The Nation’s Largest African American Video Oral History Collection Mobile search icon Mobile close search icon

Search Results

Advanced Biography Search
Mobile navigation icon Close mobile navigation icon

city

Lorna Simpson

Photographer Lorna Simpson was born on August 13, 1960, in Brooklyn, New York to Elian and Eleanor Simpson. She graduated from the High School of Art and Design in Manhattan; and earned her B.F.A. degree in photography from the School of Visual Arts in New York City in 1983, and her M.F.A. degree in visual arts from the University of California, San Diego in 1985.

Simpson held her first solo exhibit in 1986 at the Just Above Midtown Gallery in New York. She went on to form a partnership with the Josh Baer Gallery in 1989; and, in 1990, she exhibited at the Museum of Modern Art as part of the Projects 23 exhibit series. Simpson’s 1992 solo exhibit Lorna Simpson: For the Sake of the Viewer was displayed at the Museum of Contemporary Art in Chicago. She also had a series of solo shows at both the Sean Kelly Gallery and Salon 94 in Manhattan. In 1996, Simpson served as artist-in-residence at the Wexner Center for the Arts in Columbus, Ohio, where she developed her first film piece Interior/Exterior, Full/Empty. In 2013, Simpson became the artist-in-residence at the Addison Gallery of American Art in Andover, Massachusetts, and held an exhibition of drawings entitled Lorna Simpson: Works on Paper at the Aspen Museum in Aspen, Colorado.

Simpson’s photographic work includes The Waterbearer, Necklines, 1978-1988, Wigs, the “Public Sex” series, Photo Booth, and 1957-2009; and her film work includes Interior/Exterior, Full/Empty, Call Waiting, Duet, 31, and Chess. Simpson’s work has been published in several exhibit catalogues, including: Untitled 54 (The Friends of Photography): Lorna Simpson, Lorna Simpson: For the Sake of the Viewer, Lorna Simpson: Interior/Exterior, Full/Empty, Lorna Simpson, and Lorna Simpson: Works on Paper. Her work has also been displayed in museums around the world, including the Guggenheim Museum, Irish Museum of Modern Art, Consejo Nacional Para la Cultura y las Artes, the Studio Museum in Harlem, Jeu De Paume, and the Whitney Museum of American Art. Simpson’s work is included in the collections of the Museum of Modern Art, the Museum of Contemporary Art, and the Whitney Museum of American Art, among others.

Simpson and her husband, photographer James Casebere, have one child named Zora.

Lorna Simpson was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on December 13, 2016.

Accession Number

A2016.126

Sex

Female

Interview Date

12/13/2016

Last Name

Simpson

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Occupation
Organizations
Schools

High School of Art and Design

School of Visual Arts

University of California, San Diego

First Name

Lorna

Birth City, State, Country

Brooklyn

HM ID

SIM13

Favorite Season

Summer

State

New York

Favorite Vacation Destination

Turks and Caicos

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Birth Date

8/13/1960

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New York

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Miso soup

Short Description

Photographer Lorna Simpson (1960 - ) was known for several of her photographic works including The Waterbearer, Necklines, and 1978-1988, among others. Simpson’s work is included in the collections of the Museum of Modern Art; the Museum of Contemporary Art; and the Whitney Museum of American Art.

Employment

Jamaican Art Center

Josh Baer Gallery

Wexner Center for the Arts

Addison Gallery of American Art

American Federation of the Arts

Favorite Color

Blue

Isisara Bey

Corporate entertainment executive and event producer Isisara Bey was born on July 18, 1953 in Brooklyn, New York to Shirley and Eustace Jones of Guyana. She graduated from the Academy of St. Joseph in Brentwood, New York with honors in 1970. Bey earned her B.A. degree in theater in 1976 and her M.A. degree in media communications in 1980, both from Antioch University.

Bey’s career began as an on-air personality for WEAA.FM at Morgan State University in Baltimore, Maryland. She then worked as an award-winning news writer and producer for WJZ-TV. In 1988, Bey began working at Sony Pictures Entertainment in Los Angeles, California as a management associate. She was promoted to director of corporate affairs in 1992, later becoming the senior director. She then transferred to Sony Music Entertainment in New York City as vice president, corporate affairs. She retired from the position in 2007, and became the vice president of programs for the non-profit organization, Count Me in For Women’s Economic Independence. She also founded her own consulting company, Journey Agent Productions, serving as a keynote speaker, live events producer and workshop facilitator. Her U.S. and international clients included the Institute for Veterans and Military Families, the Apollo Theater, New York Public Radio, American Society of Transplantation, New Jersey Performing Arts Center, Odyssey Media Business Women’s Retreat, Association of Southeast Asian Nations Women of the World (WOW) Festival, Vital Voices and Pathways to Prosperity. She served as the artistic director of the March on Washington Film Festival in Washington, D.C. since 2014.

Bey served on the Congressional Black Caucus Foundation board, and organized the first Congressional Tri-Caucus retreats of Black, Hispanic, and Asian & Pacific Islander members of Congress. Bey also served on the boards of the National Book Foundation, Tony Bennett’s Exploring the Arts Foundation, Rhythm & Blues Foundation and the e-Women Network Advisory Council.

As a news producer for WJZ-TV, Bey received the National Unity Award for reporting on social issues and Maryland’s Associated Press award for best investigative/documentary. She was also awarded the Outstanding Radio, Producer, Short Form award from Associated Press.

Bey has one daughter named Makara Bey.

Isisara Bey was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on August 29, 2016.

Accession Number

A2016.013

Sex

Female

Interview Date

8/29/2016

Last Name

Bey

Maker Category
Marital Status

Widow

Schools

St. Peter Claver Elementary

St. Pascal Baylon School

Academy of St. Joseph

University of Connecticut

Antioch College

First Name

Isisara

Birth City, State, Country

Brooklyn

HM ID

BEY03

Favorite Season

Summer

State

New York

Favorite Vacation Destination

Someplace New

Favorite Quote

The Rest Of My Life Is The Best Of My Life.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Interview Description
Birth Date

7/18/1953

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New York

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Curry

Short Description

Corporate entertainment executive and event producer Isisara Bey (1953 - ) worked as the director of corporate affairs of Sony Pictures Entertainment and the V.P. of corporate affairs at Sony Music Entertainment. She also founded the business consulting agency Journey Agent Productions.

Employment

WEAA.FM

WJZ-TV

Sony Pictures Entertainment

Sony Music Entertainment

Count Me In for Women's Economic Independence

Journey Agent Productions

March on Washington Film Festival

Favorite Color

Orange and Amber

Timing Pairs
0,0:495,7:1188,80:5346,185:9405,262:14830,318:15414,329:16582,359:19721,419:20086,425:21254,444:21619,450:22203,459:22787,468:23882,486:26864,500:27408,511:28924,523:30867,620:32073,642:32408,648:36428,744:36830,751:37232,759:48120,902:48840,914:49480,923:52600,1010:59059,1101:65300,1190:66630,1219:67820,1249:68100,1254:68450,1260:73980,1416:74400,1423:74680,1429:75240,1440:75590,1446:77340,1483:77690,1489:82806,1509:84531,1555:85014,1563:88982,1592:89372,1598:89996,1610:90464,1618:90776,1623:93038,1659:93350,1664:94286,1680:96782,1736:97328,1744:99902,1788:100292,1794:100682,1800:100994,1805:105648,1828:106028,1834:106864,1858:107168,1863:107472,1868:109068,1897:109600,1906:111044,1930:111500,1937:111880,1943:113172,1978:113932,1991:114996,2019:115908,2034:123850,2102:124810,2116:125210,2122:125610,2128:126090,2140:126490,2146:127290,2162:128010,2172:131050,2229:132090,2245:132490,2252:136466,2311:137130,2332:137628,2340:139288,2374:139620,2379:143336,2415:144466,2436:148968,2499:149616,2514:150264,2524:151272,2541:153864,2592:154656,2604:156384,2635:156888,2643:157752,2661:161760,2687:162180,2695:162530,2702:162810,2707:163300,2716:163860,2725:164350,2734:164840,2746:165820,2768:166310,2776:166590,2781:170802,2829:173096,2865:173392,2870:173836,2877:174206,2883:177462,2961:178942,2997:179460,3006:181828,3062:188334,3128:188674,3134:189150,3143:196472,3225:197053,3233:197634,3242:198381,3254:198713,3259:202155,3272:202439,3277:203078,3287:204711,3314:205634,3338:206344,3352:207977,3381:208829,3396:209965,3416:210320,3422:210746,3430:212876,3479:213160,3484:214580,3515:215077,3523:220698,3560:224422,3618:226018,3645:226702,3659:228298,3688:228754,3695:229438,3711:230198,3723:230882,3734:234130,3740$0,0:200,3:800,11:1700,23:2600,40:3200,48:5700,83:7310,89:8070,98:11648,166:13830,180:14322,185:16010,196:16972,217:17638,231:18230,246:18526,253:21220,269:21640,275:22732,293:23572,304:24076,312:24496,318:24832,323:25756,337:29284,415:29620,420:33568,484:34156,492:34660,499:43949,607:44872,621:50808,685:51684,701:52633,769:52998,775:54312,797:55115,810:55699,820:56356,830:57159,845:63522,901:64138,909:65470,920:66915,941:68445,963:68955,973:71080,1003:72100,1017:75075,1077:75415,1082:76265,1097:83266,1149:85122,1214:90750,1310:91205,1319:91465,1324:93025,1360:97030,1391:97714,1409:99234,1442:100450,1474:100754,1479:102578,1515:110416,1610:112726,1663:113342,1672:113958,1686:114728,1698:118492,1726:119113,1738:119665,1747:121183,1811:121597,1818:123861,1828:124644,1838:125166,1845:126036,1858:126558,1865:127689,1882:133530,1928:134635,1941:135315,1951:135740,1957:136505,1968:136845,1973:140886,2014:141922,2036:143254,2077:143772,2085:149334,2179:150022,2190:152688,2206:154588,2233:159084,2281:159876,2297:160404,2307:160668,2312:160998,2318:162582,2343:163044,2351:163902,2370:164166,2375:164430,2380:164826,2387:165750,2407:166278,2417:166740,2426:167400,2438:167862,2446:169644,2480:173630,2494:175844,2523:176664,2534:177730,2548:178468,2558:179288,2570:179780,2577:181420,2600:185577,2613:185990,2622:186403,2630:187406,2655:187642,2660:187878,2665:188350,2674:188763,2682:189353,2695:189766,2703:190002,2708:190946,2730:191418,2741:192598,2782:193188,2795:193955,2816:194545,2827:194840,2834:195371,2843:196197,2860:206974,2939:208414,2957:210334,3032:212542,3092:214750,3107:217206,3139:218316,3171:219278,3192:219574,3197:221128,3232:221646,3239:224280,3258:225420,3281:225720,3287:226260,3298:230124,3351:230817,3362:232203,3386:232511,3391:232973,3399:233512,3415:234436,3430:239691,3486:243011,3550:243758,3563:244090,3568:244754,3577:245584,3599:246082,3606:246580,3613:248157,3648:248904,3665:250647,3700:251311,3709:252307,3724:258370,3789
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Isisara Bey's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Isisara Bey lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Isisara Bey describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Isisara Bey talks about the history of Guyana

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Isisara Bey talks about her mother's education and immigration

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Isisara Bey describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Isisara Bey talks about her extended family in Guyana

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Isisara Bey describes her upbringing in Queens, New York

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Isisara Bey talks about the establishment of the St. Peter Claver School in Queens, New York

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Isisara Bey remembers the Academy of St. Joseph in Brentwood, New York

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Isisara Bey remembers her early experiences of religion

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Isisara Bey recalls her experiences of discrimination at the Academy of St. Joseph

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Isisara Bey remembers developing an interest in radio

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Isisara Bey talks about her college scholarship

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Isisara Bey recalls her start at the University of Connecticut in Storrs, Connecticut

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Isisara Bey remembers the social movements of the late 1960s

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Isisara Bey describes her parents' perspectives on the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Isisara Bey remembers her decision to leave the University of Connecticut

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Isisara Bey recalls how she came to attend Antioch College in Columbia, Maryland

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Isisara Bey recalls joining the Theatre Project in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Isisara Bey recalls her introduction to the Moorish Science Temple of America

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Isisara Bey describes the history of the Moorish Science Temple of America

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Isisara Bey recalls her activism with the Moorish Science Temple of America

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Isisara Bey talks about the reparations movement

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Isisara Bey talks about the influence of the Moorish Science Temple of America

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Isisara Bey describes her current affiliation with the Moorish Science Temple of America

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Isisara Bey remembers her influences at Antioch College in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Isisara Bey talks about Take Our Daughters to Work Day

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Isisara Bey remembers her employment during graduate school

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Isisara Bey recalls hosting the morning show on WEAA Radio in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Isisara Bey remembers the programming on WEAA Radio

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Isisara Bey recalls teaching at Morgan State College in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Isisara Bey remembers her internship at WJZ-TV in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Isisara Bey talks about the growth of black radio

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Isisara Bey recalls receiving an award for her news coverage

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Isisara Bey talks about the death of her husband

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Isisara Bey remembers the management training program at Columbia Pictures

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - Isisara Bey describes her position in corporate affairs at Columbia Pictures

Tape: 4 Story: 12 - Isisara Bey talks about Sidney Poitier's impact on the film industry

Tape: 4 Story: 13 - Isisara Bey recalls her mentors at Columbia Pictures

Tape: 4 Story: 14 - Isisara Bey recalls creating a diversity symposium for film executives, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Isisara Bey recalls creating a diversity symposium for film executives, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Isisara Bey reflects upon the legacy of H. LeBaron Taylor

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Isisara Bey remembers the speakers at her diversity symposium

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Isisara Bey recalls the response to her diversity symposium

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Isisara Bey recalls her exhibition of portraits from the Columbia Records archives

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Isisara Bey recalls her promotion to head of corporate affairs at Sony Music Entertainment

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Isisara Bey recalls hosting a retreat for the Congressional Tri-Caucus

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Isisara Bey remembers her decision to adopt a child

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Isisara Bey remembers traveling to Cambodia to adopt her daughter

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Isisara Bey describes how adopting her daughter changed her life

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Isisara Bey remembers adjusting to single parenthood

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Isisara Bey recalls her challenges at the Sony Music Diversity Council

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Isisara Bey recalls her role in the founding of the Congressional Tri-Caucus

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Isisara Bey describes her work at Count Me In for Women's Economic Independence

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Isisara Bey remembers her TEDx talk

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Isisara Bey recalls founding Journey Agent Productions

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Isisara Bey talks about the March on Washington Film Festival, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - Isisara Bey talks about the March on Washington Film Festival, pt. 2

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Isisara Bey remembers the Women of the World Festival

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Isisara Bey reflects upon her career, pt. 1

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Isisara Bey reflects upon her career, pt. 2

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Isisara Bey describes her hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Isisara Bey reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Isisara Bey talks about her family

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Isisara Bey describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Isisara Bey narrates her photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$5

DAStory

5$7

DATitle
Isisara Bey remembers developing an interest in radio
Isisara Bey recalls hosting a retreat for the Congressional Tri-Caucus
Transcript
Now in light of what your career is about, in terms of media--$$Yes.$$--and so, what was your exposure to media growing up? I know--$$Oh, this was (simultaneous)--$$--(simultaneous) I know there was a lot of education, and--but did you go to the movie, did you watch television, listen to the radio?$$It was Guyana. When I was growing up, Guyana didn't get television until the mid-'80s [1980s] and so there were two radio stations and those radio stations provided everything in the country. And when I was younger, my mother [Shirley Jones], one of her batch mates [from Queen's College, Georgetown, Guyana], was a writer for one of the daily papers and he had a program on the air. You know, Guyana is such a small country that whenever people came to visit, someone would put them on a program and have them on the air. So I remember Uncle Basil, Basil Hinds was his name. He led, he was the head of the American library there and he wrote for one of the papers [The Guyana Annual] and he had a jazz show ['Just Jazz']. And I came to Guyana once with my 45s [45 rpm record]. And I brought several 45s on the air. So I had the--I had The Jackson 5, 'I Want You Back.' And he'd play his song--music and I'd play one of mine and we would talk about them. So I played that song and he said, "Well you know they sound good, but I don't think they're gonna last very long." So what was fun was years later coming back, even a few years later and him saying, "I guess I was wrong about that." But I remember once being asked to be on one of the morning shows and the engineer was a young woman. And this is when everybody did their own records and they would play--the radio stations in Guyana provided all the entertainment because that was all there was. So there were--the radio plays from England, these were in seven year cycles. They were like soap operas on the air. And then they had classroom on the air so people could learn things who were in the rural parts of the country. They had the farm report and one other program that stuck out to me was the death announcements. So this funereal music would come on--an organ playing. And a gentleman would then recite the names of any Guyanese who had died anywhere in the world, except in Guyana. So who died in England, who died in New York [New York], who died in Canada. Back then those were the only places Guyanese went to. New York, Toronto [Canada] and London [England]. And so radio on the air was on all day long because it was something different, radio plays, Guyanese plays after independence, a lot of programming that Guyanese made themselves, popular music, it was the lifeline. I remember one time we took a trip into the interior which is what it was called going from the country down into the remote parts. And on a big ferry boat that was on the Essequibo River and then people would come on to the boat. It would start and then it wouldn't stop, it would slow down. So folks would take a launch from the bush and they would transfer their produce to go to the market and the boat would slow down so they could jump on. And I could hear the radio from stop to stop out in the interior. Once cousin Gertie [ph.] and I were walking from our house to go play bingo and we were concerned because we would miss 'Dr. Paul' who was on in the evening. But everybody was listening, and because it was always warm weather there were no windows with glass, it was all shutters. People were outside and we heard the whole program walking to bingo. So I realized--it fired my imagination how important radio was and how much people could visualize and learn, and be connected through radio. So that's what sparked my interest in working in radio.$So when he asked to do that, the idea I came up with was to do a retreat for those three minority groups [Congressional Tri-Caucus]. And so that we would fund. The first one was held outside of Washington [D.C.] in Virginia at a hotel. It was over a weekend. We--I hired someone to do--to facilitate some of their work together, and also had entertainment. So I went to [HistoryMaker] Russell Simmons. At the time they had the 'Def Poetry Jam' and we created a 'Def Poetry Jam' evening during their retreat and had some of the poets that later were on 'Def Poetry' on Broadway to come and perform. A multicultural group of poets. We had Sarah Jones come who is the actress who does, she won a Tony [Antoinette Perry Award for Excellence in Theatre] for her one woman performance where she represents a number of different cultures. Her first piece was called 'Surface Transit.' She has this uncanny ability to replicate any accent under the sun and she tells the story of different immigrants coming to New York [New York] in America, and their--their influence with each other. So she performed. She had a piece called 'This Revolution will not be Televised' [sic. 'Your Revolution']. It was kind of based on the one that Gil Scott-Heron song ['The Revolution Will Not Be Televised'] that he did that had been banned from the air, and so she was able to perform it in front of members of [U.S.] Congress who was going, "Why was this banned?" And we're able to work with helping her reverse that. The other moment in that retreat that stands out for me was the facilitator had had them--we had a timeline on there and she asked them to go up and to indicate when they got involved in public service. And one of them on the Hispanic caucus [Congressional Hispanic Caucus], one of the congressmen, talked about his political career started as a border guard. He was a border police. And in Sarah's monologue, she replicated a young man whose family had been arrested by the border police and used a term that they use to describe the border police [La Migra], a Spanish language term. So later when the congressman is talking about it, he talked about how he had heard this term and it was derogatory in a sense, and moved him to tears. You know, he got emotional about it and in that came this whole conversation of everyone talking about what brought them into public service. So we had those who were the children of migrant workers with the grandchildren of sharecroppers with the--the descendants of immigrants with the same universal approach to public service and now in the Congress and that was started because they were in the same room together talking about it and because they heard a theater piece that urged them to--that was the catapult to that. That was the culmination to me of everything that I think is important in the work that I do.$$Okay, and this retreat was in what year?$$Oh you're asking me years, I remember when I was thinking about--$$About 2001, 2000--$$--preparing this. It was after LeBaron [H. LeBaron Taylor] died, so it might've been around 2002 or three [2003].$$Okay.$$So we did three actually with them. That first one and then a year later or so we did one that was in Puerto Rico, and then the third one was in Texas right around the time of Hurricane Rita. So it was not as--we had to switch the focus of it more into a town hall in Houston [Texas] because of the devastation and the need.$$Okay, okay. Now you were the founder of Sony's [Sony Music Entertainment] diversity--?$$Yes, they did not have affinity groups then, and so I helped form a black, Hispanic and Asian affinity groups; and then that was the year I was one of the founding members of the diversity council for the company [Sony Music Diversity Council].

Stephen Robinson

Lawyer and Federal District Court Judge Stephen C. Robinson was born on January 25, 1957 to Yvonne Lee Robinson in the Bedford-Stuyvesant neighborhood of Brooklyn, New York. His mother was a payroll clerk at the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, and his father was a probation officer. Robinson grew up in a housing project in the Bedford-Stuyvesant neighborhood, and in second grade was bused to predominantly white schools. Robinson graduated from Cornell University in 1981 with his B.A. degree in government. He went on to receive his J.D. degree from Cornell Law School in 1984.

Robinson began his legal career in 1984 as the first black lawyer hired at the law firm of Alexander & Green, a corporate firm based in New York City. He moved on to his first federal position as assistant U.S. Attorney for the Southern District of New York in 1987 working under then U.S. Attorney Rudolph Giuliani. In 1991, Robinson was hired at Kroll Associates, an international private investigations firm, where he became associate general counsel and later managing director. In 1993, he was asked by the director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation to serve as special assistant to the director and general counsel. In 1995, he became counsel and subsequently chief compliance officer for Aetna, Inc. in Hartford, Connecticut. Robinson was then appointed U.S. Attorney for the District of Connecticut, in 1998, by President William Clinton, after being unanimously confirmed by the U.S. Senate. During this time, he also served as interim manager and chief executive officer of Empower New Haven, a non-profit organization, and taught at Yale Law School as a senior research fellow. President George W. Bush appointed Robinson as a federal district court judge in the U.S. District Court of the Southern District of New York in 2003. In 2010, Robinson resigned his position on the bench and joined the law firm of Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom LLP as a litigation partner.

Robinson was recognized by the Department of Justice for Superior Service for his work on the prosecution of U.S. v. Galanis, a securities and tax fraud trial in 1990. In 1997, he was the recipient of the Chairman’s Award while working at Aetna US Healthcare. In 2011, he was named chair of the New York City Bar Association’s Committee to Enhance Diversity in the Profession. Robinson also serves on the board of directors for the Brennan Center for Justice at New York University School of Law, the Cornell Law School Dean’s Advisory Committee, and the board of directors of Fordham Law School’s Louis Stein Center for Law and Ethics. Robinson has one daughter, Victoria.

Stephen C. Robinson was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on July 17, 2014.

Accession Number

A2014.186

Sex

Male

Interview Date

7/17/2014

09/12/2014

Last Name

Robinson

Maker Category
Marital Status

Widower

Middle Name

Craig

Schools

John Dewey High School

Cornell University

Cornell Law School

First Name

Stephen

Birth City, State, Country

Brooklyn

HM ID

ROB28

State

New York

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Birth Date

1/25/1957

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New York

Country

USA

Short Description

Lawyer and federal district court judge Stephen Robinson (1957 - ) was a partner at Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom, LLP, and a U.S. District Court Judge for the Southern District of New York.

Employment

Alexander & Green

Southern District of New York

Kroll Associates

Federal Bureau of Investigation

Aetna, Inc.

District of Connecticut

Empower New Haven

Yale Law School

U.S. District Court of the Southern District of New York

Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom LLP

Madeleine Moore Burrell

Marketing executive Madeleine Moore Burrell was born in 1940. She received her B.F.A. degree from New York University and studied industrial design at the Parsons School of Design. She also received her M.F.A. degree in writing from Columbia University.

Moore Burrell’s first carrier spanned ten years as an industrial designer with Henry Dreyfuss Associates and Goretz Industrial Design, where she designed products ranging from John Deere tractors and Datsun dashboards, to American Airlines interiors and the first snowmobile for AMF. She also designed the first plastic hangers in the United States, pay phones for Bell Atlantic, industrial cameras for Polaroid and sewing machines for Singer.

In 1985, Moore Burrell founded and spearheaded Moore Creative, a New York marketing firm with clients that included Anheuser Busch, the Apollo Theater, and the first of several hospital based HMOs that she marketed in the United States. In 1994, Moore Creative was the first African American marketing firm awarded a post-apartheid contract with South Africa, launching the Sister City agreement between New York City and Johannesburg, South Africa. Moore Burrell’s clients also included the annual Essence Music Festival in New Orleans, the Essence Awards on FOX TV and Dawn Magazine, the Sunday supplement to The Afro-American newspaper.

Moore Burrell served as chairman of Public New York, a SoHo based advertising firm, as well as president of Moore Creative @ Austin & Williams, Inc. She served as president of AARP for the State of New York and the founding chapter of The New York Coalition of 100 Black Women; and was a trustee of New York's Central Park Conservancy. In addition, she co-founded The National Professionals Network (NPN), convening leadership conference cruises for over twenty years.

As co- founder of the 21st Century Women's Leadership Center, a cultural collaboration of Black, Hispanic and Asian women’s organizations, Moore Burrell developed numerous scholarships, role model and mentoring initiatives for inner-city girls. She is an officer of the Board of Columbia College Chicago and has received an honorary doctorate degree from the City University of New York.

Moore Burrell and her husband, advertising icon and author Tom Burrell, reside in Chicago, Illinois, where they partner in The Brainwashed Resolution Project.

Madeleine Moore Burrell was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on April 22, 2014.

Accession Number

A2014.120

Sex

Female

Interview Date

4/22/2014

Last Name

Burrell

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Moore

Occupation
Schools

New York University

Columbia University

Parsons School of Design

First Name

Madeleine

Birth City, State, Country

Brooklyn

HM ID

BUR22

Favorite Season

Spring

State

New York

Favorite Vacation Destination

New Orleans, Louisiana

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Illinois

Interview Description
Birth Date

9/10/1940

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Chicago

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Healthy Soul Food

Short Description

Marketing executive Madeleine Moore Burrell (1940 - ) founded the New York-based marketing firm, Moore Creative. She was a founder of the 21st Century Women's Leadership Center, and co-founder of the National Professionals Network, Inc. She served as president of the New York Coalition of 100 Black Women and AARP of New York State, as well as chairman of Public New York.

Employment

Henry Dreyfuss Associates

Goretz Industrial Design

Moore Creative

Favorite Color

Orange, Yellow, Warm Colors

Timing Pairs
0,0:1104,9:1472,14:4470,22:5294,31:9517,80:10341,85:11783,102:18799,154:19107,159:19646,167:20262,177:20647,184:21032,190:21417,196:25886,242:26376,248:27160,257:31080,308:32158,321:32746,328:33138,333:33530,338:34314,348:34706,353:39410,412:39900,418:45000,430:59960,535:63560,604:64960,621:66060,639:66560,645:74340,686:75536,700:76364,710:76824,717:78848,745:79860,757:98260,904:98820,911:100660,918$0,0:435,9:783,14:1305,21:3306,79:3654,84:4002,89:5829,128:6351,135:9570,166:11136,190:11745,198:13311,243:13833,254:14877,268:15573,277:17487,306:18444,320:25342,348:26574,357:33249,397:34162,412:37731,464:38146,470:38644,477:39889,494:41300,515:41632,520:44620,571:44952,576:46944,625:49185,660:49600,666:57655,727:58123,732:59293,746:59761,751:60463,759:66334,813:66694,819:69548,846:70874,860:71384,866:75668,915:76280,922:78320,950:78728,955:82960,973:89415,1044:90095,1058:90860,1070:94090,1118:94770,1127:96130,1150:96555,1157:97235,1166:97660,1172:98000,1177:98510,1185:101060,1242:103270,1282:103610,1287:104290,1299:112742,1344:113632,1357:113988,1362:114789,1372:115323,1379:120307,1454:123511,1481:130850,1497:131590,1508:132256,1520:132774,1528:134476,1568:135068,1578:138250,1631:143258,1713:143996,1725:149326,1779:160315,1884:160969,1891:170888,2006:175375,2033:182347,2146:182762,2152:183509,2164:187758,2189:188311,2198:192024,2265:192577,2274:192972,2280:200082,2373:200714,2381:203321,2419:204348,2434:205217,2446:205849,2455:211688,2474:212832,2484:214496,2508:216540,2513:217100,2522:218380,2538:220060,2551
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Madeleine Moore Burrell's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Madeleine Moore Burrell lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Madeleine Moore Burrell describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Madeleine Moore Burrell talks about her mother's involvement in advocacy and social activism

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Madeleine Moore Burrell describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Madeleine Moore Burrell talks about her half-siblings and being an only child until the age of sixteen

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Madeleine Moore Burrell describes her earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Madeleine Moore Burrell talks about growing up in Brooklyn, New York

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Madeleine Moore Burrell describes her life in her grandparents' home in Brooklyn, New York

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Madeleine Moore Burrell describes the sights, sounds and smells of growing up in Brooklyn, New York

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Madeleine Moore Burrell talks about the central role of church in her community while growing up in Brooklyn, New York

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Madeleine Moore Burrell talks about attending elementary school in Brooklyn, New York and junior high school in Westtown Township, Pennsylvania

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Madeleine Moore Burrell talks about her mother's strong influence on her life

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Madeleine Moore Burrell describes her experience on her family's farm in Reading, Pennsylvania

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Madeleine Moore Burrell describes being reunited with her father

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Madeleine Moore Burrell describes her experience in junior high school in Westtown, Pennsylvania

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Madeleine Moore Burrell talks about her childhood friends and her mother's premature death

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Madeleine Moore Burrell talks about her family's life after her mother's premature death

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Madeleine Moore Burrell reflects upon mentors, and her attendance at Northfield League in Westtown, Pennsylvania in the 1950s

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Madeleine Moore Burrell describes her family's perspective on race relations in the 1950s

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Madeleine Moore Burrell talks about her dyslexia and how it led to the development of her artistic talent

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Madeleine Moore Burrell remembers coping with dyslexia during her childhood

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Madeleine Moore Burrell reflects upon her experience as the only African American student at Northfield League in Westtown, Pennsylvania

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Madeleine Moore Burrell talks about her mother's premature death and how it impacted her family

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Madeleine Moore Burrell talks about starting college at New York University in New York, New York after her mother's death

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Madeleine Moore Burrell describes her experience at New York University in New York, New York and her decision to pursue industrial design

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Madeleine Moore Burrell explains how studying industrial design at Parsons School of Design in New York, New York helped her with her dyslexia

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Madeleine Moore Burrell describes her experience as an industrial designer at Henry Dreyfuss Associates, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Madeleine Moore Burrell describes her experience as an industrial designer at Henry Dreyfuss Associates, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Madeleine Moore Burrell describes her experience working with Dr. Edwin Land, the inventor of the Polaroid camera

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Madeleine Moore Burrell describes the evolution of the industrial design industry

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Madeleine Moore Burrell talks about her stepfather getting remarried

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Madeleine Moore Burrell describes the roles of engineering and marketing in the design and manufacturing of products

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Madeleine Moore Burrell talks about her transition into a career in marketing

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Madeleine Moore Burrell talks about designing plastic hangers to ship clothes without wrinkles

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Madeleine Moore Burrell explains why she left her position at Henry Dreyfuss Associates to get married

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Madeleine Moore Burrell talks about her work with health management organizations (HMOs) and Essence magazine

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Madeleine Moore Burrell talks about founding her marketing firm, Moore Creative, and establishing a client base

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Madeleine Moore Burrell talks about her work with Apollo Theater in New York, New York

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Madeleine Moore Burrell describes her involvement in transforming Beekman Downtown Hospital into a successful hospital system in the 1980s

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Madeleine Moore Burrell talks about the first National Professionals Network, Inc. (NPN) cruise

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Madeleine Moore Burrell talks about co-founding the National Professionals Network, Inc. (NPN), pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Madeleine Moore Burrell talks about co-founding the National Professionals Network, Inc. (NPN), pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Madeleine Moore Burrell talks about planning programming and musical talent for the National Professionals Network, Inc's (NPN) cruises

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Madeleine Moore Burrell talks about the Sister City agreement between New York City and Johannesburg, South Africa

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Madeleine Moore Burrell talks about marketing the annual New Orleans Essence Music Festival

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Madeleine Moore Burrell talks about her experience as president of The New York Coalition of 100 Black Women

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Madeleine Moore Burrell describes a collaboration between the African America, Asian and Hispanic women's leadership groups in New York, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Madeleine Moore Burrell describes a collaboration between the African America, Asian and Hispanic women's leadership groups in New York, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Madeleine Moore Burrell talks about the impact of the 9/11 terrorist attacks on her personal and professional life

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Madeleine Moore Burrell describes her decision to preside over the New York Chapter of AARP

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Madeleine Moore Burrell describes her experience as the president of the New York Chapter of AARP

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Madeleine Moore Burrell explains how she met her husband, HistoryMaker Thomas J. Burrell

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Madeleine Moore Burrell talks about her decision to marry HistoryMaker Thomas J. Burrell in 2008

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Madeleine Moore Burrell talks about her husband, HistoryMaker Thomas J. Burrell's book, 'Brainwashed: Challenging the Myth of Black Inferiority'

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Madeleine Moore Burrell talks about the Resolution Project

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Madeleine Moore Burrell reflects upon her marriage

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Madeleine Moore Burrell describes her hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Madeleine Moore Burrell reflects upon the legacy of her generation, pt. 1

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Madeleine Moore Burrell reflects upon the legacy of her generation, pt. 2

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Madeleine Moore Burrell reflects upon her mother's and grandmother's influence on her accomplishments in life

Tape: 7 Story: 9 - Madeleine Moore Burrell reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Madeleine Moore Burrell narrates her photographs, pt.1

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Madeleine Moore Burrell narrates her photographs, pt.2

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Madeleine Moore Burrell narrates her photographs, pt.3

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$6

DAStory

5$7

DATitle
Madeleine Moore Burrell talks about her transition into a career in marketing
Madeleine Moore Burrell describes her decision to preside over the New York Chapter of AARP
Transcript
And so I went back to Columbia University [New York, New York] intending to get into marketing as the next notch on my career ladder. But I got involved with writing because I felt I could write about it and I could in so many ways begin to speak directly with consumers about things that they needed to be cautious of, things that they needed to know about these machines and this environment in which they're being placed, you know without any thought about what the impact will be. And in so doing, I was coming out of a marriage where to, to a position where HMOs [health maintenance organization] were just on the horizon. And the whole notion of empowering women as healthcare consumers was something that I found intriguing. So I got involved in marketing HMOs and Mayor [Ed] Koch appointed me to do one of the first hospital-based HMOs in New York [New York]. And it turned out to be in the United States.$You were just saying that it [September 11, 2001 (9/11)] made you reassess and what your focus was so that--$$Right, right. And legacy building was where I wanted to take it. I was already dealing with CEOs [chief executive officer] and, and people who were ultimate decision makers, or who had inherited companies you know, who were dealing with decision making that possibly could use a, a new direction or a clarification. There was a moment where all of our civil rights organizations we discovered were--had been found the--during the same era and were having the same challenge of mission. Are those missions--still those mission statements, are they still relevant, you know. And so too with a lot of companies that were created for a time that no longer exists. So what would one as a head of one of these corporations, say to their grandchildren about what their legacy is? And it can be, you know a market segment that they you know, were successful in, in winning. So legacy building became something that I took to heart. I still believe that we all have a legacy. If we don't shape it ourselves, somebody else will. So why not make a decision about what kind of legacy you're going to have, that you want to have? And from day one on the job, if it's in the mail room, or if it's in the boardroom, you know it should be purposeful. Your decisions should somehow or other be leading you in the direction of where you say you want your legacy to be. And so that took me to situations where I was talking about legacy and I, I had talked to any number of organizations about their legacy. And I came to the attention of AARP [American Association of Retired Persons], and they asked me to come in and talk to Bill Novelli and I've forgotten the ad agency that he was with. But he was--$$Novelli?$$Novelli, yeah, but it's got a multi--yeah. Anyway you know I talked about legacy and he asked me would I be interested in being involved in AARP. And then I met with, and I said yes because I was heading down that road anyway. And I always admired what AARP stood for. They always were as far as I was concerned, on the right side of the issue. And so legacy in terms of members saying okay, you want a legacy. Come, join AARP and we'll help you build your legacy. Essentially was the, the thing that I believed we could do so that it wouldn't just be wearing the t-shirt and showing up at hearings. But really on a personal level, shaping the legacy of people who had to reach that point in life where they looked at it.

Irving Burgie

Songwriter and performer Irving Burgie was born on July 28, 1924 in the Bedford-Stuyvesant neighborhood of Brooklyn, New York, to a Barbadian mother and a Virginia-born father, who worked as a day laborer. In 1943, Burgie was drafted into the U.S. Army and served for three years in the China, Burma, and India Theaters. When Burgie returned to the U.S., he took advantage of the newly passed G.I. Bill, which allowed him to attend the Juilliard School, the University of Arizona, and the University of Southern California.

In 1953, Burgie performed as a singer and guitarist at the Blue Angel in Chicago, Illinois. After playing at the Village Vanguard in New York City in 1955, he was introduced to Harry Belafonte, and the two began a collaboration with Burgie as songwriter and Belafonte as performer. A year later, they released the album Calypso, for which Burgie composed eight of the eleven songs, including the hit “Day-O.” Calypso became the first American record to sell over one million copies. In 1957, Burgie wrote the song “Island in the Sun” for the film of the same name, which starred Belafonte and Joan Fontaine. Burgie was then credited for ten of the eleven songs on Belafonte’s 1957 album Belafonte Sings of the Caribbean, and eight of the twelve songs on 1961’s Jump Up Calypso. In 1963, Burgie composed the music and lyrics for the off-Broadway show, “Ballad for Bimshire,” which starred Ossie Davis. Then, while on a trip to Barbados, Burgie was invited to write the lyrics for the Barbados national anthem, which he completed in 1966. In 2011, he signed a fifteen-year publishing deal with BMG Rights Management.

Burgie released The West Indian Song Book in 1972, and the Caribbean Carnival song book in 1993. He also released the solo album, Island in the Sun, in 1996, which included many of his own renditions of the hits that he wrote for Belafonte. In 2007, he published the autobiography, Day-O!!!: The Autobiography of Irving Burgie.

Burgie developed the Caribbean Day Assembly Program for New York-area public schools in 1973; and, in 1975, helped organize the United Black Men of Queens County Federation, Inc. He has received the Silver Crown of Merit from the Barbados government, and was awarded honorary doctorates from the University of the West Indies and St. John’s University in New York. Burgie was inducted into the Songwriters Hall of Fame in 2007.

Burgie passed away on November 29, 2019.

Irving Burgie was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on April 9, 2014.

Accession Number

A2014.123

Sex

Male

Interview Date

4/9/2014

4/10/2014

Last Name

Burgie

Maker Category
Occupation
Schools

The Juilliard School

University of Arizona School of Law

University of Southern California

First Name

Irving

Birth City, State, Country

Brooklyn

HM ID

BUR23

State

New York

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Birth Date

7/28/1924

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New York

Country

USA

Death Date

11/29/2019

Short Description

Songwriter and performer Irving Burgie (1924 - 2019) was a songwriter for three Harry Belafonte albums and wrote the lyrics for the Barbados national anthem. He authored Day-O!!!: The Autobiography of Irving Burgie, and was inducted into the Songwriters Hall of Fame in 2007.

Employment

U.S. Army

BMG Rights Management

Derek Dingle

Publishing executive Derek T. Dingle was born on November 2, 1961 in New York City. He graduated from Norfolk State University with a B.A. in journalism and also completed the Magazine Management Program at New York University.

Dingle joined Black Enterprise magazine in 1983 as an assistant editor and was promoted six months later to associate editor. After he completed the New York University magazine management program in 1985, he was made a senior editor. In 1987, Dingle was promoted once again to managing editor, a position he held until 1990. He then joined the staff of Money magazine, where he wrote articles about mutual fund investment and served as senior writer and a member of the planning team for Money Special on Small Business. In 1991, Dingle co-founded Milestone Media Inc., the nation's largest black-owned comic book company, with childhood friends Denys Cowan, Dwayne McDuffue, Michael Davis and Christopher Priest. After resigning from Money magazine in 1992, he was named Milestone’s president and CEO. One Milestone character, Static Shock, was developed into an animated series that ran from 2000 to 2005 on the WB Network and the Cartoon Network. In December of 1999, Dingle returned to Black Enterprise magazine as editor-at-large. Within a year, he was promoted to vice president and executive editor, serving until July of 2008. That year, Dingle was appointed as the senior vice president and editor-in-chief of Black Enterprise magazine, where he was responsible for the strategic planning and editorial direction of the magazine. In 2014, Dingle was named a Chief Content Officer of Black Enterprise. In this capacity, he oversaw content development and strategy for the "Black Enterprise Entrepreneurs Conference Expo," as well as other custom events, including the Black Enterprise/Walmart 20/20 Vision Forum on Supplier Diversity, the Black Enterprise/Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation Education Symposium Series, the American black Film Festival, and the Baltimore African American Film Festival. In addition, Dingle had executive oversight of both Black Enterprise television shows: "Black Enterprise Business Report" and "Our World with Black Enterprise."

Dingle authored countless Black Enterprise magazine cover stories and editorials and appeared as a business expert on numerous television networks and radio programs, including CNN, CNBC, NBC's "Weekend Today," and National Public Radio. An award-winning editor, Dingle is the author of three books: Black Enterprise Titans of the B.E. 100s: Black CEOs Who Redefined and Conquered American Business (1999), Black Enterprise Lessons from the Top: Success Strategies from America’s Leading Black CEOs (2007), and First in the Field: Jackie Robinson, Baseball Hero (1998), which received a 1999 International Reading Association Award. Dingle serves as a general member of the National Association of Black Journalists (NABJ) and the American Society of Magazine Editors (ASME). He also serves as a member of the board of directors for Norfolk State University's School of Communications, and on the advisory board for the New York Urban League’s Manhattan Chapter.

Dingle lives in Guttenberg, New Jersey.

Derek T. Dingle was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on March 20, 2014 and on December 14, 2016.

Accession Number

A2014.091

Sex

Male

Interview Date

3/20/2014

12/14/2016

Last Name

Dingle

Maker Category
Marital Status

Single

Middle Name

Terrence

Schools

Norfolk State University

New York University

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Derek

Birth City, State, Country

Brooklyn

HM ID

DIN04

Favorite Season

Fall

State

New York

Favorite Vacation Destination

mediterranean

Favorite Quote

Unbelievable.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Birth Date

11/2/1961

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New York

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Hamburger

Short Description

Magazine publishing chief executive and publishing executive Derek Dingle (1961 - ) co-founded and then served as president and CEO of Milestone Media Inc., the nation’s largest African American-owned comic book company, in 1992. In 2008, Dingle was appointed as the senior vice president and editor-in-chief of Black Enterprise magazine.

Employment

Black Enterprise

Money Magazine

Milestone Media

Favorite Color

Blue

Ernie Suggs

Journalist Ernie Suggs was born in 1967 in Brooklyn, New York. He entered into college at North Carolina Central University in 1985, where he was editor and chief and sports editor for the college’s award winning newspaper, The Campus Echo , and a member of the Alpha Phi Alpha fraternity. He graduated in 1990, with his B.A. degree in English Literature.

In 1990, Suggs was awarded an internship by the National Association of Black Journalists (NABJ) to work for Gannett Newspapers based in White Plains, New York. He returned to Durham, North Carolina in 1992, as a writer for The Herald-Sun . In 1996, Suggs was awarded a fellowship from the Education Writers Association, which culminated in his seventeen piece series Fighting to Survive: Historically Black Colleges and Universities Face the 21st Century . He went on to become a reporter at the Atlanta Journal-Constitution in 1997, where he covered politics, civil rights and race. In 2001, Suggs authored the Aetna African American History Calendar, which was focused on Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs).

Suggs’ series on HBCUs was the most in-depth newspaper examination of the topic ever undertaken, and was recognized for many awards: Journalist of the Year from the American Association of University Professors; First Place, Salute to Excellence Journalism Award for Investigative Reporting from the National Association of Black Journalists; Journalist of the Year from the North Carolina Black Publishers Association; Journalist of the Year from the North Carolina Press Association; and was nominated for a Pulitzer Prize. In 2002, he was named director of Region IV of the NABJ, and became vice-president of the organization in 2005. Suggs was chosen for the prestigious Nieman Fellowship at Harvard University in 2008, and in 2009, he joined the Nieman Foundation’s board. In 2010, he was the keynote speaker at 61st Annual Honors Convocation at North Carolina Central University; and he was given the Pioneer Black Journalist Award by NABJ in 2013.

Ernie Suggs was interviewed by The History Makers on February 18, 2014.

Accession Number

A2014.073

Sex

Male

Interview Date

2/18/2014

Last Name

Suggs

Maker Category
Marital Status

Divorced

Middle Name

Terrell

Occupation
Schools

PS 241 Emma L Johnston School

J W Parker Middle School

G R Edwards Middle School

Rocky Mount High School

North Carolina Central University

Harvard University

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Ernie

Birth City, State, Country

Brooklyn

HM ID

SUG02

Favorite Season

Fall, Spring

State

New York

Favorite Vacation Destination

Paris, France

Favorite Quote

Be The Best You Can Be.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Interview Description
Birth Date

3/18/1967

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Atlanta

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Steak

Short Description

Journalist Ernie Suggs (1967 - ) is a reporter for the Atlanta Journal-Constitution, the former vice president of the National Association of Black Journalists, and author of the award-winning series Fighting to Survive: Historically Black Colleges and Universities Face the 21st Century.

Employment

Atlanta Journal-Constitution

Durham Herald-Sun

Gannet Westchester Newspapers

Favorite Color

Gold

Timing Pairs
0,0:2414,46:7499,118:10552,196:21983,459:22409,465:22693,479:22977,484:26385,556:35778,612:36306,619:37362,634:38154,644:39474,668:39914,674:40882,686:44754,749:48010,820:50210,957:60190,1046:70620,1250:70900,1255:71950,1296:72580,1306:73070,1315:82075,1395:82645,1412:83215,1419:85400,1496:97218,1587:98496,1598:101505,1614:101961,1623:104983,1661:105720,1674:114715,1936:136098,2216:137599,2242:149748,2419:150124,2424:150688,2432:151722,2445:158715,2549:159430,2563:161888,2586:164078,2619:165027,2629:166511,2639:168370,2650:168883,2660:169282,2669:169810,2676$0,0:9290,193:12028,244:13434,269:14100,274:14396,279:15062,290:17134,352:20094,442:21056,464:21426,470:21722,475:22166,482:22462,487:24608,532:26458,569:26902,576:27642,591:29196,622:37505,672:39919,708:40700,726:43420,746:45030,771:58880,1014:61280,1051:62080,1062:73110,1256:74555,1276:82205,1455:82545,1460:87013,1498:89848,1552:90253,1558:93493,1632:94222,1650:97520,1655:98170,1668:99080,1686:99600,1696:100250,1713:105890,1784:108590,1824:109490,1835:110390,1846:111090,1854:111590,1859:121769,1970:122267,1977:124093,2011:125255,2029:127081,2067:128409,2094:129820,2120:131065,2143:134501,2159:137228,2164:137648,2174:139076,2196:139496,2203:140672,2224:141176,2231:141680,2239:142520,2250:144284,2284:147589,2304:148359,2315:149129,2325:150053,2339:150515,2348:152286,2372:152594,2377:157738,2448:158330,2457:158848,2472:159144,2477:162622,2537:163362,2550:164028,2560:165656,2589:166618,2608:166914,2613:170390,2629:171580,2653:172280,2679:173050,2689:173750,2702:174100,2708:174380,2713:175780,2741:176550,2755:179212,2775:181092,2816:183630,2847:184194,2858:188330,2930:188800,2936:196810,3054:197370,3063:198330,3077:198890,3089:199610,3104:200170,3112:200970,3123:210972,3260:211638,3274:212230,3293:213710,3344:214006,3349:214598,3359:216152,3386:216448,3391:217188,3403:218372,3434:219408,3448:227740,3556:228356,3566:228818,3588:235932,3665:239217,3746:241115,3782:241553,3790:242721,3806:243743,3822:244327,3853:248990,3868:252142,3906:252872,3927:253237,3933:260099,4152:260391,4158:260902,4167:261413,4176:261851,4184:267350,4241:268386,4264:268682,4269:269496,4281:270458,4304:274786,4350:275690,4355
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Ernie Suggs' interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Ernie Suggs lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Ernie Suggs describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Ernie Suggs talks about his maternal grandmother's education at an all-black boarding school in Whitakers, North Carolina

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Ernie Suggs describes the people who raised his mother: his maternal grandfather, his great aunt Clarene, and Alice Wells

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Ernie Suggs describes his mother's childhood in Edgecombe County, North Carolina

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Ernie Suggs talks about his mother

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Ernie Suggs describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Ernie Suggs talks about his father

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Ernie Suggs describes his parents' relationship and his similarity to his mother

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Ernie Suggs talks about being reunited with his sister

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Ernie Suggs describes his sister's disappearance

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Ernie Suggs talks about his sister and her upbringing

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Ernie Suggs describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood in Brooklyn, New York

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Ernie Suggs reflects upon his childhood neighborhood and his early academic ambitions

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Ernie Suggs talks about growing up in Brooklyn, New York during the 1970s

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Ernie Suggs talks about his early interest in the news and attending P.S. 241 in Brooklyn, New York

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Ernie Suggs talks about his favorite teachers and his favorite subjects in elementary school at P.S. 241 in Brooklyn, New York

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Ernie Suggs describes his interest in comic books and the Marvel Universe

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Ernie Suggs explains his mother's decision to move to North Carolina in 1979

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Ernie Suggs talks about the early New York City hip hop scene

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Ernie Suggs talks about his school experiences in North Carolina

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Ernie Suggs talks about taking college prep courses at Rocky Mount High School in Rocky Mount, North Carolina

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Ernie Suggs talks about his high school extracurricular activities

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Ernie Suggs explains the social relations at Rocky Mount High School in Rocky Mount, North Carolina during the 1980s

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Ernie Suggs describes his college application process

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Ernie Suggs recalls his decision to attend North Carolina Central University in Durham, North Carolina

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Ernie Suggs describes HistoryMaker Reverend Jesse L. Jackson's 1984 and 1988 presidential campaigns

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Ernie Suggs talks about his mentors at North Carolina Central University in Durham, North Carolina

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Ernie Suggs talks about writing for the Rocky Mount Telegram and the Campus Echo, the student newspaper at North Carolina Central University

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Ernie Suggs explains his English literature major at North Carolina Central University in Durham, North Carolina

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Ernie Suggs talks about his National Association of Black Journalists (NABJ) internship at Gannett Westchester Newspapers

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Ernie Suggs talks about graduating from North Carolina Central University in Durham, North Carolina and his post-college job plans

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Ernie Suggs describes working for Gannett Westchester Newspapers in Westchester County, New York

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Ernie Suggs explains his responsibilities as a journalist for the Herald Sun in Durham, North Carolina

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Ernie Suggs recalls the stories he covered as a reporter for the Herald Sun in Durham, North Carolina

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Ernie Suggs talks about reporting on historically black colleges and universities in the late 1990s

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Ernie Suggs explains the challenges facing historically black colleges and universities

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Ernie Suggs talks about the future of historically black colleges and universities

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Ernie Suggs talks about his award-winning series on historically black colleges and universities

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Ernie Suggs talks about volunteering at and reporting on the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Ernie Suggs talks about North Carolina Central University's sports programs

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Ernie Suggs talks about joining the Atlanta Journal-Constitution as a staff journalist in 1997

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Ernie Suggs talks about his membership in the National Association of Black Journalists

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Ernie Suggs talks about stories and individuals he reported on for the Atlanta Journal-Constitution

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Ernie Suggs describes the movie industry in Atlanta, Georgia and the opportunities the city offers

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Ernie Suggs talks about Georgia state and Atlanta city politics in the early 21st century

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Ernie Suggs talks about Martin Luther King, III's presidency of the SCLC and the organization's activism in the early 21st century

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Ernie Suggs talks about how Martin Luther King, Jr.'s legacy has impacted his children

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Ernie Suggs talks about the controversies surrounding the Martin Luther King, Jr. family

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Ernie Suggs talks about the legal battles waged by the children of Martin Luther King, Jr.

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Ernie Suggs talks about the children of Martin Luther King, Jr. and their control over his legacy

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Ernie Suggs describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Ernie Suggs recalls his time at Harvard University as a Nieman Journalism Fellow in 2008

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Ernie Suggs talks about his family

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Ernie Suggs reflects upon his legacy

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$5

DAStory

8$8

DATitle
Ernie Suggs talks about his early interest in the news and attending P.S. 241 in Brooklyn, New York
Ernie Suggs talks about stories and individuals he reported on for the Atlanta Journal-Constitution
Transcript
Back to the newspapers though, you would--why would you be so desperate to get a newspaper?$$I liked to know what was going on so I would--you know, back in those days and I'm sure it's still now they had the newsstands where the newspapers would just basically be out and I would just walk by and pick one up and just keep walking (laughter). So that was my--that was the existence of my life of crime. So I would steal the [New York] Post, the [New York] Daily News, the New York Times to just kind of read what was going on. I enjoyed--I think I was able to understand the Post and the Daily News a little better because it was about New York, and it always had those spectacular headlines. The New York Times is a little bit high-brow for a preteen. But yeah I would just read it, pick it up and take it to the house, let somebody else read it but you know that was one of things I would do, steal newspapers.$$So there wasn't a particular part, I know you were a sports writer at one point in high school.$$No, it wasn't anything--$$It wasn't because of the sports necessarily.$$No, I would read everything. I would read what was going on in the city, you know, the blackout.$$The blackout was yeah go head.$$The '70s [1970s] there was so much stuff going on in New York City with the blackouts with the bankruptcy, the Bella Abzug and [Mayor] Ed Koch. For me it was a very exciting time. There was always stuff happening. So I would want to know what was going on. I would want to know what was actually going on in the city in terms of murders, the [New York] Yankees of course, TV shows. I loved watching television so reading was probably an extension of that. So yeah I wanted to read everything. I wanted to know what was going on particularly in the city.$$Okay.$$So I imagine I stole the Post and the Daily News more than the Times.$$Did you have any favorite writers in the newspaper?$$No it wasn't any--it was just like what's going on in the news today. I would just go by and snatch it and just keep walking and that was it (laughter).$$Okay.$$I wasn't trying to go see what Bill Madden wrote or anything.$$So at P.S. 241 [Emma L. Johnston School, Brooklyn, New York] you're in a gifted program and like who's in school with you? Is it mostly African American or is it mixed?$$It's mostly African Americans. It's a Brooklyn neighborhood so it's mostly African American but it was--it had a good deal of diversity as well particularly in the gifted program.$$Okay.$$So, yeah as I said the diversity was there. I mean, I learned a lot about diversity in New York in, at P.S. 241 in terms of different cultures, languages, different types of people.$I know you said James Mallory was here already at the Atlanta Journal-Constitution but what else attracted you to the Atlanta Journal-Constitution?$$Atlanta [Georgia], you know Atlanta at that time was the black mecca, so to speak, Atlanta and Washington, D.C. It was only five hours away from North Carolina--my home in North Carolina so I can drive quickly. I had a lot of friends who were moving here and people were always just talking about Atlanta as this place that people were coming to that you can make a lot of money. There was a big music scene that was coming about that was kind of changing. Atlanta was becoming a focus of that. Not that I was a music person but Atlanta was becoming the focus of a lot of things and it was a place that--it was a big city and you know as I said, you always want to go to a bigger city when you work for a newspaper. So Atlanta was at the top of my list. It was always at the top of the list and you know New York [City], of course, going back to New York to work in the city. But Atlanta was a reasonable place that was close and it was kind of southern and I had kind of gotten used to the whole southern thing living in North Carolina so this was the place where I wanted to come.$$Okay what were some of the notable stories that you've been involved in with your writing here in Atlanta?$$Well I've been here since 1997 as you said so that's about seventeen years so I've covered everything. I came here as a night cops reporter. So my first job--it's weird because after covering all this great stuff in Durham where you're kind of the big fish in the little pond, you become the little fish here. So my first job for the first six months was night cops. So I would come in every day at 3:00 and work until 12:00 until after the news went off covering cops. Shootings, accidents, traffic jams just you know you name it, I did it. So I did that for about six months then I moved on to education, covered higher education and then K-12. So I've basically covered everything at this paper that you can cover. I've covered cops, education, I've done some sports, I've done some features. I've done crime, of course, but the thing that I cover that's kind of always been an overriding theme of all my coverage has been race. I've covered government politics, elections but race has always been kind of the main area that I've become--that I've become an expert in, that a lot of my coverage always kind of goes back to. So if I'm covering government or if I'm covering politics and something racial happens or there is a racial or an event that happens or some situation that involves race, I'm usually the guy that gets pulled in to cover that because of my expertise and because of my interest in it. So with Atlanta being the home of the Civil Rights Movement because of the people who live here. So I've covered [HM] Joseph Lowery and [HM] C.T. Vivian and Hosea Williams and [HM] Andrew Young and [HM] Fred Shuttlesworth and you know, [Reverend Dr.] Martin Luther King [Jr.], his life and legacy hovers over all of that. So I've covered everything about the King legacy since day one. Since I've gotten here that's kind of been what I've been in charge of doing. So I'm that guy who covers all of that and it's been great 'cause these are the kind of people when you talk about the history, I've always had a keen interest in history, these are the kind of people I read about growing up. These are the people that I--and to be able to meet Coretta Scott King and [Andrew] Andy Young and Joseph Lowery--Joseph Lowery performed my wedding. So these are the kind of people that I've read about who I kind of consider the second founding fathers of the country that I'm covering now on a regular basis who call me every now--it's funny we talked about [HM Reverend] Jesse [L.] Jackson and my first kind of experience watching his campaign. You know, Jesse Jackson has my cell phone number and I--sometimes I look on my phone and I see, oh man Jesse's calling and I don't have time to talk to him right now (laughter). You know what I'm saying so it's kind of weird that you know, this guy that you grew up idolizing now becomes kind of a peer or someone that you kind of can, you know, feel comfortable talking to and kind of reaching out to and, and associating yourself with.

Earl "Butch" Graves, Jr.

Publishing executive Earl "Butch" Graves, Jr. was born on January 5, 1962, in Brooklyn, New York to Barbara and Earl Graves, Sr., founder of Black Enterprise magazine. Graves graduated from Scarsdale High School in 1980. He went on to attend Yale University, where he was captain of the basketball team and became the school’s all-time leading scorer and the second leading scorer in Ivy League history. In 1984, Graves graduated from Yale University with his B.A. degree in economics, and was drafted into the National Basketball Association in the third round by the Philadelphia 76ers.

After a brief professional career in the NBA, where he played for the Milwaukee Bucks and Cleveland Cavaliers, Graves enrolled in Harvard Business School and graduated in 1988 with his M.B.A degree. Upon graduation, Graves joined Black Enterprise as Vice President of Advertising and Marketing. In 1991, he was promoted to Senior Vice President of Advertising and Marketing, and was named Executive Vice President and Chief Operating Officer in 1995. In 1998, Graves was appointed President and Chief Operating Officer of Black Enterprise and, in January of 2006, was named President and Chief Executive Officer, where he is responsible for the strategic positioning and overall profitability of the corporation, which includes magazine publishing, television production, digital media, and business and lifestyle events.

In 2000, Graves co-founded the Black Enterprise/Greenwich Street Corporate Growth Fund. He also serves as a managing director of the Pinnacle Minority Supplier Development Fund. Graves serves on the board of directors of AutoZone, Bermuda Tourism Authority, and is a trustee for The Committee For Economic Development. In addition to serving on numerous non-profit boards, Graves is a national advocate for the importance of education and athletics, and has served as an AAU (Amateur Athletic Union) Head Basketball Coach for more than ten years.

In 2002, Graves was inducted into the American Advertising Federation (AAF) Hall of Achievement; and in 2009, he was honored with the NCAA Silver Anniversary Award. He was also awarded the Jack Avrett Volunteer Spirit Award from the Boy Scouts of America in 2006.

Earl Graves, Jr. was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on February 21, 2014.

Accession Number

A2014.028

Sex

Male

Interview Date

2/21/2014

7/2/2014

Last Name

Graves

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

G.

Schools

Scarsdale Senior High School

Yale University

Harvard Business School

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Earl

Birth City, State, Country

Brooklyn

HM ID

GRA15

State

New York

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Birth Date

1/5/1962

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New York

Country

USA

Short Description

Publishing chief executive Earl "Butch" Graves, Jr. (1962 - ) was president and chief executive officer of Black Enterprise.

Employment

National Basketball Association

Black Enterprise

Charles Hobson

Television producer Charles Hobson was born on June 23, 1936 in Brooklyn, New York to Charles Samuel and Cordelia Victoria Hobson. He grew up in the Bedford-Stuyvesant and Crown Heights neighborhoods in Brooklyn, and, in 1960, he graduated from Brooklyn College. From 1962 to 1963, Hobson served in the United States Army as a private first class.

In 1963, Hobson was hired to host a radio show at WBAI, New York’s Pacifica station. He went on to be promoted to production director at WBAI, where he produced a variety of programs until 1967. Hobson was then hired as a producer for ABC-TV, WABC-TV in New York, and WETA-TV in Washington D.C. In 1968, he produced the television programs Inside Bedford-Stuyvesant and Like It Is, which won seven New York-area Emmy Awards. After attending Emory University from 1974 to 1976, Hobson was promoted to senior vice president of WETA and became a consultant for the National Endowment for the Arts. In 1980, he produced the PBS series From Jumpstreet: A Story of Black Music, and, in 1986, he was the producer of the nine-part series The Africans. In 1988, Hobson was hired as a consultant for the Jamaica Broadcasting Corporation. The following year, in 1989, he was hired as the director of market planning for WNET-TV. Hobson also worked on the six-part series Global Links, and the science series Spaces.

In the 1980s, Hobson launched the production company Vanguard Documentaries, where he served as executive producer and artistic head. Vanguard has produced a number of documentaries and shows since its inception, including Porgy and Bess: An American Voice, Model U.N. For Everyone, Global Classrooms, Negroes with Guns, and Harlem in Montmartre: Paris Jazz. Hobson has also lectured at several schools including Harvard University, Yale University, Vassar College, the State University of New York, and New York University’s Tisch School of the Arts. In 1996, he became a Fulbright Scholar and taught film in Munich, Germany.

Hobson has received multiple awards for his work in film. He has been awarded an Emmy, the Japan Prize ‘Special Citation,’ and the Golden Eagle Award from the Council on International Nontheatrical Events. Millimeter magazine has ranked Hobson as one of the fifty top producers in the film and television industry, and, in 2010, he was named a Black Media Legend by the McDonald’s Corporation. Hobson has served on the boards of the America the Beautiful Fund, the National Black Programming Consortium, and the Museum of Modern Art.

Hobson was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on October 23, 2013.

Hobson passed away on February 13, 2020.

Accession Number

A2013.267

Sex

Male

Archival Photo 1
Interview Date

10/23/2013

Last Name

Hobson

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Occupation
Schools

Brooklyn College

Emory University

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Charles

Birth City, State, Country

Brooklyn

HM ID

HOB02

Favorite Season

Fall

State

New York

Favorite Vacation Destination

Paris, France

Favorite Quote

Soon come.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Interview Description
Birth Date

6/23/1936

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New York

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Chicken

Death Date

2/13/2020

Short Description

Television producer Charles Hobson (1936 - 2020) , founder of Vanguard Documentaries, has produced a number of television programs including Like It Is, Harlem in Montmartre: Paris Jazz, Inside Bedford-Stuyvesant, From Jumpstreet: A Story of Black Music, Negroes with Guns, Porgy and Bess: An American Voice, and The Africans.

Employment

WBAI

ABC

WABC TV

WETA TV

National Endowment for the Arts (NEA)

Jamaica Broadcasting Corporation

WNET TV

Vanguard Documentaries

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:16338,134:28975,286:36752,376:37588,388:43979,449:53910,597:54710,612:55190,622:56950,645:61366,660:62052,669:68424,734:70696,782:72968,824:74104,842:85812,1028:86128,1033:88103,1069:91105,1123:114981,1454:115383,1461:124550,1597:124838,1602:128582,1676:136630,1792:143852,1887:145353,1920:152858,2089:153411,2097:156350,2102:168608,2284:169274,2295:169718,2304:170236,2313:175416,2428:175934,2435:178170,2440:191426,2579:192002,2591:192578,2603:195746,2641:213834,2857:214162,2863:227886,3059:244454,3202:247510,3298$0,0:2852,32:10842,188:11406,195:22734,304:24520,330:26024,353:30536,435:37240,490:37960,499:38320,504:42190,566:55056,736:57604,789:73984,917:78572,997:78868,1002:79164,1008:79460,1013:79756,1018:113838,1527:114090,1532:114342,1537:116440,1545:117848,1578:159930,2252:163831,2330:164163,2335:164495,2340:167400,2401:172724,2439:176728,2476:181712,2596:190300,2691:197850,2764:200400,2811:201250,2823:201590,2828:206535,2889:210810,2964:214850,3023:226078,3257:227014,3281:231110,3328
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Charles Hobson's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Charles Hobson lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Charles Hobson talks about the origin of his middle name

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Charles Hobson describes his father's family background.

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Charles Hobson describes leaving Brooklyn, New York to attend school in Jamaica when he was eleven years old

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Charles Hobson describes his father

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Charles Hobson describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Charles Hobson describes his childhood experience in Jamaica and his desire to identify as an American

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Charles Hobson describes both his family's view on African Americans from the Unites States and not the Carribean

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Charles Hobson describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Charles Hobson talks about his siblings and how he has not seen his sister in thirty years

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Charles Hobson describes his childhood experience at Ten Downing Street in Brooklyn, New York

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Charles Hobson describes his childhood eating habits and his tendency to identify with immigrants

Tape: 1 Story: 14 - Charles Hobson describes his Brooklyn family life and being in the boys' choir at Concord Baptist Church

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Charles Hobson talks about his attraction to African American family life and his fondness for family gatherings

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Charles Hobson describes the sights, sounds, and smells of his childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Charles Hobson talks about his affinity for the Dodgers and his hero, Jackie Robinson

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Charles Hobson talks about his experience in middle school at PS3

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Charles Hobson describes his formative encounter with African American literature as a youth.

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Charles Hobson talks about Brooklyn gangs and the cultural diversity on his neighborhood block

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Charles Hobson talks about his first social encounters with white women as a teenager

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Charles Hobson talks about his athletic ability and being on the Brooklyn College track team

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Charles Hobson talks about his childhood friends and his college job at Brooks Brothers

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Charles Hobson describes the diversity of his neighborhood

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Charles Hobson talks about his social life at Brooklyn College.

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Charles Hobson talks about his love of music and jazz culture

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Charles Hobson talks about his interest in magic

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Charles Hobson talks about his experience in the National Guard in 1962

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Charles Hobson talks about his first radio show for WBAI

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Charles Hobson talks about getting a position as a producer for ABC in 1967

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Charles Hobson talks about Bill Greaves and his role on the program 'Like It Is'

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Charles Hobson describes his professional relationship with Gil Noble, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Charles Hobson describes his professional relationship with Gil Noble, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Charles Hobson talks about joining the Writer's Guild and Mal Goode, the first black correspondent on ABC

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Charles Hobson talks about becoming a writer for the first African American television program, 'Inside Bed-Stuy'

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Charles Hobson discusses meeting Earl Graves and Senator Bobby Kennedy's assassination

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Charles Hobson talks about his second wife, Cheryl Chisholm

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Charles Hobson talks about his father's stroke and graduate school at Emory University

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Charles Hobson talks about his talent for raising money

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Charles Hobson talks about his work at WETA TV in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Charles Hobson talks about producing his first major documentary series, 'Jump Street' for PBS

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Charles Hobson talks about producing 'The Africans' for PBS

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Charles Hobson talks about the documentary series 'The Africans'

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Charles Hobson talks about the production of and fundraising for 'Harlem in Montmartre'

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Charles Hobson talks about the nature of fundraising

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Charles Hobson talks about producing the television project, 'Porgy and Bess', and a project on Black Germans

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Charles Hobson talks about his battle with cancer

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Charles Hobson talks about what differentiates him from other producers

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Charles Hobson talks about how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Charles Hobson describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Charles Hobson describes the essence of the black experience and the election of President Barack Obama

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Charles Hobson reflects upon his legacy

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$4

DAStory

9$7

DATitle
Charles Hobson talks about becoming a writer for the first African American television program, 'Inside Bed-Stuy'
Charles Hobson talks about the documentary series 'The Africans'
Transcript
So, so why don't you talk about 'Inside Bed-Stuy', can you do that for me? And not, not do it in reference to the articles, the many articles that have been written.$$'Inside Bed-Stuy' was a tactic started by the Kennedys, Bobby Kennedy was going to run for President, and part of his machinery was to have a good reputation in--he had a--there was a--the Bedford Stuyvesant Restoration Corporation was a kind of poverty a--poverty agency that was inspired or you know by, by Kennedy. And Kennedy ran, really, he had his people. You know I got to meet, you know people, Kennedy people. So and they wanted to start the first black television program and in America, right. And they ended up with--they had put a team together and they had a producer, a guy named--well he was a writer, a very--Leslie Lacy, he's written several books. A brilliant guy. I don't know where--what he's doing now. And he was a friend, you know, brilliant--he wrote about being, living in Africa and all. And I remember we had a drink and he said Charles [Hobson], you know, I can't work with these guys, you know you, you can work with white people, I can't, you know. He said I'm going to, I'm going to tell them to hire you. He didn't have any TV experience either, he was a--and I came out of radio. But I knew Bed-Sty and he knew--so I went and they hired me. He gave me the job, you know, Leslie. So then I became the writer. So I can see--so again we did things like the Persuasions, I remember we had--it was very eclectic, which I sort of like as you can guess. So we had like we had one of the high school, boy's high basketball star cause they'd won the championship that year. And--or a, you know the Persuasions, who I discovered, the group called the Persuasions, doo wop group. The guys went to the projects to interview them and they sang for me, you know and in one of their apartments and I thought this is amazing. So I booked them on the first show. And so we did everything--I'll tell you a story. We were talking about an old man that lived in the neighborhood, he had retired from entertainment world and you might want to put him on the show, you know this is about Bed-Sty. We put him on the show, it was Eubie Blake. You know he was about 79 at the time and because of that, he ended up having a--he lived to 100 and performed to 100, so that was a little--that was some of the--Bedford-Sty was a--was such a rich community, you know this was larger than, you know, 400,000, I think it was at the time 400,000 people. So this show looked at--we had no budget, you know we, we would put a camera in the middle of a house, a park and if it rained, we would--the guests had to use umbrellas. But we captured, you know, an amazing part of, of Brooklyn, you know. Of, of, of a black community. It's never done, never been done. So that, that was 'Inside Bed-Sty'. I was--I was honored at Lincoln Center, Morgan Meade Festival as a producer. And some of the--a couple of the people are still alive. So but most of them aren't, you know.$$So you--what's the--that was hosted--was Roxie Roker--$$Roxie Roker and Jim Lawry.$$Which is, you know he talks about that. I know him from Chicago and--$$He worked for McKenzie, right?$$Right, he worked for McKenzie, that's right.$So what did--how does this--how does it come about? Tell, tell us about not only what you did, but how you did it. We know that the BBC's [British Broadcasting Corporation] involved and you're saying that this was the legitimate co-production with the BBC. So as opposed to you were saying, you know, where BBC does it and you just are happy to slap your name on it as the co-producer. So tell, tell me about--cause I, I, I really think in terms of the, the, the subject matter and the research that went into it, and the information. You know as a viewer, you know who wasn't--I was viewing it. I'm not in production, really, I [unclear]. You know I was, I was struck. I mean I was learning all kinds of new things. And so my question is how did this--was it the, was it the BBC that first approached you, or vice versa, or who is doing what with this?$$I can tell you the story. They're, they're two very distinguished filmmakers, Albert, and I forgot his brother's name, Maysles, and they were, they were working with developing this with the, with the BBC. And then one of the brothers--German guys. One died, I forgot which one, but I said--they told PBS [Public Broadcasting Service], you know you really have to find a black producer, you know. Cause you know we, cause we, we want to do it but you know, it's Africa, everything. So they ended up recommending me and Susan Wild who is the Vice Pres--so that's how I got into 'The Africans'. Again, I, I've had some of the greatest things I've ever gotten into when someone said, you know, handed it to me, basically. You know like 'Like It Is' [unclear]. I, I, there was so many people involved with, with 'The Africans', and I couldn't say it's me, it's not me. It's David Harrison who was the BBC, British equivalent, Executive Producer. Brilliant, brilliant producer. He was about ten years older than me and he was very--and we--when it's a whole bunch of people, you know, it was--we did a book, we had various producers. You know we had three or four film crews. Two crews going at the same time in different parts of Africa, the world, yeah. So it was--they were different. And Ally Mesruley [ph.], you know. Oxford educated, Ally had, you know Ally--so a lot of people were involved. But you have to kind of keep as an Executive Producer, keep your eyes on the ball. Keep, keep the goal in sight, you know as things, you know as things move, move forward. So I think, I think we did that fairly well. So Ally--so it's, it's--film is a cooperative thing. You know like a big--like a documentary, a big thing. There's so many people involved. So yes, it wouldn't happen without me and--but there were a lot of people who, you know who I'd say even played greater roles doing execution of it. So--I like to look for things that were never done and, and even--like we're doing a much smaller--a smaller film crew for PBS on the Flat Iron, which is a wonderful building, Chicago [Illinois] influence. But no one's ever made it. Building on the most photographed--perhaps the most photographed building in New York [City], or in the world. One of the--you know, and with a great history. So we got the opportunity to do--and not even necessary--there was black stories in it, you know which you'll see. So that's kind of my motive.

Dr. Warren Goins

Physician Warren Goins was born on March 28, 1938 in Brooklyn, New York. He graduated from Lincoln University with his A.B. degree in chemistry in 1959. Inspired by his own physician, Dr. Aurelious King, Goins went on to attend Howard University’s College of Medicine. While he was on partial academic scholarships, Goins later found out that Dr. King was paying the balance of his tuition. He went on to graduate from the Howard University College of Medicine with his M.D. degree in 1963.

In 1963 and 1964, Goins interned at Maimonides Medical Center in Brooklyn. Then, from 1964 to 1967, he served as a captain in the United States Air Force, stationed in Wethersfield, England. Upon his return in 1967, Goins became a resident in internal medicine at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine at Montefiore Medical Center, where he then became a fellow in cardiovascular disease in 1969. Goins also served a fellowship at the Manhattan V.A. Hospital from 1970 until 1971. He went on to practice internal medicine with Preferred Health Partners at the Bedford Williamsburg Center in Brooklyn.

Goins and his wife, Charlynn Goins, have worked together in many philanthropic endeavors, helping organizations such as Boys and Girls Harbor, A Better Chance, the Gracie Mansion Conservancy, and the Brooklyn Museum, among others. In 2010, they made fractional gifts from their private collection of celebrated paintings by artists Robert S. Duncanson and Charles Ethan Porter to the Brooklyn Museum’s collecting initiative that focused on the acquisition of works by African American artists. Goins’ medical group has received many awards and honors for their work in the medical field, including the National Committee for Quality Assurance’s Physician Practice Connections Recognition Program in 2011, 2012 and 2013; and the National Committee for Quality Assurance’s Patient-Centered Medical Home Recognition Program in 2011, 2012 and 2013. Goins also received an award from the National Committee for Quality Assurance’s Diabetes Recognition Program in 2012.

Goins lives with his wife, Charlynn, in New York. They have two children: Hilary and Jeffrey, and four grandchildren.

Warren Goins was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on October 21, 2013.

Accession Number

A2013.276

Sex

Male

Archival Photo 1
Interview Date

10/21/2013

Last Name

Goins

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Harvey

Occupation
Organizations
Schools

Stuyvesant High School

Lincoln University

Howard University College of Medicine

First Name

Warren

Birth City, State, Country

Brooklyn

HM ID

GOI03

Favorite Season

Spring

State

New York

Favorite Vacation Destination

Southern France

Favorite Quote

I Can't.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Interview Description
Birth Date

3/28/1938

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New York

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Potatoes

Short Description

Physician Dr. Warren Goins (1938 - ) was a physician for over fifty years. He and his wife, Charlynn Goins, were well-known New York philanthropists who owned an important collection of nineteenth-century African American art.

Employment

Montefiore Hospital

Advantage Care Physicians

Manhattan V.A. Hospital

Maimonides Hospital

Favorite Color

Red

Timing Pairs
0,0:4221,129:5025,146:5494,154:5896,161:6164,166:6432,171:6968,180:7571,190:7839,195:8107,200:8710,210:9983,241:10921,259:14925,282:20028,400:40122,572:40394,577:41278,593:50870,678:58220,734:58736,742:59596,753:62195,792:62837,799:65191,825:73350,926:73938,933:77368,979:78054,990:81008,1011:81593,1017:82178,1024:96905,1208:98117,1233:100642,1294:101854,1307:102561,1316:103268,1324:106190,1335:106650,1341:107018,1346:107570,1354:109042,1426:118806,1521:122289,1608:123261,1627:123990,1639:124314,1644:124638,1649:125610,1671:141830,1840:148105,1866:148812,1874:152246,1922:153357,1934:153862,1941:161095,2000:177008,2193:184683,2284:185068,2290:191228,2416:191613,2422:197640,2497:201554,2557:206018,2630:206378,2636:209254,2650:213038,2731:215414,2769:215766,2774:216118,2781:216470,2789:223191,2850:225116,2883:226040,2899:226733,2909:227426,2921:227965,2929:228812,2945:233894,3044:234202,3049:234587,3056:235357,3068:237359,3107:242154,3141:243666,3167:245262,3195:246186,3209:247194,3239:247782,3247:259722,3438:260460,3453$0,0:5670,150:6230,160:6510,165:9870,279:10150,284:14320,298:17841,317:18745,327:19536,336:20101,342:20553,350:21005,355:23068,375:24186,390:24616,396:24960,401:25648,411:28404,429:28934,435:29358,440:33075,490:34563,520:36981,559:37632,569:41817,675:42468,683:43491,697:49225,790:49680,798:51760,804:52574,817:52944,823:53758,842:54424,847:55090,858:58173,885:59636,911:60560,924:61099,933:61715,985:62023,990:62485,998:65100,1007:66204,1021:67400,1036:68320,1047:68688,1052:69424,1062:70068,1071:72092,1103:82160,1183:82635,1192:84060,1223:85295,1243:85675,1248:89095,1305:91470,1344:96981,1366:98034,1384:98763,1409:102084,1469:102489,1475:102894,1481:103218,1486:103947,1496:104676,1502:107187,1549:108078,1563:108807,1573:109536,1585:110103,1593:111237,1606:112614,1620:113991,1636:121900,1678:123160,1698:123970,1709:126310,1754:127840,1773:128200,1778:131170,1831:131890,1840:134613,1864:138756,1929:141216,1973:142036,1985:143594,2031:153782,2207:154502,2223:159470,2335:163310,2365:164130,2426:168312,2487:169214,2501:171264,2540:172822,2561:179070,2625:180420,2634:180870,2641:181230,2646:188430,2798:191220,2847:196755,2881:197259,2891:198141,2906:198393,2911:198834,2920:200283,2947:200850,2964:201417,2977:201858,2989:202425,3000:202740,3006:207750,3069
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Dr. Warren Goins' interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Dr. Warren Goins lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Dr. Warren Goins describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Dr. Warren Goins talks about his father's Melungeon heritage

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Dr. Warren Goins describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Dr. Warren Goins talks about how his parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Dr. Warren Goins remembers his home life

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Dr. Warren Goins recalls the holidays

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Dr. Warren Goins describes his parents' personalities and who he takes after

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Dr. Warren Goins describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Dr. Warren Goins remembers Stuyvesant High School in New York City

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Dr. Warren Goins recalls his early aspirations to become a physician

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Dr. Warren Goins talks about his early influences

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Dr. Warren Goins describes his first impressions of Stuyvesant High School in New York City

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Dr. Warren Goins recalls his social activities

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Dr. Warren Goins remembers joining Jack and Jill of America, Inc.

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Dr. Warren Goins recalls meeting his wife

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Dr. Warren Goins describes his experiences with Jack and Jill of America, Inc.

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Dr. Warren Goins recalls his first impressions of Lincoln University in Pennsylvania

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Dr. Warren Goins talks about his leadership roles at Lincoln University

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Dr. Warren Goins describes his experiences at Lincoln University

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Dr. Warren Goins remembers his first impressions of his wife

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Dr. Warren Goins recalls entering the Howard University College of Medicine

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Dr. Warren Goins describes his classmates at the Howard University College of Medicine

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Dr. Warren Goins talks about his wife's college scholarship

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Dr. Warren Goins talks about the perceptions of African American doctors

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Dr. Warren Goins remembers marrying Charlynn Goins

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Dr. Warren Goins remembers his internship at Maimonides Hospital in Brooklyn, New York

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Dr. Warren Goins recalls living in England while serving in the U.S. military

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Dr. Warren Goins describes his travels in Europe

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Dr. Warren Goins remembers practicing medicine in England

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Dr. Warren Goins recalls observing the Civil Rights Movement while living abroad

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Dr. Warren Goins remembers returning to the United States

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Dr. Warren Goins describes the importance of board certification in the medical field

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Dr. Warren Goins talks about his early career as a cardiologist

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Dr. Warren Goins recalls obtaining his board certification

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Dr. Warren Goins remembers buying a home in New Rochelle, New York

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Dr. Warren Goins talks about the declining role of primary medicine

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Dr. Warren Goins recalls his wife's decision to attend Columbia Law School

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Dr. Warren Goins talks about the women's movement of the 1970s

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Dr. Warren Goins recalls the start of his wife's legal career

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Dr. Warren Goins describes his relationship with his children

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Dr. Warren Goins talks about Health Insurance Plan of Greater New York, Inc.

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Dr. Warren Goins recalls the success of AdvantageCare Physicians

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Dr. Warren Goins talks about the changes in the health insurance industry

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Dr. Warren Goins describes his approach to patient care

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Dr. Warren Goins talks about his administrative experiences at AdvantageCare Physicians in New York City

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Dr. Warren Goins shares his views on the future of medicine

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Dr. Warren Goins talks about the challenges he faced during his career

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Dr. Warren Goins recalls starting his art collection

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Dr. Warren Goins describes his art collection

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Dr. Warren Goins talks about acquiring the pieces in his art collection

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Dr. Warren Goins describes the artists in his art collection

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Dr. Warren Goins talks about the importance of the black art collectors

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Dr. Warren Goins reflects upon his life

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Dr. Warren Goins describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Dr. Warren Goins talks about his concerns for the future of African American physicians, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Dr. Warren Goins talks about his concerns for the future of African American physicians, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Dr. Warren Goins reflects upon his legacy and how he would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$5

DAStory

5$2

DATitle
Dr. Warren Goins recalls living in England while serving in the U.S. military
Dr. Warren Goins talks about his administrative experiences at AdvantageCare Physicians in New York City
Transcript
Then you get drafted [into the U.S. military]. Is that when you get drafted?$$Yeah, they had the Berry Plan. So, you signed up when you were in medical school that they wouldn't interfere with your education until you finished either your residency or your internship. So, I had signed up to go in after my internship [at Maimonides Hospital; Maimonides Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York] and in that, all my other friends didn't have to go because they were not physicians but they were drafting physicians. I had no choice, and so in, I guess it was '64 [1964], we were able to call up Washington, D.C., and speak to somebody and they, at that time I was drafted for two years and we offered to, if they sent me to Europe, I'd stay an additional year so that's what they did and I was really thinking of France at the time, and de Gaulle [Charles de Gaulle] kicked us out of France in '62 [1962], so I--$$You meant the United States.$$Yeah. So I went to, I was stationed outside of London [England] for three years, which was great.$$So, describe the experience.$$Well, it was very, very pleasant. We were in the little town of Wethersfield [England]. It was sort of equidistant between London and Cambridge [England]. We went, Charlynn [HistoryMaker Charlynn Goins] had a letter of introduction from her history professor, whose wife went to Cambridge [University of Cambridge, Cambridge, England]--I guess in the late '20s [1920s] or '30s [1930s]--was a Cambridge grad. Sorry, I can't remember all of these names but, at any rate, when we went, we were a little reluctant to go because we were both young at this time and we knew this lady had to be in her sixties, but we did go visit her and when we got there she, a little town pretty close to where I was stationed. You know, the streets were named after her parents and everything, and they, she started inviting us to her parties that she had and one interesting thing, when I was getting ready to come back home, I talked about English, they were all sort of very soft, wore knickers. They called themselves farmers but they were all, they all were Cambridge grads and they all were talking about their poultry farm and this farm and they, I'm sure they were MI5 [Security Service] by this group. This was the ideal group for it. At any rate, I, we were getting ready to come back home--this was after three years--and they asked me, "Well, where else are you going?" And I said, "Well, we couldn't go to the continent," meaning France, and they said, I told them I had run out of money, and they said, "You know, we never met an American who ran out of money before." And that, I found very amusing (laughter). Never met an American who had run out of money.$$So she was nice to you then.$$Very nice. Used to include us in all her parties and--not all her parties but a good number of them--so we got a chance to see a different side of the English countryside and remember, 'Europe on 5 Dollars a Day' [Arthur Frommer] was very popular then, so as a captain with five years' experience, overseas pay and we didn't live on the base. They only had some fighter pilots and some important people who took care of the planes on the base and we lived in a little country village so, it was very good. We could jump in our car and drive to Paris [France] for the weekend, a long weekend, they didn't care if the doctors were on the base or not as long as one of them was there.$So you took on an administrative--I'm trying to understand the key, if you could help me--$$Yeah (simultaneous).$$--(simultaneous) understand the key things in your career.$$Well, I wasn't, while I was chief of medicine [for AdvantageCare Physicians, New York, New York], saw my full contingent of patients and I was involved, like for about four or five years, all of these eight centers, would send people to specialists and I would look over the referrals and sometimes I would call the doctor and ask, "Why are they sending this patient out," because one thing, we were an HMO [health maintenance organization], with a collective set amount of money and when you went to another doctor on the outside, the insurance company, they would bill the insurance company and then the insurance company would subtract the money from us and it was some service we could provide. Our group, before we had all of this condensation into one group [EmblemHealth, Inc., New York, New York], was very good in terms of following the directions and monitoring what should be done and what shouldn't be done. So, we were, things were good and probably, if anything, they were overpaid, you know, from the state and you know, 'cause one time, when we had a very good accountant who was on the parent company's board of directors, Rappaport [ph.], and he was basically a part time physician, a part time accountant with our group, but he was one of these men who must have been there sixty hours like everybody else, looking at the paper clips and turning off the lights in the different offices and running around, but, anyway it was interesting. I enjoyed what I did and we opened up a new center in Bay Ridge section of Brooklyn [New York] and I wrote a lot of the checks, too, and I just remembered during the summer, I wrote for twenty-one thousand dollars for an electric bill and I was saying, "Look, why have we got to have twenty-one thousand dollars?" This is a month for the electric in this building and it was a two story or three story, and they said, "Oh, you've got an elevator." And I said, "Look, twenty-one thousand--." And this was air conditioned. This was during the summer and you'd go to the place, you'd be freezing and I said, "Look, let's cut off the air conditioning." We didn't have the ability to cut off the air conditioning in that building because New York [New York] had all the controls over in New York, so they keep the air condition blasting, they keep the lights on all night, and then we get this twenty-one thousand dollar bill that we had to pay and, anyway, it was a lot of, some of it was humorous when I look back.$$But wait a minute. So, you're really talking administrative role too, with the practice--$$Yeah, we did, well, we were a partnership and we had administrators but, you know, the doctors looked over what they could. We weren't doing the administrative work with the employees or anything like that, but we was writing the, signing the checks and which money went out, and questioned what we thought was appropriate.