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Robert Goodwin

Robert Kerr Goodwin was born on November 15, 1948, in Tulsa, Oklahoma; his mother was a teacher and social worker, and his father was a business owner and attorney. At the age of fifteen, Goodwin became a licensed preacher and planned to pursue a career in the ministry; in 1966 he earned his high school diploma from Bishop Kelley Catholic School where he worked on the school paper, was a member of the student government, year book, and chess clubs, and was the first black student body president.

From 1966 until 1970, Goodwin attended Oral Roberts University, where he earned his B.A. degree. At Oral Roberts University, Goodwin was a member of the student ministering team and traveled around the world preaching. In 1973, Goodwin earned his M.A. degree in philosophy from San Francisco Theological Seminary.

Upon completing his master’s degree, Goodwin was summoned back to Tulsa by his father to run the family-owned newspaper, The Oklahoma Eagle. Goodwin operated the paper until 1981; during his tenure he increased the readership and converted the printing to a more efficient, cost effective process. Between 1981 and 1985, Goodwin sold encyclopedias in Texas, accumulating a million dollars in sales in a five-year period. From 1985 until 1989, Goodwin worked as a printing consultant, lobbyist, director of public affairs, and associate vice president for university relations at Prairie View and Texas A&M Universities. While working at Texas A&M, Goodwin led the Democrats for Bush campaign. Goodwin's activities caught the attention of the Bush Administration and he was offered a position with the Department of Education working on the White House Initiative on Historically Black Colleges, a position he held from 1989 until 1992. In 1992, Goodwin was hired as the executive vice president of the Points of Light Foundation, an organization responsible for assisting and encouraging citizens to engage in volunteer service; he went on to serve as president and CEO of the organization. In 2007, Goodwin announced his retirement from the Points of Light Foundation, after over fifteen years of service.

For his civic and community achievements, Goodwin received numerous awards and honors.

Goodwin was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on August 26, 2004.

Accession Number

A2004.148

Sex

Male

Archival Photo 1
Interview Date

8/26/2004

Last Name

Goodwin

Maker Category
Organizations
Schools

Bishop Kelley High School

Oral Roberts University

San Francisco Theological Seminary

First Name

Robert

Birth City, State, Country

Tulsa

HM ID

GOO04

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Oklahoma

Favorite Vacation Destination

Sydney, Australia

Favorite Quote

I Can't Do Everything, But I Can Do Something.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Interview Description
Birth Date

11/15/1948

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Potato Chips

Short Description

Foundation chief executive Robert Goodwin (1948 - ) served the George H.W. Bush Administration, working on the White House Initiative on Historically Black Colleges. Goodwin went on to serve as president and CEO of the Points of Light Foundation for over fifteen years.

Employment

Oklahoma Eagle

Prairie View A&M University

Texas A&M University

United States Department of Education

Points of Light Foundation

Favorite Color

Red

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/238259">Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Robert Goodwin's interview</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/238260">Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Robert Goodwin lists his favorites and states his occupation</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/238261">Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Robert Goodwin talks about his mother</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/238262">Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Robert Goodwin talks about his father</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/238263">Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Robert Goodwin talks about his father's reputation in Tulsa, Oklahoma</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/238264">Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Robert Goodwin recalls the prominent African Americans that stayed with his family in Tulsa, Oklahoma</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/238265">Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Robert Goodwin recalls life lessons from his mother</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/238266">Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Robert Goodwin shares the story of his parents' marriage</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/238267">Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Robert Goodwin describes his racial background</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/238268">Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Robert Goodwin remembers his grandparents</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/238269">Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Robert Goodwin recalls his earliest childhood memories, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/238418">Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Robert Goodwin recalls his earliest childhood memories, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/238419">Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Robert Goodwin describes his family's holiday traditions</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/238420">Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Robert Goodwin describes his siblings</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/238421">Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Robert Goodwin reflects upon his childhood in Alsuma, Oklahoma</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/238422">Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Robert Goodwin recalls the sounds, sights and smells of his childhood in Alsuma, Oklahoma</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/238423">Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Robert Goodwin describes his schooling in Alsuma, Oklahoma</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/238424">Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Robert Goodwin describes race relations while growing up near Tulsa, Oklahoma</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/238425">Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Robert Goodwin talks about his mother's teaching career</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/238426">Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Robert Goodwin recalls his childhood interests and personality</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/238427">Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Robert Goodwin recalls transferring to Bishop Kelley High School in Tulsa, Oklahoma</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/238280">Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Robert Goodwin recalls being elected student body president at Bishop Kelley High School in Tulsa, Oklahoma</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/238281">Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Robert Goodwin explains why he attended Oral Roberts University in Tulsa, Oklahoma</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/238282">Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Robert Goodwin talks about the perceptions of the newly-opened Oral Roberts University in Tulsa, Oklahoma</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/238283">Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Robert Goodwin describes his experience at Oral Roberts University in Tulsa, Oklahoma</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/238284">Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Robert Goodwin talks about evangelist Oral Roberts</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/238285">Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Robert Goodwin reflects upon his education's impact on his religious life</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/238286">Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Robert Goodwin talks about his decision to leave San Francisco Theological Seminary in San Anselmo, California to take over his father's newspaper business</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/238287">Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Robert Goodwin remembers assuming leadership of The Oklahoma Eagle at twenty-three years old</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/238288">Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Robert Goodwin talks about business changes he oversaw at his family newspaper business, The Oklahoma Eagle</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/238289">Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Robert Goodwin talks about The Oklahoma Eagle's coverage of school desegregation in Tulsa, Oklahoma</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/238290">Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Robert Goodwin describes what he liked best about running The Oklahoma Eagle</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/238291">Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Robert Goodwin describes working as an encyclopedia salesman in the 1980s</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/238292">Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Robert Goodwin talks about working for Prairie View Agricultural and Mechanical University in Prairie View, Texas</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/238293">Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Robert Goodwin talks about his involvement with the Republican Party</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/238294">Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Robert Goodwin recalls the circumstances of his firing from the White House Initiative on Historically Black Colleges and Universities</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/238295">Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Robert Goodwin talks about joining the Points of Light Foundation in Washington, D.C.</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/238296">Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Robert Goodwin describes the origins of the Points of Light Foundation in Washington, D.C.</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/238297">Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Robert Goodwin explains the Points of Light Foundation's mission and his role in the organization</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/238298">Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Robert Goodwin talks about motivations for volunteering and its decreasing prominence in society</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/238299">Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Robert Goodwin dispels misconceptions about African Americans' volunteering habits</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/238300">Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Robert Goodwin reflects upon his life, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/238301">Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Robert Goodwin describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/238302">Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Robert Goodwin describes how he would like to be remembered</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/238303">Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Robert Goodwin reflects upon his life, pt. 2</a>

DASession

1$1

DATape

1$3

DAStory

4$8

DATitle
Robert Goodwin talks about his father
Robert Goodwin remembers assuming leadership of The Oklahoma Eagle at twenty-three years old
Transcript
Let's talk a little bit about your father now, starting with his name, where he was born, same thing.$$My father is--was--Edwin, but, later changed his name to Edward Lawrence Goodwin. He was born also at the turn of the century in Water Valley, Mississippi. He used to say that he left Water Valley as soon as he was old enough to walk. His father [James Henri Goodwin] was a businessman in that community and then relocated to Oklahoma and he went to Fisk [University, Nashville, Tennessee], there he met my mother [Jeanne Osby Goodwin]. He played football there; he was very much the debonair man about town. His, his, nickname growing up, but in college was Sugar man. He left Fisk with a degree in education, came back to Tulsa [Oklahoma], his proposal to and marriage to my mother was somewhat unorthodox but, say, perhaps a word in a moment, but, they decided he couldn't make any money teaching school and so he started a series of small businesses as an entrepreneur. He had a haberdashery, a shop, and an ice cream parlor and a tavern all the sort of steady succession and (clears throat) got involved eventually in the numbers racket in Tulsa and became pretty good at it and became sort of known as the man in, in, in that community. And there are a lot of colorful stories about his life there. He had an opportunity to get in the newspaper business and again, through a series of events where he felt that he wanted to have his own vehicle to communicate with the community and he purchased a small tabloid publication [The Tulsa Star] that became a well-respected weekly newspaper [The Oklahoma Eagle] serving the black community in Tulsa. And, as a matter of fact, during his career in the numbers racket he got into some financial difficulty at one point and he was very close to Senator Robert [S.] Kerr of Kerr-McGee Oil [Industries, Inc.], Bob Kerr was a very prominent and powerful senator and a mentor to L.B.J. [President Lyndon Baines Johnson] and my father used to basically take care of things for him in the black community. So he gets into this financial difficulty and he goes to the senator and I don't know if it was $5000 or $50,000 but for a black man in Oklahoma in the 1940s it was a lot of money. Senator Kerr hearing about his need reached for his checkbook and he said, "Ed, I've got one question for you" he said, "am I giving this to you or am I loaning it to you?" and my father said, "no, Senator, it's a loan," and so he wrote out the check, well, I came out Robert Kerr Goodwin, my, my--that's my middle name, in gratitude for the senator's involvement. He later went to law school and helped to integrate the law school of The University of Tulsa [The University of Tulsa College of Law, Tulsa, Oklahoma]. He practiced law for twenty years before his, before his death in 1978. So, he was a very hard driving, aggressive, community-oriented individual who left his own great legacy in, in our community.$And I remember I, I went to bed early, my mother [Jeanne Osby Goodwin] got me up at the crack of, I mean, even before dawn, had to be five 'o clock in the morning, she had fixed this big country breakfast, grits and ham and eggs and all. My father [Edward Goodwin] was the type that he believed at being at his business [The Oklahoma Eagle] with the crack of dawn and he'd be out on the front yard--front sidewalk sweeping the, the sidewalk and whatever. Well, we went to his--to the office, he gave me a set of keys and showed me what door they opened, he gave me the combination to the safe in the wall in his office and he gave--and when the bank opened at nine o'clock we drove there and we signed the signature card so I can sign the checks and he said, "I'll see ya" (gestures waving good bye) and he went and started raising catfish on the tanks in our property outside of Tulsa [Oklahoma]. And I became, at twenty-three years old, never having had a course in business having (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Or journalism.$$Well, I took one course--$$Oh.$$--of journalism in high school [Bishop Kelley High School, Tulsa, Oklahoma] and worked on the school paper, and I became a publisher of the weekly newspaper. And even though, you know, as I think back on it, you know, again, I've got these seven brothers and sisters, all of whom were older, all of whom were, in my view, perhaps better qualified to assume this business but I guess either they were all doin' their own thing, or for some reason he felt comfortable with my ability because of what I had achieved through my student career and I suppose because of a level of maturity that I had displayed, that I was capable of undertaking this responsibility.$$And how would you describe the paper, The Oklahoma Eagle? Is it conservative paper, how would you describe the paper?$$No, it was known as the liberal rag (laughter), you know, there's a great tradition of black press that we were very part--proud part of, The Chicago Daily Defender [Chicago Defender], The Pittsburgh Courier [New Pittsburgh Courier], The Michigan Courier [sic.], The [Michigan] Chronicle, and The Oklahoma Eagle, now we were not as old as some of those publications and obviously not in as densely populate black community (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Right.$$--one of the problems that we ever had with making money with the paper was that there were only forty thousand blacks in the whole town and that was not a sufficient circulation base to attract national advertising which the other papers I mentioned were able to attract. So, it was never a major financial success, but my father didn't do it for the money and he, he wanted to have a voice in the community. But it was very much a progressive voice and remains today a progressive voice in the community an (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) In the African American community?$$In the African American community and I think over the years has had a certain level of influence in the, the white community as well. You know, the three most persistent, and perhaps important institutions in the black community have been the church, the school and the press and so it took its place in that leadership echelon and I was proud to run it for nearly ten years.

Bobby William Austin

Foundation executive Bobby William Austin was born in Jonesville, Kentucky on December 29, 1944. His father, Herschel, worked as a porter on the L&N Railroad, and his mother, Mary, was a homemaker. His mother also instilled in him a passion that would remain with Austin throughout his life: literature. As a child, he would receive books for Christmas instead of toys, and he would carry them everywhere with him. After graduating from the High Street High School in Bowling Green, Kentucky, Austin went on to attend Western Kentucky University, also in Bowling Green, earning his B.A. degree in economics and sociology in 1966. From there, he attended Fisk University, earning his master’s degree in sociology in 1968 and then went on to earn his Ph.D. from McMaster University in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada in 1972.

After completing his doctoral studies, Austin relocated to Washington, D.C., where he became involved with a number of organizations. He was the founder and editor of the Urban League Review, and he also served as a partner with Austin Ford Associates, a Washington, D.C. based consulting firm. Following these positions, Austin became an executive assistant to the president of the University of the District of Columbia (UDC), and later served as an assistant to the UDC Board of Trustees and the late Secretary of Commerce Ron Brown. He has also worked as a speechwriter for former Housing and Urban Development Secretary Patricia Roberts Harris and the former mayor of Washington, D.C. Sharon Pratt Kelly. From 1986 until 1998, Austin was the program director for the W.K. Kellogg Foundation.

In 1997, Austin founded the Village Foundation, an organization dedicated to “repairing the breach” between African American males and the rest of society. Its mission is to engage African American young men and boys in American society, by reconnecting them first to their local communities and then to the larger society. One of the leading initiatives of the Village Foundation today is the Give a Boy a Book Day campaign. This program is designed to encourage reading and literacy in young African American men. He continues to serve there as the president and CEO.

Austin is active in a number of areas in addition to his work with the Village Foundation. He serves as the Mohatma M.K. Gandhi Fellow of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, and he serves on the boards of the National Housing Trust and the National Institute for Urban Wildlife. He is also the co-author of Repairing the Breach with Andrew Young. Austin is also listed in Who’s Who in Black America, Outstanding Young Men of America and Men of Achievement among others.

Accession Number

A2004.119

Sex

Male

Interview Date

8/5/2004

Last Name

Austin

Maker Category
Middle Name

William

Organizations
Schools

High Street High School

Hunt Intermediate School

Fisk University

Western Kentucky University

McMaster University

First Name

Bobby

Birth City, State, Country

Jonesville

HM ID

AUS01

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Kentucky

Favorite Vacation Destination

Ocean

Favorite Quote

Social Infrastructure

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Interview Description
Birth Date

12/29/1944

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Fried Chicken

Short Description

Foundation executive Bobby William Austin (1944 - ) is the founder of the Village Foundation, established to mentor young African American men. Austin has been recognized for his work, with listings in Who’s Who in Black America and Outstanding Young Men of America, among others.

Employment

Urban League Review

Austin Ford Associates

University of the District of Columbia

United States Department of Commerce

United States Department of Housing and Urban Development

District of Columbia

W.K. Kellogg Foundation

Village Foundation

American Academy of Political and Social Science

Favorite Color

Gray

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/120675">Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Bobby William Austin's interview</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/120676">Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Bobby William Austin lists his favorites</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/120677">Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Bobby William Austin talks about his mother's family background</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/120678">Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Bobby William Austin talks about his maternal grandfather, and his mother's upbringing in Kentucky</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/120679">Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Bobby William Austin talks about how his parents met</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/120680">Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Bobby William Austin talks about his father's family background</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/120681">Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Bobby William Austin talks about meeting a white cousin at a work retreat</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/120682">Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Bobby William Austin talks about his paternal great-grandmother, Amanda Wormley</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/120683">Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Bobby William Austin describes his earliest childhood memory</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/120684">Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Bobby William Austin talks about his siblings</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/120685">Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Bobby William Austin describes the sounds, sights, and smells of his childhood</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/120272">Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Bobby William Austin talks about his childhood in Jonesville, Kentucky</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/120273">Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Bobby William Austin talks about visiting Western Kentucky University in Bowling Green, Kentucky as a child</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/120274">Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Bobby William Austin talks about attending Delafield Elementary School in Warren County, Kentucky</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/120275">Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Bobby William Austin talks about the lessons he learned in elementary school</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/120276">Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Bobby William Austin talks about the lack of lights growing up in the country</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/120277">Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Bobby William Austin describes attending High Street High School in Bowling Green, Kentucky</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/120278">Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Bobby William Austin describes his high school English teacher, Mrs. Nichols</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/120279">Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Bobby William Austin talks about his high school activities</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/120280">Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Bobby William Austin talks about playing the piano and drums</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/120281">Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Bobby William Austin talks about his career aspirations and his decision to go to Western Kentucky University in Bowling Green, Kentucky</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/120282">Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Bobby William Austin talks about attending Western Kentucky University as an undergraduate</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/120686">Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Bobby William Austin reflects on attending Western Kentucky University in Bowling Green, Kentucky</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/120687">Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Bobby William Austin talks about his graduate school experience at Fisk University in Nashville, Tennessee</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/120688">Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Bobby William Austin talks about his professors at Fisk University in Nashville, Tennessee</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/120689">Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Bobby William Austin describes the community at Fisk University in Nashville, Tennessee</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/120690">Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Bobby William Austin talks about Howard Brotz, his mentor at McMaster University in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/120691">Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Bobby William Austin talks about Howard Brotz, his mentor at McMaster University in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/120692">Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Bobby William Austin talks about his doctoral studies at McMaster University in Hamilton, Ontario</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/120693">Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Bobby William Austin talks about creating a national policy journal with the National Urban League</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/120694">Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Bobby William Austin talks about the atmosphere in Washington D.C. in the 1970s</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/120695">Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Bobby William Austin talks about the Urban League Review</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/120696">Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Bobby William Austin talks about working at the National Endowment for the Humanities and for the Board of Higher Education</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/120697">Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Bobby William Austin talks about his career in the early 1980s</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/120698">Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Bobby William Austin talks about his W.K. Kellogg Leadership Network Fellowship and an incidence of racial profiling with his son</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/120699">Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Bobby William Austin talks about his programming for African American men and boys through the Kellogg Foundation</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/120700">Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Bobby William Austin talks about the Village Foundation</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/120701">Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Bobby William Austin talks about his entrance into youth work</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/120702">Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Bobby William Austin talks about his book, "The End of Race"</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/120703">Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Bobby William Austin talks about the difference between race and ethnicity</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/120704">Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Bobby William Austin talks about black stereotypes</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/120302">Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Bobby William Austin talks about race in the United States</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/120303">Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Bobby William Austin talks about the work of the Village Foundation</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/120304">Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Bobby William Austin talks about the importance of geography to cultural identity</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/120305">Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Bobby William Austin talks about racial classification in the United States</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/120306">Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Bobby William Austin describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/120307">Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Bobby William Austin reflects on his life</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/120308">Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Bobby William Austin talks about his family</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/120309">Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Bobby William Austin reflects upon his legacy</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/120310">Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Bobby William Austin reflects on his hopes for the coming century</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/120311">Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Bobby William Austin reflects upon how he would like to be remembered</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/122013">Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Bobby William Austin narrates his photographs</a>

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$4

DAStory

3$6

DATitle
Bobby William Austin talks about his programming for African American men and boys through the Kellogg Foundation
Bobby William Austin talks about his book, "The End of Race"
Transcript
Here my kid [Julian Austin] had grown up my children had grown up in Washington, D.C., and nothing had ever happened to them. We moved to this little town [Battle Creek, Michigan], and my son is branded a gang member just by showing up. And so the [Kellogg] Foundation was embarrassed; I was--it was just a mess. And I said, you know, "I will bring everyone that I know in Washington [D.C.] down here, and we will just decimate this place. I can't believe you have done this to my child." Who was, you know, here he's a junior high school student, and he's petrified, you know. Well, he claims he wasn't but he was, you know; you could tell. Well, they told me that they were sorry, of course, and, you know, what can you do? If someone says they're sorry, they're sorry. And my son went on; he was gonna--played ball and all those things, but it was really awful for me. I did not like it, and eventually one of the vice presidents I guess said to me, "Well Bobby, you know, you're in a place with a lot of money. If you really believe that you can make a difference as to what happens to the African American men, why don't you do something here with all of the money that we have?" That's exactly how he said it, well I was like okay (laughter) what do I do, you know? You may have all this money, but you gotta have a plan. You gotta, and that's what got me started with this road dealing with African American men. They allowed me to bring everybody out there, you know, money was no expense. No--$$Who were some of the people you brought out there?$$Aw man, everybody.$$So I know there are a lot of programs, there are Rites of Passage programs--$$I--most of those I funded.$$Yeah, or-$$I brought, first I brought all the, the activists and the intellectuals. So we could, we went around the country so we can find out what should be done. I had [HM] Haki [Madhubuti], [HM] Lerone Bennett, I had [HM] Ramona Edelin, I had the Urban League, I had NAACP. I had everybody; we talked about that.$$Jawanza Kunjufu was a part of that?$$Kunjufu came; yes, I do believe he did come to one of those. So there was just a massive group of people that we put together and came up with what we called an initiative. And I put about $30 million at that period into funding the--what we consider the best of these programs. There were about 35 of them. About 200,000 boys were involved, and that included Rites of Passage programs, leadership program, funded Steadman Graham's Athletes Against Drugs program. I funded the ancillary programs 'cause I--my, my belief was that this was not, I would not let people say it was violence 'cause they kept saying black boys are violent. What I said is black boys need options; violence is a symptom of something gone wrong. You're violent when you can't make the right choices--you don't know how to make the right choices. So, if you learn leadership development skills, you learn how to lead yourself out of trouble. And, therefore, all my grantmaking, all my funding, we insisted that they had to have the leadership component in it. Not an anti-violence program but a leadership component. And it changed really the complexion of how people begun, began to look at, you know, young men and what we had to do for them. That was very successful. It was so successful at one point that we had so many people calling the, the foundation from the U.S. and abroad, they, they eventually said this is too big. You're going to have to move this outside, outside of the (laughter) foundation. They then created a national task force which was headed by, or I created it and I was the head of the--I was the director of the task force--headed by [HM] Andrew Young. And on that was a blue ribbon group of people who served on that--black-and-white who served on that task force. And we came out with the report which is now a kind of a legendary report called Repairing the Breach. And Repairing the Breach is used in many universities and colleges today. As a textbook, Repairing the Breach is about how to repair civil society and how to bring boys and their families back into the life of these communities. And it's just a blueprint, when, when it came out I--it was, you know, press releases were sent everywhere. And [HM William] Bill Raspberry did a column and the--in the column it says this is the plan to save America. And that kind of tag when you say this is the plan to save America people were calling in Battle Creek saying do you think you could live up to this? I said no I can't live up to that but, you know. I'm glad that, that he thinks that because means that it has hit a chord with a lot of people, and it did.$So now the, the Village Foundation--you left it in what, what year?$$Well I left it three years ago.$$Okay.$$So this is '04 [2004] three, two, '01 [2001].$$Okay, so since that time you've been?$$Since that time I was vice president over at UDC [University of the District of Columbia, Washington, D.C.]. And now working on my, my book, two books. One is "The Diversity in American Common Culture," which is done. And the other book is called "The End of Race" and I'm working on that now.$$Now that's really a charged up--$$(laughter) trying to charge black people I guess (laughter).$$--title. "End of race" now, you know, and you know why the charges black people up 'cause it's similar to (simultaneous)?$$No, why does it (laughter).$$Well similar to [William] Julius Wilson's "The Declining Significance of Race."$$Yeah, yeah (laughter).$$And there are, you know, mostly you hear a lot of the conservative, like Armstrong Williams--$$Yeah.$$--and people say that race doesn't matter anymore.$$Well.$$And just to, you know, but, you know (simultaneous).$$I think he said that out of ignorance (laughter) I'm not, I'm not saying that (simultaneous).$$Okay.$$I--no, race is a social construct. It never existed any way. And it was constructed so that we would be so that we would be slaves we would accept it the white people could accept it pretend that God wanted it, and they could proceed on with their lives. I think it's time we help them understand that that won't work anymore. It gives us a whole new lens on life because the new biology and I use a lot of biology a lot of science in this. The new biology says that everybody in the world is descended from an African Eve. So if all men are descended from an African Eve, we're all one family. They're all Africans; we're all Africans. There is no such thing as a race. It really is a social construct constructed by certain European scientists, and it was used just like religion was used to as an ideology to, to move a society and a world to where we are today. I mean, and some parts of it were good some parts of it were bad. Now what we did was we did the best anybody in the world could do with it, I mean, we took it and we made is something that even they don't understand yet. I don't think we understand what we've done. We've--I mean, I've heard Jimmy [James] Baldwin, I mean, I got to meet him say, you know, we've created a culture that's known around the world in less than 200 years. That's pretty doggone good we make the world move. The world moves to our rhythms, to our songs no matter what they are. Even if you don't even like rap, it moves to that. Even if you don't like the spirituals ones. When they were introduced to the world, it changed how the world thought. It changed how people did things. I want us to see that we are change agents. We are not bound by something called race which is a horrible construct that we worship. It's a bad thing to worship because as [W.E.B] Du Bois said, I had nothing to do with my skin color. I just got here, and whatever those genes were that were working on that day, I mean, I could've looked like pitch coal 'cause I really got some really black ancestors. Or I could of been white with blue eyes. Just depending on oh how those genes got mixed when I came out that's who I am and so I don't own my--I don't have any homage to my skin color. What I have though is I understand why people do because the context the construct that we had to live under forged a culture that we had to create for ourselves. But that creates, that culture was to help us overcome. When those slaves came out of freedom they understood they had to create institutions to overcome. So they did those schools, and they work with those missionaries to do that and that first group with, with when you look at those abolitionists and you look at the, the Fisk Jubilee Singers, they created a whole new world through intellect, I call it, 'cause certainly that's what Mr. [Frederick] Douglas was and through the spirituals to see ourselves differently in the world. Then you come right down to [W.E.B.] Du Bois, who took intellect even further and set a blueprint for freedom. And then you go right to [Reverend Dr. Martin Luther] King [Jr.], who led us to that freedom. Now, what do we do with that freedom now that we're there? I think we have to say, "Thank you; this is great. We stand on that. Now world, let's talk about who we really are." And that's what the book is about.

Wilhelmina Rolark

Lifelong civil rights and community activist, attorney and politician Wilhelmina Rolark was born on September 27, 1916 in Portsmouth, Virginia. She attended Truxton elementary school in the Truxton area of Portsmouth until seventh grade. In 1933, Rolark graduated from I.C. Norcum High School in Portsmouth .

Following her high school graduation, Rolark attended Howard University from 1933-1937 where she earned bachelor’s and master’s of arts degrees in political science. While at Howard, she studied under Ralph Bunche. In 1944, while working at the Treasury Department and going to law school at night, she earned her bachelor’s of law degree from the Robert H. Terrell Law School in Washington, D.C.

As a young attorney practicing law in the 1940s, she worked on many civil rights cases. In 1970, she founded the National Association of Black Women Attorneys. Following on the footsteps of a successful law career, she set her sights on politics.

In 1969, Rolark and her husband, the late Dr. Calvin Rolark, founded the United Black Fund, a non-profit organization that provides funding to community-based organizations. Rolark served as the group’s General Counsel, where she won major legal battles against United Givers Fund and the Civil Service Commission discriminating against black and other minorities.

In 1976, Rolark was elected to represent residents of Ward 8 on the Washington, D.C. city council, where she went on to serve four consecutive terms. While on the council, she chaired several committees including the committee on Employment and Economic Development, Public Service and Consumer Affairs and Judiciary. Rolark also served on the Sentencing Guidelines Commission of the D.C. Superior court.

As a legislator, Rolark was responsible for a number of laws including the legislation that created the D.C. Energy Office, the Bank Depository Act, the law that triples the penalties for PCP distribution and the law that brought cable television to D.C.

Upon the untimely death of her husband in 1994, she was unanimously elected as the President /CEO of the United Black Fund, a position she held for twelve years. Rolark also served on the National Board of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference.

Rolark passed away on February 14, 2006.

Accession Number

A2004.053

Sex

Female

Interview Date

5/19/2004

Last Name

Rolark

Maker Category
Middle Name

Wilhelmina

Organizations
Schools

Truxton Elementary School

I.C. Norcom High School

Robert H. Terrell Law School

Howard University

First Name

Margaret

Birth City, State, Country

Portsmouth

HM ID

ROL01

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Virginia

Favorite Quote

Keep On Pushing.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Interview Description
Birth Date

9/27/1916

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Vegetables

Death Date

2/14/2006

Short Description

Foundation chief executive Wilhelmina Rolark (1916 - 2006 ) founded the United Black Fund, and the National Association of Black Women Attorneys. In 1976, she was elected to the Washington, D.C. City Council, where she went on to serve four consecutive terms, and was later unanimously elected as the President /CEO of the United Black Fund.

Employment

United States Treasury Department

National Association of Black Women Attorneys

United Black Fund

Council of the District of Columbia

Favorite Color

Black, Red

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/191706">Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Wilhelmina Rolark's interview</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/191707">Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Wilhelmina Rolark lists her favorites</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/191708">Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Wilhelmina Rolark describes her mother</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/191709">Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Wilhelmina Rolark talks about her father's family background</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/191710">Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Wilhelmina Rolark talks about her paternal and maternal grandparents</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/191711">Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Wilhelmina Rolark describes her father</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/191712">Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Wilhelmina Rolark describes the importance of education in her family</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/191713">Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Wilhelmina Rolark shares her earliest childhood memories of growing up</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/191714">Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Wilhelmina Rolark talks about her siblings and her community in Portsmouth, Virginia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/191715">Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Wilhelmina Rolark remembers the sights, sounds and smells of growing up in Portsmouth, Virginia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/191716">Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Wilhelmina Rolark describes her experience at Truxton Elementary School in Portsmouth, Virginia and remembers childhood friends</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/191717">Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Wilhelmina Rolark talks about The Norfolk Journal and Guide and her mother's communication skills</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/191718">Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Wilhelmina Rolark remembers going to church as a child</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/191719">Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Wilhelmina Rolark talks about her sister and the parties her family had</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/191720">Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Wilhelmina Rolark talks about her teenage years and I. C. Norcom High School in Portsmouth, Virginia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/191721">Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Wilhelmina Rolark describes her experience as an undergraduate at Howard University in Washington, D.C.</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/191722">Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Wilhelmina Rolark talks about earning her master's degree at Howard University in Washington, D.C. and working in the U.S. Treasury Department</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/191723">Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Wilhelmina Rolark describes her experience at Robert H. Terrell Law School in Washington, D.C.</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/191724">Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Wilhelmina Rolark explains how she learned to run a law practice</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/191233">Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Wilhelmina Rolark talks about integration's effect on African American businesses</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/191234">Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Wilhelmina Rolark talks about meeting her husband, Calvin Rolark</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/191235">Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Wilhelmina Rolark describes running for the Council of the District of Columbia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/191236">Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Wilhelmina Rolark talks about the incarceration of African Americans and its effect on African American families</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/191237">Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Wilhelmina Rolark describes the energy bill that created the D.C. Energy Office in Washington, D.C.</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/191238">Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Wilhelmina Rolark talks about chairing the judiciary committee of the Council of the District of Columbia and her efforts to reform sentencing guidelines</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/191239">Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Wilhelmina Rolark reflects upon her achievements on the Council of the District of Columbia and segregated communities</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/191240">Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Wilhelmina Rolark talks about the importance of young people voting</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/191241">Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Wilhelmina Rolark talks about her and her husband's involvement in the Southern Christian leadership Conference (SCLC)</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/191725">Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Wilhelmina Rolark talks about the 1939 Alexandria Library Sit-In and the 1962 Howard Johnson Restaurant Sit-In</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/191726">Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Wilhelmina Rolark talks about the National Association of Black Women Attorneys</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/191727">Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Wilhelmina Rolark recalls fighting to keep The University of the District of Columbia David A. Clarke School of Law in Washington, D.C. open</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/191728">Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Wilhelmina Rolark talks about the United Black Fund, Inc.</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/191729">Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Wilhelmina Rolark describes her concerns for the Washington, D.C. community</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/191730">Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Wilhelmina Rolark talks about working with Washington, D.C. mayors, including HistoryMaker Marion Barry</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/191731">Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Wilhelmina Rolark describes her hope for the youth to vote</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/191732">Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Wilhelmina Rolark talks about the importance of education in the African American community</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/190973">Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Wilhelmina Rolark talks about her column in The Washington Observer and affirmative action</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/190974">Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Wilhelmina Rolark reflects upon her life</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/190975">Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Wilhelmina Rolark describes how she would like to be remembered</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/190976">Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Wilhelmina Rolark talks about the importance of history</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/190977">Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Wilhelmina Rolark reflects upon her legacy</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/190978">Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Wilhelmina Rolark narrates her photographs</a>

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$4

DAStory

1$2

DATitle
Wilhelmina Rolark talks about the 1939 Alexandria Library Sit-In and the 1962 Howard Johnson Restaurant Sit-In
Wilhelmina Rolark talks about the National Association of Black Women Attorneys
Transcript
So Ms. Rolark [HM Wilhelmina Rolark], tell me about that story we were talking about, Brown v. The Board of Education [Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 1954]. But you said there was also another public case?$$Oh yeah, there was, there, there was the one of the first sit-ins took place in Alexandria, Virginia, where two lawyers, young lawyers the Tucker brothers, Otto Tucker and Samuel Tucker, sat-in in the library [Alexandria Library, later, Barrett Branch Library] in Virginia (laughter) in Alexandria, Virginia. You know Virginia is a tough state to do anything like that in. And they were arrested of course, and as a result of that case, they were arrested and went to court and all the rest of it. That was, to my knowledge, among the first sit-ins, it could have been the first, but I know it was among them. They wouldn't move, that particular library in which they staged hat has now become a historical site. It's been made a historical site in Alexandria. People come from all over to visit it, and there has been story written about it because you know, it was just unheard of. That they, number one, would sit-in at Howard Johnson [Ice Cream Parlor and Restaurant, Durham, North Carolina], you know which was looked upon as whites sitting there eating all kinds of fancy ice cream and what not. And one of the brothers said, "I just want to see how that ice cream taste sittin' at the (laughter)"--it was some exciting times you know. And they pulled it off, and although it seemed to be small it was--had a huge impact because it was blacks participating in just a, just a simple thing like eating a bowl of ice cream. Where people could come from a whole public, unless you were black, and sit down and eat ice cream. You know Howard Johnson was famous for variety, you know all kinds of famous kinds of ice cream that you could eat, but we couldn't go there because we were black. And so--that means a lot too 'cause you know children, for instance, they'll worry you to death about an ice cream cone or eat ice cream, see they can do that now. And so you look back--and the library itself, which was a public library, but the blacks couldn't use it. It has now become a historical site and people come from all over to visit that library in Alexandria, in Alexandria. That little library has now become a memorial site because it was made open--public library should have been public all along. People can't realize you had to, you had to go through a session like that in order to get the use of the library, and you encouraged your children to read and study, but if you can't go to the library, what--where are you going to get the material to read and study?$And Ms. Rolark, if you will, tell me a little bit about an organization that you founded in the '70s [1970s], the National Association of Black Women Attorneys [NABWA]. Why did you think it was necessary to create such an organization?$$Well, to me that organization did a great job in defeating the notion that to be a lawyer you had to be a man. Which is sexism, because next to racism, sexism is a very bad thing, I think and so that was my motivation in doing it. Because everything that we were doing in law was headed by a guy, you know, and there are plenty of smart women lawyers too. And so it was formed and we formed it after a meeting at the National Bar Association held in--I think we were in Detroit [Michigan] that year and it was controversial. 'Cause see some of the fellas didn't like the idea of forming it, why'd you have to have two of them, you know. They have The [National] Bar Association as well as the National Association of Black Women Attorneys, why you need both? We need both to show that women were just as proficient as men in runnin' and managin' an organization like that, it had become very well-known and it's very active and I'm just semi-retired now so I'm not that active in it, but it meets when the Bar Association meets. It's quite a good organization. And it has inspired quite a few young women to take law. That was the other reason for doing it.$$And what do you think it's like for women lawyers today compared to what it was like for you when you started?$$It's much different, yes indeed, much different. For instance, now you have women lawyers with president of the National Bar Association. Not, the National Association of Black Women Attorneys, but the big Bar Association itself. Women have run and have become the officers, in fact they have a woman president now and one of the first presidents came from Detroit.$$And what was it like when you were, when you began your law career for women?$$Well, I didn't think about that, I was just thinking about winning those cases that I had. But, it was tough, you know, it was tough for women, all of them white, black, you know--primarily a man's field. But now you have women judges, in fact you've got a woman member of the [U.S.] Supreme Court. And, you have chief judges, who are women, like Chief Judge [Annice] Wagner here in the District of Columbia she's chief judge of our Circuit Court of Appeals here. Excellent judge too.$$And when you look at how far women, more particularly African American women have progressed in terms of the field of law and you were there blazing the trail, how do you feel?$$I feel good about that. I feel very happy about that because I think it's a field that, you know, it's like anything else, if it's opened up like that it gives, say girls when they go to court--when they go to college, and take up a career, they can look upon law as not only to practice, but you have women judges now, you have women chief judges, you know black women, a chief judge. As I said, over there in our circuit court you have Judge Wagner, she's our chief judge there and you have them in Superior [sic, Supreme] Court. You have black women who are judges and chief judges of that. And it gives them something to aspire to, you know, and it gives them a real good motive for carryin' on and stayin' in school and preparing their children, you know, for different vocations.

Alexine Jackson

Alexine Clement Jackson is active in volunteerism and community service for the African American community. Jackson was born in Sumter, South Carolina, on June 10, 1936. Jackson's mother, Josephine Clement, was active in North Carolina politics and business and volunteered her time to a number of civic organizations. Her father, William A. Clement, was an insurance executive who devoted great amounts of time to civic and fraternal organizations. Jackson earned her B.A. from Spelman College in Atlanta and an M.A. in speech pathology and audiology from the University of Iowa.

Jackson has devoted her life to civic organizations. She is the former national president of the Young Women's Christian Association (YWCA), and in that capacity she traveled to the Middle East as part of a fact-finding mission in 1996. Jackson led the American delegation to the 1999 World YWCA Council in Cairo and was a delegate in the 1995 Council in South Korea. Prior to that, she had been chosen as a development education consultant by the YWCA to explore issues relating to women in poverty, and traveled to the Philippines, Mexico and Kenya, as well as participating in the International Learning Center in Hawaii. The Taiwanese Minister of Foreign Affairs invited Jackson, along with six other leaders of women's organizations, to visit the country in 1985 and speak to different groups.

After a fifteen-year battle with breast cancer, Jackson served on the board of the Cancer Research Foundation of America and was the chairperson of the Intercultural Cancer Council, where she focused her energies on minority cancer education and prevention. In 2009, Jackson became the chair of the board of directors for Susan G. Komen for the Cure. With more than twenty-five years of work in civic organizations, Jackson has garnered numerous awards for her work. She has been awarded the 2001 Community Service Award by the Black Women's Agenda, the Woman of Courage and Distinction Award by the National Association of Colored Women's Clubs, and was named Washingtonian of the Year by Washingtonian magazine. Her husband, Aaron, is the chief of the Division of Urology at Howard University Hospital.

Accession Number

A2003.156

Sex

Female

Interview Date

7/15/2003

Last Name

Jackson

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Clement

Schools

David T. Howard High School

Oglethorpe Elementary School

Whitted Elementary School

Hillside High School

Spelman College

University of Iowa

First Name

Alexine

Birth City, State, Country

Sumter

HM ID

JAC08

Favorite Season

Summer

State

South Carolina

Favorite Vacation Destination

Beaches

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

California

Interview Description
Birth Date

6/10/1936

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Los Angeles

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Indian Food

Short Description

Civic volunteer and foundation chief executive Alexine Jackson (1936 - ) is a former YWCA national president. After a fifteen-year battle with breast cancer, Jackson served on the board of the Cancer Research Foundation of America and was the chairperson of the Intercultural Cancer Council.

Favorite Color

Black, Jewel Tones

Timing Pairs
0,0:5138,97:5878,109:6322,115:7358,128:8542,148:10244,181:10540,186:11206,196:12982,232:13278,237:13944,247:17340,259:17628,264:18420,278:18924,286:19284,292:20220,308:23388,372:23748,378:24396,398:24756,404:25332,413:28068,460:28572,469:30012,491:30660,501:31884,521:32964,541:33612,556:34332,584:39291,598:39753,605:40292,613:43295,690:45220,720:48377,779:53286,825:53874,833:55554,864:56058,871:56394,876:57150,886:58158,901:58914,912:59502,920:62190,963:63282,984:63954,996:67766,1016:68686,1029:69882,1046:80095,1169:80865,1183:81173,1188:81481,1193:83098,1231:83483,1237:83791,1242:85023,1269:85562,1278:87718,1320:88719,1335:93740,1383:94084,1388:94772,1398:95546,1410:97524,1443:101910,1529:102684,1542:103200,1548:108966,1613:109390,1619$0,0:6794,208:7584,222:7900,227:8216,232:9796,272:10191,279:11297,298:12008,326:12482,333:13746,350:14299,361:14773,369:15168,375:15563,381:16037,390:17064,409:17617,417:18486,435:21725,491:30012,517:30792,528:32196,548:37032,625:38046,643:39450,677:39996,685:41010,705:41322,710:43662,745:44208,753:56883,887:57499,896:58038,904:59886,951:60502,960:61118,971:61426,977:62196,989:62889,1000:63505,1039:71051,1218:71359,1223:81302,1301:82764,1347:87408,1422:89128,1454:89988,1465:91622,1488:92052,1494:92482,1504:94632,1527:100960,1562:101416,1568:102252,1577:102784,1586:103088,1591:103392,1596:104912,1622:105368,1628:107572,1668:107952,1674:109548,1733:110232,1744:111752,1789:115172,1881:115552,1887:125768,2023:126096,2028:126588,2036:130688,2113:135120,2151:135840,2163:140720,2236:141040,2241:148260,2305:149060,2314:151760,2346:152960,2361:153560,2368:156060,2405:160290,2434
DAStories

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/179877">Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Alexine Jackson's interview</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/179878">Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Alexine Jackson lists her favorites</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/179879">Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Alexine Jackson talks about her maternal family history</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/179880">Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Alexine Jackson talks about her paternal great-grandfather, Rufus A. Clement, who donated land to build a school in Cleveland, North Carolina</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/179881">Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Alexine Jackson talks about her paternal grandfather and the Presbyterian faith in her paternal family</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/179882">Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Alexine Jackson talks about the history of her paternal family's employment at the North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance Company</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/179883">Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Alexine Jackson describes her parents' personalities and their civic engagement in Durham, North Carolina</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/179884">Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Alexine Jackson describes segregation and the African American business community in Durham, North Carolina</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/179885">Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Alexine Jackson describes the sights, sounds, and smells of growing up in Charleston, South Carolina and Atlanta, Georgia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/179886">Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Alexine Jackson describes her maternal family in Atlanta, Georgia, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/179887">Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Alexine Jackson describes her maternal family in Atlanta, Georgia, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/179888">Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Alexine Jackson explains how she skipped a grade in elementary school when she moved to Atlanta, Georgia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/179889">Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Alexine Jackson lists the schools she attended in Atlanta, Georgia and Durham, North Carolina</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/179890">Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Alexine Jackson describes the activities she enjoyed as a child in Durham, North Carolina</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/179891">Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Alexine Jackson describes the type of student she was at Hillside High School in Durham, North Carolina and at Spelman College in Atlanta, Georgia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/179892">Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Alexine Jackson describes influential teachers and reflects upon the positiveeffects of segregation</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/179893">Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Alexine Jackson reflects upon the limitations of her experience growing up in Durham, North Carolina during the Jim Crow Era</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/179894">Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Alexine Jackson describes the activities she participated in and her social experience at Hillside High School in Durham, North Carolina</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/179895">Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Alexine Jackson lists the presidents of Spelman College in Atlanta, Georgia from 1953 through the 2003</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/179896">Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Alexine Jackson describes memorable professors from Spelman College in Atlanta, Georgia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/179897">Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Alexine Jackson talks about graduating from college, earning a master's degree and then starting a family</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/179898">Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Alexine Jackson talks about the birth of her first children in 1959 and moving to Greenwood, Mississippi in 1963</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/179899">Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Alexine Jackson describes the town of Greenwood, Mississippi where she moved with her husband in 1963</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/179900">Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Alexine Jackson talks about giving birth to two of her children in Greenwood, Mississippi</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/179901">Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Alexine Jackson talks about starting a daycare center in Greenwood, Mississippi</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/179902">Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Alexine Jackson describes the tactics used in Greenwood, Mississippi to intimidate African American voters during the 1960s</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/179903">Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Alexine Jackson talks about her husband's medical career in Greenwood, Mississippi and his urology residency at the University of Iowa in Iowa City</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/179904">Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Alexine Jackson compares and contrasts her experiences living in Iowa City, Iowa and Greenwood, Mississippi</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/179905">Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Alexine Jackson talks about her social life in Iowa City, Iowa</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/179906">Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Alexine Jackson explains how her husband became chief of the Division of Urology at Howard University Hospital in Washington, D.C.</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/179907">Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Alexine Jackson explains her involvement in the YWCA and her family's history of involvement in the organization</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/179908">Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Alexine Jackson talks about her work with the Intercultural Cancer Council and the disparities in cancer rates within minority communities</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/179909">Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Alexine Jackson explains the early history of YWCA USA</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/179910">Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Alexine Jackson talks about HistoryMaker Dorothy Height and YWCA USA's one imperative of eliminating racism</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/179911">Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Alexine Jackson talks about the aspect of YWCA USA's mission that promotes the empowerment of women's leadership</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/179912">Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Alexine Jackson talks about the economic status of women in corporations and female entrepreneurs</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/179913">Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Alexine Jackson describes the worldwide disparity in women's access to economic resources</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/179914">Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Alexine Jackson talks about the efforts of international organizations like the World Bank, International Monetary Fund, and the World YWCA to educate women</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/179915">Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Alexine Jackson describes the purpose of The Community Foundation for the National Capital Region and the problems facing day laborers</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/179916">Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Alexine Jackson describes the many civic and non-profit organizations in which she is involved</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/179917">Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Alexine Jackson describes her hopes and concerns for the African American community</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/179918">Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Alexine Jackson reflects upon her racial identity, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/179919">Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Alexine Jackson reflects upon her racial identity, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/179920">Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Alexine Jackson talks about volunteerism and philanthropy in the African American community</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/179921">Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Alexine Jackson reflects upon her legacy</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/179922">Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Alexine Jackson considers what she would do differently in her life</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/179923">Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Alexine Jackson describes how she would like to be remembered</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/179924">Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Alexine Jackson narrates her photographs, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/179925">Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Alexine Jackson narrates her photographs, pt. 2</a>

DASession

1$1

DATape

1$3

DAStory

6$9

DATitle
Alexine Jackson talks about the history of her paternal family's employment at the North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance Company
Alexine Jackson explains her involvement in the YWCA and her family's history of involvement in the organization
Transcript
When was your father [William Clement] born and--$$My father was born in 1912 and he was born in Charleston, South Carolina. My grandfather was, he worked for North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance Company, now, North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance Company for many years was the largest black business in the country. It's headquartered in Durham, North Carolina. And in those early years, in the early founding years when they were beginning to build up the company, they had districts in different cities. And so, my grandfather was the manager of the Charleston [South Carolina] district. My father started working for North Carolina Mutual [Life Insurance Company] in the summers of college. And he continued to work at North Carolina Mutual and retired after fifty-some years there as executive vice-president. His brother also worked for North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance Company as the manager of several districts in the--around the country. So, that was sort of the family, the family pattern. My father had a sister who was a teacher and lived in Baltimore [Maryland], married, and moved to Baltimore. But my grandparents lived in Charleston. And when we moved away from Charleston, I lived in Charleston the first five years of my life, and then after my father married again, he was then, he was transferred to Atlanta [Georgia]. And we lived in Atlanta for five years and then he was promoted and we moved to Durham, which was the headquarters--became an officer of the company, and so I really say I'm from Durham, North Carolina--$$Okay.$$--'cause they lived there for more than fifty years.$A lot of things to get involved in Washington [D.C.].$$Oh, yeah, yeah.$$You're--this is basically your career (simultaneous)--$$This is my--this is true, that's true.$$Volunteer, super volunteer, and--$$Yep, that's true. It's been since here, you know, I always say it's been a privilege. And my husband [Aaron Jackson] has always encouraged to do this. And when we first moved here, he said, you know, we decided that a lot of the social things that we would do, we would do through our charitable, you know, our charitable giving. And I did, once the kids were about--my youngest was maybe third or fourth grade and in school all day, I started getting more involved. I started getting involved in arts organizations. And then I started getting involved with the YWCA [USA] here. And, you know, ultimately through, with, through that path, I became president of the YWCA of the National Capital region [sic, area]. Then I was elected to the national board, and then, ultimately, became the National President of the--we call the president, now we call the Chair of the Board [of Directors] for the national organization.$$Now, now, your, your family has a long history with the YWCA (simultaneous)?$$Yes, it does actually. Both my grandparents were--my grandmothers were both involved. My grandmother Dobbs [Ophelia Thompson Dobbs] in Atlanta [Georgia] was in, in those times, the YWCAs were segregated in the South. But even at that, those segregated facilities gave women, black women, an opportunity to develop leadership. And my grandmother in South Carolina also was very much involved with the YWCA in South Carolina. So I always used to say, I'm third generation. And my mother [Josephine Dobbs Clement], too, because my mother in Durham [North Carolina] was on the board of the segregated YWCA. And then when the integration came about, she was one of the first members of the integrated board of the YWCA. And she always had me involved in the teen activities, Y-Teen [Y-Teens Youth Program] and that kind of thing. So I kind of--it was natural when I was asked to, to be a part of it that I, you know, that I join. And I have to say that I, I always attribute any leadership qualities that I've gained had come through my activities with the YWCA. And it's been a wonderful personal experience for me. Much of the travel and the people that I've met has really enriched my life through that experience.

Leonard Haynes, III

Education advocate Leonard Haynes III was born in Boston on January 26, 1947. Haynes is the oldest child of a father who worked as a minister and professor and a mother who was a teacher. Haynes completed his B.A. from Southern University in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, in 1968, and earned an M.A. from Carnegie-Mellon University the following year. After earning his first degrees in history, Haynes attended Ohio State University, where he earned a Ph.D. in higher education administration in 1975.

Haynes' career in education has taken him to a variety of institutions, having served on the faculty at Howard University, the Ohio State University, the University of Maryland, Southern University, the Brookings Institution and George Washington University. While on the faculty at Southern University, he was appointed to the position of executive vice president. He later served as the assistant superintendent of academic programs for Louisiana's State Department of Education and then as the senior assistant to the president of American University. During President George H.W. Bush's administration, Haynes was the first African American to be appointed to the position of U.S. assistant secretary of postsecondary education and director of academic programs for the United States Information Agency (USIA). While with the USIA, Haynes worked to increase international education through cooperatives with Mexico, Canada and the European community. In 1997, Haynes was appointed to serve as the acting president of Grambling State University. President George W. Bush appointed Haynes to serve as the special assistant to the secretary of education in 2001, and in 2003 he was appointed to serve as the director of the Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education in the Department of Education's Office of Postsecondary Education.

Widely recognized for his work in the educational community, Haynes has offered his counsel to numerous organizations, including the Ford Foundation and the Merck Corporation. He has appeared in Who's Who in America and Who's Who in Black America, and is the recipient of nine honorary degrees. He and his wife, Mary, live in Maryland. They have four children.

Accession Number

A2003.174

Sex

Male

Interview Date

7/31/2003

Last Name

Haynes

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Organizations
Schools

Southern University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Southern University Laboratory School

Carnegie Mellon University

The Ohio State University

Speakers Bureau

Yes

Speakers Bureau Availability

Weekends

First Name

Leonard

Birth City, State, Country

Boston

HM ID

HAY04

Speakers Bureau Preferred Audience

College/University, School setting, social/civic, Fraternal Groups, Religious Groups

Speakers Bureau Honorarium

Yes - $1,000 - $5,000

Favorite Season

Fall

Speaker Bureau Notes

Honorarium: Specifics: $2000 plus expenses
Preferred Audience: College/University, School setting, social/civic, Fraternal Groups, Religious Groups

State

Massachusetts

Favorite Vacation Destination

Anywhere Historic

Favorite Quote

The Black Experience.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Interview Description
Birth Date

1/26/1947

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Salad

Short Description

Foundation chief executive and academic administrator Leonard Haynes, III (1947 - ) is the former president of Grambling State University, and has held appointments with the U.S. Information Agency and the Department of Education.

Employment

Howard University

Ohio State University

University of Maryland, College Park

Southern University

Brookings Institution

George Washington University

Louisiana State Department of Education

American University

United States Department of Education

United States Information Agency

Grambling State University

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:27270,397:38310,572:38790,579:72670,1112:100824,1538:108460,1615$0,0:9049,192:10724,222:15481,361:36867,726:79942,1375:80377,1381:87822,1432:90856,1468:98974,1625:119641,1810:132439,2060:150886,2264:182728,2817:193024,2945:242768,3604:253820,3763
DAStories

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/107112">Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Leonard Haynes, III's interview</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/107113">Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Leonard Haynes, III lists his favorites</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/107114">Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Leonard Haynes, III describes his mother's family background, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/107115">Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Leonard Haynes, III describes his mother's family background, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/107116">Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Leonard Haynes, III describes his mother's personality</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/107117">Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Leonard Haynes, III describes how his parents met</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/107118">Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Leonard Haynes, III describes his father's family background</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/107119">Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Leonard Haynes, III reflects on his father's philosophy about the black experience</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/107120">Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Leonard Haynes, III describes his earliest childhood memory and where he grew up</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/107121">Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Leonard Haynes, III describes the sights, sounds, and smells of his childhood</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/107122">Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Leonard Haynes, III describes his childhood and adolescent interests and activities</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/107123">Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Leonard Haynes, III describes his grade school memories</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/107124">Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Leonard Haynes, III lists his siblings</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/107125">Tape: 1 Story: 14 - Leonard Haynes, III describes his grade school and high school memories</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/107185">Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Leonard Haynes, III talks about Southern University in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, where he attended high school</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/107186">Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Leonard Haynes, III talks about his time as a student at Southern University in Baton Rouge, Louisiana and his interest in African American history</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/107187">Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Leonard Haynes, III describes the 1960s and the Black Power movement</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/107188">Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Leonard Haynes, III describes H. Rap Brown</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/107189">Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Leonard Haynes, III describes how the Civil Rights Movement and Black Power Movement affected everyday life</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/107190">Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Leonard Haynes, III describes avoiding the draft during the Vietnam War</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/107191">Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Leonard Haynes, III describes meeting and marrying his wife and their move to Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/107192">Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Leonard Haynes, III describes attending a life-changing football game at Ohio State University in Columbus, Ohio</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/107193">Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Leonard Haynes, III talks about his graduate studies at Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/107194">Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Leonard Haynes, III talks about teaching history at Southern University in Baton Rouge, Louisiana</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/107195">Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Leonard Haynes, III talks about attending and dropping out of law school at the University of Illinois in Champaign-Urbana, Illinois</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/107196">Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Leonard Haynes, III talks about his introduction to educational policy while working in Springfield, Illinois</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/107197">Tape: 2 Story: 13 - Leonard Haynes, III talks about attending Ohio State University in Columbus, Ohio for his Ph.D.</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/107213">Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Leonard Haynes, III discusses the challenges of black studies on black college campuses</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/107214">Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Leonard Haynes, III describes the disconnect between education and knowledge</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/107215">Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Leonard Haynes, III talks about finishing his Ph.D. and his first jobs after receiving his degree, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/107216">Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Leonard Haynes, III talks about finishing his Ph.D. and his first jobs after receiving his degree, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/107217">Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Leonard Haynes, III reflects on his work researching desegregation in higher education</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/107218">Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Leonard Haynes, III reflects on the shortcomings of busing and desegregation policies</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/107204">Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Leonard Haynes, III reflects on desegregation and reconciliation</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/107205">Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Leonard Haynes, III talks about his role as director of the Public Black College Office of the National Land Grant Association</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/107206">Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Leonard Haynes, III talks about his various places of employment</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/107207">Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Leonard Haynes, III talks about returning to D.C. as Assistant Secretary for Post-Secondary Education for the Department of Education</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/107208">Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Leonard Haynes, III talks about his work in international education</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/107209">Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Leonard Haynes, III talks about his role as acting president at Grambling State University, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/107210">Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Leonard Haynes, III talks about his role as acting president at Grambling State University, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/107211">Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Leonard Haynes, III comments about Washington, D.C. and the reasons behind some of its problems</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/107212">Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Leonard Haynes, III reflects on his political affiliations and measures of success</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/107154">Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Leonard Haynes, III describes his thoughts on school vouchers</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/107155">Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Leonard Haynes, III describes his current job as director of the Fund for the Improvement of Post-Secondary Education</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/107156">Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Leonard Haynes, III describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/107157">Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Leonard Haynes, III reflects upon his legacy</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/107158">Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Leonard Haynes, III reflects on his life</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/107159">Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Leonard Haynes, III talks about how he would like to be remembered</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/107160">Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Leonard Haynes, III narrates his photographs</a>

DASession

1$1

DATape

1$4

DAStory

8$3

DATitle
Leonard Haynes, III reflects on his father's philosophy about the black experience
Leonard Haynes, III talks about his various places of employment
Transcript
Okay. Now is there a good story that you remember about your father [Leonard Haynes, Jr.], that you can tell us?$$Oh my goodness. Reverend Haynes, oh yeah I can--there's a lot of them. Well one of course I guess is why I use the phrase the black experience all the time is cause I really got it from him. My dad was a philosopher and during the course of his career, he was either between the Church, United Methodist church or one--the college, one of the historically black colleges. So his last stop before he died was we were in Baton Rouge, Louisiana for almost thirty years. He was the pastor of Westlake United Methodist Church for twenty-eight years till he retired in 1988 and then he was a professor as Southern University and at LSU [Louisiana State University] at the same time. But anyway dad would--I'd ask him questions about why were things happening the way they happened in terms of lack of progress on the part of African Americans to do certain things given the opportunities that was available. He used to say all the time, son you'll come to grip with the black experience. I said what is that? He said you'll know it when you see it. I said--so I interpreted that to mean that what he was trying to tell me, you will be surprised and disappointed at what the race can do. And then he would all--he'd go on to say remember now your success in life is measured against the race. If they haven't made any progress you are--you haven't made any progress really. Therefore it's your responsibility to make sure that you do your best and encourage others to do as well as you've done.$So now how long did you work with the black colleges again, about two years you said?$$Well I was director for three years but actually you know I started my work at ISE so I, I've put in six years. And then I left to go back to my alma mater Southern [University, Baton Rouge, Lousiana] as executive vice president of the university. The plan was I would go back as executive VP and I would succeed the president and become the president of the university. That was the plan. So I went back you know and did a good job. I was the youngest executive vice president. At the time Southern had three campuses you know, one in Shreveport [Louisiana], one in Baton Rouge [Louisiana] and one in New Orleans [Louisiana] and of course the law school [Baton Rouge, Lousiana]. And I served under Jessie Stone who was a noted civil rights lawyer of the state of Louisiana, was very active in the civil rights movement and was sort of a political presence if you will. Was a lawyer by training, was constantly pushing the envelope in the state of Louisiana to kind of fess up and give us our fair share so I served with him. But at the time I went there the governor of the state of Louisiana was a Republican governor. And of course when the race came up for governor again, a Democrat won and that was Edwin Edwards. And Edwards decided to turn the universities over to the black caucus. That was their payoff for his winning the election. And the caucus was always kept at bay by Dr. Stone cause he didn't want them meddling in the affairs of the campus. Remember blacks were just getting into the legislative process at that time and the most--was it the largest item on the state budget in Louisiana were the two black state schools, Southern and Grambling and they wanted to run both of them. So Stone lost his job as the caucus took over and so I left and went back to the faculty as Southern's professor of history. And they got their own president who they brought in who was a kind of a disaster unfortunately. He didn't know what he was walking into but Southern's been gone ever since. It's gone down ever since. But--so I went back to the faculty and became professor of history and taught there for five years. And then an opportunity kind of came up to become the Assistant Superintendent for the state of Louisiana. I was the first black to be over academic programs for the whole state under the administration of Bill Cody. Will, Wilmer Cody who was the state superintendent, he selected me, put me over elementary and secondary so that was quite an honor, you know to be dealing with K12 in the whole State of Louisiana. Like you know go through busing and segregation and all that and all of a sudden bingo, here I am as the number one official over elementary and secondary education. That was really at--that was really something. I haven't--I didn't get a chance to get that to sink in because I had not quite finished the whole year when the presidential election took place in '88. And then shortly after that I received a call and I really wasn't a political person, per se, invited me to come to Washington [D.C.] to interview under President Bush I administration for a senior position in the administration. And I came up, initially I thought I was going to go to be the Assistant Secretary for Civil Rights because you know I had done all my work in that area. And when I got to Baton Rouge and I got a call saying no, you're going to be over post-secondary education. And that was one of the largest units in the Department of Ed [Department of Education], thirteen billion dollars. So I was the first African American Assistant Secretary for Post-Secondary Education. So I came to Washington [D.C.] again in 1989.

Arthur Fletcher

Civil rights activist and affirmative action champion Arthur A. Fletcher was born in Phoenix, Arizona, in 1924. As a child, Fletcher's parents moved frequently. Fletcher graduated from high school in Junction City, Kansas; from there he attended Washburn University, earning degrees in political science and sociology. Fletcher later went on to earn his law degree and his Ph.D. in education.

Fletcher organized his first civil rights protest while still in high school after being told that African American student photographs would be included in the back of the yearbook. After graduating from high school, Fletcher served in World War II under General George Patton and earned a Purple Heart. Fletcher joined the Los Angeles Rams in 1950 and later became the first African American to play for the Baltimore Colts.

Fletcher entered politics in 1954, when he worked on Fred Hall's gubernatorial campaign, and took a position working for the Kansas Highway Commission; he took the knowledge of government contracts he gained there to encourage African American businesses to bid on contracts. After moving to Washington, Fletcher worked a number of government jobs, eventually becoming the special assistant to the governor in 1969. That same year, President Richard Nixon appointed Fletcher to the office of assistant secretary of wage and labor standards in the Department of Labor. While serving in this capacity, Fletcher devised the Philadelphia Plan, which enforced equal employment and business opportunities for minorities. In 1972, Fletcher joined the United Negro College Fund as executive director, and coined its slogan, “A mind is a terrible thing to waste.” Fletcher later returned to government service when President Gerald Ford appointed him to the office of deputy of urban affairs. In this role, Fletcher came to be known as the father of the affirmative action enforcement movement.

Fletcher was appointed to the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights in 1990, where he served until 1993 as chairman and a commissioner. In 1996, prompted by Senator Bob Dole's reversal of his forty-year affirmative action policy, Fletcher made a run for the presidency; he later became president and CEO of Fletcher's Learning Systems and publisher of USA Tomorrow/The Fletcher Letter.

Fletcher spent a great deal of time touring the country for speaking engagements on equal opportunity rights and the benefits of affirmative action, and served as the chairman of the National Black Chamber of Commerce. Fletcher wrote several articles that appeared in magazines such as Ebony and Fortune, in addition to authoring a book entitled My Hour of Power.

Arthur A. Fletcher passed away on July 12, 2005; he was survived by his wife, Bernyce Fletcher.

Accession Number

A2003.111

Sex

Male

Interview Date

5/29/2003

Last Name

Fletcher

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

A.

Organizations
Schools

Junction City Junior/Senior High School

Washburn University

LaSalle Extension University

First Name

Arthur

Birth City, State, Country

Phoenix

HM ID

FLE02

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Arizona

Favorite Vacation Destination

Kansas

Favorite Quote

It is a very poor dog that won't wag his own tail.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Interview Description
Birth Date

12/22/1924

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Potatoes

Death Date

7/12/2005

Short Description

Federal government appointee and foundation chief executive Arthur Fletcher (1924 - 2005 ) was appointed by President Gerald Ford as deputy of urban affairs where he became known as the father of affirmative action. In 1972, Fletcher joined the United Negro College Fund as executive director and coined its slogan, "A mind is a terrible thing to waste."

Employment

Los Angeles Rams, Baltimore Colts

Kansas Highway Commission

Department of Labor

United Negro College Fund

Civil Rights Commission

Favorite Color

Red

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DAStories

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/17834">Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Arthur Fletcher interview</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/17835">Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Arthur Fletcher's favorites</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/17836">Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Arthur Fletcher describes his father's background</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/17837">Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Arthur Fletcher talks about growing up in a military environment</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/17838">Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Arthur Fletcher describes his mother's background</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/17839">Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Arthur Fletcher recalls his earliest childhood memory</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/17840">Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Arthur Fletcher talks about his brother</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/17841">Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Arthur Fletcher remembers his childhood in Langston, Oklahoma</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/17842">Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Arthur Fletcher describes the impact of the G.I. Bill of Rights</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/17843">Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Arthur Fletcher talks about his childhood interest in the trumpet and in jazz</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/17844">Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Arthur Fletcher discusses former Buffalo Soldiers</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/17845">Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Arthur Fletcher details his early educational career</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/17846">Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Arthur Fletcher talks about his childhood personality</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/17847">Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Arthur Fletcher remembers being influenced by Mary McLeod Bethune</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/17848">Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Arthur Fletcher discusses his athletic abilities and experiences</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/17849">Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Arthur Fletcher explains the integration policies of Kansas schools in the 1940s</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/17850">Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Arthur Fletcher recalls encountering racism while playing sports in Kansas</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/17851">Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Arthur Fletcher tells of memorable teachers</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/17852">Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Arthur Fletcher remembers his football career at Fort Knox</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/17853">Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Arthur Fletcher talks about his musical involvement in the military</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/17854">Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Arthur Fletcher discusses D-Day and the invasion of Europe during World War II</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/17855">Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Arthur Fletcher details experiences as a combat MP in World War II</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/17856">Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Arthur Fletcher tells of his post-military plans</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/17857">Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Arthur Fletcher explains his decision to attend Washburn University</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/17858">Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Arthur Fletcher discusses his reasons for studying political science</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/17859">Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Arthur Fletcher explains his involvement with the Republican Party</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/17860">Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Arthur Fletcher details his role in the establishment of the Civil Rights Commission</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/17861">Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Arthur Fletcher talks about his professional football career</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/17862">Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Arthur Fletcher recalls the racial climate during his professional football career</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/17863">Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Arthur Fletcher tells of his various career moves after playing professional football</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/17864">Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Arthur Fletcher explains his early political involvement</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/17865">Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Arthur Fletcher talks about his position with the Kansas Highway Commission</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/17866">Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Arthur Fletcher discusses Fred Hall's gubernatorial campaign</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/17867">Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Arthur Fletcher recalls a dark period in his family life</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/17868">Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Arthur Fletcher talks about his successes in educational reform, part 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/17869">Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Arthur Fletcher details his successes in educational reform, part 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/17870">Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Arthur Fletcher explains his involvement in an urban renewal project</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/17871">Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Arthur Fletcher tells of his campaign for lieutenant governor of Washington</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/17872">Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Arthur Fletcher discusses his position within the Department of Labor</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/17873">Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Arthur Fletcher explains why he revised the Philadelphia Plan</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/17874">Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Arthur Fletcher shares his thoughts on affirmative action</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/17875">Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Arthur Fletcher stresses the importance of continued progress in diversity and affirmative action</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/17876">Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Arthur Fletcher explains the importance of the Community Reinvestment Act</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/17877">Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Arthur Fletcher talks about problems with the Community Reinvestment Act</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/17878">Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Arthur Fletcher talks about his involvement with the United Negro College Fund</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/17879">Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Arthur Fletcher discusses Gerald Ford's commitment to affirmative action</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/17880">Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Arthur Fletcher gives his thoughts on the current status of the Republican Party</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/17881">Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Arthur Fletcher talks about being an African American Republican</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/17882">Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Arthur Fletcher shares his hopes for the black community</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/17883">Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Arthur Fletcher explains how he helps the black community from within the Republican Party</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/17884">Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Arthur Fletcher considers his legacy</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/17885">Tape: 7 Story: 9 - Arthur Fletcher reflects on his life</a>

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$6

DAStory

3$5

DATitle
Arthur Fletcher details his role in the establishment of the Civil Rights Commission
Arthur Fletcher explains why he revised the Philadelphia Plan
Transcript
You didn't ask this, but let me make sure that I drive this home. Because we were effective, we tried to get [Dwight D.] Eisenhower to pass a bill creating the, the Civil Rights Commission before he got reelected. We came back here and did our best to get him. He said, no. He wouldn't do that. He'd gone as far as he was gonna go with the, with the Arkansas school thing, okay, desegregating that. After the election, after he got elected, we put the full-court press on again and finally convinced him that the federal government ought to study racism. We finally convinced him he ought to do it, us, plus some others. But it was the Kansas delegation of young black Republicans that came back there, back here and convinced him that he ought to sign legislation creating the Civil Rights Commission. Now, he agreed to do it provided we didn't ask for enforcement powers. We pressed for enforcement powers, but we couldn't get it. Now, he then signed the bill. Now, the significance of signing that bill and a lot of brothers and sisters don't understand, this was the first time, signing that bill was the first time that the federal government in modern time in particular, that the federal government was admitting it had a race problem (laughter), now you see that. Here's the federal government saying, we're going to create an entity to study this, this anathema called race. Now, what was the benefit there? One, it wasn't a P foundation, a non-profit entity trying to convince the government they had a problem. It wasn't the Rockefeller Foundation. It was none of those foundations. Here is a federal government entity saying we need to acknowledge we have this problem, and let's see what its nature, its shape, etcetera, is. He signed it in '57 [1957]. It became the law of the land. We, we came back and worked it real hard to get it done, and he signed it. And we used the fact that the we got the Kansas Fair Employment Practice Commission in existence in his home state to convince him that we ought to study it at the national level. They agreed to do that, and after they agreed to do that, then here comes the riots in the '60s [1960s], okay. And for the first time, the government studied the problem with its own agency, the Civil Rights Commission. They were the ones that came out with the Kerner Re--they were the ones that, that worked with the Kerner [Commission] Report to see to it that it dealt with the problem. Now, had it not been for that, then the chances of the '64 [1964] Civil Rights Act ever becoming the law of the land, it would not have happened. The fact that the '64 [1964] Civil Rights Act became the law of the land is because a federal government agency called the Civil Rights Commission (chuckle), okay, worked with the Kerner Commission to put that report together and justified the need for a '64 [1964] Civil Rights Act. A lot of, a lot of so-called knowledge civil righters don't know that. That's how that happened.$I issued the revised Philadelphia Plan. You say, why was it revised? Because the original Philadelphia Plan had no enforcement measures. It was a volunteer program in which you depend on the contractor's good will to the degree that he'll create or she will create an environment where goodwill will pervade and your coworkers will work with you, in spite of your color or your gender.$$And the Philadelphia Plan had come out of--$$The Philadelphia Plan came out of the [Lyndon B.] Johnson administration.$$Okay.$$Okay, and, again, they knew it was flawed, all right, even though--.$$Who was involved with that? Do you--?$$Who was involved with, with?$$With the original Philadelphia Plan?$$With the original Philadelphia Plan. I think Cliff Alexander had something to do with it, but I'm not sure. But he, it was, he got--when he tried to implement it, the, the--I'll call his name any minute, the, the, not the inspector general. I'll call his name in a minute, killed it. The, the Congress's budget office killed it because they said it violated the quota provisions in Title VII, all right. And for some reason Cliff and, and his brain power or either Willie Wilson with the Labor Department, wouldn't let them put an enforcement provision in it, all right. So when I come along, I clearly understand that if it isn't enforceable, it isn't going anywhere. I also understand that you can't use Title VII of the '64 [1964] Civil Rights Act. You got to use procurement law, and you can use procurement law and get away from the no quota provision by setting aside hours for minorities and women to work, without ever telling the contractor how many minorities and women to hire to work those hours. It's up to him or her to decide. They have to decide, they got to have that portion of the contract finished on a date certain. And there's twenty-seven, twenty-eight, twenty-nine or a hundred thousand hours in the contract for that particular work, and we provided them with information in the census tracks that they recruited from. We identified the households in which minorities who had met their qualifications lived. How did we know? 'Cause they had gotten money from the Department of Labor to train them. So we didn't tell 'em to hire them and not them where to hook--look. We told them to hire them and here's the census tracks to look in. Now, if they're hired, by the time you finally get there, if some other contractor has beaten you, then you do something else in procurement law. And what is that? You ask for a contract change. It's called a change order. And the change order is based on the fact that when you looked--and they got to give us a report. How many hours you spent looking, what was the salary of the person, that you spent looking and--how many hours and what was his sophistication. How did we measure that? Their--contractors always ask for change orders. So we don't have to go outside that contractor to, to find out what some other contractor did. When's the last time you asked for a train--change order? Well, we asked for a change order because a certain brand of paint that we agreed to put on that wall wasn't on the market when it was time to put it up. So we had to find another brand. And we came and got your permission to find another brand and then we went searching to find that branch, and then we did it. Now, how many hours did you spend searching? What was the skill tech of the professional person doing the searching, and what did you pay him? We want you to compare your seriousness over here with your seriousness or lack of seriousness over here. So a lot of the brothers and sisters had good faith effort. There was a lot of you know what, not so. It is a bonafide part of the contracting process, and if you understand how a contractor, what he has to do to go through the process of proving that he made a good faith effort, you'll see, we only applied contract law in an area that had never been tried before. And, and those contractors who came in and tried to fool us on good faith effort, the minute we made the comparative analysis and then threatened to debar them for five years, from ever contracting again, that's when they got serious. But it was all contract law, had nothing to do with Title VII and fluffy social justice. It's all contract law. And it's all about hours and the amount of money in each contract tied to the hours for paying each craft. That's how it was done and, and [President Richard] Nixon bought into that the minute he realized that it was based on pure procurement contract law and economic equity. We're paying more taxes into the system than we're getting out by way of job opportunity. That's when he bought into it. Otherwise, he would never have bought into it. And that basically is the reason the courts have not killed affirmative action for thirty-three years, and I got a sneaking suspicious they're not gonna kill it this time.

Julius Wayne Dudley

Champion of education Julius Wayne Dudley was born on October 29, 1944, in Atlanta, Georgia. Dudley was the oldest of nine children, born to a hard-working, illiterate father and a former sharecropper. Dudley's mother read to him nearly every night and inspired him with a love of books. Growing up in a house rented to them by a family notorious for ties to the Ku Klux Klan, Dudley walked four miles each way to a segregated school. Persevering, Dudley attended Morris Brown College in Atlanta and later did graduate work at Clark Atlanta University, the University of Cincinnati and Harvard University.

While attending Morris Brown, Dudley was first acquainted with South African blacks, and he joined their struggle against apartheid. He also marched with Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. and was active in the voter registration movement. While in graduate school, he became involved in the National Teacher Corps Program, and later, while at Harvard, he became involved in TransAfrica and worked as a tutor in Boston's urban schools. After earning his Ph.D., Dudley continued to teach, and currently he is a professor at Salem State College in Massachusetts. Dudley has led the charge in spreading his love of books to Africa, both through Salem and the Phelps-Stokes Fund Books for Global Literacy Program. He has worked with a number of world leaders, including Desmond Tutu and Nelson Mandela and the state of Massachusetts to send more than 1 million books to students in South Africa. He has also been involved with a similar project with the Universidade Católica de Angola. In total, he has helped send more than 4 million books to people in South Africa, Ghana, Ethiopia, Liberia, Zimbabwe, Nigeria, Malawi and Angola.

Dudley has also been affected by a stutter his whole life, and he has managed to find a means that helps him cope with the challenge. He speaks to groups of stutterers worldwide, and to others, encouraging governments and schools to train more speech therapists. Dudley focuses his efforts on all peoples who have been oppressed, and wants to spread literacy around the globe.

Accession Number

A2003.103

Sex

Male

Interview Date

5/9/2003

8/15/2003

Last Name

Dudley

Maker Category
Middle Name

Wayne

Organizations
Schools

E. R. Carter Elementary School

University of Cincinnati

Booker T. Washington High School

Morris Brown College

Clark Atlanta University

Harvard University

First Name

Julius

Birth City, State, Country

Atlanta

HM ID

DUD01

Favorite Season

Fall

Speaker Bureau Notes

257 W. 137th Street New York, NY 10015 617-233-1309; (home) 6:00 p.m. -7:30 p.m. Dr. Wayne Dudley (photos) (LC/SS)
1330 New Hope Road Atlanta, GA 30331 404-699-7938

State

Georgia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Luxor, Egypt, Accra, Ghana, Johannesburg, South Africa, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Favorite Quote

Culture For Service And Service For Humanity.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Massachusetts

Interview Description
Birth Date

10/29/1944

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Boston

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Tomatoes, Spinach, Broccoli

Short Description

Foundation chief executive and history professor Julius Wayne Dudley (1944 - ) is the executive director of the Phelps Stokes Fund. Dudley works with a number of international projects and leaders to send millions of books to African countries. Dudley is a professor at Salem State University.

Employment

Salem State College

Favorite Color

Royal Blue

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DAStories

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/94573">Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Julius Wayne Dudley's interview</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/94574">Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Julius Wayne Dudley lists his favorites</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/94575">Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Julius Wayne Dudley describes his family background</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/94576">Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Julius Wayne Dudley describes his maternal grandfather</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/94577">Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Julius Wayne Dudley shares a haint story told by his grandparents</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/94578">Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Julius Wayne Dudley talks about his grandfather's songs</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/94579">Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Julius Wayne Dudley describes his mother, Ethel Hanson Dudley</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/94580">Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Julius Wayne Dudley talks about how his parents met</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/94581">Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Julius Wayne Dudley describes his father, Julius Dudley</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/94582">Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Julius Wayne Dudley describes his father's employment by the Venable and Roper families</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/94583">Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Julius Wayne Dudley describes an experience of racial discrimination</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/94584">Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Julius Wayne Dudley describes his childhood in Atlanta, Georgia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/94585">Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Julius Wayne Dudley describes his childhood personality</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/94586">Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Julius Wayne Dudley talks about how he became a "controlled stutterer"</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/94587">Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Julius Wayne Dudley describes the development of his interest in history</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/94588">Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Julius Wayne Dudley describes his decision to major in history</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/94589">Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Julius Wayne Dudley describes growing up in Smyrna, Georgia and being trailed by Klansmen on his way to school</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/94590">Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Julius Wayne Dudley talks about an experience of racial discrimination with his father and Emmett Till</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/94591">Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Julius Wayne Dudley talks about the murder of businessman Leo Frank in Cobb County, Georgia and Smyrna, Georgia's reputation for lynching</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/94592">Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Julius Wayne Dudley talks about his dissertation on mob violence and lynchings</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/94593">Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Julius Wayne Dudley describes why his family moved from Smyrna, Georgia back to Atlanta, Georgia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/94594">Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Julius Wayne Dudley describes Booker T. Washington High School in Atlanta, Georgia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/94595">Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Julius Wayne Dudley remembers Mrs. Richardson, a mean-spirited teacher</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/94596">Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Julius Wayne Dudley talks about discovering classical music in high school</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/94597">Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Julius Wayne Dudley talks about socio-economic and class discrimination in high school</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/94598">Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Julius Wayne Dudley describes his college application process</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/94599">Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Julius Wayne Dudley talks about his exchange program experience at Miami University in Oxford, Ohio</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/94600">Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Julius Wayne Dudley describes his participation in the Civil Rights Movement and the protest at Leb's restaurant in Atlanta, Georgia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/94601">Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Julius Wayne Dudley talks about his support for the Vietnam War and becoming a pacifist</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/94602">Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Julius Wayne Dudley talks about learning history as a child</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/94603">Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Julius Wayne Dudley talks about subjective history</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/94604">Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Julius Wayne Dudley talks about enrolling in two graduate programs at the same time</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/94605">Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Julius Wayne Dudley talks about his mentor in graduate school, Jean Childs Young</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/94606">Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Julius Wayne Dudley talks about pursuing graduate studies in history at Atlanta University in Georgia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/94607">Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Julius Wayne Dudley talks about pursuing a Ph.D. at the University of Cincinnati while teaching at the University of Dayton in Ohio</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/94608">Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Julius Wayne Dudley talks about his dissertation</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/94609">Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Julius Wayne Dudley describes why he left a tenured position at the University of South Florida in Tampa, Florida</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/94610">Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Julius Wayne Dudley describes his graduate studies in the Harvard Extension Program and his professional teaching career</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/94611">Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Julius Wayne Dudley talks about the Phelps Stokes Fund</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/94612">Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Julius Wayne Dudley describes his work with the Phelps Stokes Fund</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/94624">Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Julius Wayne Dudley talks about his book project, Collaborative Education with South Africans, pt.1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/94625">Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Julius Wayne Dudley talks about his book project, Collaborative Education with South Africans, pt.2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/94626">Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Julius Wayne Dudley talks about his book project, Collaborative Education with South Africans, pt.3</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/94627">Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Julius Wayne Dudley talks about HistoryMaker Reverend Eugene Rivers</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/94628">Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Julius Wayne Dudley describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community, pt.1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/94629">Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Julius Wayne Dudley describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community, pt.2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/94630">Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Julius Wayne Dudley reflects upon his legacy</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/94620">Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Julius Wayne Dudley talks about how he would like to be remembered, pt.1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/94621">Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Julius Wayne Dudley talks about how he would like to be remembered, pt.2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/94622">Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Julius Dudley narrates his photographs, pt.1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/94623">Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Julius Wayne Dudley narrates his photographs, pt.2</a>

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$6

DAStory

3$2

DATitle
Julius Wayne Dudley talks about his dissertation on mob violence and lynchings
Julius Wayne Dudley talks about his book project, Collaborative Education with South Africans, pt.2
Transcript
Part of my dissertation dealt with mob violence and lynchings. I graduated from the University of Cincinnati [Ohio] with a Ph.D. And I was interested in doing work on Marcus Garvey but my advisor suggested that I explore other possibilities, places where I could find resources and so I settled on mob violence, women's rights, civil rights organizations, how southern white women responded to the issue of lynchings. There were a fair number of church women who were in opposition to lynchings and they organized themselves to put the world on notice that we do not want mobsters to lynch in our name. Do not use white women as an alibi to engage in murder. It is unchristian. It's wrong-headed. It's illegal. And at the same time this group of white women led by Jessie Daniel Ames did in fact oppose the Federal Anti-Lynch Bill. She undermined the credibility of other courageous southern whites who were in opposition to lynching. She worked behind the scenes with those politicians, say politicians who were in opposition to the Federal Anti-Lynch bill, some of the most ardent foes of the Federal Anti-Lynch Bill, Jessie Daniel Ames was there. My dissertation should have been treated more seriously but there was another white woman who wrote her dissertation on the same topic. She had better connections, funding and she got her dissertation published. Mine was never published. But we wrote from a different perspective. I stressed the theme of the black community's response to this group of southern white women, how did the black press respond to these noble church women, those areas where they agreed with them and those areas where they disagreed with them. I found out very quickly that Jessie Daniel Ames did her very best to undermine black civil rights leaders. She would talk with them, she was friendly with them but at the same time she was undermining their "legalistic efforts." It's very interesting to note that Dr. [Jacquelyn Dowd] Hall who wrote her book on southern white women went to some of the same sources and documents, yet some of the documents that were very critical proving that Jessie Daniel Ames was not what she said she was, never surfaced or seldom surfaced. So that's a sad component of American scholarship and perhaps scholarship in general. Several individuals have read my dissertation and have cited my work in textbooks and others have used my work without giving me recognition and that's a part of the academic life. It shouldn't be that way but that's the way it is. My dissertation has been used many times and I know this, but I have no control over who uses it.$$Okay. Now and that's--yeah, that's (unclear).$$So yes, lynchings had a profound impact on me and later I found myself writing about it in my twenties, in my late twenties, thirties.$$Okay.$$Yeah. I graduated from University of Cincinnati at age thirty-five with a Ph.D. in history.$$Okay.$I organized my own nonprofit organization and I used it as a bully pulpit, not necessarily for fundraising. I was very bad, poor at raising money so I'd end up spending my own money. I would spend over a $100,000 of my own personal funds to make sure that the books were shipped, books were--that books were collected and shipped to Africa. When others saw me doing this, they too made contributions. You lead by example. Young people would do it. Book buyers, persons such as librarians and teachers would say you know this man is giving a great deal. I can call him at home. I gave my telephone number out. It was in The Boston Globe several times so anyone who wanted to make a book donation or any kind of donation could contact me. I was--I became totally immersed in the book project, I taught full-time. I maintained a high standard for all my students not only in the classroom but outside the classroom. I became very popular on campus by most. Some of my colleagues saw me as a thorn in their side for multiplicity reasons, jealousy, anger, frustration, whatever, even racism. But I felt good about what I was doing. Raising money was not my forte. It was just too much for me to rub shoulders and go to all of the wine and cheese parties and feel cow-tied to people who did not have the interests of the "people" at heart. I mean like giving them something in their hands without tying strings and ropes to their necks. To learn the, you know the virtue of giving without getting something back, to learn how to share to a point that it takes something of substance from you, you know the giver. If it meant giving up my suits for two years and I have 30 suits, do I need two or four, two to four more suits to add to my collection of suits? Should I just buy four suits every year or you know use the ones that I have and then give the rest to the book project? Should I have to purchase a new car every three years? No. I can drive the same automobile for seven years and the money that would accrue from the savings, I could use it or at least $4,000 of it to send another 40 foot container of books to South Africa. And I could send the books. There were many people like me who wanted to send books but who held onto their books for years and years because they would not spend their own money" to make sure the books were sent. As my father [Julius Dudley] would say, you can make a mouth say anything, can make a mouth say anything but to put your shoulders to the wheel to do it is another issue." Some people talk about faith but work is faith. Where there is no work there is no faith. Work must accompany faith. It must accompany faith, otherwise you have no faith. You can talk about Jesus Christ died for me on the cross and blood saved me and all, but if you do not put that faith into practice, then you have no faith in what you're saying. I'm a Christian, but I see the universality of God in ways that have yet to be explained to me fully. I let God do God's business and I will try to do the business of God as I perceive it.

Marlene Owens Rankin

Daughter of world-famous track star Jesse Owens, Marlene Owens Rankin was born in Cleveland, Ohio, on April 19, 1939. Moving with her family first to Detroit, Rankin graduated from high school in Chicago in 1957. After graduation, Rankin returned to Ohio, where she attended Ohio State University, becoming the first African American homecoming queen in the school's history in 1961. Graduating in 1961 with her bachelor's degree in social work, Rankin later attended the University of Chicago, earning her master's degree in 1978.

Growing up watching her father win worldwide athletic events only to be rejected by racism at home inspired Rankin to work to foster interracial understanding and help youth throughout her career. After earning her B.A. degree, Rankin went to work for the Cook County Department of Public Aid in the Children's division as a social worker. Rankin worked for a year with the Chicago Youth Centers/Project Learn as a social worker for a year, before joining the Chicago Committee on Urban Opportunities/Model Cities program as the senior planner; she remained at this position for six years. In 1978, Rankin went to work for the United Charities of Chicago as a clinical social worker and the director of human resources; she stayed in this position for ten years before becoming the director of human resources at the Museum of Science and Industry.

Upon the death of her father in 1980, Rankin, her two sisters, and friends, formed the Jesse Owens Foundation to perpetuate his beliefs and indomitable spirit to future generations. The foundation established scholarships through the Ohio State University and provided hundreds of young adults with support for their education. In 1990, Rankin became the executive director of the Jesse Owens Foundation, where she was working at the time of her interview.

Rankin remained active over the years in a number of organizations, serving as a member of the board of the University of Chicago School of Social Service Administration, and as the chairperson of the Ohio State University Annual Fund from 1991 to 1995. Rankin also served on the Hyde Park Neighborhood Club and the Sporting Chance Foundation. Today's Chicago Woman named Rankin one of 100 Women Making a Difference in 1992; she was awarded the Annual Orchid Award from the Top Ladies of Distinction. Rankin and Stuart, her husband of over forty years, raised one son.

Accession Number

A2003.060

Sex

Female

Interview Date

3/31/2003

Last Name

Rankin

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

O.

Organizations
Speakers Bureau

No

First Name

Marlene

Birth City, State, Country

Cleveland

HM ID

RAN01

Favorite Season

All Seasons

State

Ohio

Favorite Vacation Destination

Michigan, Phoenix, Arizona, Greece, Bahamas

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Illinois

Interview Description
Birth Date

4/19/1939

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Chicago

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Chili, Beans, Pie (Lemon Meringue)

Short Description

Foundation chief executive and social worker Marlene Owens Rankin (1939 - ) is the daughter of Jesse Owens and executive director of the Jesse Owens Foundation.

Employment

Cook County Department of Public Aid

Chicago Youth Centers

Chicago Committee on Urban Opportunities

United Charities of Chicago

Museum of Science and Industry

Jesse Owens Foundation

Favorite Color

Orange, Red, White

DAStories

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/19207">Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Marlene Rankin interview</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/19208">Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Marlene Rankin lists her favorites</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/19209">Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Marlene Rankin recalls her family background</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/19210">Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Marlene Rankin remembers her mother</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/19211">Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Marlene Rankin discusses the park dedicated to her father, Jesse Owens</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/19212">Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Marlene Rankin describes her father's, Jesse Owens, youth</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/19213">Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Marlene Rankin shares stories about her father, Jesse Owens, in the 1936 Berlin Olympics</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/19214">Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Marlene Rankin describes her father's struggles to support their family</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/19215">Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Marlene Rankin remembers her family's frequent moves</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/19216">Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Marlene Rankin recounts her early school experiences</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/19217">Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Marlene Rankin discusses Chicago's high schools</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/19218">Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Marlene Rankin recalls her high school activities</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/19219">Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Marlene Rankin describes her transition to Ohio State University</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/19220">Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Marlene Rankin remembers serving as Ohio State's first black Homecoming Queen</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/19221">Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Marlene Rankin recounts the impact of the Civil Rights Movement at Ohio State</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/19222">Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Marlene Rankin recalls the 1960 Presidential election</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/19223">Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Marlene Rankin discusses her career</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/19224">Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Marlene Rankin discusses the Jesse Owens Foundation</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/19225">Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Marlene Rankin recounts the pressure on her family to be politically active</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/19226">Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Marlene Rankin shares her hopes and concerns for the black community</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/19227">Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Marlene Rankin considers her legacy</a>

Useni Eugene Perkins

Useni Eugene Perkins is a distinguished poet, playwright and youth worker. Born in Chicago on September 13, 1932, he was the son of Marion Perkins, a sculptor, and Eva Perkins. Being exposed to the arts at a young age through his father would prove to be a major influence on his later years.

He attended Chicago's Wendell Phillips High School, where he developed an early interest in writing. Graduating in January 1950, he stayed in the city for his college education, earning a B.S. in group work from George Williams College in 1963. After graduation, he worked as the program director for the Henry Horner Chicago Boys Club. It was during this time that he also pursued an M.S. in administration, which he received in 1966.

In that year, Perkins became the executive director of the Better Boys Foundation of Chicago, a social agency involved in community, social, educational and cultural development. Raised in the housing projects of Chicago, and having established a career as a sociologist dealing with troubled youth, he authored the 1976 book Home Is A Dirty Street: The Social Oppression of Black Children.

Upon leaving his post with the Better Boys Foundation in 1982, Perkins became an executive consultant in Chicago with INESU Consultants, where he stayed for two years. He was still very active in writing, penning several sociological books on African American youth, as well as publishing books of poetry and authoring various plays that were produced in theaters in Chicago.

In 1986, he became the social director for the Chicago Urban League, and two years later became the chief executive officer of the Urban League of Portland, Oregon. Returning to Chicago in 1990 as the interim president of the DuSable Museum of African American History, Perkins founded the Association for the Positive Development of African American Youth in 1991, which he served as president, and became the project director of the Family Life Center at Chicago State University. He still holds these positions at the latter two organizations. February 25, 1999, was proclaimed Useni Eugene Perkins Day in Chicago. He is a married father of three, and lives in Chicago.

Accession Number

A2003.039

Sex

Male

Interview Date

3/10/2003

Last Name

Perkins

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Organizations
Schools

Wendell Phillips Academy High School

Search Occupation Category
Speakers Bureau

Yes

Speakers Bureau Availability

Any

First Name

Useni Eugene

Birth City, State, Country

Chicago

HM ID

PER02

Speakers Bureau Honorarium

Yes - 0 - $500

Favorite Season

Fall

Speaker Bureau Notes

773-995-4475

State

Illinois

Favorite Vacation Destination

Africa

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Illinois

Interview Description
Birth Date

9/13/1932

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Chicago

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Salmon

Short Description

Poet and foundation chief executive Useni Eugene Perkins (1932 - ) wrote several sociological books on African American youth. Eugene also founded the Association for the Positive Development of African American Youth in 1991.

Employment

Henry Horner Chicago Boys Club

Better Boys Foundation of Chicago

Inesu Consultant

Chicago Urban League

Urban League of Portland

DuSable Museum of African American History

Favorite Color

Black

Timing Pairs
0,0:6441,207:96918,1235:97688,1313:97996,1318:105330,1389:130631,1704:130963,1709:143316,1843:160422,2139:216022,2801:217510,2815$0,0:1795,30:2978,44:3342,49:3979,60:5799,86:11738,140:50830,585:94816,1066:95206,1072:101524,1177:107420,1209:121271,1357:145049,1666:150304,1708:165584,1903:190847,2235:207320,2449:232130,2750:236680,2781:280550,3186:306414,3506:306758,3511:307790,3522:314980,3582
DAStories

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/77893">Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Useni Eugene Perkins' interview</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/77894">Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Useni Eugene Perkins lists his favorites</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/77895">Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Useni Eugene Perkins describes his parents' backgrounds</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/77896">Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Useni Eugene Perkins describes his mother</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/77897">Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Useni Eugene Perkins describes his father</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/77898">Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Useni Eugene Perkins talks about factories in Chicago's South during the Great Depression</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/77899">Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Useni Eugene Perkins describes the sights, sounds, and smells of growing up in the South Side of Chicago, Illinois</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/77900">Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Useni Eugene Perkins describes the three elementary schools that he attended in Chicago, Illinois</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/77901">Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Useni Eugene Perkins describes living in the Ida B. Wells housing project</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/77902">Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Useni Eugene Perkins talks about the demolition of housing projects on the South Side of Chicago, Illinois</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/77903">Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Useni Eugene Perkins recalls his favorite teachers and his early interest in poetry</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/77904">Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Useni Eugene Perkins remembers reading as a child</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/77905">Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Useni Eugene Perkins recalls his father's involvement with the Communist Party</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/77906">Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Useni Eugene Perkins talks about how his father's Communism affected his military career</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/77907">Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Useni Eugene Perkins talks about the artists, writers, and cultural institutions on the South Side of Chicago, Illinois in the 1930s and 1940s</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/77908">Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Useni Eugene Perkins recalls meeting artists at HistoryMaker Margaret Burroughs' home</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/77909">Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Useni Eugene Perkins talks about his brother, the artist Toussaint Perkins</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/77910">Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Useni Eugene Perkins describes attending Wendell Phillips High School in Chicago, Illinois</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/77911">Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Useni Eugene Perkins describes the various high schools and prevalence of drugs in his community</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/77912">Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Useni Eugene Perkins describes the gangs in his community</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/77913">Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Useni Eugene Perkins talks about attending Winston-Salem Teachers College and Knoxville College</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/77914">Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Useni Eugene Perkins remembers his training in the U.S. Air Force in the early 1950s</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/77915">Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Useni Eugene Perkins talks about his discharge from the U.S. Air Force and his parents' deaths</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/77916">Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Useni Eugene Perkins talks about his father's artistic legacy</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/77917">Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Useni Eugene Perkins describes working and writing while attending George Williams College</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/77918">Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Useni Eugene Perkins talks about how the Civil Rights Movement inspired his poetry</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/78223">Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Useni Eugene Perkins describes working with youth in the 1960s</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/78224">Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Useni Eugene Perkins talks about becoming the director of the Better Boys Foundation</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/78225">Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Useni Eugene Perkins describes the programming at the Better Boys Foundation</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/78226">Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Useni Eugene Perkins talks about his poetry book "An Apology To My African Brother" published in 1961.</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/78227">Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Useni Eugene Perkins recalls the deaths of Ruwa Chiri and other poets</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/78228">Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Useni Eugene Perkins describes political activities on the west side of Chicago in the 1960s</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/78229">Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Useni Eugene Perkins recalls the violent aftermath of Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King's assassination in Chicago, Illinois</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/78230">Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Useni Eugene Perkins talks about his play "Black Fairy"</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/77927">Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Useni Eugene Perkins recites his poem, "Hey Black Child"</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/77928">Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Useni Eugene Perkins describes "Image Makers"</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/77929">Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Useni Eugene Perkins talks about playwrights who influenced him and his plays</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/77930">Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Useni Eugene Perkins describes his youth outreach</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/77931">Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Useni Eugene Perkins talks about his writing career</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/77932">Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Useni Eugene Perkins talks about developing black artist programs in Chicago, Illinois</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/77933">Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Useni Eugene Perkins describes his book "Home Is A Dirty Street"</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/77934">Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Useni Eugene Perkins describes his book "Harvesting New Generations"</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/77935">Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Useni Eugene Perkins talks about "The Black Child Journal"</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/77936">Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Useni Eugene Perkins talks about being president of the Urban League of Portland, Oregon</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/77937">Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Useni Eugene Perkins talks about being interim president of DuSable Museum of African American History in Chicago, Illinois</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/77938">Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Useni Eugene Perkins describes his work as a consultant</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/77939">Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Useni Eugene Perkins talks about running marathons</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/77940">Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Useni Eugene Perkins describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/77941">Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Useni Eugene Perkins reflects upon his legacy</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/77942">Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Useni Eugene Perkins describes how he would like to be remembered</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/77943">Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Useni Eugene Perkins narrates his photographs</a>

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$5

DAStory

8$3

DATitle
Useni Eugene Perkins talks about his play "Black Fairy"
Useni Eugene Perkins talks about playwrights who influenced him and his plays
Transcript
I guess the most well-known of your works, I guess, is a play called the Black Fairy. At least I believe that to be the most well-known of your works.$$It's been around a long time (laughter).$$It seems to have reached--I mean other than the sociology books, you know? (Simultaneous).$$Yes, right.$$Black Fairy is probably the most well-known piece.$$Yes.$$As a children's play and you use a lot of ingredients from the neighborhood to make it work. I mean, you know, things that you hear kids say on sidewalk, walking, in the community. And, tell me about the origin of that? How you conceive it--you know, there's been a record of it since the 70s [1970s]. It's been published all over places.$$Well, really, I used to take my daughter, Julia, to the Goodman Theater and see all the children's plays: Rumpelstiltskin, Snow White, Hansel and Gretel and so forth, Cinderella. And, I recall one day she asked me are there any plays about black kids, about us? And, I thought about it and so "Black Fairy" was really written in narrative form and I sent it to the--what was it--the Interracial Council on Books and it received second place. It received an award. And when I, when I got it back or after it received the second place, I thought I'd put it into a play form. I was interested in plays so I just changed it into a play form and I knew music was important because it, basically, it was going to be for children. And, we had on our staff, Tony Lorenz very talented musician and so Tony wrote the music Pemon Rami was excited about it. He directed the play--interesting "Hey Black Child", which is recited by kids (laughter) even today all over the city, especially in the schools. Some schools recite it every day as a pledge. I wrote that the night before the play was going to open or two nights before because Pemon suggested we needed to end the play on up tempo because Johnny had been disillusioned and "Black Fairy" took Johnny throughout history--we wanted to show different times of history achievements of black folks and relate it to the streets, which "Black Fairy" does with queen mother. And so "Hey Black Child" is really a song and most people just read it as a poem but I wrote that about two nights before and Tony wrote the music and we put it in the play because, I think, it had an up tempo beat to it and that poem has been around since 1975. So that's how "Black Fairy" really came about and I follow that with young John Henry, Deadwood Dick and since then I've written about seven or eight children plays, musicals. And I think that now you have others doing children plays. Runako Jahi at ETA [Creative Arts], very talented playwright and he writes children plays. Now because, at one time, everybody would just do my plays. It was no other, at least locally.$I really became interested in writing plays much earlier in life. Although I had not really began because I was writing poetry, essays and finished the book, "Home Is A Dirty Street", but I've always was interested in playwriting. My father [Marion Perkins] took me to Othello with Paul Robeson and we went to the Erlanger Theater downtown and we were sitting up in the peanut gallery and I was just awed by this man, this majestic black man. And he came on the stage and that was with Jose Ferrer, Uta Hagen that was the famous cast.$$Right. Desdemona$$And play Desdemona. And I just knew I had to begin writing plays at some point in my life. I was just, just--and I began reading plays. Shakespeare, beyond doubt is just a fantastic playwright. I mean the way he deals with character. I've read Hamlet over and over and over and Henry V, a lot of his plays and O. Henry, and, the Russian-O. Henry was mainly short stories. I'm thinking about the Chekhov, Anton Chekhov the Russian playwright. I had a lot of admiration for Chekhov. It wasn't too many black playwrights that I would read about. I wasn't too familiar with black playwrights. I was familiar with black poets and black novelists because at that time many had been published but not black plays. And, I remember hearing about the Dutchman, Lerone --I mean Leroy Jones. And it just sound like an interesting play. I didn't see it until 'bout ten years afterwards though. But it won the Obie [Off-Broadway Theater Award], I think, Leroy Jones was in Greenwich Village [New York City, New York] and his poem Preface To A Twenty Volume Suicide, which I think is probably one of his best works, this volume of poems, Preface To A Twenty Page Suicide Note, something like that, beautiful. So he, I guess, I'm just saying that he had a influence on me, as a poet and a playwright but I didn't see the Dutchman until about ten years after I heard about it. But at least it motivated me to begin thinking about writing plays. I did see the Slave Ship. It came down to Chicago [Illinois] at the Eleventh Street Theater, Archie Shepp's music in the background, powerful drama. Play--on page was only about five or six pages but such a powerful statement and acting and the set and everything like that. And that's when I really became more involved in playwriting. Ted Ward, whom I had known for some time, who was a personal friend of my father, I looked up to Ted. I think the first--gee, I almost forgot I wrote this play "Turn A Black Cheek" about the Civil Rights Movement about the [North Carolina] A and T [State University] students who went to the Woolworth Five and Ten store. I wrote about that, that was very early. We did that at the center for (unclear) studies. So I've written many plays, a lot have not been produced. Professor JB did at the Expe [ph.], all of the children plays but, I think a lot of my plays are historical plays and sometimes they're a little heavy, little political 'cause I've written plays about Denmark Vesey, Steve B. Cole [ph.], W.E.B. DuBois.$$[Jean Baptiste Point] DuSable?$$DuSable, that's been done, the children's play. So--and several others. ETA did some parts of B Cole. Runako [Jahi] used to like the road, Steve B. Cole (sp?) definitely. And Fred Hampton would play (unclear), Fred Hampton. [HM] Val Gray [Ward] who is one of the founders of the Kuumba--said that was one reason why they start getting these city code violations, the police after the Fred Hampton play because it sort of points at the police as being primarily responsible.

Benita Fitzgerald Mosley

Olympian and marketing executive Benita Fitzgerald Mosley, a native of Dale City, Virginia, graduated from the University of Tennessee in 1984 with her degree in industrial engineering; she won a gold medal in the 100-meter hurdles in the Olympic Games the same year. Mosley was an athlete on the United States Olympic Teams of 1980 and 1984, and an alternate for the 1988 team; during her athletic career, she was the second American, and the only African American woman at that time to have won an Olympic gold medal in the 100-meter hurdles. Mosley went on to become a fifteen-time All-American; an eight-time national champion; and a gold medalist in the 1983 Pan American Games.

In 1985, Mosley began an engineering career as a computer software and hardware systems developer for defense contractors. After six years in this field, Mosley switched her career to sports marketing and administration, becoming a regional director for Special Olympics International in Washington, D.C. From 1993 to 1995, Mosley served as program director for the marketing division of the Atlanta Committee for the Olympic Games. In 1995, Mosley began working for the United States Olympic Committee as the director of the ARCO Olympic Training Center in San Diego; from 1997 until 2000, she served as the USOC's director of Olympic training centers. In March 2001, Mosley was appointed president of Women in Cable and Telecommunications, and Cablefax ranked her fiftieth on its annual list of the 100 most influential executives in the industry.

Mosley was inducted into both the Virginia High School Hall of Fame, and the Virginia Sports Hall of Fame; she was named Sportswoman of the Century by The Potomac News and ranked twelfth on a list of the Top 50 Sports Figures of the Century from Virginia by Sports Illustrated. Track and Field News named Mosley Hurdler of the Decade for the 1980s, and in 1996 the United States Sports Academy named her its Distinguished Service Award winner. Additionally, in 1996, Mosley was one of the eight U.S. Olympians chosen to carry the Olympic Flag into the stadium during the Atlanta Olympic Games opening ceremony.

Mosely married Ron Mosley, with whom she had a son, Isaiah.

Accession Number

A2003.012

Sex

Female

Interview Date

1/22/2003

Last Name

Mosley

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Fitzgerald

Organizations
Schools

University of Tennesee

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Benita

Birth City, State, Country

Dale City

HM ID

MOS02

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Virginia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Beaches

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Colorado

Interview Description
Birth Date

7/6/1961

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Denver

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Cobbler (Apple)

Short Description

Foundation chief executive, track and field athlete, and nonprofit executive Benita Fitzgerald Mosley (1961 - ) was an award-winning hurdler in the 1980s, winning two Olympic gold metals, in addition to a number of other prestigious awards. After the end of her career in hurdling, Mosley went on to have a successful career in sports marketing and administration.

Employment

Special Olympics International

Atlanta Committee for the Olympic Games

United States Olympic Committee

Women in Cable and Telecommunications

Favorite Color

Red

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/76333">Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Benita Mosley's interview</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/76334">Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Benita Mosley lists her favorites</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/76335">Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Benita Mosley describes her family background</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/76336">Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Benita Mosley describes her father, pt.1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/76337">Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Benita Mosley describes her father, pt.2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/76338">Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Benita Mosley describes her mother</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/76339">Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Benita Mosley talks about her mother's career as a teacher in the 1960s</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/76340">Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Benita Mosley describes the sights, sounds, and smells of Dale City, Virginia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/76341">Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Benita Mosley talks about her family</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/76342">Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Benita Mosley remembers being teased by other children as a girl</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/76343">Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Benita Mosley recalls her family's discipline</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/76344">Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Benita Mosley describes her childhood personality and activities</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/76345">Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Benita Mosley talks about becoming interested in track</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/76346">Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Benita Mosley remembers her activities at Mills E. Godwin Middle School in Manassas, Virginia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/76347">Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Benita Mosley describes attending Gar-Field High School in Dale City, Virginia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/76348">Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Benita Mosley recalls her high school track competitions</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/76349">Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Benita Mosley talks about not playing basketball in high school</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/76350">Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Benita Mosley talks about Olympian Paula Girven</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/76351">Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Benita Mosley recalls winning the Track Junior National Championship in 1978</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/76352">Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Benita Mosley describes competing in Russia in 1978</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/76353">Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Benita Mosley talks about becoming an Olympic contender during her senior year of high school</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/76354">Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Benita Mosley explains how she chose to attend the University of Tennessee</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/76355">Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Benita Mosley talks about women's athletics at the University of Tennessee</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/76356">Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Benita Mosley describes academics at the University of Tennessee in Knoxville, Tennessee</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/76357">Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Benita Mosley talks about the importance of having a well-rounded life</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/76358">Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Benita Mosley talks about pressure and overtraining in women's athletics</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/76359">Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Benita Mosley talks about making the Olympic team in 1980</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/76360">Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Benita Mosley talks about her experience on the 1980 Olympic team</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/76361">Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Benita Mosley talks about the race of female Olympic track athletes</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/76362">Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Benita Mosley comments on the impact of international politics on track teams</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/76363">Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Benita Mosley describes her athletic development from 1980 to 1983</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/76364">Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Benita Mosley describes the context of the 1984 Olympic games</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/76365">Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Benita Mosley describes winning the 1984 Olympic gold medal</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/76366">Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Benita Mosley talks about how athletics has built her self-confidence</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/76367">Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Benita Mosley talks about her career as an engineer</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/76368">Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Benita Mosley describes her injuries in the mid-1980s</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/76369">Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Benita Mosley describes the 1988 Olympic Trials</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/76370">Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Benita Mosley talks about her post-Olympics career</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/76371">Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Benita Mosley talks about becoming the President of Woman in Cable and Telecommunications</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/76372">Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Benita Mosley describes her hopes and concerns for the black community</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/76373">Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Benita Mosley talks about her future plans</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/76374">Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Benita Mosley reflects upon her legacy</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/76375">Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Benita Mosley gives advice to young female athletes</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/76376">Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Benita Mosley talks about her parents' pride in her career</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/76377">Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Benita Mosley describes how she would like to be remembered</a>

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DATitle
Benita Mosley talks about making the Olympic team in 1980
Benita Mosley describes winning the 1984 Olympic gold medal
Transcript
Tell me about the Olympic, making the Olympic team in 1980, when you were still in University of Tennessee [Knoxville, Tennessee]--(simultaneous)$$Um-hum.$$You're selected for the Olympic team, how you feel about that and how did you find out about that?$$Well, I was at Tennessee and by then, like I said, I was kind of in that whole mode of, you know, looking at my rankings and I was counted top five in the country, at that time. And looking, you know, to try to make the Olympic team, I knew I was a top contender and throughout that spring and all the invitational meets and other competitions, I was doing really, really well, and we get to the Olympic trials, they were in Eugene, Oregon. And we walked into the trials, unfortunately knowing that, you know, President Carter had determined that the U.S. team wasn't going to be able to compete in Moscow [Russia], but, it was still an Olympic trials, nonetheless, the Olympic team berth was on the line and it was an Olympic team in all shape and formed, except we didn't actually compete in the Olympics. And so the pressure was on, I never felt pressure like that before to know it was kind of a do or die race. It's always another race when you're competing and to know that forever and ever, if I didn't do well there, I wouldn't make the Olympic team, if I did, all these other opportunities would present themselves. So, feeling that pressure was something new for me. It's always pressure in a race, but that kind of extra pressure was new and I ran the race, and I got second place. I think one of my other top competitors hit a hurdle really badly and ended up not making the Olympic team. But Stephanie Hightower was first and I was second and Candy Young was third and we were the, you know, hurdlers on the Olympic team that year. And it was very celebratory, we came to [Washington] DC and had this wonderful tour and meal at the White House and beautiful concert at the Kennedy Center and parade and Congressional Medals and all kinds of great honors. But nothing could take the place of being in Moscow at those opening ceremonies and competing at eighteen years old in my first Olympic games. It would've been great. I wasn't a contender for a medal, but it would've been a great experience, I think, for me to have gone and competed. And I really still regret that decision that the President [Jimmy Carter] made to use sport as leverage in what was then the Cold War.$And so in winning my Gold Medal and, you know, becoming the first African American to do that and following in Babe Didrikson's footsteps in the same stadium at the Olympics. She won in '32 [1932], the 80-yard hurdles, I think it was, at that time. Or 80 meters, I'm not sure. In '52 [1952] in Los Angeles at the Olympics and I won in '84 [1984], Los Angeles, and it was a lot of history, how I just walking into the stadium, and we had our Olympic trials there so I was used to the stadium. But nowhere close to that many people were there at the Olympic trials, maybe 25, 30,000 people and here you had 85, 90,000 people in the Coliseum. And for each race, I mean, from the quarter finals, early in the morning to the finals, two days--a day later, you know, in the evening. There they were, screaming, yelling USA, USA and it was the most gratifying feeling. You know, to be there on your home soil with your U.S. uniform on, you know, representing your country and yourself and all the kind of the dreams that you've had all those years kind of coming into fruition, all at one time. I remember walking through the tunnel--the quarter finals in the he--heats in the quarter finals were in one day and then the semi-finals and the finals were another there like an hour, two hours apart, each of those. And so, I had won all my heats and fastest time going into this and fastest time going into that. So I'm feeling like I'm building this momentum and go into--walk through the tunnel under the stadium out to the track and you get to this light and you get to the crowd and the noise and it's just an amazing feeling to be in that kind of arena and that kind of situation. So I win my semi-final race and everybody is just screaming and yelling and I thought, wow, this feels great, I wanna win the race, I wanna feel this again. And be able to take my victory lap and everything. So I go back through the tunnel, and get ready and get psyched up for my race. And really feeling confident and really feeling, you know, almost like I;d had that premonition, you know. Because I felt what it felt like to win already. And so going back to the stadium and getting in the blocs and just really focus on--it's a guy named Ralph Boston, he's a Olympic Gold, Silver and Bronze Medalist it's in the long jump, back in the '60s [1960] and had always told me, he said when you get in the blocs, just make them disappear, you know. Cause I used to have horrible starts. So he just say think about making them disappear. So that's really all that I was thinking about, make them disappear. Came out of the blocs and just go, and I did that first hurdle, second hurdle, third hurdle, fourth hurdle, fifth hurdle. All the way through the race until about the sixth, seventh or eighth hurdle, I realize there's still another competitor that I hadn't made disappear yet (laughing) and named Shirley Strong, and from Great Britain. And she was, I think, probably touching down just before I was, and I found the gear somewhere, about the eighth hurdle and passed her and beat her by 400th of a second. So it's a slim margin, but enough to know I won, but it was really nice to have that kind of control over your body. To be running that fast to kind of see midstream, that, you know, something else happening being to find the gear and run and win the race. It's a powerful feeling, it's very empowering and then first to cross the finish line. I wasn't quite sure it's close enough but you just hope and pray, you don't--aren't celebrating too soon. And they say, you know you won, you won and I started my victory lap and someone thrust a flag into my hand. I go embrace my parents and my sister, my aunt and uncle and kept on running around the track. It was just really a blur, you know, at that point. You just hear all this, people screaming and yelling your name, and your name's on the marquee and you just, you know. It's a really great feeling.$$I can imagine from watching, I guess but to be there, you know, in Los Angeles (unclear)$$Right.$$Powerful experience.$$It was very powerful. And one that you realize what you as one individual can do. I still get fan mail from people, you know, just having watched that race, and wanting my autograph, and you know, keep it in their record books. And it's something that no one can ever take away from you and it gives you the feeling that, you know what, there was a day when I didn't know how to hurdle and, you know, ten years later, I'm winning an Olympic Gold Medal. I can do anything I that I set my mind to, when I get passionate enough about it, you know, work hard enough at and just apply, apply yourself to. And I feel that confidence in myself throughout. And I've been able to take risks in my career as a result, I think. Do different things, and take on different challenges, with a lot of encouragement from my family and friends. But that confidence comes from being successful on the track.