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Candace Bond McKeever

Marketing executive Candace Bond McKeever was born on June 27, 1965 in St. Louis, Missouri to Anita Lyons Bond and Dr. Leslie F. Bond, Sr. After graduating from Villa Duchesne and Oak Hill School in Frontenac, Missouri in 1983, she received her B.A. degree in government from Harvard University in 1987, and her M.B.A. degree from Harvard Business School in 1992. In 2016, Bond McKeever also graduated from the University of Southern California Marshall School of Business in the Ross Program in Real Estate and Real Estate Development.

In 1992, Bond McKeever became vice president of special markets and catalog development for Motown Records, where she was responsible for initiating formal catalog development efforts. Bond McKeever left Motown in 1997, and later served as vice president and general manager of entertainment for Essence magazine, where she oversaw the development of all branded business and marketing initiatives in the areas of film, television, DVD, music, radio and live entertainment. In this capacity, she also served as executive producer of the Essence Music Festival and the executive in charge of production of the Essence Awards. In 2003, Bond McKeever left Essence and became managing partner of Infusion Media Partners LLC. In 2010, she served as president of Initiative Consulting Group, Inc., which was acquired the following year by AESA Inc. and she was named chief executive officer. In 2011, she became chief executive officer of Strategic Solutions Group, Inc.

Bond McKeever served as co-chair of the Academy of Television Arts and Sciences Diversity Committee and as trustee for the Presidential Inaugural Committee for Obama for America. In 2010, she was appointed by President Barack Obama to serve on the President’s Advisory Committee on the Arts for the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts. Bond McKeever is also a member of the board of trustees for The Ford Theater, the Martin Luther King, Jr. Community Hospital, and the Children’s Institute, Inc. She served on the board of the Los Angeles County Office of Education, the Charles R. Drew University of Medicine and Science and as vice chair and secretary of the Martin Luther King Health and Wellness Community Development Corporation.

Candace Bond McKeever was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on February 6, 2019.

Accession Number

A2019.010

Sex

Female

Interview Date

2/6/2019

Last Name

McKeever

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Bond

Occupation
Schools

Villa Duchesne and Oak Hill School

Harvard University

Harvard Business School

University of Southern California Marshall School of Business

First Name

Candace

Birth City, State, Country

St. Louis

HM ID

MCK17

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Missouri

Favorite Vacation Destination

Amalfi Coast, Italy

Favorite Quote

Pray as if everything in life depends on God, but work as if it depends on you.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

California

Birth Date

6/27/1965

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Los Angeles

Favorite Food

White Castle Cheeseburgers

Short Description

Marketing executive Candace Bond McKeever (1965 - ) served as named vice president and general manager of entertainment for Essence magazine and became chief executive officer of AESA Inc. and, in 2011, chief executive officer of Strategic Solutions Group, Inc.

Employment

Motown Record Corporation

Essence Magazine

Infusion Media Partners

Initiative Consulting Group, Inc.

AESA, Inc.

Strategic Solutions Group, Inc.

Favorite Color

Maroon

Nancy McKeever

Civic leader Nancy McKeever was born on June 8, 1936 in St. Louis, Missouri to John
Clarke and Maddy Edna Richardson Clarke. She migrated to Chicago, Illinois, where she lived with her aunt and uncle and attended Hyde Park High School. After graduating from Loretto Academy in 1954, McKeever received her degree in teaching from Chicago Teachers College in 1958.

After graduating from college, McKeever moved to a military base near Salt Lake City, Utah with her husband, Lester McKeever. In 1960, while her husband finished his military service, McKeever returned to Chicago and began her career in education as a third grade teacher at Forestville Elementary School, which later became Carter G. Woodson South Elementary School. She also served as parent coordinator for the PTA and ran the Forestville Special Trips Committee, which took students on trips around the country during school breaks. In 1971, McKeever joined the auxiliary board for Chicago’s ETA Creative Arts Foundation, which provided training and performance opportunities for youth and adults. McKeever eventually became chair of ETA Creative Arts Foundation’s board of directors, where she planned fundraising events that raised several million dollars for an endowment, before leaving the board in 2014. In the early 1970s, McKeever and her husband purchased and managed a high rise building in Hyde Park. In 1976, the couple purchased Oglesby Towers, a 25-story high-rise apartment building in Chicago’s South Shore neighborhood, which she managed until they sold the building in 2008.

McKeever was a member of the Northeasterners and the Contempos social clubs. She also helped establish the Mother’s Club, a group of African American women who went horseback riding together. In 2007, McKeever received a Distinguished Alumni Award from Chicago State University for outstanding achievement in the Arts. She was recognized for her work with the Big Shoulders Fund and Catholic Charities by the Chicago Archdiocese with the Bishop Quarter award in 2008. McKeever has also served as a member of Woman's Board for Art Institute of Chicago.

McKeever and her husband, Lester McKeever, reside in Chicago, Illinois and have two adult children: Steve and Susan.

Nancy McKeever was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on July 9, 2019.

Accession Number

A2019.061

Sex

Female

Interview Date

7/9/2019

Last Name

McKeever

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Occupation
Schools

Hyde Park Academy High School

Chicago State University

First Name

Nancy

Birth City, State, Country

St. Louis

HM ID

MCK18

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Missouri

Favorite Vacation Destination

Bahamas

Favorite Quote

As You Grow Older, You'll Learn

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Illinois

Birth Date

6/8/1936

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Chicago

Favorite Food

Watermelon

Short Description

Educator Nancy McKeever (1936- ) was a school teacher for Chicago Public Schools before becoming an auxiliary board member of ETA Creative Arts Foundation in Chicago, where she would go on to be named chair of the board of directors.

Employment

Carter G. Woodson Elementary School

Oglesby Towers

Favorite Color

Blue

Les Bond, Jr.

Investment banker Leslie Bond, Jr. was born on July 18, 1957 to Leslie Bond, Sr., a prominent surgeon, and Anita Lyons Bond, a civil rights activist, in St. Louis, Missouri. He attended and graduated from St. Louis Country Day School in 1963, and went on to attend Princeton University, where he earned his B.A. degree in public and international affairs as a Woodrow Wilson Scholar in 1979. He then received both his J.D. degree and M.M. degree in finance in marketing from Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois in 1983.

Bond was hired by the King & Spalding law firm in Atlanta, Georgia in 1983, making the firm’s first African American partner. Their clients included The Coca-Cola Company, General Electric, and General Motors. In 1986, he was appointed deputy general counsel for the Metropolitan Pier and Exposition Authority of Chicago where he was responsible for the development and financing for the expansion projects of both Navy Pier and McCormick Place. Bond was subsequently hired as general counsel to the Comptroller of St. Louis, Missouri, where he had additional responsibilities as fiscal manager of external finance. In 1996, he co-founded Columbia Capital Management, a firm that provided advisory services to municipal bond issuers and borrowers, as well as investment assistance to local governments. He served as senior managing director of their investment advisory group until 2001, when he co-founded another company, Attucks Asset Management in Chicago, where he served as CEO. Attucks Asset Management specialized in providing investment assistance for diverse and emerging managers. In 2011, he was appointed to serve on the Chicago Plan Commission, which was responsible for reviewing proposals involving planned developments and districts, as well as the Lakefront Protection Ordinance. He was reappointed to this position by Chicago Mayor Rahm Emmanuel in 2016.

Bond resides in Chicago, where he has served on the boards of the National Association of Securities Professionals, the Marshall Faulk Foundation, the Jackie Joyner-Kersee Foundation, and MOBILE Care Foundation. He has also been a member of the Alliance of Business Leaders and Entrepreneurs and the New American Alliance.

Leslie Bond, Jr. was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on July 11, 2019.

Accession Number

A2019.063

Sex

Male

Interview Date

7/11/2019

Last Name

Bond

Maker Category
Marital Status

Single

Occupation
Schools

Princeton University

Northwestern University, Kellogg School of Business

Northwestern University Pritzker School of Law

Mary Institute and Saint Louis Country Day School (MICDS)

First Name

Les

Birth City, State, Country

St. Louis

HM ID

BON04

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Missouri

Favorite Vacation Destination

Any Beach

Favorite Quote

Don't Quit

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Illinois

Birth Date

7/18/1957

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Chicago

Favorite Food

Soul Food, Collard Greens, Smoked Meats, Mac And Cheese

Short Description

Investment banker Leslie Bond, Jr. (1957 - ) was the first African American partner at the law firm King & Spalding before he co-founded two investment advisory firms: Columbia Capital Management and Attucks Asset Management.

Employment

King and Spalding

City of Chicago

Comptroller's Office; City of St. Louis

Columbia Capital Management

Attucks Asset Management

Favorite Color

Blue

Jabari Asim

Author and magazine editor Jabari Asim was born on August 11, 1962 in St. Louis, Missouri. He graduated from Southwest High School in 1980, and attended Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois.

In 1988, Asim was hired by the startup African American publication, Take Five magazine, as a contributing writer. By 1990, he was promoted to senior editor of the magazine where he ran the magazine’s literary section until 1992, when he became a copy editor for the St. Louis Post-Dispatch. Here, he would take on the additional role of arts editor of the weekend section; and, in 1993, he was made book editor. In 1996, Asim moved to Washington D.C. when he was hired by the Washington Post to serve as an assistant editor before becoming senior editor of the newspaper’s Book World in 1999. The Washington Post Book World was a weekly book section in which Asim wrote, assigned, and edited reviews. He remained in this role until he became editor-in-chief of the NAACP’s magazine, The Crisis, in 2007. From 2008 to 2010, Asim served as a scholar-in-residence in African American Studies and in the Department of Journalism at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign; and, in 2009, he was awarded the John Simon Guggenheim Foundation fellowship in the general nonfiction category. Emerson College in Boston, Massachusetts hired Asim in 2010 to work as an associate professor of writing, literature, and publishing. He left The Crisis in 2017.

Asim is the author of nonfiction, fiction, children’s and adult’s books, and poetry. His children’s literature includes The Road to Freedom: A story of the Reconstruction (2001), Whose Toes are Those? and Whose Knees are These? (2006), Daddy Goes to Work (2006), Girl of Mine and Boy of Mine (2010), Fifty Cents and a Dream: Young Booker T. Washington (2012), Preaching to the Chickens: The Story of Young John Lewis (2016), and A Child's Introduction to African American History: The Experiences, People, and Events That Shaped Our Country (2018). His adult works include Not Guilty: Twelve Black Men Speak Out on the Law, Justice and Life (2001), The N Word: Who Can Say It, Who Shouldn’t, and Why (2007), What Obama Means: …For Our Culture, Our Politics, Our Future (2009), A Taste of Honey (2010), Only the Strong (2015), and We Can’t Breathe (2018). Asim’s poetry has also been featured in the Black American Literature Forum, The Furious Flowering of African American Poetry, Step Into A World: A Global Anthology of The New Black Literature, Role Call: A Generational Anthology of Social and Political Black Literature & Art, Beyond The Frontier: African-American Poetry for the 21st Century, and The Harlem Reader: A Celebration of New York's Most Famous Neighborhood from the Renaissance Years to the 21st Century.

Asim lives in Massachusetts with his wife, Liana Asim, and the couple has five children.

Jabari Asim was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on September 13, 2019.

Accession Number

A2019.100

Sex

Male

Interview Date

9/13/2019

Last Name

Asim

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Occupation
Organizations
Schools

Wade Elementary School

Central Visual and Performing Arts High School

Northwestern University

First Name

Jabari

Birth City, State, Country

St. Louis

HM ID

ASI01

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Missouri

Favorite Vacation Destination

Newport, RI

Favorite Quote

Writing Is Work, But It's Joyful Work

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Massachusetts

Birth Date

8/11/1962

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Boston

Favorite Food

Pasta

Short Description

Author and magazine editor Jabari Asim (1962 - ) was editor-in-chief of the NAACP’s magazine, The Crisis, from 2007 to 2017, and became associate professor of writing literature and publishing at Emerson College in 2010. He has also authored fifteen books.

Employment

Sears

Take Five Magazine

St. Louis Post-Dispatch

Washington Post

Washington Post Book World

The Crisis

University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

John Guggenheim Foundation

Emerson College

Favorite Color

Green

Cecilia A. Conrad

Foundation executive and academic administrator Cecilia Conrad was born on January 4, 1955 in St. Louis, Missouri to Dr. Emmett James Conrad and Eleanor Nelson Conrad. She moved with her family to Dallas, Texas after her father was hired at St. Paul’s Hospital. Conrad went on to receive her B.A. degree in economics from Wellesley College in 1976 and her Ph.D. degree in economics from Stanford University in 1982.

Conrad began her career in academia in 1981 when she was hired as an assistant professor of economics at Duke University. From there, she taught at Barnard College and then Pomona College as a Stedman-Sumner professor of economics. In 2002, Conrad was named California’s Carnegie Professor of the Year. Two years later, she became associate dean of Pomona College. During her time as a college administrator, Conrad continued to publish on the issue of race and gender on economic status. After taking a two year hiatus to serve as interim vice president and dean of the faculty at Scripps College, Conrad returned to Pomona College as vice president for academic affairs and dean of the college. In 2013, Conrad left Pomona to join the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation as the vice president of the MacArthur Fellows Program. After two years at the foundation, Conrad became the managing director of both the MacArthur Fellows Program and 100&Change. In 2019, Conrad became chief executive officer of Lever for Change, an affiliate of the MacArthur Foundation focused on high impact philanthropic opportunities.

Conrad served as editor of The Review of Black Political Economy and an associate editor of Feminist Economics. She has published articles on economics, liberal arts education, and philanthropy in peer-reviewed journals and popular media. While working at Pomona College, Conrad also directed the American Economic Association’s “Pipeline Mentoring Program,” matching students enrolled in a Ph.D. program in economics with mentors in the field. In 2007, Conrad became the president of the International Association for Feminist Economics. She is on the board of trustees at Muhlenberg College, Bryn Mawr College, the Poetry Foundation, and the National Academy of Social Insurance.

Conrad has received numerous awards for her work. Her co-edited collection of essays, African Americans in the US Economy, was named a CHOICE Outstanding Academic Title of 2005. Three years later, she received the National Urban League’s 2008 Woman of Power Award. She has also received honorary doctorates from Claremont Graduate University and the University of Massachusetts Dartmouth.

Conrad and her husband, Llewellyn Miller, have one child: Conrad Miller.

Cecilia Conrad was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on July 12, 2019.

Accession Number

A2019.049

Sex

Female

Interview Date

7/12/2019

Last Name

Conrad

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Ann

Schools

Wellesley College

Stanford Graduate School of Business

First Name

Cecilia

Birth City, State, Country

St. Louis

HM ID

CON08

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Missouri

Favorite Vacation Destination

Paris

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Illinois

Birth Date

1/4/1955

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Chicago

Favorite Food

Fried Chicken

Short Description

Foundation executive and academic administrator Cecilia Conrad (1955 - ) served as managing director of the MacArthur Fellows Program and 100&Change before becoming chief executive officer of Lever for Change.

Employment

Pomona College

Scripps College

American Economic Association

Barnard College, Columbia University

Duke University

The Review of Black Political Economy

Feminist Economics

MacArthur Foundation

Favorite Color

Red

Dr. John E. Franklin, Jr.

Psychiatrist and professor Dr. John E. Franklin, Jr. was born on November 7, 1954 in St. Louis, Missouri to Arlena Scott Franklin and Dr. John E. Franklin, Sr. His family moved to Detroit, Michigan in the late 1950s and he graduated from the Interlochen Arts Academy in 1972. He studied theater at New York University School of the Arts before obtaining his B.S. degree in zoology from Michigan State University in 1976. In 1980, Franklin received his M.D. degree from the University of Michigan Medical School. He later earned an M.Sc. degree from the Harvard University School of Public Health in 1999 and an M.A. degree from Northwestern University in 2014.

Franklin began his career as an instructor in psychiatry at New York Hospital Cornell University Medical College in 1984. At the affiliated Westchester Division facility in White Plains, New York, he served as the attending physician in the substance abuse and eating disorder units. In 1986, Franklin moved to Newark, New Jersey to join the faculty of the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey - New Jersey Medical School. He worked with substance abuse patients at two Newark area institutions, the Institute for Counseling and Training and St. Barnabas Hospital, and held consultancies with the State of New Jersey and the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. In 1993, Franklin began a long-term career at Northwestern University and achieved the rank of full professor. He held faculty appointments in the departments of psychiatry, surgery and medical education/medical humanities and bioethics. Franklin provided psychiatric services for medical/ surgical inpatients, directed the Addiction Division and fellowship, had a general psychiatric practice and was the transplant psychiatrist for the Kovler Organ Transplantation Center. In 2002, Franklin was named associate dean for minority and cultural affairs at the Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, and in 2016, he became associate dean for diversity, inclusion and student support.

In 1985, Franklin helped found the American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry, and he has co-authored numerous papers, chapters, books in the areas of addiction, organ transplantation and health disparities. Franklin served on national committees for the National Institute for Drug Abuse, Institute of Medicine and Federal Drug Administration. He has served on community boards, including Lakefront Supportive Housing, Community Counseling Centers of Chicago, Westinghouse Scholars and did psychiatric disability examinations for the State of Illinois for 20 plus years. Franklin is a 2002 Leadership Greater Chicago fellow. He has served as a member of numerous professional organizations including the American Psychiatric Association, the National Medical Association and Black Psychiatrists of America. In 2017, he was elected into the Alpha Omega Alpha (AOA) honors medical society. Franklin has been recognized for his teaching contributions with awards and commitment to issues of diversity; in 2016, the Marco Ellis Legacy Award was renamed the John E. Franklin, MD Commitment to Diversity Award in his honor.

Franklin and his wife, Terri West Franklin, have three children.

Dr. John E. Franklin, Jr. was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on June 21, 2018.

Accession Number

A2018.111

Sex

Male

Interview Date

6/21/2018

Last Name

Franklin

Maker Category
Middle Name

E.

Occupation
Organizations
First Name

John

Birth City, State, Country

St. Louis

HM ID

FRA17

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Missouri

Favorite Vacation Destination

Italy

Favorite Quote

If it ain't broke don't fix it.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Illinois

Birth Date

11/7/1954

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Chicago

Favorite Food

Steak

Short Description

Psychiatrist and professor Dr. John E. Franklin, Jr. (1954- ) became an expert on addiction and organ transplants and has an over twenty five year career at Northwestern University Hospital and Medical School. In 2016, the Marco Ellis Legacy Award was renamed the John E. Franklin, MD Commitment to Diversity Award in his honor.

Favorite Color

Brown

Kevin Shurn

Entrepreneur Kevin Shurn was born on October 20, 1956 in St. Louis, Missouri to Mattie Lou Shurn and Luther Clarence Shurn. He graduated from Sumner High School in St. Louis, Missouri in 1974, and enrolled at Forest Park Community College in St. Louis, Missouri, where he studied mechanical engineering technology and accounting.

In 1974, Shurn began his career as a draftsman for Zurheide-Herrmann Consultant Engineers Company. He then accepted a design and draftsman position at Fulton Iron Works, designing punch presses. In 1976, he became assistant sales manager at Fulton Iron Works and attended his first trade show, the International Machine Tool Show in Chicago, Illinois. Shurn was later promoted to manager of contract manufacturing in 1979, before he was hired at I.W. Industries in Kentucky in 1983. In the same year, he also incorporated his own business, Shurn and Associates. In 1988, he founded Superior Maintenance Company (SMC), and then in 1990, he attended Toyota Motor Corporation’s first Opportunity Exchange Program. By 1993, Superior Maintenance Company partnered with Toyota Motors, first supplying janitorial services to Toyota and then to provide Toyota’s die manufacturing equipment in Georgetown, Kentucky; Erlanger, Kentucky; Princeton, Indiana and San Antonio, Texas. In 2017, his company was awarded part of the Toyota’s North American headquarters facility in Plano, Texas.

Shurn has been featured in MBE magazine, Fortune, Black Enterprise and Ebony magazine.

Shurn was active in numerous state and local organizations, as a member of the Elizabethtown Rotary Club having served as president and assistant district governor. He was a Paul Harris Fellow and served on the Advisory Board of Republic Bank & Trust Company, the Vaughn Reno Starks Community Center and Big Brothers Big Sisters, the Kentucky Chamber of Commerce, North Central Educational Foundation and Board of Trustees of The DePaul School. Shurn was a Bingham Fellows 2009 graduate and served on the University of Louisville Board of Overseers. Shurn was appointed by the Governor of Kentucky to the Kentucky Workforce Investment Board.

Shurn, and his wife Ivvy, have three children.

Kevin Shurn was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on August 13, 2017.

Accession Number

A2017.127

Sex

Male

Interview Date

08/13/2017

Last Name

Shurn

Maker Category
Occupation
Organizations
First Name

Kevin

Birth City, State, Country

St. Louis

HM ID

SHU03

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Missouri

Favorite Vacation Destination

Cruising

Favorite Quote

Do all you can and then some.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Kentucky

Birth Date

10/20/1956

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Louisville

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Fish

Short Description

Entrepreneur Kevin Shurn (1956 - ) was the founder and president of Shurn and Associates and Superior Maintenance Company, located in Elizabethtown, Kentucky.

Favorite Color

Red

Billy Davis, Jr.

Singer Billy Davis, Jr. was born on June 26, 1938 in St. Louis, Missouri to William Davis, Sr. and Norris Wilbur. Davis started singing in gospel choirs at an early age. He attended Washington Technical High School in St. Louis and sang with a band called the Emeralds. In 1958, Davis and his father opened a nightclub, where he worked and performed music. In 1961, he was drafted into the United States Army and formed another band, The Kingsmen, while stationed in Germany.

In 1965, Davis moved to Los Angeles, California seeking a recording opportunity with Motown Records. While waiting for his chance to go into the studio with one of their producers, he and friend Lamonte McLemore decided to start a singing group as a hobby. The Versatiles was formed, which included Davis, McLemore, Marilyn McCoo, Florence LaRue, and Ron Townson. The group signed to the Soul City label, changed their name to The 5th Dimension, and recorded their first hit in 1966, "Go Where You Wanna Go." In 1967, they released “Up, Up, and Away,” which won four Grammy Awards and was the title track to The 5th Dimension's first hit album. In 1969, The 5th Dimension released The Age of Aquarius. The album's first single, "Aquarius/Let the Sunshine In," became a mega-hit and occupied the number one spot on the charts for six weeks. It earned the group two more Grammy Awards, including Record of the Year.

In 1969, Davis married bandmate Marilyn McCoo, and in 1975, they left The 5th Dimension. Together, they released 1976's I Hope We Get To Love In Time, featuring the single, "You Don't Have to Be a Star (To Be in My Show)." The song went straight to number one on the Billboard Hot 100 and earned the duo a Grammy Award for Best R&B Performance by a Duo, Group or Chorus. Davis and McCoo went on to host The Marilyn McCoo & Billy Davis Jr. Show on CBS in 1977.

In 1982, Davis returned to the studio and recorded a solo gospel album called Let Me Have a Dream, which was co-produced by the world-renown Gospel artist, the Rev. James Cleveland. In the 1990s, he continued to sing and explored a career in musical theatre, starring in Dreamgirls in North Carolina in 1993, and Blues in the Night, at the Old Globe Theater in San Diego, California in 1994. He later founded the Soldiers For the Second Coming Music Ministry and co-authored the book Up, Up and Away…How We Found Love, Faith and Lasting Marriage in the Entertainment World with McCoo in 2004.

Davis has also earned a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame, and The 5th Dimension was inducted into the Vocal Group Hall of Fame in 2002. He received an honorary doctorate degree from the University of Maryland Eastern Shore in 2012.

Billy Davis, Jr. was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on July 29, 2014.

Accession Number

A2014.179

Sex

Male

Interview Date

7/29/2014

Last Name

Davis

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Occupation
Schools

Washington Technical High School

University of Maryland Eastern Shore

Coleman Elementary School

First Name

Billy

Birth City, State, Country

St. Louis

HM ID

DAV33

Favorite Season

None

State

Missouri

Favorite Vacation Destination

None

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

California

Birth Date

6/26/1938

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Los Angeles

Country

United States

Favorite Food

None

Short Description

Singer Billy Davis, Jr. (1938 - ) is a Grammy Award-winning musician and an original member of The 5th Dimension. He is also co-author, with his wife Marilyn McCoo, of Up, Up and Away…How We Found Love, Faith and Lasting Marriage in the Entertainment World.

Employment

Self Employed

U.S. Army

Various

5th Dimension

McCoo & Davis

Favorite Color

None

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Billy Davis, Jr.'s interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Billy Davis, Jr. lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Billy Davis, Jr. talks about his maternal family history

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Billy Davis, Jr. talks about his maternal grandmother

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Billy Davis, Jr. talks about his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Billy Davis, Jr. talks about his paternal family background

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Billy Davis, Jr. talks about his paternal grandfather

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Billy Davis, Jr. talks about his paternal family's experience in Missouri

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Billy Davis, Jr. talks about his father's lumber company

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Billy Davis, Jr. talks about how his parents met

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Billy Davis, Jr. describes his parents' personalities and who he takes after

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Billy Davis, Jr. talks about his siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Billy Davis, Jr. describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Billy Davis, Jr. talks about his childhood neighborhood in St. Louis, Missouri

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Billy Davis, Jr. talks about the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Billy Davis, Jr. talks about his varied religious experiences as a youth

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Billy Davis, Jr. talks about musical traditions in different churches

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Billy Davis, Jr. recalls memories from his grade school years

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Billy Davis, Jr. talks about his love for baseball and professional baseball teams in St. Louis, Missouri

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Billy Davis, Jr. talks about how he met HistoryMaker Lamonte McLemore and Ron Townson

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Billy Davis, Jr. talks about his favorite subjects in school

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Billy Davis, Jr. talks about musicians he looked up to as a teenager

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Billy Davis, Jr. talks about his grade school education

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Billy Davis, Jr. talks about his high school band, the Emeralds

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Billy Davis, Jr. talks about dropping out of high school

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Billy Davis, Jr. talks about his job and musical trajectory after dropping out of high school

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Billy Davis, Jr. talks about his decision to sing popular music

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Billy Davis, Jr. talks about developing his music and performance skills at the Havana Club in St. Louis, Missouri

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Billy Davis, Jr. describes being drafted into the U.S. Army

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Billy Davis, Jr. talks about being stationed at Fort Knox in Kentucky and the Merrell Barracks in Germany while serving in the U.S. Army

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Billy Davis, Jr. talks about playing music while in the U.S. Army

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Billy Davis, Jr. talks about performing at the Apollo Theatre and the events of 1963

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Billy Davis, Jr. talks about opening the Oriole nightclub in St. Louis, Missouri

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Billy Davis, Jr. talks about separating from his first wife

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Billy Davis, Jr. talks about meeting HistoryMaker Lamonte McLemore and moving to California

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Billy Davis, Jr. and Marilyn McCoo talk about forming the Versatiles with Ron Townson and HistoryMakers Lamonte McLemore and Florence LaRue

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Billy Davis, Jr. and Marilyn McCoo describe their singing style and the origin of The Versatiles' names

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Billy Davis, Jr. and Marilyn McCoo talk about the mentorship of Rene DeKnight

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Billy Davis, Jr. and Marilyn McCoo talk about The Versatiles' manager, Marc Gordon

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Billy Davis, Jr. and Marilyn McCoo talk about their first hit, 'Go Where You Wanna Go' and renaming The Versatiles as The 5th Dimension

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Billy Davis, Jr. and Marilyn McCoo talk about The 5th Dimension's first album and meeting songwriter Jimmy Webb

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Billy Davis, Jr. and Marilyn McCoo talk about the significance of The 5th Dimension's first album 'Up, Up and Away'

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Billy Davis, Jr. and Marilyn McCoo talk about The 5th Dimension's second album, 'The Magic Garden'

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Billy Davis, Jr. and Marilyn McCoo talk about working with Bones Howe on The 5th Dimension's second album, 'The Magic Garden;

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Billy Davis, Jr. and Marilyn McCoo talk about The 5th Dimension's television performances

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Billy Davis, Jr. and Marilyn McCoo talk about The 5th Dimension's album, "The Age of Aquarius"

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Billy Davis, Jr. and Marilyn McCoo talk about how they saw 'Hair' the musical on Broadway

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Billy Davis, Jr. and Marilyn McCoo talk about life on the road and falling in love with each other

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Billy Davis, Jr and Marilyn McCoo talk about the television special, 'The 5th Dimension: An Odyssey and the Cosmic Universe of Peter Max'

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Billy Davis, Jr. and Marilyn McCoo talk about 'One Less Bell to Answer' and 'Love's Lines, Angles and Rhymes'

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Billy Davis, Jr. and Marilyn McCoo talk about 'Wedding Bell Blues' and connecting with audiences

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Billy Davis, Jr. and Marilyn McCoo talk about their record contract and the 1971 television special, 'The 5th Dimension Travelling Sunshine Show'

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Billy Davis, Jr. and Marilyn McCoo talk about The 5th Dimension's contract with ABC Records

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Billy Davis, Jr. and Marilyn McCoo talk about leaving The 5th Dimension and recording the original group's final album

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Billy Davis, Jr. and Marilyn McCoo reflect on their last album with The 5th Dimension, 'Earthbound'

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Billy Davis, Jr. and Marilyn McCoo talk about their joint album and television show

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Billy Davis, Jr. and Marilyn McCoo talk about their second and third joint albums and their international success

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Marilyn McCoo talks about recording a solo album and hosting 'Solid Gold'

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Billy Davis, Jr. talks about recording a gospel album

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Marilyn McCoo talks about being cast on 'Days of Our Lives'

Tape: 7 Story: 9 - Billy Davis, Jr. and Marilyn McCoo describes performing for Pope Saint John Paul II and President George H.W. Bush

Tape: 7 Story: 10 - Billy Davis, Jr. and Marilyn McCoo talk about reuniting with The 5th Dimension in 1990

Tape: 7 Story: 11 - Billy Davis, Jr. and Marilyn McCoo talk about The 5th Dimension's star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame

Tape: 7 Story: 12 - Billy Davis, Jr. and Marilyn McCoo talk about their Christian faith

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Marilyn McCoo talks about winning a Grammy and performing on Broadway's 'Show Boat'

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Billy Davis, Jr. and Marilyn McCoo talk about going on tour and working with Jamie Foxx

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Billy Davis, Jr. and Marilyn McCoo talk about Davis' prostate cancer diagnosis

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - Billy Davis, Jr. and Marilyn McCoo talk about their book 'Up, Up and Away: How We Found Love, Faith, and Lasting Marriage in the Entertainment World'

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - Billy Davis, Jr. and Marilyn McCoo talk about their recent work and touring with Sir Cliff Richard

Tape: 8 Story: 6 - Billy Davis, Jr. and Marilyn McCoo talk about their legacy and their relationship

Tape: 8 Story: 7 - Billy Davis, Jr. and Marilyn McCoo talk about what they would do differently

Tape: 8 Story: 8 - Billy Davis, Jr. and Marilyn McCoo talk about their hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 9 Story: 1 - Billy Davis, Jr. talks about his theatre performances

Tape: 9 Story: 2 - Billy Davis, Jr. and Marilyn McCoo talk about Davis' son and their praise ministry

Tape: 9 Story: 3 - Billy Davis, Jr. and Marilyn McCoo talk about their community service in Los Angeles, California

Tape: 9 Story: 4 - Billy Davis, Jr. and Marilyn McCoo talk about their relationship with the original members of The 5th Dimension including HistoryMaker Florence LaRue

Tape: 9 Story: 5 - Billy Davis, Jr. and Marilyn McCoo describe how they want to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$4

DAStory

7$10

DATitle
Billy Davis, Jr. talks about the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood
Billy Davis, Jr. talks about meeting HistoryMaker Lamonte McLemore and moving to California
Transcript
I asked the same question of your wife [HM Marilyn McCoo], but what were some of the sights, and sounds, and smells of growing up?$$Well, I would, I would say the, the, I, I, I would say smells of, you know, what, what, in St. Louis [Missouri], you, you know, we, we, we--it was a steel mill. You could smell smokes, you know, the smells of, of steel burning. And 'cause that's what, it was the Scullin Steel was one of the major places where, where a lot men would work, and you would, you could, you could smell it, you know. And, and, and if you were fortunate enough to, to, to live in, in an area that, that wasn't deep in the city, that just had an area where there were trees, and, and, and, and, and, and, and birds, and, and, and the blue jays, and robins, and all those kind of birds, I mean cardinals. That's where the St. Louis Cardinals came from. (Unclear)--cardinal bird, you would see all of them in, in St. Louis, you know. And, and sights, it was just, just, just trains and, and things like that, you know, trucks. There was a lot of, lot of industry there.$$Okay, okay, now was there, was there a lot of music in, in your home?$$Oh yeah, yeah, yeah, it was a lot of music in the house. I mean, my sisters and, and, and, and me, we would sing. We would sing songs. We would sing songs, get together and, and, and harmonize. And I just, I know [HM] Marilyn [McCoo] talked about--we talked about it because we did the same thing in our family. And it was, it was beautiful, beautiful to be able to get together and sing because during those years you didn't have a lot of things to entertain ourselves with, not like they do today. But, but one, one--which I think is missing today because they need to be entertaining themselves with each other instead of with the, a lot of the stuff that they entertain themselves with. But it's brought the family closer together. We, we enjoyed each other. We couldn't wait to get together and sing and show off in front of each other. It was just, it was just a lot of fun. And yeah, so there was always music in the house. I remember listening to albums and old blues songs, you know, like I was, I was, I was a, I was a--[clearing throat]--excuse me--I was the type of kid that I loved all kind of music. I want, I wanted to, to--once I knew I could sing, I wanted to sing everything. And so I would get into, I would listen to jazz. I would listen to blues and, and Jimmy Reed, Muddy Waters, and, and I would listen to all those kind of guys, Memphis, Memphis Slim. And then, then on the other hand, I'd, I'd be listening to Snooky Lanson on the Lucky Strike Parade [Officially Your Hit Parade] and, and people like that. And, and, and then I would, I, I would, I remember my mother would, would take us to the opera out at Forest Park. And, and, and I remember the first time I went and experienced an opera. It blew my mind. You know, it was like wow, these people are on stage, and they're changing outfits. And it's, they're painting a picture, they're paint a picture for us of life and how all these went, what used to be years ago. I remember seeing the 'King and I' in the Forest Park on stage.$$So this is a big park in the middle of the city?$$In the, in the--Oak Forest--$$Yeah.$$--Park is one of your major, major parks in the United States. I mean it's world-known.$$And beautiful park.$$And beautiful park, and plus it's got a world-known zoo, you know. But they also had an opera house out there. And we would go out there and my God, I was just, I mean, to see the opera, it, it, it fascinated me. I mean I couldn't believe all this beauty and all this stuff--[clearing throat]--excuse me--was happening on stage. And, and it was, it was just, it was just, it was just I knew then that, that, that where I wanted to be, 'cause I didn't know if I--but I enjoyed opera. I still enjoy to this day, classical music. I, I, I, I'll tell you, I listen to everything, but, and I enjoy it all. But I never thought I would be an opera singer.$$Now St. Louis is one, but Houston [Texas]--(simultaneous)--$$$$--there's an opera in a park, and I can't think of too many other places that have an opera in the park. In fact, I can't think of any right now, but they were like, what, the Mooney's Theater out there and all that, you know, so--$$Mm-hmm.$$Yeah.$$Well, during those years I didn't know, I, I didn't know it was an opera in the park until we--that my mother [Norris Oldham Davis] took us. And once, once she took us out there, then I wanted to keep going because it interest me. It was the music, you know. And I don't what other parks had operas in 'em or, or nothin'. I never thought about it after that. But it's one of the things that stuck in my mind and my heart, that, that, that, that it was a part of the music that I would love, you know. And so that was a good experience for me for, for preparation for, for what I wanted to do in my life.$Now you left St. Louis [Missouri] in '65 [1965]. Now, did you, did you know your friends were out there, you know--$$Yeah.$$--[HM] Lamonte [McLemore] and--$$Yeah, well, well, Lamonte's brother, Donald, he was coming through St. Louis. And I had talked to him, and I had, I had called Lamonte and asked him, you know, if he knew anybody at Motown Records on the West Coast, and he said yes. He said I know the president on the, of the West Coast. I said wow, that's great. I said do you think you can get me a, a, an appointment with him. I said I wanna go, I wanna meet him, so I go see about getting with the company. Lamonte asked me, said well, can you sing? I said, I said yeah, yeah. I say, I said you get the appointment. I'll do the rest, you know, and so he did. And at that particular time, his brother was coming through St. Louis visiting some of the, his people. So that was my ride out to Los Angeles [California]. So Dunk came through--Donald--$$He actually drove, he drove back from L.A. [Los Angeles, California] and was going back, huh?$$Yeah, he drove--$$Yeah.$$--from L.A. coming to see his family. And then we got--he picked me up now on the way back and, and drove back to California. I drove with him--$$How, how--$$And--$$--how many hours is it from St. Louis to Los Angeles?$$Oh it's--$$Or how many days is it?$$It's about a day or so, or, or more. It's according to how long you wanna stay on the road, you know, 'cause we stopped in Denver [Colorado] and stayed overnight in Denver. And then we left Denver and came, came into L.A. the next day. But what, what happened was a, a, a, a, a crazy story happened because the night before I left to come to L.A. [Los Angeles, California], I played in a club with another friend of mine. His name is Jasper Thomas. Jasper used to be the drummer for Chuck Berry. So, so, but, but both of us were hitting the sauce at the time. And so we, we, we, we played, and, and, and when we finished the job that night, I know I was going to be going out to California the next day. So what happened is I had my guitar and my amp, and instead of--he, he packed his drums in the, in the trunk. Usually, I would have put my guitar and amp in the trunk of the car, but I put 'em in the backseat. And drinking, I, I didn't think about it. And so on the way home we decided that we was gon' stop and get some barbecue. So we stopped, and when we stopped somebody broke in the car and stole my amp and the, and, and, and my guitar that I was taking to California, 'cause that was gon' be my working tools. And so, what happened was, I came out of the barbecue place, and they got me home. And I opened the trunk, and I said hey, man, my guitar and my amp's not in (laughter)--so, it was, it was, in, it was in the car that we figured out, so. Anyway, I came on out to California anyway. But once I came out to California without a, without a, something to work with, I knew I had to get a job, you know. So I got a job when I came out there. And then once I got a job, I, I ended up buying another guitar and an amp, so, to start, to start--see, you buying what you need to get started again. Then I started playing in some clubs, yeah.$$Okay.$$And then wasn't long after that that Lamonte and I sat down and started talking about starting a group. But I, I, at the time, I didn't wanna start a group. We talked about it. I said Mack, I said you know, I'm out here looking for a contract. I said now, if we wanna do this for a hobby, that's fine, you know. I said 'cause I like group singing. I've always done group singing. I say but if anything happened with this, with, with this audition, you know, I'm gone, you know, so.

The Honorable Dwight Bush, Sr.

Bank executive and United States ambassador Dwight L. Bush, Sr. was born on February 4, 1957 in St. Louis, Missouri to Charlie and Jessie Bush. He was raised in East St. Louis, Illinois, and attended Clark Junior High School and East St. Louis High School. He graduated from Cornell University in 1979 with his B.A. degree in government and economics.

Upon graduation, Bush joined Chase Manhattan Bank as a trainee in the management development program, and went on to become the bank’s first African American managing director. His tenure at Chase included international corporate banking assignments in Latin America, Asia and the Middle East, and corporate finance and project finance in New York and Washington, D.C. In 1994, he was named vice president of corporate development and chief credit officer of Sallie Mae, where he served until 1997. From 1998 to 2006, Bush worked as a principal at Stuart Mill Capital, LLC; vice president and chief financial officer at SatoTravel Holdings, Inc.; and vice chairman at Enhanced Capital Partners, LLC.

In 2002, Bush founded D.L. Bush & Associates, a financial advisory and private investment firm located in Washington, D.C., where he serves as managing partner and president. Bush then helped establish Urban Trust Bank in 2004, and went on to serve as president and CEO of Urban Trust Bank, Urban Trust Holdings and president of UTB Education Finance, LLC from 2006 until 2008. On August 1, 2013, Bush was nominated by President Barack Obama to serve as the United States Ambassador to the Kingdom of Morocco; and, in March of 2014, the U.S. Senate confirmed the appointment.

Bush was appointed a director of EntreMed Inc. in 2004, and was named vice chairman in 2010. He has also served on the boards of the GAVI Alliance, Cornell University, The Vaccine Fund, ICBC Broadcast Holdings Inc., The Georgetown Day School, and The National Symphony Orchestra. He served on the boards of directors of Urban Trust Bank Holdings, UTB Education Finance, LLC, U.S. Education Finance, LLC, and Urban Cableworks. In addition, Bush was a director of JER Investors Trust Inc., and a member of The White House Fellows Selection Committee.

Bush is married to Antoinette Cook Bush, executive vice president and global head of government affairs at News Corp. They have two children: Dwight Bush, Jr. and Jacqueline Bush.

Dwight Bush was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on March 22, 2014.

Accession Number

A2014.116

Sex

Male

Interview Date

3/22/2014

Last Name

Bush

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Lamar

Schools

Cornell University

East St. Louis High School

Clark Junior High School

Park Elementary School

First Name

Dwight

Birth City, State, Country

St. Louis

HM ID

BUS04

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Missouri

Favorite Vacation Destination

Casa de Campo, Dominican Republic

Favorite Quote

Pride Breeds Determination And Determination Breeds Pride.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

2/4/1957

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Fried Chicken

Short Description

Bank executive and united states ambassador The Honorable Dwight Bush, Sr. (1957 - ) was the first African American managing director at Chase Manhattan Bank. He served as vice president of corporate development at Sallie Mae, president and CEO of the Urban Trust Bank, and president of D.L. Bush & Associates. He was named U.S. Ambassador to Morocco in 2014.

Employment

Department of State

D. L. Bush & Associates

Urban Trust Bank

Stuart Mill Capital

Sato Travel

SLM Corp

Chase Manhattan Bank

Favorite Color

Red

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of The Honorable Dwight Bush, Sr.'s interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - The Honorable Dwight Bush, Sr. lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - The Honorable Dwight Bush, Sr. describes his mother's family background and personality

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - The Honorable Dwight Bush, Sr. describes his father's career and personality

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - The Honorable Dwight Bush, Sr. recalls how his parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - The Honorable Dwight Bush, Sr. lists his siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - The Honorable Dwight Bush, Sr. describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - The Honorable Dwight Bush, Sr. remembers his early home life

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - The Honorable Dwight Bush, Sr. describes the prominent figures from East St. Louis, Illinois

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - The Honorable Dwight Bush, Sr. remembers his neighborhood in East St. Louis, Illinois

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - The Honorable Dwight Bush, Sr. describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - The Honorable Dwight Bush, Sr. talks about his parents' views on parenting

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - The Honorable Dwight Bush, Sr. describes his parents' religious faith

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - The Honorable Dwight Bush, Sr. talks about his parents' work ethic

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - The Honorable Dwight Bush, Sr. describes his early personality

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - The Honorable Dwight Bush, Sr. describes his early schooling

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - The Honorable Dwight Bush, Sr. describes his early mentors and career aspirations

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - The Honorable Dwight Bush, Sr. recalls his decision to attend Cornell University in Ithaca, New York

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - The Honorable Dwight Bush, Sr. talks about his extracurricular activities

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - The Honorable Dwight Bush, Sr. remembers his mentors

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - The Honorable Dwight Bush, Sr. talks about the impact of the Vietnam War

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - The Honorable Dwight Bush, Sr. remembers his early work experiences

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - The Honorable Dwight Bush, Sr. describes the diverse student body at Cornell University in Ithaca, New York

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - The Honorable Dwight Bush, Sr. describes his initial challenges at Cornell University in Ithaca, New York

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - The Honorable Dwight Bush, Sr. recalls his early career aspirations

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - The Honorable Dwight Bush, Sr. describes his work experiences during college

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - The Honorable Dwight Bush, Sr. remembers his notable classmates at Cornell University

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - The Honorable Dwight Bush, Sr. recalls entering the training program at Chase Manhattan Bank

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - The Honorable Dwight Bush, Sr. describes the training program at Chase Manhattan Bank, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - The Honorable Dwight Bush, Sr. remembers his college graduation

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - The Honorable Dwight Bush, Sr. describes the training program at Chase Manhattan Bank, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - The Honorable Dwight Bush, Sr. talks about his first full time position at Chase Manhattan Bank

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - The Honorable Dwight Bush, Sr. recalls working in Puerto Rico for Chase Manhattan Bank

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - The Honorable Dwight Bush, Sr. recalls his colleagues in the banking industry

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - The Honorable Dwight Bush, Sr. reflects upon his initial success at Chase Manhattan Bank

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - The Honorable Dwight Bush, Sr. remembers meeting his wife

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - The Honorable Dwight Bush, Sr. shares a story from his honeymoon

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - The Honorable Dwight Bush, Sr. recalls commuting between New York City and Washington, D.C.

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - The Honorable Dwight Bush, Sr. recalls resigning from Chase Manhattan Bank

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - The Honorable Dwight Bush, Sr. talks about joining the SLM Corporation

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - The Honorable Dwight Bush, Sr. recalls founding Stuart Mill Capital, Inc.

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - The Honorable Dwight Bush, Sr. talks about the acquisition of Sato Travel

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - The Honorable Dwight Bush, Sr. talks about his work in corporate restructuring

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - The Honorable Dwight Bush, Sr. recalls his efforts to acquire a bank

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - The Honorable Dwight Bush, Sr. remembers acquiring Urban Trust Bank

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - The Honorable Dwight Bush, Sr. talks about the urban banking market

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - The Honorable Dwight Bush, Sr. reflects upon the Community Reinvestment Act of 1977

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - The Honorable Dwight Bush, Sr. recalls joining the board of Cornell University

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - The Honorable Dwight Bush, Sr. talks about the higher education system in the United States

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - The Honorable Dwight Bush, Sr. describes his relationship with his stepfather-in-law, Vernon E. Jordan, Jr.

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - The Honorable Dwight Bush, Sr. recalls joining the board of Xavier University of Louisiana

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - The Honorable Dwight Bush, Sr. describes Norman Francis

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - The Honorable Dwight Bush, Sr. talks about his appointment as ambassador to Morocco, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - The Honorable Dwight Bush, Sr. talks about his appointment as ambassador to Morocco, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - The Honorable Dwight Bush, Sr. describes his children

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - The Honorable Dwight Bush, Sr. talks about his extended family

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - The Honorable Dwight Bush, Sr. describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - The Honorable Dwight Bush, Sr. reflects upon his generation's legacy

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - The Honorable Dwight Bush, Sr. reflects upon his marriage to Antoinette Cook Bush

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - The Honorable Dwight Bush, Sr. reflects upon his legacy

DASession

1$1

DATape

5$6

DAStory

2$4

DATitle
The Honorable Dwight Bush, Sr. recalls his efforts to acquire a bank
The Honorable Dwight Bush, Sr. talks about his appointment as ambassador to Morocco, pt. 2
Transcript
So you have these two--I was just trying to remember okay--these two things back to back that have tremendous up- upside, well realized upside potential, I mean tremendous, tenfold (laughter) or more. And so, after that what do you, what do you do after that because that's, that's--$$So, after Sato [Sato Travel; CWTSato Travel], I always have been interested in owning my own bank, because I felt that urban consumers still weren't fully participating in the banking system and therefore they weren't creating the sort of wealth that other families were creating, and so at that point, I have the capacity to start to think about acquiring a bank and so I left Stuart Mill Capital [Stuart Mill Capital, Inc., Falls Church, Virginia] in two thousand- the latter in 2003, yeah, and I spent my time on my advisory work [D.L. Bush & Associates, LLC, Washington, D.C.] and also trying to identify a bank to purchase and Independence Federal in Washington, D.C. was in financial trouble and I was interested in buying Independence Federal, and as I was looking at it myself, it's announced that Bob Johnson [Robert L. Johnson] is interested in buying Independence Federal Savings and Loan [Independence Federal Savings and Association; Independence Federal Savings Bank, Washington, D.C.], and I had known Bob for probably about eight years at that point, both through my wife, Toni's [Antoinette Cook Bush] engagement as his lawyer on certain transactions, and socially around Washington, D.C., and so I called Bob and I said, "Bob, we should talk because I'm interested in buying Independence." And he said, "That's great. We should talk, because I don't know what we would do with it, but I do think that this bank has historically served the needs of African Americans in this community and if we can get a hold of it, we can use that as a platform to support this community more broadly," and so we got together and we talked about buying Independence, and for a variety of reasons, we could not find a way to acquire it, but in the process of considering Independence, we concluded that there was a space for a nationwide African American controlled financial institution that would be looking to meet the core financial service needs of urban based consumers, whether in Washington, D.C., or Philadelphia [Pennsylvania] or Detroit [Michigan] or L.A. [Los Angeles, California], because people need access to credit, people need the process of having access to credit which is having things like bank accounts, et cetera. We know that homeowners, if you own a home, your net worth in America is about three hundred thousand dollars. If you don't, your net worth is about thirty-five thousand dollars in America and a disproportionate part of our population was not making that wealth creation effort.$So the appointment is until the president [HistoryMaker President Barack Obama] serves, right? At the end of the term. How long is the appointment?$$So, your, your appointment is--two things happen. You serve at the pleasure of the president and typically what you would do is you will serve until the end of the term. If the party in power continues in power, you remain in your position until either you choose to leave or the new administration chooses to replace you. If there's a change in the party of the president, you submit your resignation on Inauguration Day, and they determine whether they want to keep you around or not, and, again there are situations in which you are asked to continue until they find a replacement, or you could, you stay longer. But, what I am prepared to do is to be in this position for the next three and a half years and do all I can to make sure that our relationship with the Moroccans is to our mutual benefit and that the mission and the vision and the values of our president are manifested in my behaviors every day.$$It's a country with a lot of, you know, very rich history, topography--$$Yeah.$$--there is a lot going on in neighboring countries.$$Yes, yeah. So, many people ask me the question, "Well did you choose Morocco?" And, the answer is unequivocally yes. It was my first choice and it was my first choice for several reasons. Number one, I wanted to be in a place where I could have an impact and where there are important things, significant things going on. So, Morocco has been, Morocco was the first country to recognize the United States in 1777. Morocco is the furthest point west that the Roman Empire went. When you think of history and the trade routes, there were two trade routes from Africa to Europe, either through Carthage, Tunisia, or through Morocco. Morocco has a progressive Islamic government. When the Jews left Spain to come to Morocco, it was a large, one of the largest groups of Jewish people any place. In fact, Morocco represents the third largest point of movement of Jewish people to Israel after Poland and Russia. Morocco was the third. It has a history of inclusiveness unlike, and progressiveness, that you don't see in many neighboring countries. It is a beautiful country with a beautiful history with beautiful people and I'm looking forward to serving them.$$That's wonderful. Oh, congratulations on that (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) Um-hm.

Charles Thomas

Broadcast journalist Charles Thomas was born on May 3, 1951 in Webster Groves, Missouri to Clarence and Oneida Thomas. He grew up in the St. Louis area and graduated with his B.A. degree from the University of Missouri’s School of Journalism in 1973.

Upon graduation, Thomas was hired as a broadcast journalist, and worked as a reporter in Kansas City, Missouri before being hired at KGO-TV in San Francisco, California in 1978. In 1982, he was hired as a reporter for WCAU-TV in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Then, in 1986, Thomas joined WTAF-TV as a general assignment reporter until 1988, when he joined the ABC News bureau in St. Louis, Missouri as a Midwest correspondent. Thomas was then hired as a general assignment reporter by ABC 7 News in Chicago in 1991.

Thomas has worked for ABC 7 on the O.J. Simpson trials, the Oklahoma City bombing, the Rodney King trials, and the Chicago White Sox 2005 World Series Championship. He has reported from Europe and Asia for ABC 7, and, in 2006, accompanied then U.S. Senator Barack Obama to Africa. In all, Thomas has traveled to every state in the United States and to five continents during his journalism career. In 2009, he was promoted to the position of political reporter at ABC 7.

Thomas has won two Emmy Awards for reporting: one in 1983, and another in 1992. He has been a member of Alpha Phi Alpha since 1969.

Thomas and his wife Maria live in downtown Chicago. They are the parents of two adult sons and one adult daughter.

Charles Thomas was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on January 24, 2014.

Accession Number

A2014.029

Sex

Male

Interview Date

1/24/2014 |and| 1/25/2014

Last Name

Thomas

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Homer

Schools

Frederick Douglass High School

Steger Junior High School

Webster Groves High School

University of Missouri

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Charles

Birth City, State, Country

St. Louis

HM ID

THO21

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Missouri

Favorite Vacation Destination

Caribbean

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Illinois

Birth Date

5/3/1951

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Chicago

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Fish

Short Description

Broadcast journalist Charles Thomas (1951 - ) has been a reporter for Chicago’s ABC 7 News for over twenty years. He was named ABC 7’s political reporter in 2009.

Employment

WLS TV

ABC News

WTKR TV

WCAU TV

KGO TV

KCMO TV

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Charles Thomas' interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Charles Thomas lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Charles Thomas describes his maternal family background, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Charles Thomas describes his maternal family background, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Charles Thomas describes his mother's childhood in St. Louis, Missouri

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Charles Thomas describes his mother

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Charles Thomas describes his paternal great-grandfather

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Charles Thomas describes his paternal grandfather

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Charles Thomas describes his paternal grandmother

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Charles Thomas talks about his maternal family ancestry and his father's limited understanding of race and ethnicity

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Charles Thomas describes his father's background, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Charles Thomas describes how his parents met

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Charles Thomas describes which parent he takes after most

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Charles Thomas describes his siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Charles Thomas describes growing up in Webster Grove, St. Louis, Missouri surrounded by his extended family

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Charles Thomas describes his father's background, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Charles Thomas talks about his father's family life during the Great Depression

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Charles Thomas talks about his relationship with his paternal aunts and uncles

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Charles Thomas describes the sights, sounds and smells of Webster Groves, Missouri, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Charles Thomas remembers walking to high school in Webster Groves, Missouri

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Charles Thomas describes the sights, sounds and smells of Webster Groves, Missouri, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Charles Thomas talks about his first job delivering the St. Louis Argus, Ebony magazine and Jet magazine to black communities in Webster Groves

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Charles Thomas remembers starting his first newspaper, The Hotline, in elementary school

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Charles Thomas talks about publishing The Dark Side, a paper serving Webster Groves High School's black community

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Charles Thomas remembers organizing a walkout at Webster Groves High School in protest of a no-smoking policy

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Charles Thomas describes Webster Groves, Missouri's socioeconomic demographic and how he used The Dark Side to influence a student government election

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Charles Thomas remembers being arrested for entering a Black Nationalist float in the Webster Groves Independence Day parade

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Charles Thomas describes starring in his high school production of 'A Raisin in the Sun,' and developing an interest in the dramatic arts

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Charles Thomas talks about being accepted into the University of Missouri in Columbia, Missouri and beginning his studies in the summer of 1969

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Charles Thomas remembers his fifth grade teacher Henry Givens, former president of Harris-Stowe State University in St. Louis, Missouri

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Charles Thomas describes the aftermath in St. Louis, Missouri following the assassination of Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Charles Thomas describes the aftermath in St. Louis, Missouri following the assassination of Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Charles Thomas describes his experience as an undergraduate student at the University of Missouri in Columbia, Missouri

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Charles Thomas talks about transferring to Forest Park Community College in St. Louis, Missouri

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Charles Thomas describes transferring back to the University of Missouri and declaring a journalism major

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Charles Thomas remembers African American broadcast journalists in the 1960s

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Charles Thomas talks about hosting a top forty radio station show as an undergraduate student at the University of Missouri in Columbia, Missouri

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Charles Thomas recalls interviewing for his first full-time job in radio at KCMO Talk Radio out of Kansas City, Missouri

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Charles Thomas talks about television reporting for KCMO-TV and covering the 1976 Republican National Convention

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Charles Thomas talks about meeting his wife

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Charles Thomas describes going to KGO-TV in San Francisco, California

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - Charles Thomas describes covering a story about a shooter targeting interracial couples and being fired from KGO-TV, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Charles Thomas describes covering a story about a shooter targeting interracial couples and being fired from KGO TV, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Charles Thomas describes how he got to WCAU-TV in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Charles Thomas remembers reporting a story about a BDSM-practicing couple for KGO-TV in San Francisco, California

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Charles Thomas describes his experience as a reporter for WCAU-TV in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Charles Thomas talks about the 1985 MOVE bombing and police riot in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Charles Thomas describes his experience as a reporter for WCAU-TV in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Charles Thomas talks about briefly becoming a weekend anchor person at WTAF-TV and developing Thomas Productions freelance reporting company

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Charles Thomas describes how he got to ABC network

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Charles Thomas talks about influential black figures in journalism, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Charles Thomas talks about influential black figures in journalism, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 11 - Charles Thomas talks about his limited involvement in the National Association of Black Journalists

Tape: 5 Story: 12 - Charles Thomas talks about HistoryMaker Vernon Jarrett's legacy in journalism

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Slating of Charles Thomas' interview, session two

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Charles Thomas describes joining the ABC News Midwest bureau as a national correspondent in 1988

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Charles Thomas talks about his father's ALS diagnosis

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Charles Thomas talks about buying a house in the Central West End neighborhood of St. Louis, Missouri

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Charles Thomas talks about life lessons he learned from his father

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Charles Thomas describes his tenure as an ABC News national correspondent

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Charles Thomas talks about other African American journalists at ABC News network during his tenure

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Charles Thomas talks about the 1989 ABC News special 'Black in White America'

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Charles Thomas remembers a production meeting of HistoryMaker Carole Simpson and talks about codeswitching

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Charles Thomas talks about diversity and programming in network television

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Charles Thomas describes his coverage of the Velvet Revolution in Europe in 1989

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Charles Thomas describes his observations of anti-Semitism on-assignment in Europe

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Charles Thomas describes how his duties as national correspondent for the ABC network adversely affected his family life

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Charles Thomas talks about choosing not to relocate to Los Angeles, California bureau

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Charles Thomas talks about joining WLS-TV in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Charles Thomas talks about his family's adjustment to relocating to Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Charles Thomas describes an aggressive climate of political reporting in Chicago, Illinois in the 1980s and 1990s

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Charles Thomas talks about his coverage of the Rodney King trial and riots in Los Angeles, California in 1992

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Charles Thomas talks about his coverage of the O.J. Simpson investigation and trial in 1994, pt. 1

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - Charles Thomas talks about his coverage of the O.J. Simpson investigation and trial in 1994, pt. 2

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - Charles Thomas remembers doing an investigative report on alcoholism in Kansas City, Missouri

Tape: 8 Story: 6 - Charles Thomas describes covering homicides and gang activity in Chicago, Illinois in the 1990s

Tape: 8 Story: 7 - Charles Thomas critiques former Mayor Richard M. Daley's administration and its relationship to black communities in Chicago, Illinois, pt. 1

Tape: 9 Story: 1 - Charles Thomas critiques former Mayor Richard M. Daley's administration and its relationship to black communities in Chicago, Illinois, pt. 2

Tape: 9 Story: 2 - Charles Thomas remembers the 2003 Duff scandal involving Mayor Richard M. Daley's administration

Tape: 9 Story: 3 - Charles Thomas talks about former Chicago mayor Harold Washington's legacy

Tape: 9 Story: 4 - Charles Thomas talks about contemporary race relations in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 9 Story: 5 - Charles Thomas describes his plans for the next phase of his career

Tape: 9 Story: 6 - Charles Thomas describes winning an Emmy for coverage of the 1983 recession in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, pt. 1

Tape: 9 Story: 7 - Charles Thomas describes winning an Emmy for coverage of the 1983 recession in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, pt. 2

Tape: 9 Story: 8 - Charles Thomas talks about his preference for reporting over anchoring

Tape: 9 Story: 9 - Charles Thomas considers what he would have done differently in his life

Tape: 9 Story: 10 - Charles Thomas describes his hopes and concerns for contemporary journalists of color

Tape: 10 Story: 1 - Charles Thomas reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 10 Story: 2 - Charles Thomas lists his favorite political reporters

Tape: 10 Story: 3 - Charles Thomas talks about Chicago politicians he's developed strong ties with, pt. 1

Tape: 10 Story: 4 - Charles Thomas talks about Chicago politicians he's developed strong ties with, pt. 2

Tape: 10 Story: 5 - Charles Thomas remembers meeting with HistoryMaker President Barack Obama while covering Rahm Emanuel's departure as chief of staff

Tape: 10 Story: 6 - Charles Thomas talks about his family

Tape: 10 Story: 7 - Charles Thomas describes traveling with HistoryMaker President Barack Obama on his trip to Kenya in 2006

Tape: 10 Story: 8 - Charles Thomas describes how he would like to be remembered

DASession

1$2

DATape

3$6

DAStory

3$8

DATitle
Charles Thomas remembers starting his first newspaper, The Hotline, in elementary school
Charles Thomas talks about the 1989 ABC News special 'Black in White America'
Transcript
By the time I got to junior high school, I was in eighth grade, yeah, and I was actually--because I had some pretty strong, I had good grades at the all-black elementary school that I went to. And I had some pretty strong language skills, as I've told you, from my mom [Oneida Marie Franklin Thomas]. And I read a lot. So they put me in an advanced class. And so I was in there with these pretty much, well-off, you know, white kids. It was myself and another black kid who I know today. He became an attorney later in life, but he was my good buddy in there. And it was just us, these two black boys and all these other white kids.$$So this is about 1964 or so?$$This would be '63 [1964], '64 [1964], '64 [1964], yeah. So we would be in this class, and they--we would take French. And it was an advanced class. It was an advanced section. But I can remember starting a newspaper (laughter). I started typing 'cause we had typing too. We took typing. And I can remember typing a little newspaper. I called it The Hotline. I mean I'm in eighth grade, man. And all I would do in The Hotline was I was, you know, this pre-pubescent kid. And I was basically flirting with the girls, with this Hotline. And I would have a cartoon in there. And I would talk about who was cute and who was liking on who and all this. And I'd write this stuff. Kids loved it. And they would pass it around. Of course, I would get in trouble because I would spend my time at home not necessarily doing all of my homework, but I would be on this typewriter that we had at home. And I would have mimeograph or these carbon copies (laughter), real carbon copies. And I would maybe make three copies of a page. And I would make it, and then I would staple it together, and they'd--kids would pass it around. They loved The Hotline, man. But the school made me stop doing it. But I can remember The Hotline. It was nice. I mean I had a nice header on it, Hotline, and then I would have a cartoon that I would draw. And I'd have a little sports section.$$Now, was there a reason the school made you stop? That was, I mean--(simultaneous)--$$Yeah, because they found it disruptive. And I wasn't talking about stuff. I was talking about who was cute and who was liking on who and, you know. And I remember I had a little, I had a little--and this came from Jet, I'm sure, I had Fox of the Week (laughter). Whichever girl I thought was really hot, she was Fox of the Week. They didn't like that, and, man, this is 1964, man, and you know, they didn't go for all that, man. So they stopped me from doing it, but that was my first venture into publishing.$The reason they [ABC News] set up a bureau in St. Louis [Missouri] is because they could use nonunion technical crews in St. Louis where they couldn't use 'em in Chicago [Illinois].$$That's right. (Unclear)--(simultaneous)--$$So they moved the operation, enough of the operation to St. Louis so that they could use these cheaper technical people. But that's another story all unto itself. You need to do a HistoryMaker about ABC News to do that, but that's why I was in St. Louis. And that's why they moved so much of the operation down there. But they did, in 1989, I think they were under some question about, "How come y'all don't have more black people working here?" I think people were asking ABC News that because they really didn't. So what they did, they decided they were gonna do a revolutionary program called 'Black in White America.' And this program would take a look at the status of black people in America in 1989. And the principal correspondents on the piece would be [HM] Carole Simpson, George Strait and Charles Thomas. And I remember my role, my part of the piece was to live in a Chicago housing project and basically tell the story, having lived there. And I lived in a CHA [Chicago Housing Authority] development at, around 61st [Street] and Wabash [Avenue], with a family, and basically, day-to-day. And I interviewed members of the family and we talked, and I told the story--told their story. And it was a great program. It, the executive producer on the program was Ray Nunn. Callie, I can't--why don't I remember her name? Is it Crosby maybe. I think it's Crosby [sic, HM Callie Crossley]. She was one of the producers, field producers. I think she worked with Carol. A brother named Anthony Mason, not Anthony Mason. Was it--yeah, it was, Mason is his last name. He produced for George, and you know the sister that did mine, she actually grew up in St. Louis. I can't remember her name, but anyway, the document is out there, 'Black in White America.' You probably can get a tape of it somewhere if you ever wanted to watch it. But we did this show, and it, and I think we did the broadcast, an hour-long documentary from nine [o'clock] to ten [o'clock], at least in the Midwest, ten [o'clock] to eleven [o'clock] on the East Coast. And we did 'Nightline,' after it. All of us were in the studio talking to Ted [Koppel] about our experiences, and what this program meant. It was, it had to be the highlight of what I did at ABC News. But, you know, I never watched the program. I still--till this day, twenty-four years later, I never watched-twenty-five years later now, I never watched the show.$$Okay,--(simultaneous)--$$'Cause it's just something I never did. I, to do it was so exhausting, I didn't even--I might watch it at one point in the future. And I heard it was good. I won awards, but I'm not that kind of guy. I'm not into awards and I'm not into, you know, seeing what a great job I did. I've never done that.$$So that means too that you didn't--now, you didn't see the other segments, right, 'cause you weren't in those. But you know the one that you were in, but all the footage you shot, didn't necessarily make the show.$$Yeah, I wrote it. I wrote it--$$Okay.$$--so I knew what was in my segment.$$Okay.$$And I kind of knew what was in Carole's segments and in George's segment because we talked a lot about what we were doing. I think George's segment had to do with the Tuskegee Airmen. He told that story, and I think that Carole did a story about self-image, with dolls and such and who chose the black doll and who chose the white doll.$$The Kenneth Clark--$$Yeah, the Kenneth [and Mamie] Clark experiment. That actually had been done by CBS in a White Paper [sic, 'NBC White Paper'] some time, decades earlier. I was always a little shaky about that 'cause I said, hey, I've seen this before. Charles Kuralt or somebody did this--$$That's right--$$--a long time ago. But, you know, she did it. And she did it well. And the story needed to be told again 'cause I think CBS did it in the '60s [1960s]. She did it in the '80s [1980s], and you know what? There wasn't that much difference in terms of what she found, which I thought was something that needed to be documented.