographs, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Marvis Kneeland Jones narrates her photographs, pt. 2

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$4

DAStory

1$2

DATitle
Marvis Kneeland Jones describes her experiences of racial discrimination at Memphis State University, pt. 1
Marvis Kneeland Jones describes her experiences of racial discrimination at Memphis State University, pt. 2
Transcript
So, now after the dean [R.M. Robison] gave you all his rules of what he didn't want you to do and to get off campus as fast as you can (laughter), what did the NAACP [National Association for the Advancement of Colored People] tell you all?$$Well, the NAA- we told them about the registration process and the NAACP said, "Look, if you don't like what they have picked out for you go to them and tell them. And for your courses, your orientation and everything, and tell them that you are not happy with that. And if they say anything to you, give me a call." Well, you know we were so tense that we didn't do that. We just took what they gave us and went on.$$So you didn't tell the NAACP what the dean said or anything there?$$I didn't tell them.$$You, you didn't tell them, okay?$$Yeah, I--we told them, but I said--the NAACP said, "If you don't like what you got in terms of courses and--go and tell the dean that you don't like it and the administration," as they would say. But we didn't do that. We just took what they gave us and went on.$$But the NAACP didn't know that you all were just taking stuff you didn't like?$$No, they didn't know.$$That's what I--that's the point (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) They were saying, "Okay, so how was your day?" Mr. Turner [Jesse H. Turner, Sr.] every day, "Did you go to the cafeteria?" "No." "When you going?" "We, we don't know Mr. Turner. We, we don't really have time. We gonna have to get off the campus by twelve [o'clock]. We don't even have time to go to the library." And he said, "Well, I don't know why you can't, go on to the library." Well we ignored him because we wanted to get off of that campus like we were told. We just didn't do it.$$Now were you all afraid of the students?$$Sort of. Because--actually we didn't have very much socialization among each other. We were never in a class together, it was always one of us. And when we would go in, we would be sitting, if you sit in the middle you're gonna have seats vacant on both sides and behind you. And we used to wonder why people would be getting up. You know, how we had--how you go into class. And that's what would happen. And then we also--$$But, but did you really wonder why?$$Yeah--$$You didn't expect that (simultaneous)?$$(Simultaneous) We wondered why and but we didn't--we just told the NAACP about that and of course they just said, "Well, you can't do anything with the people that move. But if they bother you, you must let us know." Well they didn't bother you, they just treated you indifferently. And you had to not pay attention to it. And when I, I noticed in my class, see I was the only one in there so I didn't have anybody to talk to in my group. I raised my hand and sometimes the teacher would just overlook it and somebody else would've answered the question. I didn't like that. So I ended up staying at Memphis State [Memphis State University; University of Memphis, Memphis, Tennessee] under these conditions for about two years and then I quit 'cause it was too much for me. Some of the others dropped out in the first year and went somewhere else.$$Did anybody finish there?$$Yes, Luther McClellan [Luther C. McClellan] was the first person to finish and he was from Manassas High School [Memphis, Tennessee]. And he finished and he was chemistry, mathematician and he started working for the government and he went into their service. And he did finish. The one--the next person to finish was Eleanor Gandy and she was from Douglass High School [Memphis, Tennessee]. And she majored in French. Now they went straight through. The rest of them, let's see, Sammie Burnett [Sammie Burnett Johnson] left in--after one year and she was my partner. And Ralph [Ralph Prater] finished, and I think he went--he didn't finish, but he went to Howard [Howard University, Washington D.C.] and got a law degree there.$That's Ralph Prater?$$Ralph Prater, uh-huh.$$You said that they put sugar in his gas tank?$$Oh, one day we were going home and he was trying to get the car started. He said, "I know there's nothing wrong with my car 'cause I just had a tune up." And so he tried to start it 'cause he was gonna take us to the bus, we were gonna miss our bus because it was about a couple of blocks up the road and he was just giving us a ride. And we could get a chance to interact with each other. But then we--Luther [Luther C. McClellan] and--not Luther but James Simpson [sic. John Simpson] and they looked and said, "Man, you got something in your tank." And that's when he found out that he had sugar in his tank. So somebody had to put it there. We don't know who. But anyway it was there. Another incident that happened is that Sammie [Sammie Burnett Johnson] and I were walking to catch the bus and we wal- went through what they call Jones Hall [Memphis, Tennessee]. And at Jones Hall, these football boys were standing out there and they said, "Okay, you niggers need to get outta here, we don't want you here." And of course, we were furious. We didn't know what to do, so we kept walking real fast and, and Sammie told me don't look back, we're just gonna walk and do what we have to do, and I did. Another incident that happened is the orange situation where some of the par- of Memphis State [Memphis State University; University of Memphis, Memphis, Tennessee] they said that they--oranges were thrown at them. And it was little irritating stuff like that, just irritating. So that pushed a lot of them away to go to other schools, to just leave that kind of environment. What got me out is that I got married and I had three children right away and I did not want to go under that kind of stress for life. I did not think I had a normal college life. I had experienced it at LeMoyne [LeMoyne College; LeMoyne-Owen College, Memphis, Tennessee], but when I went to Memphis State it was a whole lot different from what I was used to.$$What was the, the feedback that you received from Mr. Turner [Jesse H. Turner, Sr.] and the NAACP [National Association for the Advancement of Colored People]? What did they say about--did they have anything to say about you all not staying in school?$$Well, sort of you know, by that time I wasn't working for him then, you know. I was at home being a homemaker. But I started school taking three hours, six hours.$$Okay, but I wanted to go back to when you all--when the, when the first, the black students first started dropping out of that bad situation at Memphis State. Did they--did they try to gather you all together and talk you back into going?$$Oh sure they talked to us a lot, but we just decided that this was not for us. Luther wanted to because he was very smart and he wanted to stay because he, he wanted to be a part of--he wanted to go on and get a higher form of education. And when he went in the [U.S.] Air Force he really did.$$Now did--did anybody--I'm sorry, but did anybody from the NAACP ever go up to Memphis State and talk to the dean [R.M. Robison] or the president [Cecil C. Humphreys] about how you all were being treated?$$You know what, I really don't think so. But I don't really know, because when I told my parent [Jones' father, James Kneeland] about it he said, "Well, you're just gonna have to keep going and do what you know to do." But by that time I had met my husband [Rufus E. Jones, Sr.] and I was ready to get married.$$Okay, well I just wanted to make sure I--how that worked 'cause if you (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) I don't remember that. I do remember that the first year that we were there, they used to call us all together and we would go down to Mutual Federal [Mutual Federal Savings and Loan Association, Memphis, Tennessee] and have those meetings with those lawyers. But I really don't know what came out of that because it was at that time that the State Board of Education [Tennessee State Board of Education] allowed us to come to that school. And then I think they just said everything was okay, unless we complained, nothing else was done about it. And we just scattered. Now what? (Unclear) (laughter).$$Okay, well that--that's important 'cause I think we do need to know the dynamic of how the NAACP was working. And if they, they put you all, they, they organized you to go there, it seems like somebody would've, there'd been some follow through?$$Mr. Turner was trying to, you know. But you know, as I left and I wasn't working there anymore, because when I went to school, you know, I couldn't work. I had to spend most of my time studying. I just couldn't.

James Collier, Jr.

Elementary school teacher and engineer James Collier was born on October 18, 1924 in Jackson, Tennessee to Lucille and James Collier, Sr. Collier’s grandmother ran a boarding house for Pullman porters, and his maternal great grandmother lived to be 111 years old. A retired quality control engineer for Monsanto, Collier was the inventor of the process by which Monsanto sliced and coated silicon chips for electronic information storage. Growing up in Jackson, Tennessee, he attended South Jackson Elementary School in an integrated neighborhood. At segregated Merry High School in Jackson, Collier was an outstanding musician. He sang and played the violin and trombone. Before graduation in 1942, Collier and the members of the choir refused to entertain the white state school superintendent. They let the elaborate intro music play and stood mute.

Drafted into World War II in 1943, Collier was discharged in 1946. He graduated from Jackson’s Lane College with his B.S. degree in social science and music in 1949. Collier also took graduate courses at Saint Louis University in St. Louis, Missouri.

Collier started working for the St. Louis Board of Education in 1950 as a substitute teacher, then as a sixth grade teacher. Also working after hours as a musician and band leader, he played trombone with his group, Jim Collier and the Rhythmaires and promoted acts like Chuck Berry, Eddie Kendall, Archie Burnside, Nancy Wilson, Otis Hightower, Art Blakely, Ernie Wilkins, Jimmy Forrest and Jimmy Smith.

In 1980, Collier invented and patented a silicon slicing process for today’s silicon chips. Monsanto Electronics established a plant to produce the chips in 1963, where Collier experimented and developed the slicing process.

Collier was the founder of Operation Family and works with youth, mentoring and teaching them voice and stage presence. For many years, he produced his own cable television show. The broad range of subjects covered by Collier include the works of Tyler Perry, black land distribution after the Civil War, St. Louis gang culture and an award winning Black History Month program. Collier also published a book of his poetry and was developing his talent as a painter.

Collier passed away on June 1, 2011 at the age of 86.

Accession Number

A2007.293

Sex

Male

Interview Date

10/17/2007

Last Name

Collier

Middle Name

Alexander

Organizations
Schools

South Jackson Elementary School

Jackson Central-Merry Academy of Medical Technology

South Elementary School

Search Occupation Category
First Name

James

Birth City, State, Country

Jackson

HM ID

COL16

Favorite Season

Fall

Sponsor

National Science Foundation

State

Tennessee

Favorite Vacation Destination

Europe

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Missouri

Birth Date

10/18/1924

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

St. Louis

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Beef Steak

Death Date

6/1/2011

Short Description

Elementary school teacher and engineer James Collier, Jr. (1924 - 2011 ) invented and patented the silicon splicing process for today’s silicon chips.

Employment

United States Army

Jim Collier and the Rhythmaires

St, Louis Board of Education

Monsanto Company

Silicon Technology Corporation

Delete

Main Sponsor
Main Sponsor URL
Favorite Color

Blue

DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of James Collier's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - James Collier shares his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - James Collier talks about his grandparents on his mother's side of the family

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - James Collier talks about his mother

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - James Collier talks about his father's side of the family

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - James Collier talks about his childhood in South Jackson, Tennessee

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - James Collier talks about his high school teachers and administrators

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - James Collier shares a story of civil disobedience in high school

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - James Collier recalls his high school graduation and involvement in music and arts

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - James Collier talks about his experience in the Army Cryptology Unit and Army Service Force Band

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - James Collier describes his first marriage

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - James Collier talks about his academic experience at Lane College

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - James Collier talks about his music group, Jim Collier and the Rhythmaires

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - James Collier talks about income during his early career

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - James Collier describes his move to St. Louis and Monsanto

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - James Collier describes the silicon project at Monsanto, part 1

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - James Collier describes the silicon project at Monsanto, part 2

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - James Collier discusses his contributions to silicon splicing

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - James Collier describes the process of preparing silicon chips

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - James Collier gives advice to future inventors

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - James Collier talks about his post-retirement musical endeavors

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - James Collier talks about producing the television show 'Street Level' and other documentaries

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - James Collier discusses his poetry and volunteer activities

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - James Collier discusses his hopes and concerns for the black community

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - James Collier reflects on his life and talks about his family

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - James Collier describes his photographs

Dorothy Harrison

Educator and former president of Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Inc., Dorothy Penman Harrison was born Dorothy Marie Penman on December 8, 1907 in Portsmouth, Ohio. Harrison’s parents were former teacher, Annabelle Layne, and chef, Victor Logan Penman. Harrison grew up in Portsmouth where she learned to read and took piano lessons. Attending all black Eleventh Street Elementary School, Harrison graduated from Portsmouth High School in 1924. At Fisk University, she studied history with A.A. Taylor. When both of her parents passed away in 1926, Harrison returned to Ohio and taught school. She earned her B.A. degree in education from Ohio State University in 1932. That same year, Harrison joined the Epsilon chapter of Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Inc. and married educator, Dr. Gerald Lamar Harrison. Her husband earned his Ph.D. in education from Ohio State University in 1936 while he was serving as head of the Education Department at Prairie View A&M College in Texas.

In 1940, Harrison moved to Oklahoma when her husband was named president of the Colored Agricultural and Normal University. The college was renamed Langston University in 1941. As first lady to the president, Harrison hosted distinguished guests like W.E.B. DuBois and Liberia’s Clarence L. Simpson. In 1944, she traveled to Liberia for the inauguration of William V.S. Tubman as Liberia’s president, also attending were Mary McLeod Bethune and Eta Moten Barnett. Tragedy struck as Harrison’s eldest son, Gerald Lamar, passed away at the age of thirteen, in 1948, followed by the younger son, Richard, in 1950. Returning to school, Harrison acquired her M.S. degree in education from Oklahoma State University. She also amassed a record of civic activities, serving as treasurer of Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Inc. under president Dorothy Height in 1952 and national officer for The Links, Inc. in 1957. Harrison was elected president of the sorority in 1956 and served through 1958.

In 1960, Harrison relocated to Chicago, Illinois with her husband after spending twenty years at Langston University. She continued her public service as a board member of the Chicago Metropolitan YWCA and as a national board member of the Central Review Team and the Urban League Women’s Board. Harrison is a lifetime member of the NAACP and the National Council of Negro Women. In 1965, Harrison was selected as co-chair of the federal Head Start program. She also served on the board of directors of the City Associates of the Chicago Art Institute. Harrison has traveled numerous times to Europe, Africa, Asia, South America and the Caribbean.

Awarded an honorary doctorate from Langston University in 2003. Harrison passed away on December 22, 2010.

Harrison was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on January 18, 2007.

Accession Number

A2007.015

Sex

Female

Interview Date

1/18/2007

Last Name

Harrison

Maker Category
Middle Name

Marie

Schools

Portsmouth High School

Eleventh Street Elementary School

Fisk University

The Ohio State University

Oklahoma State University

First Name

Dorothy

Birth City, State, Country

Portsmouth

HM ID

HAR22

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Ohio

Favorite Vacation Destination

Malaysia

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Illinois

Birth Date

12/8/1907

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Chicago

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Grits

Death Date

12/22/2010

Short Description

Elementary school teacher Dorothy Harrison (1907 - 2010 ) served as a national officer for The Links, Inc., succeeded Dorothy Height as president of Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Inc., and served as a board member of the Chicago Metropolitan YWCA and the National Council of Negro Women. Harrison was also selected as co-chair of the federal Head Start program.

Favorite Color

Red, White

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Dorothy Harrison's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Dorothy Harrison lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Dorothy Harrison describes her mother

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Dorothy Harrison recalls her maternal uncle, who passed for white

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Dorothy Harrison remembers her maternal grandfather

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Dorothy Harrison recalls her mother permitting her to attend Fisk University

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Dorothy Harrison recalls teaching elementary school during her college career

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Dorothy Harrison describes her paternal grandfather

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Dorothy Harrison describes her family's historic homestead in Meadville, Pennsylvania

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Dorothy Harrison describes how her family valued education

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Dorothy Harrison talks about her father running away from home

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Dorothy Harrison describes how her parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Dorothy Harrison describes her mother's personality

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Dorothy Harrison describes her father's death

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Dorothy Harrison describes her earliest childhood memories, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Dorothy Harrison describes her brother Frederich Penman

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Dorothy Harrison describes her earliest childhood memories, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Dorothy Harrison describes the sights and tastes of her childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Dorothy Harrison talks about her hearing problem

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Dorothy Harrison recalls experiencing discrimination at Portsmouth High School

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Dorothy Harrison remembers Portsmouth's Eleventh Street School

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Dorothy Harrison describes her love of reading

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Dorothy Harrison describes her parents' expectations

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Dorothy Harrison describes the restrictions upon married teachers

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Dorothy Harrison talks about her favorite teachers

Tape: 2 Story: 13 - Dorothy Harrison remembers Allen Chapel A.M.E. Church

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Dorothy Harrison describes her experiences with church

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Dorothy Harrison recalls popular pastimes during her teenage years

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Dorothy Harrison recalls her decision to attend a historically black college

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Dorothy Harrison describes her social life at Fisk University in Nashville

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Dorothy Harrison remembers the professors and staff at Fisk University

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Dorothy Harrison remembers The Ohio State University in Columbus

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Dorothy Harrison describes her husband's graduate studies

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Dorothy Harrison describes her classes at The Ohio State University

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Dorothy Harrison remembers her marriage

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Dorothy Harrison describes her husband's career at Wilberforce University

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Dorothy Harrison describes her brother's house and practice in Dayton, Ohio

Tape: 3 Story: 12 - Dorothy Harrison recalls her impressions of Prairie View, Texas

Tape: 3 Story: 13 - Dorothy Harrison recalls her husband's achievements at Prairie View State Normal & Industrial College

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Dorothy Harrison describes her husband's studies and career

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Dorothy Harrison describes the history of Langston University in Oklahoma

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Dorothy Harrison remembers her life in Langston, Oklahoma

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Dorothy Harrison remembers the Dust Bowl era in Langston, Oklahoma

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Dorothy Harrison remembers the desegregation of Oklahoma's colleges

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Dorothy Harrison recalls her duties at Langston University

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Dorothy Harrison recalls establishing a work-study program in her home

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Dorothy Harrison remembers her famous houseguests

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Dorothy Harrison remembers her travels abroad

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Dorothy Harrison remembers William V.S. Tubman, Jr.'s inauguration

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Dorothy Harrison recalls being in Ghana when Kwame Nkrumah was overthrown

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Dorothy Harrison describes her travels in Africa

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Dorothy Harrison recalls her impression of Liberia

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Dorothy Harrison remembers notable figures she met in Liberia

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Dorothy Harrison remembers joining Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Inc.

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Dorothy Harrison remembers the deaths of her sons

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Dorothy Harrison recalls her election as president of Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Inc.

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Dorothy Harrison recalls Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Inc.'s support of civil rights

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Dorothy Harrison describes the growth of Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Inc.

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Dorothy Harrison recalls stepping down as president of Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Inc.

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Dorothy Harrison describes her work on the executive committee of Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Inc.

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Dorothy Harrison remembers moving to Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Dorothy Harrison describes her involvement with The Links, Inc.

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Dorothy Harrison describes her work with the Young Women's Christian Association

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Dorothy Harrison describes her other organizational involvement

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Dorothy Harrison reflects upon her life

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - Dorothy Harrison describes her hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 6 Story: 11 - Dorothy Harrison talks about the 2008 presidential election

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Dorothy Harrison reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Dorothy Harrison talks about her remaining family

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Dorothy Harrison describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Dorothy Harrison talks about her favorite sports teams

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Dorothy Harrison remembers accepting an honorary degree from Langston University

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Dorothy Harrison narrates her photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

5$4

DAStory

9$7

DATitle
Dorothy Harrison recalls her election as president of Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Inc.
Dorothy Harrison recalls establishing a work-study program in her home
Transcript
I had to be busy. So I decided to go back to school. I had sleep--at first I started going places. Then I--I had to make adjustment. I used to--when I went to bed I always had a book to read because I'd just start dreaming about them. So finally I decided to go to school up at--I drove twenty miles up to Stillwater [Oklahoma] to go to school, and I started and I got my master's [degree], and I stayed one year on the doctorate. By that time, I then began to get involved in Delta [Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Inc.] and I was, was, I was--that was '48 [1948] and '50 [1950] when I lost my sons [Gerald Harrison and Richard Harrison]. So I became involved in Delta on the national level and I became the national treasurer for four years from 1952 to 1956. They had a term, you could be elected for two years and two more, four years was supposed to be the maximum. So they called the person that was vice president. She wanted to be president because Dorothy [HistoryMaker Dorothy Height] by that time had served nine years and that's when they changed--$$This was Dorothy?$$Height, right.$$Dorothy Height, all right.$$My sister [Beatrice Penman] was treasurer during that time. And so--part of that time. So they were meeting and they decided to rule--to put in the rules that you can be elected for two years and reelected. Dorothy had served four years. She says it cannot be retroactive that law, cannot--you putting in it cannot refer to me, so I'm still eligible for two--four more years. So she stayed in and then one year there was a war or something going on to travel, so she stayed in nine years. During that time, I served four of those under--when she was president I was national treasurer. Then they--committee called me, convention committee called me and asked me to run for president. I, I had questions because I was still at Langston [Langston University, Langston, Oklahoma] serving as a hostess for my husband [General Lamar Harrison], you know. And I--and I knew what was involved when you become president, because you had to go out and make speeches and all that, you know. I knew what was involved. I said, "Well let me think about that. I--I--I'll call you back after I think about." They were meeting in Washington [D.C.] getting the slate. And the vice president was called. She had some kind of health problems, would almost fall out during the meetings and so forth. They didn't want her to be president and she wanted to be very much, and she was a friend of mine. So I knew how she felt. And I hesitated about saying I will be president, because I knew also what was involved in travel and so forth. And so finally, I agreed. My husband really wanted me to be president, for the name, you know. So I told him, I said, "I have to make up my mind because I know what's involved." And so I finally told them I would accept. So I served two years. During that time--part of that time when Dorothy was president, we were invited to the Hi- to the capital to the White House [Washington, D.C.] and Mr. Eisenhower [President Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower] was president. Mrs. Eisenhower [Mamie Eisenhower] invited us when we were meeting in--in Washington. They invited us to come to the White House. They had a reception for us. The whole--the whole bird. And so that's where that picture was made with Mrs. Eisenhower.$$And (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) And the--those are the officers who was the executive director, Dorothy Height and I was treasurer, and Reba was still, Reba Cann [Reba S. Cann] from Cincinnati [Ohio] was still vice president and we had the officer, so that was where that was taken.$Now before we went there, the president had a housekeeper. Well, my husband [General Lamar Harrison] when he walk- worked--when he went to Howard University [Washington, D.C.] he worked his way through, he had to work some place to go. And he was for us hiring the students to work, not a housekeeper. So, I was the first to have four or five students who got everything paid, they didn't have to pay a dime. They got the room, the tuition, their--their registration, everything was paid. And then during the month, once a month, I gave them five dollars change to spend whatever they might need, you know. So I helped each year, I helped five--four or five students. One worked on the yard, one worked in the house and kept the floors, at the time we had hardwood floors. And then one did the cooking and one waited the table. So when guests came, the person waited the table and they learned. They usually were home ec [home economics] students that knew something about it. But they always said they knew more by actually doing it in--at my house. So, one of the--one of my friends here who taught school, who finished Langston [Langston University, Langston, Oklahoma] by working through because she lived in that old--in that black town wrote and said she had no money at all, but she was determined to get an education. So she came and one of the--her professors she said told her--took her down to my house and asked me to give her a job because she needed it. And so she finished, when she graduated I gave her a summer at summer school at Oklahoma A and M [Oklahoma Territorial Agricultural and Mechanical College; Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma]. Then she went to Indiana [Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana] and when she was there, she needed some money and wrote us and I sent it to her. So when she finished and started teaching here, she wanted to pay me back and I said, no you just pass that on to another person who'd help her to go to school too. So during the twenty years, I had almost a hundred students who got their education by working for us in the house and doing and going to school. So some of them still call me. I have one from Oklahoma City [Oklahoma] that called me for my birthday this last, in December. And they, you know, they--they--they referred to--to those kids as Prexy's [ph.] kids on the campus. But they--one mother told her daughter, she said, "If it hadn't been for Mrs. Harrison [HistoryMaker Dorothy Harrison] you would not have an education." And three of her daughters, two of them worked for me in the house, you know, during when she was going to school. And they have asked me when students have had homecoming, they have asked me to come back and be there for their homecoming. You know, it--it made me feel good that, you know, they recognize it. So I enjoyed my--I enjoyed my--I went--as I said, we had service on Sunday in the--in the chapel, you know, for the students and I always went there. And one of the--the dean of the school of the Baptist school, they had a school right outside of the campus on down the road and he taught sociology I think up on the campus and he served as chaplain on Sunday. And he always said, "Mrs. Harrison, you were always a lady on the campus." It was a nice tribute, wasn't it?$$Yeah, I'll say so.

Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey

Reverend Mary Edith Ivey is an accomplished teacher and principal, government manager, and minister. Ivey was born in Vian, Oklahoma on February 9, 1937, the youngest of five children born to Boyd Henry, a barber and construction worker, and Lucy Henry, a domestic and homemaker. She prepared for a career as a teacher, earning her B.A. degree in 1959 from the College of Oklahoma. She taught for several years in Lawton, Oklahoma and then spent twelve years as an educator in the Kansas City, Missouri Public School System - serving as a teacher, student and family home-school coordinator, head teacher and assistant principal. She attended graduate school at the University of Missouri and earned her M.A. degree in education from the University of Oklahoma.

In 1972, Ivey changed careers, becoming the Director of Program Evaluations for the Model Cities Program in the District of Columbia. She next served as Chief of Mental Health Planning for the District with her final government position being Chief of Long Range Planning for the District, before retiring in 1994.

Ivey prepared for the ministry by obtaining her Master’s of Divinity degree in 2001 from Wesley Theological Seminary in Washington and her Ph.D. in divinity from Howard University. She was ordained into the gospel ministry at the historic Shiloh Baptist Church in Washington, D.C. and at the First Missionary Baptist Church in her home town of Vian, Okalahoma. She served as an Associate Minister at Shiloh Baptist before founding her own church—the non-denominational Church of God’s Love. She is also the founder, President and CEO of Maine Avenue Ministries. Her dissertation for her Howard University divinity degree was published in 2006—entitled Care Giving and Love; Let’s Overcome Violence Everywhere. Ivey’s Maine Avenue Ministries, founded in 1999 in Washington, D.C. is an umbrella for the World of Spiritual Service Leadership Scholarship Awards Program, The Institute for Spirituality, Education and Health and Community Fellowship, the LOVE program (Let’s Overcome Violence Everywhere), and the Long Term Advocacy Program.

Ivey is a widow—her husband, Monteria Ivey, who was an economist, passed away in 2002. She resides in Washington, D.C.

Ivey was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on November 9, 2006.

Accession Number

A2006.137

Sex

Female

Interview Date

11/9/2006

Last Name

Ivey

Schools

The Douglas School

R. T. Coles Vocational/Junior High School

Oklahoma College of Liberal Arts and Sciences

University of Oklahoma

Wesley Theological Seminary

Howard University School of Divinity

First Name

Mary

Birth City, State, Country

Vian

HM ID

IVE01

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Oklahoma

Favorite Vacation Destination

None

Favorite Quote

I Love You.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

2/9/1937

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Greens (Collard)

Short Description

City government administrator, elementary school teacher, and minister Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey (1937 - ) founded her own church, Church of God's Love, and is president and CEO of Maine Avenue Ministries.

Employment

Maine Avenue Ministries

Church of God's Love

Dunbar School

Richardson Elementary School

Booker T. Washington School

Model Cities

Department of Human Services

Favorite Color

Powder Blue

Timing Pairs
429,0:8010,108:9030,122:12413,153:18318,222:18778,228:19238,234:25678,341:26046,346:29266,391:39989,472:41067,488:44609,557:45225,568:45610,574:52848,689:53310,696:53849,704:64863,825:70452,926:71181,939:71505,944:72396,957:72720,962:75312,1004:77499,1046:79848,1086:80172,1091:80496,1096:105228,1495:106020,1509:112080,1529:112440,1536:119640,1739:122670,1757$0,0:1694,43:2178,48:5633,64:6344,74:11400,155:19290,230:20291,244:20928,253:21565,262:29040,333:40064,476:40388,481:40874,488:41198,493:43547,536:43871,541:44438,550:47030,601:49622,644:52133,688:56548,695:56860,700:58108,725:63334,828:63646,833:63958,838:64426,845:74220,939:76245,968:76620,974:81795,1103:83370,1129:83670,1134:89862,1190:90118,1195:90630,1208:91718,1244:97626,1287:102282,1317:103184,1330:105152,1390:111840,1438:116415,1516:117015,1525:118065,1543:118590,1552:122779,1620:130852,1761:132577,1818:132853,1823:133129,1828:133474,1834:134095,1845:135820,1876:136234,1883:136717,1892:140970,1906:141570,1917:142395,1931:142845,1939:143145,1944:143670,1954:153570,2114:162380,2199:164123,2222:170149,2262:170551,2269:176538,2347:183218,2398:183799,2406:184961,2422:185293,2427:186123,2441:187368,2457:187700,2462:190024,2496:190688,2507:192265,2531:192597,2536:196482,2553:196778,2558:197148,2564:198184,2586:200626,2637:200922,2642:201218,2647:202550,2671:207276,2712:207552,2717:208035,2726:211278,2810:221988,2939:222541,2947:223331,2959:223647,2964:226096,3005:272182,3759:272721,3768:273337,3777:276340,3824:276725,3831:277110,3837:279882,3891:287054,3953:289022,3985:290006,4001:290580,4009:292138,4032:292466,4037:296156,4093:296566,4100:297304,4110:304250,4160
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey describes her mother's education and employment

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey describes her mother's personality

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey describes her maternal grandmother

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey describes her paternal grandparents

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey describes her father's employment and personality

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey describes her siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey describes her earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey describes her childhood home in Vian, Oklahoma

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey describes her childhood neighborhood

Tape: 1 Story: 14 - Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey recalls growing up as the youngest of five children

Tape: 1 Story: 15 - Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey describes the role of religion in her childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey describes her early experiences of religion

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey describes the sights, sounds and smells of her childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey describes her family's holidays and entertainment

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey describes her elementary school education

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey describes her childhood mentors

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey describes her disposition as a child

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey recalls briefly living in Kansas City, Missouri

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey describes her parents' employment in Kansas City

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey describes her high school experience

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey recalls the Oklahoma College for Women

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey recalls obtaining a teaching position in Kansas City, Missouri

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey describes her career at Richardson Elementary School

Tape: 2 Story: 13 - Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey recalls her promotions to assistant principal and principal

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey recalls joining the Model Cities program, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey recalls joining the Model Cities program, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey recalls the loss of funding for the Model Cities program

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey describes her career at the Department of Human Services

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey recalls meeting her husband at Shiloh Baptist Church

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey remembers retiring from government in 1994

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey describes her calling to the ministry

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey describes the process of ordination

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey describes her first sermon

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey remembers the Howard University School of Divinity

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey talks about her book, 'Care Giving and Love'

Tape: 3 Story: 12 - Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey talks about founding Maine Avenue Ministries

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey describes her mission at Maine Avenue Ministries

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey describes the Let's Overcome Violence Everywhere program

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey talks about founding the Church of God's Love

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey describes the National Association of Minority Political Families

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey talks about her organizational involvement

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey talks about The HistoryMakers project

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey reflects upon her life

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey narrates her photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

1$3

DAStory

11$7

DATitle
Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey describes her earliest childhood memory
Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey describes her calling to the ministry
Transcript
What are your earliest, farthest back memories as a child? How far back can you remember as a child? What incidents and situations do you remember?$$I remember going to school [Douglas School, Vian, Oklahoma] when I was about three years old. My [paternal] grandmother, Mary [Mary Henry], also kept teachers who were--single teachers who were boarding and she had one teacher named Edith Jenkins and my middle name is for her. And Ms. Jenkins was unmarried and so she made her--I was like her little toy girl. So, she taught me to read--to read by the time I was three years old. And she made reading fun to me, and I bless the Lord for her to this day because, because of her, I've always enjoyed reading. It is my passion now. If I could get rid of some of the books I have, I could (laughter)--yeah, but anyway, I remember that. And I always--and I used to like to dance when I got older. And I just like fun and people. I'm very outgoing and very gregarious and so if it was fun--and then when I was a little girl, I used to go--I wanted to go to the fields and work and make some money. And I was perhaps the only girl my age or the youngest in town catching the trucks going to the fields to pick tomatoes, pick strawberries, cut spinach and all of that. And my mother [Lucy Ballard Lacy] would say, "Now, don't you get up there on that truck and get hurt and fall off." And everybody in town were saying, "Why do they let her go?" But I would cry to go. I would beg to go because I was always independent, always wanted my money, always liked shoes and my mother would let me buy a pair of shoes with my money (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) You still like shoes?$$--and go to the fair. Yes, I still like them. I have far too many.$You're known today and we want to begin to talk about the--your religious leadership and your ministries and a number of other organizations that you have founded and, and all related to human services and so on. Tell us how you began to move into the field of ministry. This happened after you retired or before or?$$Yes, after I retired, and I, I shared with you a little earlier that both my mother [Lucy Ballard Lacy] and my husband [Monteria Ivey, Sr.] were ill, and I just didn't know which way to turn, and I would often times come right in this room, in the living room, and get on my knees before the sofa or in front of a chair and just pray. And that's--was during the time that I felt that I was called to the ministry and that's during the time I was telling God, "I don't see how I can do this. I just--," and then some things began to be revealed to me. I went to a person's home who was on her death bed, so to speak, that I took my husband by to visit with her, and her name was Gertie Mae Turner [ph.]. She ended up leaving Shiloh Baptist Church [Washington, D.C.], a lot of her property and the building that they use for the office building, and some units in the same block of the church as well. But she said to me that day, she said, "The Lord wants you to speak for Him," and I had not mentioned to anybody but my mother, and my mother never knew her, and my mother was in Oklahoma and my husband about the ministry call. They both had encouraged me to do it but I hadn't really done anything about it. And so that was shocking to me. I knew my husband had not spoken to her because by that time, he couldn't dial the phone by himself. And I knew she was very sick, and I knew he had--so that shocked me. And I told Reverend Smith [Wallace Charles Smith] when I went to here and he said that often happens in life (unclear). So, different things began to happen to me, that I was asking God to show me some signs and what have you if--and I would say this, don't ask to be shown if you don't know what you're going to be shown because some of the things were frightening to me that happened, but I realized that God was doing what I had asked God to do. And so when my mother died, I said to a minister in Oklahoma, another female minister, that I was called to the ministry but I had not acknowledged it and that I felt empty inside. And, you know, it was a painful feeling and she said that, "You're going to always feel that way if you don't declare God publicly." Because she said, "I've been through it. The same thing happened to me." She said, "And once you declare it and begin, then you will feel different," and she was telling the truth. That was true. So I came back and actually we were at a Lott Carey [Landover, Maryland] meeting and I was co-chairing something for the Lott Carey for Reverend Smith and I just broke down--we were at the Shoreham Hotel and started crying. And he thought someone had said something to me or done something, so he said, "Well, what's wrong?" And we ended up going into a room talking, and I told him what had happened and he, he kids now and he says, publicly, he said, "I nearly fell out when Mary [HistoryMaker Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey] told me (laughter)." But, anyway, he told me to come to his office and talk, and I went to his office and talked. And he was teaching a class or two at Wesley Theological Seminary [Washington, D.C.] at the time and so the first thing he said to me, he said, well, "We gotta get you before the board, gotta do a trial sermon, and then also we gotta get you in Wesley." And that's how I happened to go to Wesley Seminary. He just said, "Wesley," and I went to Wesley and I really enjoyed it, but I also was ordained in Oklahoma before I finished Wesley by the same woman's husband who told me that I would feel empty. Her husband was the pastor of the church that my mother attended. And he invited me to be ordained at that church since my mother had been one of his closest friends in there. And he's dead now, but I went there and I was ordained, and then when I graduated from seminary, I was ordained here at Shiloh also.

Marie Louise Greenwood

Educator Marie Louise Greenwood was born on November 24, 1912 in Los Angeles, California. Her parents, a railroad chef and a domestic worker, moved the family to Denver, Colorado in 1925 searching for better opportunities. Having parents who stressed education, Greenwood decided to pursue teaching as a career. Upon graduating from West High School, her academic record as one of Colorado’s top students earned her a scholarship. This enabled her to enroll in Colorado Teacher’s College in Greeley where she was confronted with blatant racism. She was prevented from living on campus or joining any student organizations. In 1935, Greenwood was encouraged by the minister of her church to take the Colorado State Teacher’s Examination. She successfully passed the written examination and oral interview. Upon receiving a letter of assignment entitling her to teach at Whittier Elementary School in 1935, Greenwood became one of the first African American school teachers in Denver.

In 1943, Greenwood married, and two years later, in 1945, she took a hiatus from teaching in order to raise a family. One of her four children became the first African American student to attend Newlon Elementary School. In 1953, Greenwood returned to teaching part-time as a substitute also at Newlon Elementary School. At this time, African American teachers were assigned only to schools in the predominantly African American northeast neighborhood of Denver. However, the parents of Newlon students realized Greenwood’s proficiency at teaching, and in 1955, she was accepted as a full-time teacher.

Greenwood has donated The Marie Greenwood Papers to the Blair-Caldwell African American Research Library in Denver. This bequest contains materials spanning from the 1930s and 1940s and from the 1980s to 2001. She accumulated these documents during her years as a teacher and community volunteer.

Greenwood lives in Denver, Colorado where she wrote Every Child Can Learn which is being used by teachers in many schools. As a result of her book, she has been a commencement speaker at the University of Northern Colorado, Martin Luther King Day speaker, student awards speaker and held meetings of professors and education students who have read the book. Every Child Can Learn is now in its second edition.

In 2001, the Marie L. Greenwood Academy in Denver, Colorado was named in her honor. On January 15, 2010, she received the Martin Luther King Trailblazer Award, honored by Representative Diana DiGette with a letter of congratulations which is registered in the Congressional Record. On May 7, 2010, the University of Northern Colorado honored her with the Degree of Doctor of Humane Letters. In 2013, Greenwood's autobiography entitled By The Grace of God was published.

Greenwood was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on April 19, 2007.

Accession Number

A2006.078

Sex

Female

Interview Date

4/19/2006

Last Name

Greenwood

Maker Category
Middle Name

Louise

Schools

West High School

Lincoln Elementary School

Morey Middle School

East High School

University of Northern Colorado

Speakers Bureau

No

First Name

Marie

Birth City, State, Country

Los Angeles

HM ID

GRE08

Favorite Season

All Seasons

State

California

Favorite Vacation Destination

Hawaii

Favorite Quote

Do Unto Others As You Would Have Them Do Unto You.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Colorado

Birth Date

11/24/1912

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Denver

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Spicy Mexican, Chinese Food

Short Description

Elementary school teacher Marie Louise Greenwood (1912 - ) was one of the first African American school teachers in Denver, Colorado, and donated The Marie Greenwood Papers to the Blair-Caldwell African American Research Library in Denver, Colorado.

Employment

Whittier Elementary School

Newlon Elementary School

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:1700,25:3300,47:3700,52:4400,66:5000,73:6700,94:9900,131:13600,176:14000,181:20300,252:20900,259:27496,268:28054,299:36052,417:36703,425:41774,450:42130,455:42486,460:51475,575:53789,610:54323,617:54768,623:55213,629:55569,634:57438,658:60738,696:62360,721:62720,726:66660,781:67213,792:67687,799:75314,864:78020,910:78348,915:80726,956:81628,972:84580,1030:88730,1046:89332,1054:90708,1074:91998,1092:92514,1099:94922,1145:95438,1153:96040,1162:101200,1207:102050,1220:104630,1241:110212,1326:110740,1338:112236,1366:112588,1371:124060,1500:124718,1509:125564,1521:129314,1549:129638,1554:131780,1561:137216,1625:140324,1661:144225,1710:144675,1717:144975,1722:154742,1872:155578,1889:158694,1938:161734,2021:165178,2033:171909,2088:172414,2094:172919,2101:176280,2110:184562,2174:184897,2180:189482,2203:189834,2208:190362,2216:191682,2255:192034,2260:194564,2277:195524,2290:196164,2308:202678,2402:203710,2416:204054,2421:204828,2443:208526,2515:209042,2522:209386,2527:216054,2579:217714,2612:218129,2618:218793,2628:219208,2634:219955,2645:239139,2895:242076,2931:242788,2940:244160,2945$0,0:2622,156:15464,279:19305,310:19755,317:20055,322:20505,329:24180,366:24705,372:25650,384:27330,416:29150,443:32090,485:32762,494:36038,553:39650,601:40574,618:54800,736:55402,745:56778,767:60354,812:60970,823:61432,830:63511,865:65590,911:82780,1084:83260,1091:85628,1111:86160,1120:95604,1230:98184,1268:100592,1300:101280,1309:106140,1354:106820,1363:110305,1403:111325,1416:115171,1438:115657,1445:116710,1462:118087,1488:118654,1496:122990,1521:145158,1829:147366,1845:148826,1865:150067,1894:150797,1907:151746,1928:153498,1965:153863,1974:161223,2080:166152,2173:171081,2294:176710,2337:177710,2350:181042,2422:181609,2433:183373,2472:186156,2501:189276,2629:192942,2705:198551,2754:201781,2774:202663,2781:207414,2834:212067,2891:214080,2896:214944,2907:215376,2912:221195,2996:221762,3004:222410,3014:223625,3039:226437,3075:227532,3097:229211,3130:229722,3138:230306,3148:231474,3168:231839,3174:232131,3179:233340,3186
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Marie Louise Greenwood's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Marie Louise Greenwood lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Marie Louise Greenwood describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Marie Louise Greenwood describes her great grandfather's farm

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Marie Louise Greenwood describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Marie Louise Greenwood explains why her father changed his name

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Marie Louise Greenwood describes her father's occupation and how her parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Marie Louise Greenwood describes her earliest memories of Los Angeles, California, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Marie Louise Greenwood describes her earliest memories of Los Angeles, California, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Marie Louise Greenwood recalls attending People A.M.E. Zion Church in Prescott, Arizona

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Marie Louise Greenwood recalls songs from World War I

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Marie Louise Greenwood recalls falling ill during the 1918 influenza pandemic

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Marie Louise Greenwood recalls beginning kindergarten

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Marie Louise Greenwood recalls her promotion to the first grade

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Marie Louise Greenwood describes Prescott, Arizona's elementary schools

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Marie Louise Greenwood recalls her experience of racial discrimination in the fourth grade

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Marie Louise Greenwood recalls moving to Denver, Colorado

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Marie Louise Greenwood recalls attending Denver's Morey Junior High School

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Marie Louise Greenwood describes the racial demographic of her neighborhood

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Marie Louise Greenwood describes Denver's Five Points neighborhood

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Marie Louise Greenwood describes her childhood activities

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Marie Louise Greenwood recalls her experiences at the movie theaters in Denver, Colorado

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Marie Louise Greenwood recalls the desegregation of Denver's restaurants

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Marie Louise Greenwood recalls her parents' encouragement

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Marie Louise Greenwood describes her early teaching ambitions

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Marie Louise Greenwood remembers her high school advisor

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Marie Louise Greenwood recalls transferring to West High School in Denver, Colorado

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Marie Louise Greenwood recalls being awarded a college scholarship

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Marie Louise Greenwood recalls attending Colorado State Teachers College

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Marie Louise Greenwood recalls pledging Alpha Kappa Alpha sorority

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Marie Louise Greenwood describes her interest in physical education

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Marie Louise Greenwood describes her course load at Colorado State Teachers College

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Marie Louise Greenwood recalls completing her college education, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Marie Louise Greenwood recalls completing her college education, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Marie Louise Greenwood recalls starting her teaching career with Denver Public School

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Marie Louise Greenwood describes her first teaching experiences

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Marie Louise Greenwood recalls parents' reactions to an African American teacher

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Marie Louise Greenwood remembers how she met her husband

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Marie Louise Greenwood describes her early relationship with her husband

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Marie Louise Greenwood recalls marrying her husband

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Marie Louise Greenwood remembers being hired as a substitute teacher

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Marie Louise Greenwood recalls integrating Jesse H. Newlon Elementary School

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Marie Louise Greenwood describes reading to children after her retirement

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Marie Louise Greenwood describes the school named in her honor

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Marie Louise Greenwood shares her advice to children

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Marie Louise Greenwood reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Marie Louise Greenwood narrates her photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$4

DAStory

2$6

DATitle
Marie Louise Greenwood recalls falling ill during the 1918 influenza pandemic
Marie Louise Greenwood recalls starting her teaching career with Denver Public School
Transcript
Do you remember starting school?$$Yes.$$Around this time?$$Yes, I wanted desperately to go to school, being an only child I--but I just wanted to get to school and normally at five years old, of course you go onto kindergarten, well now in 1917, I had turned five, my mother [Sarah Garret Anderson] would not let me go. Her little darling was, "She was to, too little to be going yet," and I was, I was smaller than anybody else, you know. So, she said that when I got six years old, I could go, which of course would have been 1918, well in the spring of 1918, when I was still five, I caught the flu, you, you've heard about that worldwide flu epidemic, after the war [World War I, WWI]? My father [Joseph Anderson] came back home in the middle of it, he had it, I got it and that's the second time that I just about died. I don't know how long I was in bed unconscious most of the time, my fever was so high that I was wringing wet all the time and finally, and my mother was by my bed constantly, I don't know when in the world she slept because when I would become conscious she was always there and I would go again. And finally, she told me that the doctor gave up on me, she said he absolutely could not do anything more for me unless he's got some whiskey. And back in those days you know, you didn't go to the doctor, the doctor came to you, came to your house and, now what the whiskey would do, I don't know but it was as scarce as hen's teeth because everybody was using it and of course I guess I was just gone. There's another time that I went up and could see me lying there and I never know how I got back in my, it, it's just blank but somehow that spirit got back into my body and my mother said that in the middle of the night the doctor came pounding on the door, he had found some whiskey and, isn't it wonderful doctors were like that then? They aren't like that now, but anyway, he found this whiskey, now what he did and what he mixed it with and gave it to me, poured it in me, I do not know, all I know is that eventually I became conscious and for the first time I actually said, "Momma," and my mother just wept, I was and I was, my, my fever broke and I, but I had been sick so long, you know I couldn't walk? I was five years old. I'll never forget that and I was so small, I was still asleep in my crib because I was just a little kid, usually then she'd just have the crib side down you know? And I could climb in and out, but while I was sick it was up and so finally I became well enough that I could get up and my legs folded right under me. Scared me to death, I still remember, going through my mind, I've got, I won't be walking anymore, I'm gonna have to crawl the rest of my life (laughter). So, I had to crawl, I had to get back and crawl just like I did as a baby and then gradually would pull myself up on things, you know as my legs got stronger and I was fed, I'll always remember that.$That was the way I got started and when I graduated [from Colorado State Teachers College; University of Northern Colorado, Greeley, Colorado], naturally I graduated in the upper part of the class, and I was, this was the, oh I'd only grad- been graduated about a week and I was devastated, I couldn't send, I didn't have enough money to buy stationery, stamps were three cents and I didn't have enough money to buy three cent stamp to try to send out for the, the, the possibility of teaching somewhere and I had just given up on, on Denver [Colorado] because I was sure that that one, that one had, when I turned it down in '34 [1934], that was the end of my chances. And do you know, it, I was sitting--it'd only been a week or so, that the mail came and I would just, I didn't know what I was gonna do, and here was a letter from Denver Public Schools and you know? I was scared to open it. I was almost sure it would say, you know, the rejection. And finally, I sat and I waited and I waited, then I decided I'd better open it and it was just what you saw in my, there, that letter telling me that the Board of Education [Denver Board of Education] had, was offering me the job in 1935, as a teacher in the Denver Public Schools and I had my little pink card that was my contract to--it was actually making me, it wasn't a permanent substitute, actually making me, giving me a contract to be a probationary teacher in the Denver Public Schools with the fabulous salary of twelve hundred dollars a year. I just, well, I let out a yell, I started to cry, my poor mother [Sarah Garret Anderson] came rushing through the kitchen to see what was going on and all I could tell her, I am going to be a teacher in the Denver Public Schools. And now, I had vowed, when I got a job, didn't know where I was gonna get it, but no matter what, my folks were gonna be taken out of that little old basement, my mother was not gonna work again unless she just wanted to work. I immediately, I hadn't, didn't even have the job yet, I immediately started hunting for a house to rent, I found a house to rent, we moved into it, my dad [Joseph Anderson] and, well continued as the janitor down at the Daniels and Fisher [Daniels and Fisher Company, Denver, Colorado], and we sha- I said we would share expenses and I got my folks out and into a house and my mother didn't have to do anything unless she wanted too. Of course, my mother did find odd jobs that she liked to do but that was up to her and I was assigned, of course to Whittier School [Whittier Elementary School; Whittier ECE-8 School, Denver, Colorado], a first grade. I wanted kindergarten at first, but you know, I'm awful glad I was put in the first grade. I got into that first grade and it became mine for fi- thirty years, I wasn't always at Whittier, I was on, I only actually taught in two, two schools, that was, and but I also made up my mind that I had to keep my job in the middle of the Depression [Great Depression], a one hundred dollars a month, that was a lot of money, you just don't know how, how things were like back there in that big depression. A hundred dollars a month was just like manna from heaven.

Narvie Harris

Narvie Jordan Harris began her career as an educator in a one-room schoolhouse in rural Georgia. Her father, James Jordan, was a prominent Atlanta photographer and tailor. Harris chose education as her field and rose through the educational system to become an administrator of schools in the Georgia Public School System through the Jeannes Supervisors Program.

Harris attended Clark College in Atlanta, Georgia, after she turned down a scholarship from Tuskegee Institute because she wanted to remain near her Atlanta family. She graduated with an A.B. degree. Harris received a M.Ed. degree from Atlanta University and additional training in education at Tennessee State University, Tuskegee Institute, Wayne State University, Georgia State University, Grambling University and the University of Georgia.

Harris was appointed by former Georgia Governor George Busbee to travel to West Africa for educational study for Northwestern University. During her lifetime, Harris traveled to every continent except Australia. Harris retired from the DeKalb County Georgia School System in 1983 after thirty-nine years of teaching. In 1985, Harris was named an honorary Associate Superintendent by the DeKalb County Board of Education. Narvie J. Harris Traditional Theme School, an elementary school in the DeKalb County Schools System, was named in her honor in 1999. Harris is the author of African-American Education in DeKalb County, a personal collection of her tenure as an educator/administrator.

Harris was active in numerous religious, civic and social organizations including Wheat Street Baptist Church, the Atlanta Alumnae Chapter of Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Inc., Nancy Bridge Club, Fulton County Arts Council and Decatur-DeKalb, Rockdale Retired Teachers and Georgia Retired Teachers Associations of which she was a past president. Her honors and awards include the Bronze Woman of the Year in Education by the Schools of DeKalb County, the Distinguished Alumni Achievement Award from Clark College and Atlanta University, and trees were planted in her honor at Carver High School in Columbus, Georgia and C.L. Harper High School in Atlanta, Georgia.

Harris married the late Joseph L. Harris and is the mother of Daryll Harris Griffin and the grandmother of Michael Joseph Griffin.

Harris passed away on October 30, 2009.

Accession Number

A2006.005

Sex

Female

Interview Date

1/24/2006

Last Name

Harris

Maker Category
Middle Name

J.

Organizations
Schools

E. R. Carter Elementary School

Clark Atlanta University

H. R. Butler Elementary School

First Name

Narvie

Birth City, State, Country

Wrightsville

HM ID

HAR19

Favorite Season

Birthday

State

Georgia

Favorite Vacation Destination

The World

Favorite Quote

Positive Praises

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Birth Date

12/19/1916

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Atlanta

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Beef

Death Date

10/30/2009

Short Description

Elementary school teacher Narvie Harris (1916 - 2009 ) worked for the DeKalb County School System in Georgia for forty years. As an educator, she has traveled the world and risen to administrative positions within DeKalb County public schools.

Employment

DeKalb County, Georgia

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:3397,82:3871,89:4898,108:13114,329:15721,424:16195,431:16511,436:22800,468:26748,526:29240,535:29630,541:35464,712:49656,951:50475,962:51385,979:51840,985:55207,1100:71021,1378:85240,1502:93660,1598:99050,1726:99470,1777:102900,1819:124226,2183:128849,2283:135694,2366:145319,2545:146858,2562:147344,2569:151658,2611:152338,2683:167343,2873:179403,3058:184305,3084:185215,3101:188535,3129:189557,3149:189849,3154:191163,3177:198672,3322:199431,3336:203364,3395:208574,3452:209096,3503:209444,3508:220710,3603$0,0:720,8:1008,13:2160,27:2880,38:3312,86:4176,103:4824,119:5184,125:10152,251:19540,357:20671,375:27050,467:27770,477:30020,485:34062,557:35800,566:46325,690:47175,705:47940,719:50320,795:55888,847:58448,907:60752,960:61328,977:62544,1001:71928,1125:78570,1183:79370,1194:84730,1309:89676,1342:90816,1361:92108,1418:98568,1525:99176,1544:109300,1606:109860,1616:111060,1647:111620,1656:118100,1823:118420,1828:129310,1946:139822,2179:140974,2230:141262,2235:141550,2240:151070,2408:151366,2413:152698,2437:153512,2448:154178,2460:154918,2471:159506,2559:171920,2790:172355,2797:172877,2805:176183,2858:184636,3037:187396,3133:190570,3168
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Narvie Harris' interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Narvie Harris lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Narvie Harris describes her mother

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Narvie Harris describes the colleges she attended

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Narvie Harris remembers growing up in a strict household

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Narvie Harris recalls life during the Great Depression

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Narvie Harris remembers her travels

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Narvie Harris remembers attending Liberty Baptist Church in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Narvie Harris describes her father and her family's cooking

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Narvie Harris talks about her sister

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Narvie Harris recalls segregation in DeKalb County, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Narvie Harris describes her earliest childhood memory

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Narvie Harris recalls Reverend William Borders and her favorite high school teacher

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Narvie Harris remembers her mother's illness

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Narvie Harris lists her siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Narvie Harris remembers her Atlanta neighborhood

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Narvie Harris describes her brother

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Narvie Harris describes her schools

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Narvie Harris recalls her third grade teacher at Yonge Street Elementary School

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Narvie Harris describes Atlanta's Yonge Street Elementary School

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Narvie Harris talks about schools in Atlanta

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Narvie Harris recalls Atlanta's Ashby Street School

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Narvie Harris recalls her activities at Booker T. Washington High School

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Narvie Harris remembers school desegregation in DeKalb County

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$3

DAStory

5$4

DATitle
Narvie Harris recalls Reverend William Borders and her favorite high school teacher
Narvie Harris talks about schools in Atlanta
Transcript
(Simultaneous) I didn't come up in a home, I was always told I was somebody I was always told to strive, to reach beyond. I was taught, even my father [James Jordan] working under him, I always thought he was the meanest man in the world, yelling and screaming and all. He had not had no course in child growth and develop; he wanted the best for Narvie [HistoryMaker Narvie Harris]. He wanted the best for his family; I always knew that, he was not very warm as a person. But we knew that in his way he cared for us. An example, every Sunday we used to go to ride either to Candler Field--it's Hartsfield-Jackson [Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport, Atlanta, Georgia], I remember when it was just mud out there as a child. Then we'd go to Stone Mountain [Georgia]. I remember when that monument was not finished. I remember when Reverend [William Holmes] Borders was asked when they dedicated the carving at Stone Mountain that what's his name, he was the Grand Dragon the Klans [Ku Klux Klan, KKK], it'll come to me in a minute.$$Venable--Venable [Sam Venable].$$I heard them debate on WSB when he told Revered Borders that he better not appear that morning on the ear of Thomas Jefferson [sic.], where they had the ceremony. And I remember Reverend Borders saying to him, he was honored by the way yesterday by [HistoryMaker] Xernona Clayton they, she does something with your shoes. He said that, "If God be God, and he has an ear I'm gonna sit on that ear and I'm going to pray. You don't own that mountain, it belongs to God," and he prayed and nothing happened. He never had an unlisted phone number; he said every night all night long they call him old this and that, that and the other. As soon as they stated he said, "Father, forgive them they know what they do," bam they hang it back up and kept calling again. They had something at our church one night and he told us--did you ever know Reverend Borders, or have you heard of him?$$Reverend Border?$$Borders.$$No, I'm not from this, okay (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) I can tell you--you don't have to talk about him. A great religious leader, civic leader, civil rights. He and six or seven black preachers got on and rode the front of the buses and were arrested. They lynched black people in Monroe, Georgia not too many miles from Atlanta [Georgia], he and others took up money to get them out of there. You know to take care of them he was a civic and a religious leader, pastor of Wheat Street [Baptist Church, Atlanta, Georgia] over fifty years. He was a people person, and that's the way I say teachers should be people. If you work with human beings, you need to be in the people business. You need to like people, if you don't like people, you not gone get through.$$Exactly.$$You're gonna have a lot, lot of problems. So I remember my life as a child playing school and I was always the teacher. And I tried to use a lot of the characteristics of my good teachers. I don't remember any bad teachers, teachers who taught long time ago, didn't always have degrees. But they had love of children, they have love of people, some of the same character traits I was taught in my home, they taught me. My teacher, in ninth grade at [Booker T.] Washington High [School, Atlanta, Georgia] died last year, she had just turned a hundred years of age, even until death she was giving, she gave her body to Emory University [Atlanta, Georgia]. I became very close to her in the older years, very, very close. Another thing that has pulled me toward older people, Miss Young [ph.] we were talking.$How was your school, Yonge Elementary School [Yonge Street School, Atlanta, Georgia], what did it look like? 'Cause we would like for the people who are viewing and listening to you know (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Yonge Street was a three-story building; I remember it had moss growing all over that building. I can remember that, also in '62 [1962] when I headed the committee for entertaining, the National Congress of Colored Parents and Teachers. I had a reception there. They organized the first unit PTA [Parent Teacher Association] at Yonge Street. People in Atlanta [Georgia] heard about it, her purpose was the same purpose PTA is today for children. They lived kind of like, and over that area was kind of ghetto, so Miss [Selena Sloan] Butler and Miss [Cora B.] Finley sat down, so the history goes. And organized to see if they get clothing for the children and food, we still doing some of that. We didn't have lunchrooms, I told you that. We didn't have clothing rooms; we have them in the schools now, some schools. They heard about it in Atlanta so other schools wanted this organization, from that it grew into Atlanta. She organized what you call a council; I started the PTA council in DeKalb [County, Georgia], but not for the same reason. When I went to DeKalb there was seventeen little shanties called schools, twelve of which were housed in churches. When they were gone have church on Sunday, the Sunday they had church it became a church Friday afternoon, and Monday morning it go back as you know a school.$$Wait a minute hold on--all in that one, in those two stories?$$Three stories.$$In those three stories, first grade--$$Somewhere I have a picture of it I can show it to you.$$Okay, all right.$$I really don't know.$$Okay let's leave that one alone.$$Cause we didn't get a high school now 'til '34 [1934].$$Okay.$$So it couldn't been elementary and high, but whatever grades that's the people in that area that's where they. See we also had other schools now, Yonge wasn't the only, but Young was near where like we do now, you go to school now where you live.$$All right but 'cause see what I'm looking at is Booker, Booker T. Washington [High School, Atlanta, Georgia] was the only high school, right?$$Yeah but it didn't come on 'til '34 [1934] that's trying to tell you.$$Okay but (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) I went to school before '34 [1934] and that people went before me.$$Right.$$So this was an elementary school, Yonge Street was one on Yonge Street.$$Okay.$$Near Decatur Street, then you had David T. Howard [School, Atlanta, Georgia], you had Crogman [School, Atlanta, Georgia], you had well other schools, all over like we still have.$$Okay, all right then, see that's--$$You just one elementary school, so when we moved then I went to school near again where I lived. I lived near Ashby Street [School, Atlanta, Georgia], which later became known as E.R. Carter [Elementary School, Atlanta, Georgia].$$Okay.$$They named it for Reverend [Edward Randolph] Carter, the pastor of Friendship [Baptist] Church [Atlanta, Georgia]. So it's just like it is now, you had schools scattered all over Atlanta.

Frances Hooks

Educator and consultant Frances Louise Dancy Hooks was born February 23, 1927, in Memphis Tennessee. Hooks’s parents, Georgia Harriet Graves Dancy and Andrew Jackson Dancy raised her on Edith Street in Memphis. Hooks attended St. Anthony La Rose Elementary School and graduated from Booker T. Washington High School where Hooks was sophomore class president in 1944. Hooks later attended Howard, Fisk, and Wilberforce Universities, graduating in1949.

Hooks taught second grade in a Shelby County, Tennessee Rosenwald School. Hooks met Benjamin Hooks at the Tri-State Fair; the couple were married in 1951. In 1956, the Hooks desegregated the all white Parkway East community. Hooks put her career as a teacher and guidance counselor on hold in the late 1960s to support the activities her husband, Benjamin Hooks, who by then was a businessman, lawyer, judge, and minister. Hooks became her husband’s assistant, secretary, advisor, and traveling companion. Moving to Washington, D.C. in 1972, Hooks helped her husband become the first black appointee to the Federal Communications Commission (FCC).

In 1977, Hooks’s husband became executive director of the NAACP; she also became involved with the organization, and formed Women in the NAACP (WIN) with Earleen Bolden in1980. WIN raised money for emergency relief by putting on fashion shows and social events; she also co-founded The People Power Project, which promoted black and white dialog, and the Memphis Volunteer Placement Program, which is now run by the Rotary Club.

Renewing their vows in 2001, Hooks and her husband raised one daughter, Patricia.

Hooks passed away on January 14, 2016.

Accession Number

A2005.162

Sex

Female

Interview Date

7/13/2005

Last Name

Hooks

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Schools

Booker T. Washington High School

LaRose Elementary School

St. Anthony School

Wilberforce University

Fisk University

Howard University

First Name

Frances

Birth City, State, Country

Memphis

HM ID

HOO03

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Tennessee

Favorite Vacation Destination

None

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Tennessee

Birth Date

2/23/1927

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Memphis

Country

United States

Favorite Food

None

Death Date

1/14/2016

Short Description

Elementary school teacher Frances Hooks (1927 - 2016 ) co-founded Women in the NAACP (WIN).

Employment

Rosenwald School - Shelby County, Tennessee

Favorite Color

None

Timing Pairs
0,0:364,14:1183,24:1820,32:2366,39:6734,165:17381,376:18382,388:37018,555:37778,566:38918,587:40058,608:42186,652:44466,700:46442,738:56510,850:67135,1046:67475,1051:69515,1086:69940,1093:75252,1138:75762,1144:76476,1155:79230,1209:82574,1259:82870,1264:83388,1273:93794,1390:94174,1397:96150,1430:98506,1472:100938,1518:101546,1533:114978,1699:116289,1721:116565,1726:116841,1731:117324,1740:120774,1806:125673,1917:130082,1930:130670,1939:134786,2020:135122,2025:138230,2088:139154,2101:145906,2269:147328,2302:161340,2515:161700,2521:165804,2614:166308,2623:175750,2757:176374,2767:188376,2950:192160,3023:192600,3035:197686,3072:198131,3078:200890,3210:223595,3513:223967,3518:224618,3526:248340,3822$0,0:623,14:1246,22:2225,36:24487,340:24883,345:25378,351:31145,428:31453,433:33301,462:33686,468:43558,582:46685,618:48725,653:55118,717:76715,916:78440,976:79640,1014:79940,1020:87909,1100:88241,1105:89071,1118:89652,1130:94997,1205:101150,1303:102425,1327:103700,1357:104125,1365:104550,1371:108885,1451:109565,1462:110160,1470:116856,1529:124358,1650:133038,1780:133662,1791:134364,1836:141070,1909
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Frances Hooks' interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Frances Hooks lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Frances Hooks describes her mother's family history, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Frances Hooks describes her mother's family history, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Frances Hooks describes her mother's life in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and Memphis, Tennessee

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Frances Hooks describes her father's family history

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Frances Hooks talks about her parents

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Frances Hooks describes her parents' personalities and her resemblance to her mother

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Frances Hooks lists her siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Frances Hooks describes her earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Frances Hooks describes her childhood neighborhood in Memphis, Tennessee

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Frances Hooks remembers growing up on Edith Street in Memphis, Tennessee

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Frances Hooks describes the sights, sounds and smells of her childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Frances Hooks describes her childhood personality and interests

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Frances Hooks talks about her fights at LaRose Elementary School in Memphis, Tennessee

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Frances Hooks describes her experience at Booker T. Washington High School in Memphis, Tennessee

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Frances Hooks talks about attending three historically black colleges in four years

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Frances Hooks describes her first year at Howard University in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Frances Hooks describes her two years at Wilberforce University in Wilberforce, Ohio for two years

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Frances Hooks describes transferring to Fisk University in Nashville, Tennessee

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Frances Hooks describes her year at Fisk University in Nashville, Tennessee

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Frances Hooks describes the prejudice of the Memphis Board of Education

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Frances Hooks talks about her first teaching job at a Rosenwald School in Shelby County, Tennessee

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Frances Hooks remembers meeting her husband, HistoryMaker Reverend Benjamin Hooks

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Frances Hooks recalls her early years of marriage to HistoryMaker Reverend Benjamin Hooks in Memphis, Tennessee

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Frances Hooks describes voting in Memphis, Tennessee in the 1950s

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Frances Hooks describes her interactions with the SCLC and Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Frances Hooks remembers Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.'s assassination

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Frances Hooks remembers receiving a death threat

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Frances Hooks remembers encountering bigotry at Federal Communications Commission social events

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Frances Hooks describes her early involvement with the NAACP

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Frances Hooks recalls her role in founding WIN, Women in the NAACP

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Frances Hooks describes Women in the NAACP's initiatives

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Frances Hooks describes her concerns for the African American community

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Frances Hooks reflects upon her life

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Frances Hooks reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Frances Hooks comments on Bill Cosby's 2005 remarks

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Frances Hooks talks about singing at her twenty-fifth wedding anniversary

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Frances Hooks talks about creating the People's Power Project

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Frances Hooks describes the creation of the Memphis Volunteer Placement Program

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Frances Hooks describes her first interracial experience as a child in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Frances Hooks describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Frances Hooks narrates her photograph

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$4

DAStory

3$3

DATitle
Frances Hooks talks about her first teaching job at a Rosenwald School in Shelby County, Tennessee
Frances Hooks remembers encountering bigotry at Federal Communications Commission social events
Transcript
What was your situation like in Shelby County [Tennessee]? Was it a large school (simultaneous)?$$(Simultaneous) I started out in a two-teacher, Rosenwald School. Never heard of 'em, have you?$$Yes.$$You heard of Rosenwald Schools?$$Tell us what they are.$$A Rosenwald School is a two-teachers school, established by a Jewish man, Mr. [Julius] Rosenwald, and it provided an educational opportunities building for blacks, particularly Mississippi, Tennessee, Arkansas, and the buildings were like two rooms, one on this side and one on that side and the steps, you walked up the center step and you were in like a hallway and there was a big potbelly stove in the hallway, you took to the right and that was a classroom, you took to the left and that was a classroom, and if you wanted to go to the bathroom, you went down some back stairs and went down the hill to the outhouse. If you wanted a drink of water, you went all the way down, past the restroom, to the pump, and you got your water from there. So, there were two of us teaching in that school. I taught grades one, two, three, four in one grade. The other teacher taught grade five, six, seven, eight in the other grade and at the end of the semester, we would change so that we followed the same group of students a whole year. I taught there for almost two years and it was truly a learning experience and one that I'll never, never, ever be able to repay the community, or the board of education, for exposing me to because I learned to work with first graders, second graders, third graders, fourth graders, all in the same room, kids learning and teaching each other. I'd take my first--my fourth graders, after I taught the first graders and put them down with the first graders, the second graders would go down and work with the first graders. The third graders would go and work with the second grade. It helped children, it re-enforced learning and then the next semester I'd run over to the fifth, sixth, seventh and eighth and I did the same thing and the other teacher went to the other grade but it was probably the best of my teaching experience, you know.$$That's interesting. I never heard it described like that--$$Is that right.$$--where the teach, you know, 'cause we, I think those of us who are used to, you know, modern schools, a lot of classrooms, find it, you know, difficult to believe that someone could teach one, you know--$$Teach four grades at one time.$$--yeah, all grades in one classroom.$$Yeah, you had the first graders right over here, okay, this is your work. Second graders, and then each one learned from the other and there was, you know like grow it and by the time they reached the fourth grade, they knew everything, could repeat what the first and second and third graders. It was a good time. Good learning experience.$$Okay, now did you ever encounter, I think the James Jeanes Fund, the Jeanes supervisors or any of them come around to?$$Never heard of that.$$Yeah, the James T. Jeanes Fund used to send people around to try to, I guess, boost the rural schools and you might have been in too good a shape for that, in that school for them to come around.$$Well, we were a nice looking school, sat on a hill, we just didn't have a bathroom. I learned how to go to the bathroom in a jar. You know, I couldn't go down the hill 'cause there was snakes down that hill and so, uh-uh, I learned how to take care of business right in the, when the kids went home, you didn't go to the bathroom from morning until time, after the kids went home, then you could go to the bathroom, but, it was, it was really, you know, it was an opportunity for growing, to expose you to another way. You see, God does things in his own way and so I enjoyed it.$$Okay, so you were there for about a--$$A year and a half.$Are there any stories from the days when your husband [HistoryMaker Reverend Benjamin Hooks] was head of the FC--well, you know, worked for the FCC [Federal Communications Commission]?$$There was one he talks about in his book how, but when he would go to these meetings and things with the FCC, basically white folks, their view of us and I'll never forget, and this is stuck in my mind, and I went to this affair and I am the only black person, really obvious black person, and so there are a lot of the station owners and whatnot, you know, and their little petite wives and sat around and they, they don't pay any attention to me, you know, and I'm really like, "Um-hm, okay," I'm really standing by myself. So, some of, this was so funny. This broadcaster, owner of a station, came with my husband to a group of white women and says, "Sweetheart, I want you to meet Commissioner Hooks and his wife" and these same ladies that hadn't been standing that far from me that never even looked my way and that was that, they immediately, "Oh, ho, ho" and got so nice and polite and I said, "Um," the same everywhere. This was in Washington, D.C. This wasn't down South and when Benny was on the, as the first black [criminal court] judge [in Tennessee], and we went to the judges meeting, they didn't have any, the heat, the first black judge, they ain't seen no black judges down there and we went to these meetings and I'm the only obvious black, they would totally ignore me and finally I'd go up to them and, you know, say something to one of them and they would act, they were courteous but distant. You could tell they weren't eager to be a friend or to make conversation then, so I learned how to make it on my own, just ignore the rest of them, do what has to be done, answer the questions that have to be answered and those that I don't, I leave them alone.$$Okay.$$And it's been an uphill battle.

Elizabeth B. Rawlins

Elizabeth B. Rawlins, dean and professor emeritus at Simmons College in Boston, Massachusetts, was recognized for her effective and tireless dedication to numerous educational and community organizations in Boston, across private and public higher education in Massachusetts, over a fifty-year period. Born on November 25, 1927, in Cambridge, Massachusetts, Rawlins attended the local public schools and graduated from Cambridge High and Latin School in 1944.

After high school, Rawlins attended Salem State Teachers College, where she earned her B.S. degree in education in 1950; from there she became an elementary school teacher in urban and suburban public schools, and in private schools in Massachusetts. From 1953 to 1954, Rawlins taught at Narimasu Elementary School in Tokyo, Japan. After earning her master’s degree in urban education from Simmons College in 1967, Rawlins left elementary school teaching and began working as a lecturer at Simmons, where she was an associate professor by 1976. From 1979 to 1992, Rawlins served as the associate dean of the Human Services Program; she became a professor of education in 1991, the same year that she received her Ed.D. degree from the University of Massachusetts at Amherst.

For ten years, Rawlins served as chairperson of the Salem State College board of trustees; she also served as a board member of the Massachusetts Board of Higher Education, and a member of the Simmons College Corporation. Rawlins also served as president of the Massachusetts Association of Mental Health; between 1982 and 1988, she served on the Education Commission of the States.

During her long career at Simmons, Rawlins often addressed racially sensitive issues; the establishment of the Elizabeth B. Rawlins Scholarship Fund at Simmons, and the Salem State College Rawlins Oratorical Contest are testaments to her leadership and contributions to higher education in Massachusetts, and the respect she earned in the process.

After her retirement in 1992, Rawlins served on the advisory council to the Martha’s Vineyard Regional High School on the island of Martha’s Vineyard, and as the vice president of the Martha’s Vineyard branch of the Association for the Study of African American Life and History.

Accession Number

A2005.146

Sex

Female

Interview Date

6/22/2005

Last Name

Rawlins

Maker Category
Middle Name

B.

Schools

Cambridge Rindge and Latin School

Martin Luther King Jr. School

Salem State University

University of Massachusetts Amherst

First Name

Elizabeth

Birth City, State, Country

Cambridge

HM ID

RAW02

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Massachusetts

Favorite Vacation Destination

Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Massachusetts

Birth Date

11/25/1927

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Martha's Vineyard

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Ice Cream

Short Description

Academic administrator, education professor, and elementary school teacher Elizabeth B. Rawlins (1927 - ) served as the associate dean of the Human Services Program and a professor of education at Simmons College.

Employment

Raytheon

Buckingham School

Simmons College

Favorite Color

Yellow

Timing Pairs
303,0:2121,26:2525,31:6670,147:9394,164:9961,172:10609,182:11014,189:13444,226:13849,232:18857,292:19302,298:22417,365:23574,406:23930,411:28647,495:29092,501:32029,536:35920,543:37180,575:42080,678:42640,689:44040,719:48114,825:49542,846:54050,887:54530,895:55490,902:55970,909:56610,919:57090,926:59670,934:60186,941:61648,963:62164,970:62680,977:63110,983:64486,1010:65518,1030:65948,1036:69434,1058:69770,1063:72962,1112:78236,1156:88870,1270:90520,1294:92245,1321:99910,1393:105171,1464:106194,1481:106845,1490:107217,1495:107682,1501:112454,1544:113310,1555:113845,1561:120005,1664:121997,1698:125275,1713:125905,1721:133941,1803:134487,1810:135033,1817:146788,1976:147292,1985:147652,1992:148156,2000:150470,2013:151631,2025:153490,2031:156064,2055:156449,2061:159290,2077:159770,2086:160670,2107:161510,2124:164000,2138:169630,2201$0,0:880,13:2376,32:4136,56:5016,67:9856,133:14256,226:14872,237:22380,265:26890,299:27210,304:27610,310:28650,325:28970,330:29450,337:29770,342:30890,361:31290,368:31930,380:32570,389:35930,449:37930,485:38730,490:39370,495:39850,502:41530,568:47290,688:48250,708:48970,718:53632,733:57434,759:58730,779:59621,793:63185,873:64157,903:67154,957:67802,966:68126,971:68774,981:70232,1012:74760,1029:75210,1035:77820,1084:79170,1107:80610,1126:81510,1139:85650,1194:88620,1227:89160,1234:89610,1241:89970,1246:93120,1320:105772,1416:107030,1436:107844,1456:109990,1505:110804,1521:111470,1535:117030,1570:119920,1613:122912,1628:126481,1691:128970,1709:129266,1714:130746,1739:131856,1756:134780,1768:135220,1774:135924,1783:136364,1789:146960,1925:148347,1952:148858,1960:149515,1975:151048,2002:151778,2015:154041,2063:154479,2070:158202,2151:161730,2161
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Elizabeth B. Rawlins' interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Elizabeth B. Rawlins lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Elizabeth B. Rawlins describes her mother

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Elizabeth B. Rawlins describes her maternal grandmother's family

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Elizabeth B. Rawlins recalls being raised by her grandmother in Cambridge, Massachusetts

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Elizabeth B. Rawlins describes her maternal grandmother

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Elizabeth B. Rawlins describes her community in Cambridge, Massachusetts

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Elizabeth B. Rawlins describes her father's side of the family

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Elizabeth B. Rawlins details her maternal ancestry

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Elizabeth B. Rawlins describes her siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Elizabeth B. Rawlins describes her relationship with her younger brother

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Elizabeth B. Rawlins describes the sights, sounds and smells of growing up

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Elizabeth B. Rawlins describes her earliest childhood memory

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Elizabeth B. Rawlins describes her time at Cambridge's Houghton School

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Elizabeth B. Rawlins recalls being dissuaded from a teaching career

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Elizabeth B. Rawlins describes her educational experience in Cambridge

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Elizabeth B. Rawlins describes her time at Cambridge High and Latin School, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Elizabeth B. Rawlins describes her time at Cambridge High and Latin School, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Elizabeth B. Rawlins recalls working for Raytheon in Watertown, Massachusetts

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Elizabeth B. Rawlins describes her first year at Salem Teachers College

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Elizabeth B. Rawlins describes her financial challenges as a college student

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Elizabeth B. Rawlins describes her early teaching career

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Elizabeth B. Rawlins recalls teaching at Cambridge's Buckingham School

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Elizabeth B. Rawlins describes applying to teach in Japan

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Elizabeth B. Rawlins describes her relationship with her husband, Keith W. Rawlins, Jr.

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Elizabeth B. Rawlins describes her teaching experience in Tokyo, Japan

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Elizabeth B. Rawlins describes the teaching careers of Boston-area African Americans

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Elizabeth B. Rawlins describes her children

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Elizabeth B. Rawlins talks about her children and grandchildren

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Elizabeth B. Rawlins recalls becoming a lecturer at Boston's Simmons College

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Elizabeth B. Rawlins recalls her teaching experience at Simmons College, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Elizabeth B. Rawlins recalls her teaching experience at Simmons College, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Elizabeth B. Rawlins recalls becoming associate dean at Simmons College

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Elizabeth B. Rawlins describes her role as associate dean at Simmons College

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Elizabeth B. Rawlins recalls Salem State College establishing a graduate social work program

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Elizabeth B. Rawlins describes serving on the Massachusetts Board of Regents of Higher Education, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Elizabeth B. Rawlins describes serving on the Massachusetts Board of Regents of Higher Education, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Elizabeth B. Rawlins describes chairing Salem State College's board of trustees

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Elizabeth B. Rawlins describes Simmons College's involvement in school desegregation

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Elizabeth B. Rawlins remembers students from her tenure at Simmons College

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Elizabeth B. Rawlins describes leading black alumni symposia at Simmons College, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Elizabeth B. Rawlins describes leading black alumni symposia at Simmons College, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Elizabeth B. Rawlins reflects upon her life, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Elizabeth B. Rawlins reflects upon sharing her story

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Elizabeth B. Rawlins reflects upon her life, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Elizabeth B. Rawlins describes her hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Elizabeth B. Rawlins describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Elizabeth B. Rawlins describes organizations she belongs to on Martha's Vineyard

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Elizabeth B. Rawlins narrates her photographs, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Elizabeth B. Rawlins narrates her photographs, pt. 2

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$4

DAStory

5$1

DATitle
Elizabeth B. Rawlins recalls being dissuaded from a teaching career
Elizabeth B. Rawlins recalls her teaching experience at Simmons College, pt. 1
Transcript
When I got ready to go to high school [Cambridge High and Latin School; Cambridge Rindge and Latin School, Cambridge, Massachusetts] and choose my program, I chose college because I knew I wanted to be a teacher. I--I didn't think about what it cost or how I was gonna pay for it. I didn't think about that, I just knew that's what I wanted to do. My [maternal] grandmother [Grace Hawkins Williams], by this time, was about eighty-two or three years old, you know. And she'd had a couple of heart attacks, but she was really a very strong woman. She didn't pay a lot of attention to what the doctor said, so she was up on her feet sooner than she should have been. And so when I got ready to go, the eighth grade teacher [at Houghton School; Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. School, Cambridge, Massachusetts] I had, who was also the principal's assistant, looked at what I'd chosen and told me that I really needed to choose another course because they were not really hiring black teachers, she said colored teachers then and I would want to get a job. I will never ever forget it. And when I talked with my grandmother about it, she said you know, "I just can't fight, I can't go up tho- I can't climb those stairs. Maybe if you take," what did she tell me, "take something with typing," this is the secretary, "so you'll be able to get this job if you're not able to teach." And I was distressed, but I did it. That's the way kids did then, you know. My minister who had heard me talk about wanting to teach since I've been that high during the first term said to me, "How you doing," you know, and that sort of thing. And I said, "Well, I'm not in the program I want," and told him the story. And he wrote a letter to the dean of--of students and the next day I was in what they called the normal course because this--we were on the fringes then in the '40s [1940s] of normal school and college. So that the on--thing that I missed taking was Latin. Everything else was like a college course. And that was my first racial experience. The first time I ran into somebody saying I couldn't do something on the basis of race that I recognized anyway. It turned out okay because I did it.$How was that transition for you leaving the teaching in elementary school and becoming a instructor--teacher at a place like Simmons College [Boston, Massachusetts]? How was that--how did that transition feel?$$It was scary, really. I remember it as--Erma Brooks asked me, you know, she--she said what we're asking here is what you've been doing for, at that point, thirteen or fourteen years. I had taught several of the grades. I had run some workshops. I, you know, I had done like with Circle Associates [Circle Inc., Boston, Massachusetts] and all of that. Said that's what we need, that's what the students are asking for that kind of experience. So, you know, te--teach the course in Nature of Classroom Teaching. And frankly I thought well it would be convenient because of my daughter [Pattie Rawlins] and her age and so forth. So I approached one of the faculty in the ed [education] department and said to her, "Lydia [ph.], I don't see anywhere that teachers, professors have been taught to teach and so how about some hints for me." She said, "You're right, we haven't been taught to teach, but--so you have all the skills and knowledge and pedagogy and so forth, and we just have the information and we should make a good team." So I taught thinking the way I did teaching elementary and junior high kids, that you gotta have a plan. You have to know what you're gonna teach. You gotta do something to engage them. And that was always the way. And--and that you have to think about the whole person. So I approached it in that way. And as long as I was doing the urban teacher prep program, I was really fine. But then, when these black students who began to come and saw that they were not in the material anywhere, wanted somebody to teach thinking about that and approached me. (Laughter) I thought I was--might be getting a little above my head, but what I did was to ask them to help me plan what it was they were talking about. That's because that's not been my experience. What you wa- I know what it is you want, but it hasn't been my experience so I need you to be engaged in this, and they were, they were wonderful.

Georgia Dickens

Retired educator and community volunteer Georgia Nelle Smith Dickens, nicknamed Gee Gee, was born on December 24, 1920, in Atlanta, Georgia. Both of Dickens's parents, Reverend Harvey Miles Smith and Stella Bryant Smith, were college educated individuals who graduated from Morehouse College and Atlanta University respectively. Dickens's parents instilled in her a sense of responsibility, respect for self, and a passion for education. Dickens was raised in Atlanta, Georgia, attending E.R. Carter Elementary School; she went on to attend Madison High School where she graduated in 1937, at the age of fifteen, as the class salutatorian. In 1938, Dickens enrolled in Spelman College where she was voted Miss Personality by her peers; she graduated in 1942.

Dickens started her career as an educator in 1942 in Albany, Georgia; that same year, she married Morehouse College graduate Robert D. Dickens. Dickens moved back to Atlanta and began teaching at Young Street Elementary School, where she enjoyed working with children. While teaching, Dickens volunteered for the Children’s Alliance Theater Guild; she also chaired the United Negro College Fund Telethon and co-chaired the Volunteers Telephone Committee and the Democratic National Convention. After working in the Atlanta Public School System for forty-three years, she retired from teaching in 1982.

Dickens won several awards for her achievements and volunteerism; she was honored as an outstanding volunteer by the United Negro College Fund Telethon. In 1989 Dickens was presented with the President’s Award by the Atlanta Chapter of Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Inc., Essence magazine’s Ambassador Award; in 2001 she was awarded the Alumnae Achievement Award in Civic Service by Spelman College; in 2003 she won the National Visionary Leadership Award.

Dickens and her husband raised one son.

Accession Number

A2005.141

Sex

Female

Interview Date

6/21/2005

Last Name

Dickens

Maker Category
Organizations
Schools

Monroe Comprehensive High School

E. R. Carter Elementary School

Spelman College

First Name

Georgia

Birth City, State, Country

Atlanta

HM ID

DIC03

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Georgia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Hilton Head, South Carolina

Favorite Quote

I Cannot Be Made Nervous.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Birth Date

12/24/1920

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Atlanta

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Lobster Tails

Death Date

4/16/2017

Short Description

Community volunteer and elementary school teacher Georgia Dickens (1920 - 2017 ) worked in the Atlanta Public School System for forty-three years, retiring in 1982. In addition to her activities as an educator, Dickens won numerous awards for her volunteerism.

Employment

Young Street Elementary School

Grove Park Elementary School

Favorite Color

Beige

Timing Pairs
0,0:4212,111:4680,118:4992,123:6084,141:6630,157:16084,289:24122,407:30458,543:43400,762:46280,844:46840,854:63304,1145:66301,1203:67435,1221:68002,1230:69946,1262:71809,1300:72295,1307:72619,1312:73348,1322:79915,1369:80425,1376:85940,1454:89927,1505:90962,1520:91307,1526:100780,1643:102850,1668:103930,1683:106360,1773:106720,1778:115332,1882:118500,1944:118830,1950:122997,1979:136120,2143:136726,2150:139020,2169$0,0:5146,115:10707,195:13197,245:13529,253:16351,310:26245,396:43872,676:44242,682:45426,712:47202,749:47498,754:50902,821:63578,965:64392,981:65280,997:65650,1003:96008,1536:97016,1624:106104,1779:130488,2136:135910,2173:136345,2183:138968,2199:143756,2281:144060,2286:147880,2319:150148,2359:166240,2531
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Georgia Dickens' interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Georgia Dickens lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Georgia Dickens describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Georgia Dickens talks about her mother's education

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Georgia Dickens describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Georgia Dickens recalls her father's friendship with Martin Luther King, Sr.

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Georgia Dickens describes her parents' personalities and her likeness to them

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Georgia Dickens describes her siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Georgia Dickens describes her earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Georgia Dickens describes the sights, sounds, and smells of her childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Georgia Dickens describes her childhood neighborhood

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Georgia Dickens describes her personality as a child

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Georgia Dickens talks about attending elementary school

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Georgia Dickens describes houses her grandfather built and her neighbors as a child

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Georgia Dickens describes her childhood neighbors in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Georgia Dickens describes her famous neighbors in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Georgia Dickens remembers Dr. Benjamin Mays

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Georgia Dickens describes her experiences in elementary and high school

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Georgia Dickens recalls getting into trouble at Spelman College in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Georgia Dickens describes her close relationship with her maternal grandmother

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Georgia Dickens recalls her extracurricular activities at Spelman College

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Georgia Dickens describes college experience and goals after graduating

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Georgia Dickens recalls marrying her husband, Robert D. Dickens

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Georgia Dickens describes teaching at Atlanta's Young Street Elementary School

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Georgia Dickens recalls teaching at segregated public schools in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Georgia Dickens describes Atlanta's Alliance Theatre and her school dance and drama programs

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Georgia Dickens describes her involvement with Atlanta's Alliance Children's Theatre Guild

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Georgia Dickens talks about her volunteerism, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Georgia Dickens talks about her volunteerism, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Georgia Dickens remembers family friend, Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Georgia Dickens recalls Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr. and other civil rights leaders

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Georgia Dickens talks about HistoryMaker Julian Bond and his family

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Georgia Dickens recalls a race riot in Atlanta, Georgia in 1906

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Georgia Dickens describes HistoryMaker John Lewis and the National Black Arts Festival

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Georgia Dickens describes her hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Georgia Dickens reflects upon social changes at Spelman College

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Georgia Dickens shares her thoughts about changes in social etiquette

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Georgia Dickens reflects upon her life, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Georgia Dickens reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Georgia Dickens talks about her family

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Georgia Dickens reflects up on her life, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - Georgia Dickens describes how she would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$4

DAStory

7$3

DATitle
Georgia Dickens recalls getting into trouble at Spelman College in Atlanta, Georgia
Georgia Dickens describes HistoryMaker John Lewis and the National Black Arts Festival
Transcript
So you were able to start Spelman [College, Atlanta, Georgia] in '38 [1938].$$Um-hm.$$Now you alluded to maybe having some trouble at school because you're, you're kind of active?$$Yeah, I did, well yeah, one time we were all sitting in the library I was truly sitting on the sofa with my husband to be [Robert D. Dickens] and reading a newspaper. And of course evidently Ms. [Charlotte] Templeton thought that was completely out of order. I wasn't doing anything but talking we were chatting but reading the paper together. So she sent my name to the Dean, Dean [Jane Hope] Lyons, well I told Dean Lyons said--ooh well gracious they were trying to get the AU [Atlanta University; Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta, Georgia] Library at the time. So then she said okay I'm just go down with your [maternal] grandmother [Nelle Bryant], while which was right down the block down the street. Dr. Kelsey [ph.] was living with her then, so what did he do? He wrote the note evidently saying how thought, how ridiculous he thought it was. And so consequently I didn't have to go Albany [Georgia], where my mother [Stella Bryant Smith] (unclear) were at the time. So I always give him credit for my not getting sent home from the campus. But nothing other than that, no more than as you know, I was always into something talking. And as my thing from Spelman says my senior year, Ms. Personality always, in court holding court.$$Always holding court.$$Holding court (laughter) all the time.$$Would you, would you hold court about the issue of the day or?$$Yep, holding court about anything.$$Anything?$$Always, now kind of giving my opinion about what I thought and most times the girls agreed they just said, "Oh Gee Gee [HistoryMaker Georgia Dickens]" that's how I got that name too Gee Gee, on campus. Well they kind of thought a lot of what I said, and they would always ask right till today. All of my friends said heavenly father you would think I was a therapist, you know. Older, in between everybody called family calling me what do you think, what do you do, I've gotta do. I, I guess that's just my calling. Uh-huh, but I'm a people person, I love 'em.$Oh [HistoryMaker] John Lewis you worked on John Lewis' campaign too?$$Oh yeah bless his heart and he has worked so hard he has given his whole adult life to the program. And we, his wife is and we're friends naturally Lillian [Miles Lewis] but John we respect I do (unclear). I worked with him we were right down, downtown at his I can't think know where the name of the street Spring Street I think it was, his office was there. But you one thing most of us have worked in all campaigns. You know what like we go work for Shirley [Franklin] coming up I will I mean. But everything that we've had going that's real, whatever some of us have working in a, you know in the whole thing whether we were for the same candidate or not. We worked in some capacity. And I always call myself more of a volunteer not a paid person but volunteer. But as I say John'll come back now and say my friend young play daughter who, Women Looking Ahead she interviewed and he autographed his books. When he wrote that book and I have pictures with him you know autographing and he did one for me. He, he appreciates and remembers those of us who worked with him. Sometimes he'll tell 'em Gee Gee [HistoryMaker Georgia Dickens] worked with me when I first started. You know that's what the girl did for our [National] Black Arts Festival the other day. The girl who's an artist and over the Artist Rocket [ph] [HistoryMaker] Stephanie Hughley had the two of us stand up. 'Cause we were with the whole thing at the inception, we're the oldest workers there. When Michael Lomax had it we worked with it, when he star, started it.$$That was back in the '80s [1980s].$$Uh-huh, he something else. I forgot we thirty-five, I think we're thirty-five, no, no, no that's my club group. Yeah we're about thirty-five years old I think Black Arts Festival.$$Black Arts Festival?$$I think so.$$Okay.$$I got (unclear) (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) This was like 1970?$$Uh-huh, could have been [sic. 1988]. But you know like I said it's too many of these things celebrating anniversaries I may be getting them confused. But we, we have been and I, I have worked I'm talking about worked since the inception. And Michael Lomax was (unclear) you know recognized those of us who have I don't mean just touched it, but we have worked. Because I, I would be trying to get two hundred volunteers for before the 15 of July, for, for the artist month. And we have had some, any artist you name they've been to this festival.$$Okay.$$And still coming.