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Gabriella E. Morris

Foundation chief executive Gabriella E. Morris was born on March 26, 1956 in Houston, Texas to Elise LeNoir Morris and John E. Morris. After graduating from high school, Morris received her A.B. degree in architecture and urban planning, and a certificate in African American studies, from Princeton University in Princeton, New Jersey in 1978. She later earned her J.D. degree from the University of Texas Law School in Austin, Texas. Morris has also received certifications from Harvard Business School’s Executive Education program in corporate social responsibility, and from Stanford University’s Center for Social Innovation.

Morris was hired as real estate council for The Southland Corporation in Dallas, Texas. She then became associate counsel of the Houston-based law firm of Baker and Botts in its securities, real estate and oil and gas practices. In 1985, she was hired by Prudential Financial as a regional counsel and associate general counsel for the company’s real estate operations. Morris then became president of the Prudential Foundation in 1994, and also served as vice president of community resources. In that position, Morris helped develop a number of community programs focused on education, including the Prudential Young Entrepreneurs Program, founded in 1999. She also helped form the New Jersey Statewide Education Summit, which aided the development of new education standards for the City of Newark and was influential in creating one of the first charter school lending programs in the nation. After over twenty years of service, Morris left Prudential in order to form her own consulting firm, Connective Advisors LLC. In 2014, she was named as the senior vice president of the UNICEF Bridge Fund.

In addition to her professional career, Morris has been involved in her community through membership in many organizations. She was a founding member of United States Artists, the Brick City Development Corporation, and the Newark Trust for Education. Morris also served as a board member for the Annie E. Casey Foundation, the Harlem School of the Arts, the New Jersey Performing Arts Center Women’s Association, NAACP Legal Defense and Education Fund and the Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater.

Gabriella E. Morris was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on March 27, 2017.

Accession Number

A2017.074

Sex

Female

Interview Date

03/27/2017

Last Name

Morris

Schools

Clinton Park Elementary School

Incarnate Word Academy

Fidelity Elementary School

Princeton University

University of Texas at Austin

First Name

Gabriella

Birth City, State, Country

Houston

HM ID

MOR18

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Texas

Favorite Vacation Destination

Hawaii

Favorite Quote

Fake It Till You Make It.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New Jersey

Birth Date

3/26/1956

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Newark

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Lamb Chops

Short Description

Foundation chief executive Gabriella E. Morris (1956 - ) worked for twenty-seven years in senior legal, philanthropic and community relations positions at Prudential Financial.

Employment

US Fund for UNICEF

Connective Advisors

Prudential Financial

The Southland Corporation

Baker & Botts

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:376,6:1687,25:2101,32:4240,95:4516,100:4861,107:17448,336:30771,545:43088,700:43781,711:46784,771:47323,779:47785,786:49556,806:50172,818:50865,828:51712,840:52790,872:58322,908:58692,918:59950,944:61550,950:61970,959:62210,964:62990,981:63710,996:67700,1036:68260,1045:68680,1053:69380,1071:69660,1076:69940,1081:70850,1111:71270,1118:90590,1315:92060,1345:93390,1373:93740,1380:98656,1425:99340,1442:99796,1449:103140,1502:104584,1539:105192,1553:114295,1632:116528,1679:122181,1763:122871,1780:123975,1820:128444,1851:135094,1968:137691,1997:138117,2006:143665,2072:146310,2100:146718,2105:149676,2150:151920,2177:156360,2230:159720,2324:168400,2543:174621,2605:175783,2622:189274,2807:197260,2904$0,0:256,11:8701,241:9115,248:9529,255:9805,260:16794,387:17442,397:18306,413:18594,418:20034,434:20394,440:20970,452:28991,602:29994,627:30525,643:30761,648:35314,687:36874,717:37186,722:41106,746:42008,760:42828,775:45032,791:56791,969:62082,1054:63678,1084:63982,1089:64438,1096:70062,1177:70442,1187:71886,1227:73406,1252:73710,1257:77410,1263:77946,1272:82845,1342:83808,1352:99080,1492:99430,1498:100200,1513:100900,1527:101460,1545:104400,1610:107060,1664:107900,1688:111960,1778:116340,1792:117090,1806:120165,1873:123315,1959:123765,1966:124140,1972:124740,1982:133980,2068:135540,2096:138420,2130
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Gabriella E. Morris' interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Gabriella E. Morris lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Gabriella E. Morris describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Gabriella E. Morris talks about her mother's upbringing and education

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Gabriella E. Morris describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Gabriella E. Morris talks about her father's aspirations

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Gabriella E. Morris describes how her parents met and married

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Gabriella E. Morris talks about her adoption

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Gabriella E. Morris describes her siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Gabriella E. Morris describes the sights and smells of her childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Gabriella E. Morris talks about the Clinton Park neighborhood of Houston, Texas

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Gabriella E. Morris remembers her early education

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Gabriella E. Morris describes her early interests and personality

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Gabriella E. Morris remembers her mother's role on 'Queen for A Day'

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Gabriella E. Morris remembers her elementary school teachers

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Gabriella E. Morris remembers being mistaken for Latina in Texas

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Gabriella E. Morris talks about the Incarnate Word Academy in Houston, Texas

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Gabriella E. Morris recalls her experiences of discrimination at the Incarnate Word Academy

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Gabriella E. Morris recalls her decision to attend Princeton University in Princeton, New Jersey

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Gabriella E. Morris recalls her aspiration to become a lawyer

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Gabriella E. Morris talks about her decision to study architecture

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Gabriella E. Morris remembers her arrival at Princeton University

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Gabriella E. Morris recalls the senior awards ceremony at the Incarnate Word Academy

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Gabriella E. Morris describes her social life at Princeton University

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Gabriella E. Morris talks about her architectural education

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Gabriella E. Morris remembers her professors at Princeton University in Princeton, New Jersey

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Gabriella E. Morris remembers national events fromn her time at Princeton University

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Gabriella E. Morris remembers the University of Texas School of Law in Austin, Texas

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Gabriella E. Morris talks about her skin color privilege

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Gabriella E. Morris recalls the notable alumni and faculty of the University of Texas Law School

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Gabriella E. Morris remembers working at Baker Botts LLP

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Gabriella E. Morris talks about her casework at Baker Botts LLP

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Gabriella E. Morris remembers meeting her first husband

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Gabriella E. Morris recalls her start at Prudential Financial, Inc.

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Gabriella E. Morris remembers the birth of her first child

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Gabriella E. Morris remembers the financial downturn of the late 1990s

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Gabriella E. Morris recalls meeting President George W. Bush

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Gabriella E. Morris remembers becoming president of the Prudential Foundation

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Gabriella E. Morris describes the Prudential Foundation's philanthropic strategy

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Gabriella E. Morris describes the Prudential Foundation's impact in the community of Newark, New Jersey

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Gabriella E. Morris reflects upon her career at the Prudential Foundation

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Gabriella E. Morris describes the Prudential Foundation's volunteer programs

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Gabriella E. Morris describes the Prudential Young Entrepreneur Program

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Gabriella E. Morris describes the United States Artists initiative

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Gabriella E. Morris talks about the Brick City Development Corporation

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - Gabriella E. Morris recalls marrying her second husband

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Gabriella E. Morris describes her duties as president of the Prudential Foundation

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Gabriella E. Morris talks about the Newark Trust for Education

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Gabriella E. Morris recalls founding Connective Advisors LLC

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Gabriella E. Morris talks about the Harlem School of the Arts in New York City

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Gabriella E. Morris talks about the UNICEF Bridge Fund

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Gabriella E. Morris describes her involvement in the NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund, Inc.

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Gabriella E. Morris talks about the Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Gabriella E. Morris describes the Stanford University Center for Social Innovation

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Gabriella E. Morris talks about her plans for the future

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Gabriella E. Morris reflects upon her life

Tape: 5 Story: 11 - Gabriella E. Morris reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 12 - Gabriella E. Morris describes her hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 5 Story: 13 - Gabriella E. Morris talks about her family

Tape: 5 Story: 14 - Gabriella E. Morris describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Gabriella E. Morris narrates her photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$3

DAStory

6$7

DATitle
Gabriella E. Morris recalls her experiences of discrimination at the Incarnate Word Academy
Gabriella E. Morris remembers working at Baker Botts LLP
Transcript
But I started my hapless career there with my mother [Elise LeNoir Morris] coming to our first open house, which was my first sh- first semester of freshman year [at Incarnate Word Academy, Houston, Texas]. And then when you walk in, it's the list of everyone on the honor roll, and she said, "Your name is not up there." And we went around and we collected all of my cards and of course I should've been on the honor roll, I had all A's. So she goes to the principal, "My daughter's name is not here, why?" "Oh yeah that's a mistake, we'll correct it," she said, "No, you'll correct it now. Today is the day when everyone sees who's on the honor roll. You will put her name there now." And of course I'm sort of semi-embarrassed, but I witnessed lot of this stuff from my mother with her own way of holding her righteous indignation through all kinds (laughter) of scenarios. That's what it takes to make that difference. And that was very, that was very important to me, because it was really about standing up for what even- everyone else is entitled to. You know that makes a diff- even that small little thing. So ah, that's how they got to know my mom (laughter), I'm sure they didn't forget it, she was a piece of work, so.$$Well, she did the right thing.$$Yeah so you know it was--you know as, as dedicated as the nuns were to teaching girls, they didn't have a vision for women. And it was you know funny tracks, you know almost like homemaker, secretary, they didn't have a vision that they're train- they're training girls for the world. I think even today I'm not sure how much, how equipped they are to say women can do anything they want. And I, I say that because you know counselors are supposed to say well you know you should go to school here. Or here's some good, they never did any of that for me. And when I got a notice from Princeton [Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey], I went there and I said aren't they supposed to tell you? Oh yeah they said you're a likely, as if (makes sound) why would you wanna do that? So that always bothered me you know that they did not, they sort of had in their mind limitations for girls, for black girls, brown girls.$$You think that, there's a difference in the limitations they had for, they had limitations for all girls. But then for black and brown girls--$$Absolutely.$$--special limitations.$$Absolutely my mother to this day said they, well not to this day but she would say they, they really cheated me out of the valedictory, I was salutatorian. Because my number had all zeroes behind it, no well you can't average out four years and get all zeroes, you know to the decimal point. And that it was important to them that I not be the valedictorian, so you know once again it's religious. It's you know it's, it's important to challenge, but it's just important to keep plowing ahead as well.$$Okay.$$Yeah.$So you're, you're interning with Baker and Botts [Baker Botts LLP, Houston, Texas] and do, do they offer you a job while you're in law school [University of Texas at Austin School of Law, Austin, Texas]?$$Yeah they offered me a job after my second summer with them, and it was interesting, they had more Princeton [Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey] alums there. They're very different field, more you know very eastern in their approach to things and I'd say Vinson and Elkins [Vinson and Elkins LLP, Houston, Texas] at the time was a little, little more homegrown. And they're both great firms but it was sort of like it was the last experience I had. I had both of those experiences, there were only, each firm had one black male attorney, who really was the groundbreaker. Sherman Stimley at, at Vinson Elkins unfortunately passed very, very young, but he was a terrific guy who was a mentor. He wanted, he was really responsible for gathering young people even those still in high school. Those interested in being lawyers, those in college, those in law school, just really trying to direct them to work in the big firms, he was a great guy. And then at Baker and Botts, [HistoryMaker] Rufus Cormier who recently retired was the only black attorney partner at, at Baker and Botts, he was a terrific guy as well, little different manner. But sort of austerely and calmly, confident great leader just a, a quiet man more of a quiet, quiet leader. So I worked there for three years and, and basically the system, these are basically guys that didn't wanna hire women, I gotta tell you in that day. And I only thing I think that really moved them was that they were having daughters who also wanted to be lawyers. You see they have these, these movements actually just really helped propel us forward. And they had to ask themselves why can't women work here, so there weren't that many women and they were very few, I think I was the second black person to work at the firm, so. But not a lot of mentorship overall in the firm, so I decided I should go to a corporate, a corporate law practice after that.

Dolores D. Wharton

Civic leader Dolores D. Wharton was born on July 3, 1927 in New York City to V. Kenneth Duncan and Josephine Bradford. Wharton attended New York University, Danbury State Teacher’s College, and the Neighborhood Playhouse in New York City, where she studied modern dance with Martha Graham. She received her B.F.A. degree from Chicago State Teacher’s College in the 1960s.

Wharton and her husband, Clifton R. Wharton, Jr., lived in Southeast Asia from 1958 to 1964. Following her return to the United States, Wharton wrote Contemporary Artists of Malaysia: A Biographic Survey, the first academic survey ever written on Malaysian art. Wharton became the first lady of Michigan State University in 1969, when her husband was appointed president of the university. As first lady, Wharton strengthened the university’s relationship with the greater Lansing, Michigan area, and with the student body. President Gerald Ford appointed Wharton to the National Council on the Arts of the National Endowment for the Arts in 1971. She became the first woman, and the first African American, elected to the board of the Michigan Bell Telephone Company in 1974, as well as the boards of the Kellogg Company and the Phillips Petroleum Company in 1976. Wharton initiated and chaired both company’s first social responsibility committees. She was also the first woman, and the first African American, elected to the board of the Gannett Company in 1979. Wharton went on to establish the Fund for Corporate Interns, Inc. (later the Fund for Corporate Initiatives) in 1980. In 1984, Wharton expanded FCI to include the young executives program, a week-long seminar that provided corporate leadership development to minority and women corporate employees.

Throughout her career, Wharton served on numerous other boards including the New York Telephone Company, Tulane University’s board of visitors, The Key Bank National Association, Golub, Inc., the Corporation of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, NPR, and COMSAT. Wharton was also served on the board of the Michigan Council on the Arts, the Aspen Institute, the Asia Society, CSIS, the SUNY Fashion Institute of Technology, the New York City Center, The Museum of Modern Art in New York, the Glimmerglass Opera, among others. Wharton has been awarded nine honorary degrees.

Wharton and her husband, Clifton R. Wharton, Jr., have two sons, Clifton Wharton III and Bruce Wharton.

Dolores Wharton was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on July 14, 2016 and October 4, 2016.

Accession Number

A2016.001

Sex

Female

Interview Date

07/14/2016 |and| 10/4/2016

Last Name

Wharton

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

D.

Schools

Little Red School House and Elisabeth Irwin High School

New York University

Western Connecticut State University

Neighborhood Playhouse School of the Theater

University of Chicago

Main Street School

Danbury High School

Bethel High School

First Name

Dolores

Birth City, State, Country

New York

HM ID

WHA03

Favorite Season

Fall, Spring

State

New York

Favorite Vacation Destination

Bahamas

Favorite Quote

Wonderful.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Birth Date

7/3/1927

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New York

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Asian Food

Short Description

Civic leader Dolores D. Wharton (1927 - ) was the first woman, and the first African American, elected to the boards of Michigan Bell Telephone Company, Kellogg Company, Phillips Petroleum Company, and Gannett Company.

Employment

The Fund for Corporate Initiatives

Favorite Color

Multicolor

Timing Pairs
0,0:330,4:660,14:880,19:3040,28:8522,97:8984,105:9292,110:12449,134:16745,173:17195,180:18320,192:18620,197:30650,300:32218,313:36360,348:36885,356:41460,457:43035,479:70213,868:78035,965:80450,977:81240,988:81714,996:82741,1011:84558,1042:85111,1051:85743,1060:90247,1095:90483,1100:94025,1150:94390,1156:101886,1250:102494,1255:104874,1287:108066,1384:133880,1653:134300,1661:134580,1666:142605,1783:143237,1797:149950,1872:151984,1928:159650,2015:171360,2101:179365,2190:182320,2205:183629,2230:184014,2236:184476,2244:185169,2256:185862,2267:186170,2272:187402,2294:188249,2308:191190,2324:195969,2387:196317,2392:198318,2423:199623,2435:200058,2441:210220,2562:215680,2647:216513,2655:218060,2673:218893,2682:221511,2715:226955,2740:232638,2809:233156,2822:233452,2827:233896,2835:234488,2845:236042,2877:237152,2895:237670,2904:239890,2937:240630,2950:245631,2975:247146,3001:255302,3105:255657,3111:258497,3158:263470,3190:264862,3215:265210,3220:266602,3252:267124,3259:268777,3312:270343,3346:271474,3371:289011,3571:289287,3576:289563,3581:290736,3602:296118,3734:296946,3755:297222,3760:299982,3827:301293,3876:309710,3960:310802,3981:311738,3997:315210,4040$0,0:2244,39:3876,69:4896,88:5372,97:5848,119:8908,220:11492,286:18686,358:23730,453:24220,462:24710,471:25550,487:26530,503:29726,535:29996,541:31400,583:31724,590:33818,608:35743,634:36898,654:37822,670:38207,676:38515,681:39054,690:40209,715:40517,720:41595,740:42288,755:49410,781:49858,789:52674,848:53186,858:54210,876:55746,913:56066,919:56898,933:61712,959:62944,1046:66044,1070:66692,1080:67583,1093:68474,1106:68798,1111:69932,1128:70418,1142:70742,1151:71147,1157:71876,1169:72362,1177:73253,1189:78923,1270:79571,1280:83900,1294:84320,1302:84670,1308:85510,1324:87190,1347:95510,1485:97502,1512:97917,1518:98415,1525:98996,1534:99909,1553:101071,1574:106210,1635:115885,1921:116860,1939:117835,1954:118285,1962:119335,1980:119785,1987:125510,2018:125886,2023:126262,2028:132700,2133:133110,2139:141315,2266:141972,2281:143213,2301:143651,2309:144600,2324:145038,2331:145622,2342:145987,2348:147812,2391:153030,2418:153516,2430:154002,2447:154434,2457:155028,2471:155298,2477:158590,2585:159016,2593:162871,2611:163798,2622:166768,2648:167064,2653:169190,2670:170815,2702:171075,2707:172895,2724:173171,2729:173447,2734:173723,2739:176759,2804:177449,2820:179105,2838:179381,2843:179726,2849:181865,2891:183452,2932:184349,2951:184694,2961:185177,2977:185591,2984:194740,3056:198405,3111:199380,3129:199680,3134:199980,3139:200430,3146:201105,3157:202680,3186:203205,3195:205680,3251:206355,3261:206655,3266:207330,3290:238817,3667:239133,3672:241108,3712:241503,3718:241977,3725:243715,3755:244031,3760:244584,3769:244979,3775:246638,3804:247191,3813:247586,3820:248850,3849:252910,3865:253691,3926:254046,3932:254756,3947:260194,4020:266895,4131:271200,4254:273090,4296:273510,4302:276820,4308:277600,4321:277860,4326:278575,4339:279030,4347:279875,4372:282020,4413:282345,4419:282865,4430:285595,4485:289583,4507:292040,4546
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Dolores D. Wharton's interview, session 1

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Dolores D. Wharton lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Dolores D. Wharton describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Dolores D. Wharton describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Dolores D. Wharton recalls the social scene in Philadelphia and New York City

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Dolores D. Wharton describes her earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Dolores D. Wharton describes the sights, sounds and smells of her childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Dolores D. Wharton remembers her family home in New York City, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Dolores D. Wharton remembers her family home in New York City, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Dolores D. Wharton describes the Little Red School House in New York City

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Dolores D. Wharton recalls her childhood activities in New York City

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Dolores D. Wharton talks about race relations in New York City during the 1930s

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Dolores D. Wharton recalls her parents' divorce

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Dolores D. Wharton talks about her stepfather, James W. Owens

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Dolores D. Wharton describes her high school experiences in Danbury, Connecticut, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Dolores D. Wharton describes her high school experiences in Danbury, Connecticut, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Dolores D. Wharton recalls her mother's second marriage to James W. Owens

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Dolores D. Wharton talks about racial boundaries in Danbury, Connecticut

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Dolores D. Wharton recalls her mother's departure from the Episcopal church

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Dolores D. Wharton remembers meeting her husband, Clifton R. Wharton, Jr.

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Dolores D. Wharton recalls living in New York City and Connecticut during World War II

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Dolores D. Wharton remembers the military service of her friends and family during World War II

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Dolores D. Wharton recalls her dance training in New York City

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Dolores D. Wharton remembers reconnecting with Clifton R. Wharton, Jr. after World War II

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Dolores D. Wharton recalls being neighbors with Marian Anderson in Danbury, Connecticut

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Dolores D. Wharton describes her wedding, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Dolores D. Wharton describes her wedding, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Dolores D. Wharton recalls living with her husband in Harlem, New York

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Dolores D. Wharton recalls attending the University of Chicago

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Dolores D. Wharton describes her lifestyle in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Dolores D. Wharton recalls moving back to New York City in the late 1950s

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Dolores D. Wharton remembers living in Singapore with her family

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Dolores D. Wharton recalls the art scene in Southeast Asia in the early 1960s

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Dolores D. Wharton describes her dance program in Malaysia

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Dolores D. Wharton talks about her children's education in Malaysia

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Dolores D. Wharton recalls her husband's appointment as president of Michigan State University

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Dolores D. Wharton talks about her role as first lady of Michigan State University

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Dolores D. Wharton talks about her support of her husband's career at Michigan State University

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Dolores D. Wharton remembers student protests at Michigan State University in the 1960s

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Dolores D. Wharton recalls joining the Michigan Council for the Arts

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Dolores D. Wharton recalls visiting Michigan universities with her husband

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Dolores D. Wharton talks about joining corporate boards in Michigan

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Dolores D. Wharton describes the fundraising campaigns at Michigan State University

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Dolores D. Wharton recalls her husband's presidency of the State University of New York System

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Dolores D. Wharton talks about corporate social responsibility committees

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Dolores D. Wharton describes the Fund for Corporate Initiatives' programs

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Slating of Dolores D. Wharton's interview, session 2

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Dolores D. Wharton recalls joining the board of Michigan Bell Telephone Company

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Dolores D. Wharton talks about her corporate boards responsibilities

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Dolores D. Wharton recalls joining the board of the New York Telephone Company

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Dolores D. Wharton remembers joining the board of the Phillips Petroleum Company

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Dolores D. Wharton recalls her experiences on the board of Phillips Petroleum Company

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Dolores D. Wharton describes her travels to Norway

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Dolores D. Wharton remembers corporate board members

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Dolores D. Wharton recalls founding corporate social responsibility committees

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Dolores D. Wharton talks about her experiences on the board of the Kellogg Company

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - Dolores D. Wharton describes responsibilities at Michigan State University

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - Dolores D. Wharton recalls joining the board of the Gannett Company, Inc.

Tape: 8 Story: 6 - Dolores D. Wharton describes her not-for-profit board memberships in Albany, New York

Tape: 8 Story: 7 - Dolores D. Wharton recalls mentoring college undergraduates in Albany, New York

Tape: 8 Story: 8 - Dolores D. Wharton describes the Fund for Corporate Initiatives

Tape: 9 Story: 1 - Dolores D. Wharton describes her collaboration with the Aspen Institute

Tape: 9 Story: 2 - Dolores D. Wharton talks about the Fund for Corporate Initiatives participants

Tape: 9 Story: 3 - Dolores D. Wharton describes her internship programs

Tape: 9 Story: 4 - Dolores D. Wharton talks about the age limit rules on corporate boards

Tape: 9 Story: 5 - Dolores D. Wharton recalls traveling to South Africa with the Kellogg Company

Tape: 9 Story: 6 - Dolores D. Wharton describes her visit to Soweto, South Africa

Tape: 9 Story: 7 - Dolores D. Wharton recalls the Kellogg Company's presence in South Africa

Tape: 10 Story: 1 - Dolores D. Wharton recalls her husband's appointment as deputy secretary of state

Tape: 10 Story: 2 - Dolores D. Wharton remembers Cyrus Vance and Grace Sloane Vance

Tape: 10 Story: 3 - Dolores D. Wharton talks about her board activities during the 1990s

Tape: 10 Story: 4 - Dolores D. Wharton recalls founding a charity in memory of her son, Clifton R. Wharton III

Tape: 10 Story: 5 - Dolores D. Wharton recalls retiring from various boards and non-profit programs

Tape: 10 Story: 6 - Dolores D. Wharton talks about the process of writing her memoirs

Tape: 10 Story: 7 - Dolores D. Wharton reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 10 Story: 8 - Dolores D. Wharton describes her hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 10 Story: 9 - Dolores D. Wharton reflects upon her life

Tape: 10 Story: 10 - Dolores D. Wharton describes her plans for the future

Tape: 11 Story: 1 - Dolores D. Wharton narrates her photographs, pt. 1

Tape: 11 Story: 2 - Dolores D. Wharton narrates her photographs, pt. 2

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$6

DAStory

4$6

DATitle
Dolores D. Wharton remembers meeting her husband, Clifton R. Wharton, Jr.
Dolores D. Wharton describes the Fund for Corporate Initiatives' programs
Transcript
Now you're in high school. When did you meet Cliff [HistoryMaker Clifton R. Wharton, Jr.]? You were in high school, correct?$$Yes. There was no social--there was no real social interaction with young men in, in Danbury [Connecticut]. There was one--no, I won't go there--and he would (unclear).$$Well, I read that you were--you had a date with someone else, and then when you met--you went on a date with a cadet or (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Oh, that was--yeah, well, that was much--that was later.$$It was later, okay.$$That was later.$$All right.$$Mother [Josephine Bradford Owens] wanted me to interact more with--well, I think she did. I think she wanted me to go up to meet--she was interacting with her cousin, the Fitzgeralds, who were in Boston [Massachusetts]; they had been--they were related to the Bradfords, the mother. Bertha Fitzgerald was related to--she was related to the Bradfords, and mother went once to visit them, and she had me going up to Boston. I went to Boston once to visit my cousin, and she had a party, a birthday party, and Cliff was supposedly at that party and I was supposed to have met him then. I don't remember it--having met him; I had a lot of young men paying attention to me (laughter). The year later, Betty [Betty Fitzgerald] invited me up for a--she was at Radcliffe [Radcliffe College, Cambridge, Massachusetts], and she invited me up to a dance at Radcliffe, and she got Cliff as my date, and we met at Harvard Yard [Cambridge, Massachusetts].$$How old were you?$$I think I was what--eighteen? We went to--we met in Harvard Yard, he took us to Adams House--for dinner at Adams House, and then we went back to Betty's dorm and got dressed for the dance; it was black tie, but--well, it might have been semiformal. The girls were in long dresses. And we went to the dance, we had a lovely time--just grand, just really delightful. I've described this as, I felt like I was--what was it--Sarah [sic. Scarlett O'Hara] in 'Gone with the Wind,' dancing with Clark Gable. Ooh! He was gorgeous (laughter), he really was so handsome. He's tall and thin, and he was Mr. Harvard, and oh, it was lovely. Then the dance was almost over and Cliff asked Betty and me if we would like to come to his church the next morning, where he was serving as an acolyte, and we accepted. We--you know, an extension of the weekend. So, the next morning we got on the "T," and went to the black part of Boston--Roxbury [Boston, Massachusetts]--and we went to the church. We were sitting in the pews quietly, and we thought we were being very quiet, and up comes a little white priest with all of his British accent and pulled back and said, "How dare you speak at the House of God!" Well, we just disintegrated, the two of us sitting in those pews. So, off he goes, and he goes back to where the acolytes are, and he tells this story back there, with the acolytes, of these two girls who happen to be there inside the vestry, talking. Can you imagine that? Well, Cliff knew full well who it was (laughter), of course. And the ceremony began, and he was going through with all of his incense and waving all this smoke all over the place. That passed, and then we went outside, and there were lots of people outside doing their--you know, the little old ladies with their bonnets; they were all black. It was a totally black church, and Cliff got his mother [Harriette Banks Wharton] and introduced me to his mother. His mother was very stern. She was a schoolteacher. She was very much a schoolteacher, and she was very busy greeting people--her friends, the other members of the congregation. And she greeted me and then she left, she went off someplace, and I was talking to Cliff. And then she came back suddenly and said, "Cliff, Cliff, you have to excuse yourself from these young ladies, I want--," and then she said, "he has to go, he has to meet some friends of mine." So, off he went, and we said, "Goodbye," and Betty and I got back on the "T" and I came back to Danbury.$You wanna get into all this?$$Sure.$$I went to the corporations--the major corporations there in Albany [New York]. I just had my secretary call up and say, "Mrs. Wharton [HistoryMaker Dolores D. Wharton] would like to come and have an appointment with you," and I went to see all the CEOs and human resource people, and talked--sat down--well, I--first I, with Cliff's [HistoryMaker Clifton R. Wharton, Jr.] help, I made a questionnaire for these--to find out what was going on in the corporations in Albany, why the blacks, why the women were not moving up the corporate ladder. What's happening? And I went to the CEOs and I--a number of them--and found out a lot about what might be able to be done, and got some ideas, and I talked about it a lot here and there, and got a contact with a chap who was the head of the school of--dean of the school of business and--but basically, Cliff and I really talked about what could be done. And we organized a program [Fund for Corporate Interns, Inc.; Fund for Corporate Initiatives, Inc.] and I went to the dean of the school of business and asked him to come aboard and to do some teaching with the young people, but first I went to the corporations and asked them to give me summer internships in their companies for women and minorities to work in their companies for a real job--a job with a beginning, a middle and an ending--just not a gofer's job. I negotiated this and a decent salary for them, and knowing--and telling them that on the weekends those young people would be coming to me and I would be teaching--I would be training them. I got a let- ooh, I got a number of corporations to come aboard saying, "Okay Dolores Wharton, we'll give you jobs for these kids." I went to the deans of the schools of business and the universities all around--Union [Union College, Schenectady, New York] and RPI [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York]--all around, and I got those deans to take my material to their bright students that don't--you can't deal with them if they're not bright. I couldn't do it, I couldn't do it. I'm small, I can't do it. So, for the young people to apply to me to come for the internships--these jobs that I had gotten for them--and I placed them, and gave them the jobs, and they went off on--in the summer, throughout the entire summer, to their jobs, but they came to me on weekends, and that's when I trained them where I had this dean of the school of business from State University of New York in Albany [State University of New York at Albany, Albany, New York]--and we trained them in person in various aspects of what you do in developing your relationships to your colleagues on the board in your company. And we also gave them writing, I--one of our--Cliff's colleagues there, we taught them writing for the business sector. They don't always write for business, they write for their compositions. But writing for the business sector, I gave them speech, I got a speech teacher from the youth theater; he taught them how to stand up and make presentations.$$Right.$$And I had lovely residents. I gave them--how to deal with people outside of their corporations when they would be invited to dinners, and that kind of thing. How do you introduce some people, one outstanding person to another? How do you behave yourself? Good program. And that's what we did on weekends. And I was told by the dean that when those--when my young people went out to get jobs at the university--when the recruiters came in to hire at the universities, my kids just turned out, they just got the jobs--they cleaned up because they knew how to behave themselves.$$How many students moved through that program?$$I don't really remember, but there were a--I know it's the other program, the young executive program, that I remember. We put a couple a hundred through that one, and I (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) And does it exist anymore?$$No. Once I got to a certain age, I'd gone off my boards. I--you know, I--at seventy, I had to go off.$$Okay.$$And I didn't have the contacts anymore. Cliff didn't have the contacts. We used our contacts, that was our faculty--our contacts. They were brilliant (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) So it lived as long as you were on the board.$$Yes. And also, other institutions were beginning to develop programs like--they were copying me, they really were. They were doing what I was doing, quite a few others. So it got so--and I didn't have to do this, so I decided it was time to close the doors.

La June Montgomery Tabron

Foundation chief executive La June Montgomery Tabron was born in Detroit, Michigan. She was raised in a family of ten children and attended public schools in Detroit. Tabron graduated from Cass Technical High School and went on to receive her B.S. degree in business administration from the University of Michigan. She then received her M.B.A. degree from the Kellogg Graduate School of Management at Northwestern University and became a certified public accountant and management accountant.

Tabron first worked as an auditor for Plante & Moran PLLC in the mid-1980s. In 1987, she was hired as a financial controller for the W.K. Kellogg Foundation in Battle Creek, Michigan. Tabron was soon promoted to assistant vice president for finance and assistant treasurer of the Kellogg Foundation. She was then made vice president for finance and later appointed as executive vice president of operations and treasurer. She also became instrumental in developing the Kellogg Foundation’s strategic focus on the educational achievements of young men of color through place-based work in New Orleans, Louisiana and the State of Mississippi. In October of 2013, Tabron was named president and chief executive officer of the W.K. Kellogg Foundation, becoming the first woman and African American to head the foundation.

In addition to her work at the Kellogg Foundation, Tabron serves as president of the board of the Western Michigan University Foundation. She is also a board member of the Bronson Healthcare Group, Southwest Michigan First, Battle Creek Community Health Partners, the Mississippi Center for Education Innovation, and the Kellogg Company. Tabron has served on the Kalamazoo Retirement Investment Committee, the Battle Creek Community Foundation Audit Committee, the Council on Foundations’ Public Policy Committee, and the Independent Sector Board Development Committee. She is a member of the Michigan Association of Certified Public Accountants, the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants, the Institute of Management Accountants, and the Foundation Financial Officers Group. In addition, she serves as a member of the Kalamazoo Chapter of the Links, Incorporated.

La June Montgomery Tabron was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on June 27, 2014.

Accession Number

A2014.134

Sex

Female

Interview Date

6/27/2014

Last Name

Tabron

Maker Category
Middle Name

Montgomery

Schools

Cass Technical High School

University of Michigan

Northwestern University, Kellogg School of Business

First Name

La June

Birth City, State, Country

Detroit

HM ID

TAB02

State

Michigan

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Michigan

Birth Date

10/4/1962

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Battle Creek

Country

United States

Short Description

Foundation chief executive La June Montgomery Tabron (1962 - ) was the president and chief executive officer of the W.K. Kellogg Foundation, where she worked for over twenty-six years.

Employment

Plante & Moran PLLC

W.K. Kellogg Foundation

Earl Lewis

Foundation president, historian and academic administrator Earl Lewis was born in 1955 in Norfolk, Virginia. Lewis attended Concordia College in Moorhead, Minnesota, where he graduated in 1978 with his B.A. degree in history and psychology. After graduating from Concordia College, Lewis enrolled in the University of Minnesota and received his M.A. degree in history in 1981. He then went on to earn his Ph.D. in 1984 from the University of Minnesota.

In 1984, Lewis was hired as an assistant professor in the department of African American Studies at the University of California, Berkeley. Then, in 1989, he joined the faculty at the University of Michigan as an associate professor of history and African American and African Studies. One year after his arrival at the University of Michigan, Lewis was appointed as the director of the university’s Center for African American and African Studies. He became a full professor of history and African American and African Studies in 1995, and a faculty associate in the Program in American Culture. In 1997, Lewis was promoted to interim dean of the University of Michigan’s Horace H. Rackham School of Graduate Studies. Shortly thereafter, in 1998, Lewis became the vice provost for academic affairs for graduate studies and dean; and, in 2003, he was appointed the Elsa Barkley Brown and Robin D.G. Kelley Collegiate Professor of History and African American and African Studies. Then, in 2004, he was hired as both provost and executive vice president for academic affairs and as the Asa Griggs Candler professor of history and African American studies at Emory University. Lewis was Emory University’s first African American provost and the highest-ranking African American administrator in the university’s history. In 2013, he left Emory University and assumed a new role as president of the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation.

Lewis has edited, authored or co-authored seven books. They include the 1991 monograph In Their Own Interests: Race, Class, and Power in Twentieth-Century Norfolk, 2000’s To Make Our World Anew: A History of African Americans, 2001’s Love on Trial: An American Scandal in Black and White, and 2004’s The African American Urban Experience: From the Colonial Era to the Present. Lewis is also the author of more than two dozen scholarly articles and has served on several academic and community boards, including the American Historical Review, Council of Graduate Schools, the American Council of Learned Societies, the National Academy of Science’s Board on Higher Education and the Workforce, and the Center for Research Libraries. He became a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 2008.

Earl Lewis was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on October 18, 2013.

Accession Number

A2013.255

Sex

Male

Interview Date

10/18/2013

Last Name

Lewis

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Schools

Concordia College

University of Minnesota

Indian River High School

First Name

Earl

Birth City, State, Country

Norfolk

HM ID

LEW14

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Virginia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Virginia Beach, Virginia

Favorite Quote

We Serve As, Rather Than We Are, Before Titles

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Birth Date

11/15/1955

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New York

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Steamed Blue Crab

Short Description

History professor, academic administrator, and foundation chief executive Earl Lewis (1955 - ) , author of In Their Own Interests: Race, Class, and Power in Twentieth-Century Norfolk, was Emory University’s first African American provost and the highest-ranking African American administrator in the university’s history.

Employment

University of California, Berkeley

University of Michigan

Emory University

Andrew W. Mellon Foundation

University of Minnesota

Favorite Color

Blue

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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Earl Lewis' interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Earl Lewis lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Earl Lewis shares his memories of his father, Earl Lewis, Sr.

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Earl Lewis describes how his parents met and his father's death

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Earl Lewis describes the importance of education in his maternal family history

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Earl Lewis describes his maternal grandmother's personality

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Earl Lewis describes his maternal grandfather's personality

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Earl Lewis talks about the churches his family attended

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Earl Lewis shares his earliest childhood memories, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Earl Lewis shares his earliest childhood memories, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Earl Lewis recalls the diversity of his childhood neighborhood in Norfolk, Virginia

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Earl Lewis describes the sights, sounds, and smells of his childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Earl Lewis describes his childhood, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Earl Lewis describes his childhood, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Earl Lewis reflects on the opportunities he had as a child

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Earl Lewis describes how his mother took care of him and his brother after their father died

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Earl Lewis describes his childhood responsibilities

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Earl Lewis describes his childhood personality

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Earl Lewis describes his experience attending Crestwood Elementary, Junior High, and High School in Chesapeake, Virginia

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Earl Lewis talks about his experiences of racism at Indian River High School in Chesapeake, Virginia, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Earl Lewis talks about his experiences of racism at Indian River High School in Chesapeake, Virginia, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Earl Lewis describes integrating the Key Club at Indian River High School in Chesapeake, Virginia

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Earl Lewis describes his mother's experience as a teacher at an integrated elementary school in Chesapeake, Virginia

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Earl Lewis describes his decision to attend Concordia College in Moorhead, Minnesota

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Earl Lewis describes his initial impressions of Concordia College in Moorhead, Minnesota

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Earl Lewis talks about the black community at Concordia College in Moorhead, Minnesota and why it has diminished

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Earl Lewis describes his experience studying psychology and history at Concordia College in Moorhead, Minnesota

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Earl Lewis describes his experience at the University of Minnesota in Minneapolis, Minnesota

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Earl Lewis talks about overcoming his ambivalence about an academic career

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Earl Lewis describes his experience as a Ph.D. candidate at the University of Minnesota in Minneapolis, Minnesota, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Earl Lewis describes his experience as a Ph.D. candidate at the University of Minnesota in Minneapolis, Minnesota, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Earl Lewis talks about his friends and mentors in Minneapolis, Minnesota

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Earl Lewis talks about being hired as an assistant professor at the University of California, Berkeley

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Earl Lewis describes his Ph.D. dissertation at the University of Minnesota in Minneapolis, Minnesota

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Earl Lewis talks about the reception of his doctoral thesis and his book, "In Their Own Interests"

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Earl Lewis describes what his dissertation taught him about the history of his hometown of Norfolk, Virginia

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Earl Lewis describes the research methods he used on his dissertation at the University of Minnesota in Minneapolis, Minnesota

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Earl Lewis describes the quantitative study of social history at the University of Minnesota in Minneapolis, Minnesota

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Earl Lewis describes interviewing at the University of California, Berkeley

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Earl Lewis talks about his mentors at the University of California, Berkeley and publishing his first book

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Earl Lewis talks about his conflict with Henry Lewis Suggs after the publication of his first book

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Earl Lewis describes his decision to leave the University of California, Berkeley for the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, Michigan, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Earl Lewis describes his decision to leave the University of California, Berkeley for the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, Michigan, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Earl Lewis describes the University of Michigan's Center for Afroamerican and African Studies in 1989

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Earl Lewis talks about his experience directing the Center for Afroamerican and African Studies at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, Michigan

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Earl Lewis talks about publishing "The Young Oxford History of African Americans"

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Earl Lewis talks about his interdisciplinary approach to African American studies

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Earl Lewis talks about the work of one of his students, Merida Rua, and how the study of African American history has changed

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Earl Lewis talks about writing his book with Heidi Ardizzone "Love on Trial," pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Earl Lewis talks about writing his book with Heidi Ardizzone "Love on Trial," pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Earl Lewis talks about the response to "Love on Trial"

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Earl Lewis talks about the structure of "Love on Trial"

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Earl Lewis talks about his approach to publication

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Earl Lewis talks about balancing his administrative obligations with his teaching, publishing, and family

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - Earl Lewis talks about his family and divorce from Jayne London

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Earl Lewis describes his role in the University of Michigan's affirmative action cases, pt. 1

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Earl Lewis describes his role in the University of Michigan's affirmative action cases, pt. 2

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Earl Lewis talks about the importance of the University of Michigan's affirmative action cases

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Earl Lewis talks about the presidents of the University of Michigan during his tenure

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Earl Lewis describes becoming Provost of Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia in 2004

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Earl Lewis describes his experience as Provost of Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Earl Lewis talks about the diversity of staff and faculty at Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Earl Lewis talks about leaving Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 7 Story: 9 - Earl Lewis talks about becoming President of the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, pt. 1

Tape: 7 Story: 10 - Earl Lewis talks about becoming President of the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, pt. 2

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Earl Lewis talks about the financial problems faced by universities

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Earl Lewis describes his plans for promoting diversity and performing arts through the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Earl Lewis talks about the future of African American studies departments, pt. 1

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - Earl Lewis talks about the future of African American studies departments, pt. 2

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - Earl Lewis reflects on how race and his childhood affected his first book, "In Their Own Interests"

Tape: 8 Story: 6 - Earl Lewis describes the problems facing African American historians in the academy

Tape: 9 Story: 1 - Earl Lewis talks about other organizations that fund the arts, sciences, and humanities

Tape: 9 Story: 2 - Earl Lewis shares his views on the future of the humanities

Tape: 9 Story: 3 - Earl Lewis reflects on his life's journey, pt. 1

Tape: 9 Story: 4 - Earl Lewis reflects on his life's journey, pt. 2

Tape: 9 Story: 5 - Earl Lewis reflects on his legacy and how he would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$7

DAStory

9$5

DATitle
Earl Lewis describes his experience at the University of Minnesota in Minneapolis, Minnesota
Earl Lewis describes becoming Provost of Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia in 2004
Transcript
And when I got into the University of Minnesota [Minneapolis, Minnesota] right after I finished Concordia [College in Moorhead, Minnesota], so I left Concordia and went right to Minnesota with, to University of Minnesota, with a break in the summer where I worked for Minnesota Mutual Life Insurance Company and I designed an attitude survey for the whole company and implemented that attitude survey using my psychology degree. And then a few months later I left there, they hired someone else to do the data analysis and I went to graduate school at the University of Minnesota, initially just to get a masters. I was gonna get a masters. And I got into graduate school and I discovered I still, if, if I have something to work on, it was actually finding my own voice as a writer because I realized undergrad and even early graduate school, you're reading so many different people and you're trying to figure out how to be like one of them. And then Russ [Russell Menard] took me aside one day and he said, "Earl, let me tell you a secret." I said, "Sure Russ." He says, "I started out thinking I was gonna be the next generation Perry Miller and only discovered I couldn't do the work in intellectual colonial history the way Perry Miller did. And then I became an economic historian and it refocused who I was and I was able to find by own voice." He says, "Just think about who you wanna be. Stop thinking about who all these other folks have been, and see if you can't find your own voice." That was actually quite valuable and-- So my second year of graduate school in the masters program I thought, "You know what? I may be able to get a Ph.D." Meanwhile Joe Trotter [Joe William Trotter, Jr.] was ahead of me. So Joe pulled me aside and he says, "Earl," and I said, "What?" He said, "I got a prediction." I go "What's that's, Joe?" He goes, you gone be the next African American to get a Ph.D. from the University of Minnesota in the History Department. I said, "Well there are people ahead of me." He says, "I know. But you will be." And, and, and I to this day I thank him 'cause it was at that point where he was telling me something that I was just discovering about myself. That yeah, I could do this. And, and so after getting the masters then I talked to the professors and applied to get into the Ph.D. and, and with an understanding and said, "And this is how long I plan to be in graduate school." So I, tell me now if I can, I don't wanna be here more than six total years. I've had enough Minnesota winters. I know exactly how many more I plan. And they all agreed they thought I could move at pace and Joe had been able to do it in five and I figured I could do it in six. He was on full scholarship the whole time and I wasn't. And, and I did. And, and even in, even at the university I ended up discovering that I could do a lot of things in that graduate program and so I ended up my, my major was, area was U.S. History. But I also had a heavy secondary major in African Peoples History. And so I used to always joke with my own doctoral students who would complain about exams, I'd say "Look, I took an eight hour written exam in U.S. History. I took an eight hour written exam in African History. And then I took a two hour oral exam. So that was sixteen hours of writing. And four hours I think, you can survive." And, and, and that was the sense and I remember talking, Allen Isaacman and Lansine Kaba and I said "Why are you guys making me take this eight hour written exam.? I'm not an Africanist. I mean it's not my major area." And they, they said, "because we know you can do it."$So what made you decide to go to Emory [University in Atlanta, Georgia] then? What was that, that decision?$$It was probably driven by three factors. One, several people had come to me several times and said "Earl are you gonna be the next provost of the University of Michigan?" And I said, "I don't know." And my friend and colleague, Paul Courant, had been the acting provost when Joe [B. Joseph White] was the acting president. When Mary Sue [Coleman] came in, there were some who believed then there was gone be a search process for the next president, I mean provost. And Mary Sue decided that she was comfortable with Paul staying in that role. So she lifted the title of "acting" and made him provost. I said "Okay. So my, not gonna happen here at this moment." I get a call from Spencer Stuart's search consulting firm and the search consultant called me and says, "Earl last time we talked was about five years ago, and you said to me call you back in five years when your daughter is about to graduate from high school. By my records your daughter is about to graduate from high school. Would you be interested in thinking about being the provost at Emory?" And I said to her, "Paula (ph.) that is really good. I have dealt with a lot of search consultants but I've never known anyone to maintain a five year tickler file." I said, "You got, at least you got my interest here." And she said, "Well things have changed at Emory." And I said (unclear) 'cause I, I knew a little bit about Emory. And I go, I'm not sure to what the new president and at least consider it. And then several other peoples said to me, "Just think about it Earl." So I went and had a conversation in, with the folks at Emory. I met [James] Jim Wagner, who years older than I am and had grown up in the other place. If I had been a Virginia boy, he's a Maryland boy. And so, and we hit it off. And I thought "Okay. I, maybe I could be provost." So I went back to Michigan and I explained to them, to Mary Sue here's my, here's what I'm thinking. They offered me two more jobs (laughter). They were making me vice president of research and the head of international if I stayed. And I started to laugh. I had, and by that time I had remarried and, Susan [Witlock] and I were married, and I said and, and Susan had lived in Ann Arbor longer than I had and, and, I said "Well I can stay at Michigan and have three jobs and get paid for one, or I can go to Emory and be a provost and have the title that goes with those, in some ways, the elements of those three jobs." And so, and I went back to Mary Sue and just asked a question, a little bit about her view of the tenure of the provost and when that may open up again and whether or not I, help me think about whether or not I'd be better off biding my time at Michigan or going and being a provost in the next few months. And I didn't get the answer I wanted. And, and, and so I left. Now irony of ironies, right, I get to Emory, I'm there a year and I get a call back because Paul's stepping down as provost and, and would I come back and I go, "No." It was a missed moment. I several, board members had thought I was gone be the next provost and several, much of the campus had thought I would have been, it didn't happen, that door is closed. I had made at least a five year commitment to Emory, and I try not to renege on those kind of pledges and promises.$$And so you this, you're coming in as provost is historic--$$Yeah.$$--for Emory.$$It's historic for Emory--$$--because there's no African American provost--$$I was the highest ranked African American in Emory's history, ever period. I mean, and to be honest if you look across the South there probably have only been two African Americans that have been into the level of provost or above, or certainly the level of provost at one of the major southern universities. The other person was Bernadette Gray-Little at Chapel Hill [University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill]. And Bernadette and I were provost about the same time. And, but if you go through the history and, I mean, and truth, I mean sad truth is that right now and among the AAU [Association of American Universities] institutions, the leading research universities in the United States, there are no African American provosts. I mean in sixty-something institutions, there's one fellow who was African-born who I think has become a naturalized citizen who is provost at [University of Illinois] Urbana-Champaign [HM Ilesanmi Adesida], but when I stepped out of this role there is no one. So it's even more than Emory its, there's initial in my view, where the larger complex of American, higher education in particular at the major research universities.

Marcia Cantarella

Corporate executive and school administrator Marcia Elaine Young Cantarella was born on October 31, 1946, in Minneapolis, Minnesota to Margaret Buckner Young and late civil rights leader Whitney M. Young, Jr. Cantarella attended Bryn Mawr College and graduated with honors in 1968 after earning her B.A. degree in political science. For two years, she audited American Studies and law courses at the University of Iowa before moving to New York City in 1972.

Cantarella began working for Avon Products, Inc. in public affairs as a manager, focusing on minority and women’s affairs and issues of affirmative action. In 1973, she joined the board of directors for the Federation of Protestant Welfare Agencies and became chair of the Committee for Board and Service Volunteers. A year later, Cantarella joined the Women and Foundations Group, became a member of the Association of Black Foundation Executives and joined the nomination and health maintenance organization committee for Blue Cross Blue Shield of Greater New York. She would remain active in all four organizations until 1980.

In 1976, Cantarella was promoted by Avon Products, Inc. to Director of Public Affairs, where she would remain for four more years. During her tenure, Cantarella revamped the Avon Products Foundation in order to focus on women’s issues and moved the organization past monetary donations to focus on volunteerism. In 1980, she was again promoted by Avon, becoming Director of Special Markets, where she spent two years working with minority markets.

In 1985, Cantarella left Avon Products, Inc. and became a work and family issues consultant. Her major clients included New York University and Catalyst, Inc., an organization that works to further the roles of women in the workplace. In 1988, Cantarella was named Executive Director of the National Coalition for Women’s Enterprise, a women's self-employment and advocacy organization. In 1989, Cantarella returned to school and in 1996 earned her M.A. and Ph.D. degrees in American Studies with a concentration in American Business from New York University.

Cantarella became Director of Academic Enhancement Programs at New York University at the College of Arts and Sciences. In 1999, Cantarella was named Assistant Dean of Princeton University, where she was responsible for the Mellon Minority Undergraduate Fellowship Program. In 2002, Cantarella was named Vice President for Student Affairs at the Metropolitan College of New York and in 2005, became Acting Associate Dean for Student Opportunities at Hunter College. Cantarella continues to serve in leadership roles on not-for-profit boards and committees.

Marcia Cantarella was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on April 20, 2007 and July 20, 2007.

Accession Number

A2007.152

Sex

Female

Interview Date

4/20/2007 |and| 7/20/2007

Last Name

Cantarella

Maker Category
Marital Status

Widowed

Middle Name

Young

Schools

Oglethorpe Elementary School

New Rochelle High School

University of Iowa

New York University

Simmons College

Bryn Mawr College

Lothrop Magnet Center

First Name

Marcia

Birth City, State, Country

Minneapolis

HM ID

CAN04

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Minnesota

Favorite Vacation Destination

France, Cape Cod, Massachusetts

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Birth Date

10/31/1946

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New York

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Italian Food

Short Description

Foundation chief executive Marcia Cantarella (1946 - ) started her career with Avon Products, Inc. and then became executive director of the National Coalition for Women’s Enterprise. She served as the acting Associate Dean for Student Opportunities at Hunter College.

Employment

Hunter College

Metropolitan College of New York

Princeton University

New York University

National Coalition for Women's Enterprise

Avon Products, inc.

Rabat American School

Robert F. Kennedy's Office

National Urban League

Favorite Color

Green

Timing Pairs
0,0:455,7:910,13:1365,19:4277,63:5369,82:6916,112:10374,196:18748,313:24388,397:24858,403:52188,718:54738,777:60660,889:70625,1022:72005,1040:73385,1056:74765,1076:76950,1096:77640,1101:87543,1216:89867,1257:90199,1262:92772,1316:97620,1352:98324,1361:100876,1396:101228,1402:108884,1578:114756,1615:115302,1623:116316,1637:116628,1643:117408,1657:117954,1666:118422,1673:120138,1698:120684,1710:122946,1745:123336,1763:123648,1768:124038,1774:124350,1779:124974,1810:127236,1832:134618,1937:135058,1953:138795,1993:139555,2004:142215,2040:146470,2073:156348,2209:157288,2223:161142,2309:164150,2364:169696,2449:170260,2456:171200,2467:173268,2523:174208,2534:178391,2548:179636,2572:180134,2579:180549,2585:181296,2595:181877,2604:182707,2616:185446,2673:186442,2688:194110,2734:194950,2743:196510,2759:202808,2806:206820,2863$0,0:356,7:1046,19:1391,25:6948,176:12676,243:13278,251:14826,276:15514,286:16718,306:17320,314:18008,323:19040,337:26866,456:28328,479:29188,489:29704,496:40042,600:40452,606:41846,632:45846,651:46566,668:54702,835:61470,978:62622,996:68571,1007:69039,1012:69624,1018:70443,1028:75123,1121:80780,1184:81084,1189:82984,1236:84884,1277:85188,1282:85644,1290:89744,1324:93956,1381:97880,1419
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Marcia Cantarella's interview, session 1

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Marcia Cantarella lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Marcia Cantarella describes her mother's family background, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Marcia Cantarella describes her mother's family background, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Marcia Cantarella describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Marcia Cantarella remembers her paternal grandfather

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Marcia Cantarella describes her father's upbringing in Lincoln Ridge, Kentucky

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Marcia Cantarella describes how her parents met

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Marcia Cantarella describes her father's decision to pursue social work

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Marcia Cantarella describes her earliest childhood memory

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Marcia Cantarella remembers her experiences in Omaha, Nebraska

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Marcia Cantarella talks about the integrated community of Omaha, Nebraska

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Marcia Cantarella remembers the Oglethorpe School in Atlanta, Georgia, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Marcia Cantarella remembers the Oglethorpe School in Atlanta, Georgia, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Marcia Cantarella describes her father's civil rights activities in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Marcia Cantarella describes segregation in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Marcia Cantarella describes her father's involvement with the Unitarian church

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Marcia Cantarella talks about her family's move to Cambridge, Massachusetts

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Marcia Cantarella recalls her time in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Marcia Cantarella describes her early aspirations

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Marcia Cantarella describes her family's move to New Rochelle, New York

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Marcia Cantarella describes her early involvement with the National Urban League

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Marcia Cantarella describes her decision to attend Bryn Mawr College in Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Marcia Cantarella recalls her opposition to the Vietnam War

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Marcia Cantarella describes her family's opposition to the Vietnam War

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Marcia Cantarella remembers the National Urban League's Council of Board Members

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Marcia Cantarella recalls her internship with Robert F. Kennedy

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Marcia Cantarella describes her father's work with President Lyndon Baines Johnson

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Marcia Cantarella recalls her involvement in the presidential election of 1964

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Marcia Cantarella remembers the assassinations of 1968

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Marcia Cantarella recalls the civil rights organizations at Bryn Mawr College in Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Marcia Cantarella describes her father's stance on equality and opportunity

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Marcia Cantarella reflects upon the portrayal of working women in films

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Marcia Cantarella remembers her mentors at Bryn Mawr College

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Marcia Cantarella describes her father's work in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Marcia Cantarella reflects upon the male mentors in her life

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Marcia Cantarella describes her social life

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Marcia Cantarella describes her experiences at Bryn Mawr College in Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Marcia Cantarella remembers her father's death and her divorce

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Marcia Cantarella remembers lessons from her father

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Marcia Cantarella describes how she came to work for Avon Products Inc.

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Marcia Cantarella recalls joining Corporate America in the 1970s

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Marcia Cantarella describes the challenges she faced at Avon Products Inc.

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Slating of Marcia Cantarella's interview, session 2

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Marcia Cantarella describes the leadership of Avon Products Inc.

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Marcia Cantarella describes her role at Avon Products Inc.

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Marcia Cantarella reflects upon the changing corporate culture of the 1980s

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Marcia Cantarella describes her work as a business consultant

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Marcia Cantarella reflects upon the role of women in business

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Marcia Cantarella describes her decision to attend New York University in New York City

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Marcia Cantarella remembers Leslie Grossman and Mary Murphree

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Marcia Cantarella describes her experiences at New York University

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - Marcia Cantarella remembers her mentors at New York University

Tape: 6 Story: 11 - Marcia Cantarella describes the Academic Achievement Program at New York University

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Marcia Cantarella describes the influence of the Unitarian Universalist church

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Marcia Cantarella describes her career at New York University

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Marcia Cantarella describes her role at Princeton University in Princeton, New Jersey

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Marcia Cantarella remembers the Audrey Cohen College in New York City

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Marcia Cantarella describes her position at the Audrey Cohen College in New York City

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Marcia Cantarella describe her role at New York City's Hunter College

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Marcia Cantarella reflects upon her family's work

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Marcia Cantarella describes the Trickle Up program, pt. 1

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Marcia Cantarella describes the Trickle Up program, pt. 2

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Marcia Cantarella reflects upon the status of women in business

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Marcia Cantarella reflects upon the obstacles facing entrepreneurs of color

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - Marcia Cantarella talks about the increasing diversity in the United States

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - Marcia Cantarella reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 8 Story: 6 - Marcia Cantarella narrates her photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$3

DAStory

7$8

DATitle
Marcia Cantarella describes her father's civil rights activities in Atlanta, Georgia
Marcia Cantarella recalls her opposition to the Vietnam War
Transcript
During those early years do you remember what was happening at home? Who were the people that were visiting the home?$$Um-hm.$$Was your father [Whitney Young] becoming extremely active within the southern civil rights community (simultaneous)?$$(Simultaneous) Um-hm, um-hm. We lived in a, in a sort of complex of other faculty, you know, separate homes but we were, it was a little kind of like a gated community. And one of our neighbors who was a good friend was Horace Mann, Horace Bond [Horace Mann Bond], and his son Julian, Mr. Julian Bond [HistoryMaker Julian Bond], who I thought was just adorable, (laughter) that was when I was a little girl, he was much older, and, and his brother, James [James Bond], and sister, Jane [HistoryMaker Jane Bond Moore]. Jane I adored because she gave me all her books as she, you know, out grew her books she just passed them on to me, which was wonderful. James was a pain, yeah, yeah, yeah, he was just a bother. But, you know, so, you know, my father was certainly, you know, working with that family and, and others. You know, I became aware of the fact that as, as the sit-ins started, you know, daddy wouldn't be home for dinner 'cause he was bailing students out of jail, you know. There--$$Do you remember your first sit-ins, do you remember what the conversations were at home and what your father's specific role was (unclear)?$$Not really. I mean, it's not, you know, again, I'm, I was, you know, ten or eleven (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) Eight, yeah, and okay.$$Yeah, so, so this was kind of all going over my head. It really wasn't until, you know, I was getting into my teens that, that he and I began to really engage and I, I began to form my own activism. So, but, you know, I was aware of the fact that there were meetings that took place.$$And that the sit-ins were happening and that your father was late--$$Right, right.$$--coming home because he was dealing with it?$$Right, exactly, exactly. But I, and, and, and the piece that I did because it, it absolutely hit home, that I remember was the boycotts because the, we weren't allowed to go to stores that we used to go to. The department (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Now when did the boycotts take place?$$The, the, the boycotts took place in, I'd say probably '55 [1955], '56 [1956] thereabouts, around lunch, lunch counters and the fact that the major department stores had segregated lunch counters. So you could shop at Rich's Department Store [Atlanta, Georgia] but you couldn't eat at Rich's Department Store. And so everyone, you know, the entire black community began to boycott the major stores. And so as a kid, you know, it was like why can't we go to that store anymore? And, and being, you know, told the reason and, and supporting the reason. So, you know, that was, that was certainly, you know, a crystallizing experience.$So the issues were civil rights and, and the war [Vietnam War]. Those were the big issues. And, so (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) And how did your father [Whitney Young] feel about the war?$$Well, it was interesting. He had to ride the fence because there were so many young black men fighting in the war that he couldn't really take a position. He didn't feel he could take a position overtly in opposition. So he let me be the firebrand on the war. And there was one night we were at a dinner together and he was sitting on the dais with McGeorge Bundy, and he proceeds to tell McGeorge Bundy all about what his daughter thought about the war. And after the dinner there is a reception and daddy brings McGeorge Bundy to me and introduces me as this is the person who's, you know, I was telling you well, what, what she thinks. And then daddy walks off and leaves me with McGeorge Bundy and me being all of like nineteen, continued to mouth off on my views of the war to the undersecretary of state. And many years later, my husband [Francesco Cantarella] and I met McGeorge Bundy at a dinner and reminded him of this story and McGeorge Bundy said, "And history proved you right." Very gracious of him, I must say, (laughter) it was really remarkable. But, you know, my, by this time my father trusted my judgment enough that he could throw me out there and assume that I would probably equip myself reasonably well.

Reverend Dr. Gregory Smith

Reverend Gregory Robeson Smith was born on September 22, 1947 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He is the Senior Pastor of the Mother African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church in Harlem, New York. His maternal grandfather, Benjamin Congleton Robeson, was very active in the local community activities of Harlem. As a child, Smith’s family history was steeped in the history of the church. In 1936, his grandfather became the pastor of Mother African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church, and his uncle Paul Robeson often attended and spoke out against the discrimination that existed at the time.

In 1954, Smith earned his diploma from Dewitt Clinton High School in Bronx, New York. He received his B.A. degree in history in 1959 from Livingstone College in Salisbury, North Carolina. Continuing his education, he received his M.B.A. degree in marketing and finance and his M.A. degree in divinity from the University of Wisconsin. He completed his education with his Ph.D. in higher education administration and finance and his Ph.D. in ministries. Smith has integrated his careers as a business executive, public activist and religious leader. He has spent over twenty years working in marketing and finance with several Fortune 500 companies.

In 1990, Smith was appointed by President George Bush as President and CEO of the African Development Foundation, an independent federal agency in Washington, D.C., with offices in twenty-five African nations. Smith continued to serve under the Clinton Administration until May 1995 when he became the Senior Pastor of the Mother African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church in Harlem, New York. The church is known as the “Freedom Church” for the central role it played on the Underground Railroad. It was attended by Frederick Douglass, Sojourner Truth, and Harriet Tubman.

Smith holds positions on several boards. He is Deputy Grand Master of the Prince Hall Masons of the State of New York. Smith is President of the Prince Hall Temple Associates, Inc. and has received the distinction of being one of the Outstanding Men of America.

Smith resides in New York with is wife and family.

Smith was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on January 24, 2007.

Accession Number

A2007.029

Sex

Male

Interview Date

1/24/2007 |and| 7/10/2007

Last Name

Smith

Maker Category
Schools

DeWitt Clinton High School

The Modern School

Livingstone College

University of Wisconsin-Madison

Union Theological Seminary

United Theological Seminary

First Name

Gregory

Birth City, State, Country

Philadelphia

HM ID

SMI18

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Pennsylvania

Favorite Vacation Destination

Africa

Favorite Quote

To Whom Much Is Given, Much Is Required.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Birth Date

9/22/1947

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New York

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Turkey

Short Description

Foundation chief executive and pastor Reverend Dr. Gregory Smith (1947 - ) was the senior pastor of the Mother African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church in Harlem, New York, and was appointed by President George Bush as the President and CEO of the African Development Foundation.

Employment

Joseph E. Seagram & Sons

Revlon, Inc.

Lever Brothers Company

Ogilvy & Mather Corporation

Favorite Color

Black

Timing Pairs
0,0:19298,279:27389,399:30179,440:50778,697:51110,756:62232,1012:64971,1055:65386,1061:79676,1170:80468,1179:84920,1221:88270,1278:95320,1356:109167,1532:109582,1617:125930,1738:127370,1772:131510,1834:133220,1857:145060,2003:145460,2009:145780,2014:146660,2023:153140,2073$0,0:17933,498:18407,505:29586,618:30026,624:36362,735:58160,1040:77992,1557:79620,1575:96882,1719:102250,1795:113090,1926:121190,2095
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Reverend Dr. Gregory Smith's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Reverend Dr. Gregory Smith lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Reverend Dr. Gregory Smith describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Reverend Dr. Gregory Smith describes his maternal grandfather

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Reverend Dr. Gregory Smith describes his maternal great-grandfather

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Reverend Dr. Gregory Smith describes his maternal grandmother and how she met his grandfather

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Reverend Dr. Gregory Smith describes the history of African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Reverend Dr. Gregory Smith describes the history of African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Reverend Dr. Gregory Smith describes the role of Mother African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Reverend Dr. Gregory Smith describes how his parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Reverend Dr. Gregory Smith remembers his uncle, Paul Robeson, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Reverend Dr. Gregory Smith remembers his uncle, Paul Robeson, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Reverend Dr. Gregory Smith recalls when his great uncle, Paul Robeson's passport was denied

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Reverend Dr. Gregory Smith recalls the political attacks on his great uncle, Paul Robeson

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Reverend Dr. Gregory Smith describes his meeting with Julius Nyerere

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Reverend Dr. Gregory Smith talks about Nelson Mandela and Paul Robeson

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Reverend Dr. Gregory Smith recalls his aspiration to enter the U.S. Foreign Service

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Reverend Dr. Gregory Smith describes his earliest memory of racial discrimination

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Reverend Dr. Gregory Smith describes his early education

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Reverend Dr. Gregory Smith recalls the early development of his racial identity

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Reverend Gregory Smith talks about the role of religion in his childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Reverend Gregory Smith describes his perspective on integration

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Reverend Dr. Gregory Smith remembers the Bronx's DeWitt Clinton High School

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Reverend Dr. Gregory Smith remembers New York City's All City Chorus

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Reverend Dr. Gregory Smith remembers Simon Gratz High School in Philadelphia

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Reverend Dr. Gregory Smith recalls New York City politician J. Raymond Jones

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Reverend Gregory Smith recalls performances at Harlem's Apollo Theater

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Reverend Gregory Smith talks about the Peg Leg Bates Country Club in Kerhonkson, New York

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Reverend Gregory Smith recalls Livingstone College in Salisbury, North Carolina

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Reverend Dr. Gregory Smith describes his college football career

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Reverend Gregory Smith recalls coaching football at the University of Wisconsin-Madison

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Reverend Dr. Gregory Smith remembers being drafted by the Dallas Cowboys

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Reverend Dr. Gregory Smith recalls his decision to pursue a business career

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Reverend Dr. Gregory Smith recalls the Sterling Hall bombing at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 12 - Reverend Dr. Gregory Smith describes his experiences of racial discrimination in Madison, Wisconsin

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Reverend Dr. Gregory Smith describes his advertising career, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Reverend Dr. Gregory Smith describes his advertising career, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Reverend Gregory Smith recalls his great uncle, Paul Robeson's stage performances

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Reverend Dr. Gregory Smith talks about racial discrimination in theater

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Reverend Gregory Smith remembers his great uncle, Paul Robeson's death

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Reverend Dr. Gregory Smith recalls how he became involved in African development work

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Reverend Gregory Smith describes his role at the National Council of the Churches of Christ in the USA

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Reverend Dr. Gregory Smith describes his political affiliations

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Reverend Dr. Gregory Smith talks about New York Governor Nelson Rockefeller

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Reverend Dr. Gregory Smith recalls his mayoral campaign in Mount Vernon, New York

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Reverend Dr. Gregory Smith describes the founding of the African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Reverend Dr. Gregory Smith talks about the African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Reverend Dr. Gregory Smith talk about his early aspirations

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Reverend Dr. Gregory Smith describes his experiences at the University of Wisconsin-Madison

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Reverend Dr. Gregory Smith talks about the U.S. African Development Foundation

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Reverend Dr. Gregory Smith describes the importance of African development

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Reverend Dr. Gregory Smith describes his accomplishments at the U.S. African Development Foundation

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Reverend Dr. Gregory Smith describes his perspective on racial equality

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Reverend Dr. Gregory Smith reflects upon his work at the U.S. African Development Foundation

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Reverend Dr. Gregory Smith describes his return to Corporate America

Tape: 5 Story: 11 - Reverend Dr. Gregory Smith talks about his relationship with Bruce Gordon

Tape: 5 Story: 12 - Reverend Dr. Gregory Smith describes his role as a presiding elder

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Reverend Dr. Gregory Smith describes his experiences at Mother African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Reverend Dr. Gregory Smith describes his family background in Prince Hall Freemasonry

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Reverend Dr. Gregory Smith recalls his doubts about the ministry

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Reverend Dr. Gregory Smith recalls early roles in the church

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Reverend Dr. Gregory Smith remembers being called to the ministry

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Reverend Dr. Gregory Smith recalls his mentors at Union Theological Seminary

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Reverend Dr. Gregory Smith recalls studying at United Theological Seminary

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Reverend Dr. Gregory Smith describes his early career as a church pastor

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Reverend Dr. Gregory Smith recalls becoming the pastor of Mother African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Reverend Dr. Gregory Smith describes his pastorate of Mother African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Reverend Dr. Gregory Smith recalls the challenges he faced at Mother African Episcopal Zion Church

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Reverend Dr. Gregory Smith describes his projects at Mother African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Reverend Dr. Gregory Smith describes his role as a deputy grand master of Prince Hall Freemasonry, pt. 1

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Reverend Dr. Gregory Smith describes his role as a deputy grand master of Prince Hall Freemasonry, pt. 2

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Reverend Dr. Gregory Smith describes Prince Hall Freemasonry's community involvement

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Reverend Dr. Gregory Smith describes his plans as grand master of Prince Hall Freemasonry

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Reverend Dr. Gregory Smith describes the lessons of Prince Hall Freemasonry

Tape: 7 Story: 9 - Reverend Dr. Gregory Smith talks about historically black colleges, pt. 1

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Reverend Dr. Gregory Smith talks about historically black colleges, pt. 2

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Reverend Dr. Gregory Smith talks about public education

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Reverend Dr. Gregory Smith describes his HIV advocacy work

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - Reverend Dr. Gregory Smith describes his legacy

DASession

2$1

DATape

5$2

DAStory

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DATitle
Reverend Dr. Gregory Smith describes his accomplishments at the U.S. African Development Foundation
Reverend Dr. Gregory Smith talks about Nelson Mandela and Paul Robeson
Transcript
And I think that, the next question you'll probably ask me is what I think is the greatest achievement, or my highlight [at the U.S. African Development Foundation]. I knew that was coming. I, you know ironically it's--let me tell you two phenomenon, one phenomenon first that really came to amaze me, what I should have known. It made me think back about who we are. When during the elections, first elections in South Africa, what we noticed is that, I mean people were in lines I mean miles, old folk, young folk, I mean of age you know sitting, hot sun--$$To have an opportunity to vote (simultaneous)?$$(Simultaneous) To vote, vote. People who had never voted in their lifetime. I mean it's an awesome scene, an awesome experience. Even myself even having experienced some of the periphery of the Civil Rights Movement. This was just a moving experience. But, then in talking with President Mandela [Nelson Mandela] and he and my uncle [Smith's maternal great uncle, Paul Robeson] corresponded for years, and that was a highlight because of their relationship and how he spoke out about his incarceration, my uncle did, when it first happened, that people expected that with the right to vote and equality, prosperity is immediate. Education--the availability of education is immediate, that they go hand in hand. But they see there's still racism, both economic and ethnic racism, and even though that in fact they had the freedom of movement, the economy was still controlled by the old guard. You know and see we think that because you vote you can be free, but that doesn't happen overnight. So, that kind of opens up your eyes as to what, think--where we are now because some of our young people think it's instant, it's instant, and that's probably what I think now of the false bottom kind of perspective that certain industries, as music and, and basketball create for our young people a false bottom of security that you can have instant prosperity and wealth and notoriety by going into this new music genre or becoming a great basketball player.$The other time was when I helped supervise the elections in South Africa on apartheid. But it wasn't so much then as to when President Mandela came to the states we had a chance to talk, and he would tell me how my uncle [Smith's maternal great uncle, Paul Robeson] communicated with him.$$How did he communicate with him (simultaneous)?$$(Simultaneous) Well, they wrote each other. Matter of fact my uncle, you know, tried to go to South Africa. You know my uncle would not--you know there are things that he, of course, you know he was against apartheid and talked about it--(unclear), but they had a, they had a great admiration or you know a love for each other, 'cause you remember President Mandela was incarcerated more than twenty years, so you know he knew of my uncle, they knew of each other, and my uncle passed away 'cause--I think '76 [1976]. So, it was just a wonderful time of talking with President Nelson Mandela. Interesting thing is, he is as tall as my uncle. I'll never forget and you'll see a picture in, in my office of he and I together. When I shook his hand 'cause Nelson Mandela had been an athlete and a boxer, he had big hands. My uncle had big hands, you know he was an athlete, he was a twelve letter man at Rutgers [Rutgers University, The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey] and he played professional football and so forth, so he had big hands. So shaking President Mandela's hand made me think about my uncle and how his physique and so forth. So, that was a great, so when I say deja vu, those same people that I as a youngster, that I knew I would say partially about, but knew more about them as I grew more in knowledge and so forth. It was just great. And my uncle and I would have some interesting discussions about the world and where we're living and what was going on and so forth. Of course he lived, he went, you know when I got married and had children and all those things, but um-hm.$$So, when you were still (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) He even--he was a member here and he performed here many, many times.

Aurie Pennick

Executive director and treasurer of the Field Foundation of Illinois, Inc., Aurie Alma Pennick was born December 22, 1947 in Chicago, Illinois. Her parents, Aurie Watts and Burrell Baines migrated from Alabama and Mississippi, respectively. Pennick attended William G. Beale Elementary School and graduated from Englewood High School in 1965. At the University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC), then called the Chicago Circle Campus, Pennick became politically active. She worked for the election of Chicago’s first black female alderman, Anna Langford; she worked on voting registration as a civil rights volunteer in Jackson, Mississippi; she was a member of the Friends of the Panthers group and learned African American history from Dr. John Porter’s Englewood School of Human Dignity. By 1970, Pennick was working as a caseworker for the State of Illinois. In 1971, she earned her B.A. degree in the administration of criminal justice from UIC followed by her M.A. degree in the administration of criminal justice in 1981 and a law degree from John Marshall Law School in 1986.

Pennick headed the Chicago Abused Women Coalition, which opened Chicago’s first battered women’s shelter and Citizens Alert, a criminal justice awareness organization. In 1983, Mayor Harold Washington appointed Pennick to the Chicago Police Board. A participant in the Chicago Community Trust Minority Fellowship Program, Pennick joined the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation as assistant director of Special Grants in 1984. In 1987, Pennick was managing attorney for the Chicago Transit Authority. From 1992 to 2002, she was president and CEO of the Leadership Council for Metropolitan Open Communities, the nation’s oldest fair housing organization. Pennick was chosen as an official U.S. delegate to the Habitat II Global Conference on Cities held in Istanbul, Turkey in 1996. In 2002, she was appointed executive director and CEO of the Chicago- based Field Foundation, which provides support for community, civic and cultural organizations in the Chicago area.

Pennick is a founding board member of the Lake County Community Foundation; a member of the Commercial Club of Chicago, the Economic Club of Chicago and sits on the board of trustees of the Field Museum of Chicago.

Pennick is the recipient of the Harold Washington Award for Distinguished Public Service from the Cook County Bar Association. She also was an Aspen Fellow in 2002 and garnered the Chicago Commission on Human Relations Award in 2003.

The mother of two children, Pennick lives in Grayslake, Illinois.

Accession Number

A2005.223

Sex

Female

Interview Date

9/29/2005

Last Name

Pennick

Maker Category
Organizations
Schools

Beale Elementary School

Englewood High School

University of Illinois at Chicago

John Marshall Law School

First Name

Aurie

Birth City, State, Country

Chicago

HM ID

PEN01

Favorite Season

Summer

Sponsor

Rita Fry

State

Illinois

Favorite Vacation Destination

Mexico

Favorite Quote

Play The Hand You're Dealt.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Illinois

Birth Date

12/22/1947

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Chicago

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Chocolate

Short Description

Foundation chief executive Aurie Pennick (1947 - ) is executive director of the Field Foundation.

Employment

Chicago Community Trust

Edna McConnell Clark Foundation

MacArthur Foundation

Chicago Transit Authority

Council for Metropolitan Open Communities

Leadership Council for Metropolitan Open Communities

Field Foundation of Illinois

Main Sponsor
Favorite Color

None

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Aurie Pennick's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Aurie Pennick lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Aurie Pennick describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Aurie Pennick describes her mother's childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Aurie Pennick describes her father, Burrell Baines

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Aurie Pennick describes her parents' personalities and her likeness to them

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Aurie Pennick describes her mother's self-respect

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Aurie Pennick remembers interacting with her mother's white employers, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Aurie Pennick remembers interacting with her mother's white employers, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Aurie Pennick recalls attending Chicago's Bethel Lutheran Church of Englewood

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Aurie Pennick describes her involvement at Bethel Lutheran Church of Englewood

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Aurie Pennick describes her mother's community engagement

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Aurie Pennick describes her earliest childhood memory

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Aurie Pennick describes the sights, sounds and smells of her childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Aurie Pennick describes her childhood neighborhood of Englewood in Chicago

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Aurie Pennick recalls her time at William G. Beale Elementary School, pt.1

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Aurie Pennick recalls her time at William G. Beale Elementary School, pt.2

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Aurie Pennick recalls discrimination based on skin color at Englewood High School

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Aurie Pennick recalls becoming aware of discrimination based on skin color among African Americans

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Aurie Pennick describes her awareness of racism as a teenager

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Aurie Pennick recounts how her grandmother protected her aunt from a sheriff

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Aurie Pennick remembers her thoughts about the Vietnam War

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Aurie Pennick recalls her marriage

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Aurie Pennick recalls coming of age during the Civil Rights Movement, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Aurie Pennick recalls coming of age during the Civil Rights Movement, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Aurie Pennick remembers her husband's return from the Vietnam War

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Aurie Pennick recalls her mentor at University of Illinois at Chicago Circle

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Aurie Pennick remembers the 1971 Chicago City Council race, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Aurie Pennick remembers the 1971 Chicago City Council race, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Aurie Pennick remembers President John Kennedy's assassination

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Aurie Pennick remembers Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.'s assassination

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Aurie Pennick recalls teaching at Chicago's Englewood School of Human Dignity

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Aurie Pennick recalls the aftermath of Fred Hampton and Mark Clark's assassinations

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Aurie Pennick describes her political involvement in college

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Aurie Pennick recalls her suspension from University of Illinois at Chicago Circle

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Aurie Pennick recalls becoming a case worker in Chicago's Englewood neighborhood

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Aurie Pennick recalls being a case worker on Chicago's North Side

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Aurie Pennick recalls being a case worker on Chicago's South Side

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Aurie Pennick remembers earning her master's degree in criminal justice

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Aurie Pennick remembers the Coalition of Concerned Women in the War on Crime

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Aurie Pennick describes community policing programs of the 1970s and 1980s

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Aurie Pennick remembers working for Chicago Community Trust

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Aurie Pennick recalls her appointment to the Chicago Police Board

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Aurie Pennick talks about the Chicago Police Board

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Aurie Pennick talks about her career in philanthropy

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Aurie Pennick recalls working in the Chicago Transit Authority Law Department

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Aurie Pennick recalls her presidency of the Leadership Council for Metropolitan Open Communities

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Aurie Pennick describes the Gautreaux Assisted Housing Program

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Aurie Pennick describes the consequences of the housing voucher program

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Aurie Pennick remembers moving to Prairie Crossing in Grayslake, Illinois

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Aurie Pennick describes the challenges of fair housing

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Aurie Pennick talks about 'American Apartheid: Segregation and the Making of the Underclass' by Douglas Massey

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Aurie Pennick recalls serving as a U.S. delegate to the Habitat II conference

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Aurie Pennick remembers traveling to South Africa

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Aurie Pennick remembers joining the Field Foundation of Illinois

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Aurie Pennick reflects on the influence of the Field Foundation of Illinois

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Aurie Pennick describes her favorite projects with the Field Foundation of Illinois

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Aurie Pennick describes the board of the Field Foundation of Illinois

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Aurie Pennick describes her hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 7 Story: 9 - Aurie Pennick reflects upon her life

Tape: 7 Story: 10 - Aurie Pennick reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 7 Story: 11 - Aurie Pennick describes how she would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

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DAStory

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DATitle
Aurie Pennick recalls her presidency of the Leadership Council for Metropolitan Open Communities
Aurie Pennick reflects on the influence of the Field Foundation of Illinois
Transcript
So you were at CTA [Chicago Transit Authority] until '92 [1992], right?$$Right, um-hm.$$Okay and what, what happened in '92 [1992]?$$Well, I was enjoying my job and got a call--I had been doing some work for United Way [United Way Worldwide]. The chairman of the board, [HistoryMaker] Clark Burrus, at that time had asked me--had asked the general counsel, my boss, if I could be the, the CTA's point person for United Way given my background in philanthropy and it made sense, so I was the point person for that. And I helped the United Way come up with their discrimination category. They had a whole category where they wanted to fight discrimination in Chicago [Illinois], so I helped them come up with the, the, the context for that. And in so doing, I guess my name got bandied around when the head of the leadership council was thinking about retiring. And quite honestly I was--it was one of those cases where I was really enjoying what I was doing 'cause I was doing law as well as I was doing some of the, the work for the board in terms of contract resolutions. I helped with the draft of the first anti-apartheid ordinance. I mean, so got to do a lot of, you know, things that, that made a difference to me in addition to, to practicing law. So, when the headhunter called about the Leadership Council for Metropolitan Open Communities [Chicago, Illinois] which I knew of because of Dr. King's [Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.] visit to Chicago and I knew that that was an outgrowth of that. I initially said, "You know, I'm not interested. I'm--know, I'm doing what I'm doing and thanks but no thanks." And then I had a good friend who interviewed for the job who I thought would've been perfect for it and she came back saying, "No, you know, I think you'd be ideal for this not only because of your, you know, issue around, you know, equity and discrimination, but because you're a lawyer and they still do litigation and they have a whole legal department and, you know, I think it would be a neat fit, and so I gave 'em your name." So the headhunter called me again and he said, you know, I know we talked but I really think if you just put your hat in the ring, you know, see what it's like, you know, so I did, and the rest is history. But it wasn't something initially that I thought about 'cause I was quite comfortable doing what I was doing at the CTA. And so in '92 [1992], I started with the Leadership Council for Metropolitan Open Communities, and at the time had not appreciated--$$Now you started at, at, at--as the president and CEO of that?$$I start--uh-huh.$$Okay.$$President and CEO, yeah. Carol [HistoryMaker Carol Moseley Braun] had--Carol (unclear) had retired. At the time, I hadn't really--I mean, I knew of it because of--I--you know, I was cognizant of Dr. King's coming to Chicago and living on the West Side [Chicago, Illinois] so I knew some of that history, but I really hadn't connected the leadership council that closely to all the people that I--that I knew and respected like Al Raby and Bill Berry and those folk. And I only knew teensy bits about Dorothy Gautreaux only because I lived in West Pullman [Chicago, Illinois] and there was a Gautreaux health center which was in Altgeld Gardens [Altgeld Gardens Homes, Chicago, Illinois], so I didn't know at all that the leadership council had been the group that was in charge of monitoring that consent decree that came out of the lawsuit. I wasn't even aware of the lawsuit, quite frankly.$$Now who is--who is Dorothy Gautreaux and what was--$$Dorothy Gautreaux, interesting enough, came from New Orleans [Louisiana], her family with the, the name Gautreaux, was a public housing resident in Altgeld Gardens.$$She was a black woman?$$Black woman.$$Okay.$$Um-hm. And when Dr. King came to Chicago in '66 [1966], she was part of the group along with Al Raby and others, she was very much an activist, who had urged Dr. King to come to Chicago for that summer. And at the same time she and several other residents of public housing formed a class and filed a discrimination complaint against the Chicago Housing Authority for racial segregation and racial discrimination and de facto segregation--the--I'm sorry de fact segre- discrimination. And that case eventually included HUD [U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development] and became a major, major case [Hills v. Gautreaux, 1976]. She filed it in 1966. Unfortunately, she died--she had died by the time the [U.S.] Supreme Court in 1976 affirmed it and created the, the, the Gautreaux Program [Gautreaux Assisted Housing Program] which the leadership council ran. So I had to--you know, I had to quickly kind of research--I, I was aware of the Arlington Heights case [Village of Arlington Heights v. Metropolitan Housing Development Corp, 1977] that the leadership council had tried at the U.S. Supreme Court, 'cause I read, read that in law school [The John Marshall Law School, Chicago, Illinois] about the, the testing and fair housing laws--well, no the, the one--the--Arlington Heights was the fair housing laws; the testing case was the Bellwood case [Gladstone Realtors v. Village of Bellwood, 1979]. So I read several of the cases that the leadership council had filed at the U.S. Supreme Court but I hadn't connected Gautreaux because that was not a leadership council case; that had been a separate case, but the leadership council was administering that program. So unbeknownst to me when I walk in the door, I'm faced with a lot of the civil rights fair housing history that I'd read about and, and not really understood going in was gonna be part of my charge. And so, you know, from 1992 to 2002, I had the pleasure and sometimes the anguish of running that, that organization. At the time, it was the largest and the oldest fair housing organization in the country and the only fair housing organization started by Dr. King. And by that, I mean by his coming here and the outgrowth of that with one of the--one of the charges he said to the--gave to the city of establishing some kind of mechanism to assure fair housing, so I did that.$What are the priorities of the Field Foundation [Field Foundation of Illinois, Chicago, Illinois] and, and, and what, what--in what ways have you influenced it, you know--$$Well, I mean, you need to see--$$--or, or made your mark?$$Right, it--it's a broad--we have a broad guidelines which I love and that pretty much came from Handy's [HistoryMaker Handy Lindsey, Jr.] influence. And we do education, public education programs. We're one of the few foundations that can fund public schools directly. We are--we fund culture. We fund health issues, not, not single issue of health issues. The only single issue we would fund is AIDS [acquired immunodeficiency syndrome] and that's because of the, the, the pandemic in the community. We do community--what we call community welfare and urban affairs, which is the breath of, of things. We do housing and fair housing. So, we--and legal--we're one of the few that still continue to serve--fund legal services, so we do a wide array of things for such a short budget. We--our funding is about two million [dollars] a year, so that's very small grants. But we try to--we try to be strategic so that our small grants make a difference. We also wanna fund projects, small projects or projects that are directly connected to helping the disadvantaged, particularly communities of color or communities that have not been included in, in the past. And so that's how we kind of look at things. In terms of making my mark, you know, don't know. I mean, I'm still trying to, to grapple with that. I know one of the issues that I'm concerned about and we're looking into is what kind of programs and funding is there for just--how do I say it? Just the average guy. Not, you know, youth that are wards of the state or youth that are, you know, troubled, but just the average adolescent teenage guy, boy, and this comes from a woman who's been on the board at the YWCAs [Young Women's Christian Association] and still involved in women's organizations. I have two daughters [Faith Pennick and Keidra Chaney] and very much a feminist, but I am concerned that everyday guys, boys, don't have the kinds of attention, if you will, or the kind of programs that they can get into. I know when I lived on the South Side [Chicago, Illinois], a lot of the programs were geared toward at-youth risk, risk, children who've been, you know, labeled one way or the other by the school system or they're already in a gang. But what happens to the guys who don't have those labels, who are kind of like--kind of on their own trying to be, you know, free of some of these labels and some of these, these--the, the baggage that accompanies it? And so we're looking internally and externally to just see what, what there is out there and if there's something we could either make our mark on or be the catalyst for exploring more deeply. 'Cause I just think we're--I mean, there's a lot of programs for women, good, I mean, needed--more are still needed for women. But I think that, at least in my life as a--as a woman and as a girl, you know, the, the kind of resources to the men in my life have not been there that would've made my life a lot better had they had resources that they could, could pull upon. And largely because I think, you know, men are different. They don't, you know, don't wanna necessarily be counseled in the same way women do; well, that's fine. But is there anything that, that can give guys a kind of ability to help themselves spiritually and, and, and psychologically and personally without already having been labeled or going through a system? So that's what we're looking into and we don't--we're not quite sure where that's gonna go. But other things--I mean, we're very much--I'm very pleased with the--with the way the foundation's going. And as I said, if I can even keep it going in, in Han- in the direction Handy established all these years, I think I would've done a lot. But I think things are changing. I mean, you know, since, you know, not only 9/11 [September 11, 2001], but now Katrina [Hurricane Katrina] and what the impact on all of us in the non-profits that that's gonna have. So, you know, I--we're looking at, I'm looking at, well, what's the best role for a very small foundation with a very broad mission? And that's gotta be--it can't be stagnant. It's gotta be looked at again in light of some of the changes in our--in our own environment, so we're looking at that as well. So I can't say there've been any really major marks that I would say were, were [HistoryMaker] Aurie Pennick's, but that's why I wanted the job because I think they were doing already some of the things that, that I wanted to be a part of.

Xernona Clayton

Broadcast executive, foundation chief executive, nonprofit executive, television host, and television producer Xernona Clayton and her twin sister, Xenobia, were born August 30, 1930 in Muskogee, Oklahoma. Clayton’s parents, Reverend James M. and Lillie Brewster, were actively engaged in the Bureau of Indian Affairs in Muskogee. In 1952, Clayton earned her B.A. degree from Tennessee State Agricultural and Industrial College, now Tennessee State University. She later earned a scholarship and pursued graduate studies at the University of Chicago. In 1957, Clayton married noted journalist and civil rights activist Edward Clayton, who died in 1966. She later married jurist Paul L. Brady, the first African American appointed as a Federal Administrative Law judge.

Clayton's civic involvement and participation in the Civil Rights Movement was informed by the Chicago Urban League, in which she worked to investigate discrimination in employment. As an activist, Clayton was instrumental in coordinating activities for the Doctor's Committee for Implementation project, which culminated with the desegregation of hospital facilities in Atlanta, Georgia. Clayton also worked closely with Dr. and Mrs. Martin Luther King, Jr., helping to organize fundraising initiatives for the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC). By the mid-1960s, Clayton was writing for the Atlanta Voice, and in 1968, she became the first black woman in the South to host a regularly scheduled prime-time talk show, Variations, which became The Xernona Clayton Show on WAGA-TV in Atlanta. Her guests included Harry Belafonte and Lena Horne. Later that year, Clayton successfully convinced the Grand Dragon of the Ku Klux Klan to renounce the Klan. In 1982, Clayton began her long standing and impressive career with Turner Broadcasting System (TBS). At TBS, she assumed many roles throughout the years, including producing documentaries, hosting a public affairs program entitled Open Upand serving as director and vice-president of public affairs in the early 1980s. Ted Turner, founder of TBS, promoted Clayton to assistant corporate vice-president for urban affairs in 1988. In 1993, Clayton created the Trumpet Awards for Turner Broadcasting to honor African American achievements. The program is seen in over 185 countries.

As Governor of Georgia, former President Jimmy Carter appointed Clayton to the State Motion Picture and Television Commission. She is a member of the Academy for Television Arts and Sciences, the National Urban League, among other civic and professional organizations. Clayton is also a board member of the Martin Luther King, Jr. Center for Nonviolent Social Change and served as chairman of the Atlanta University Board of Trustees. The recipient of numerous accolades, Clayton received the Leadership and Dedication to Civil Rights Award and the Drum Major for Justice Award from SCLC in 2004. In her honor, the Atlanta Chapter of the Association of Black Journalists established the Xernona Clayton Scholarship. Clayton’s autobiography, I’ve Been Marching All the Time was published in 1991.

Xernona Clayton was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on June 22, 2005.

Accession Number

A2005.143

Sex

Female

Interview Date

6/22/2005 |and| 2/21/2014

Last Name

Clayton

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Schools

Dunbar Elementary School

University of Chicago

Manual Training High School

Tennessee State University

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Xernona

Birth City, State, Country

Muskogee

HM ID

CLA10

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Oklahoma

Favorite Vacation Destination

Las Vegas, Nevada, Bahamas, Caribbean

Favorite Quote

If You Can't Change People Around You, Change The People Around You.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Birth Date

8/30/1930

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Atlanta

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Grapes

Short Description

Foundation chief executive, broadcast executive, and television host Xernona Clayton (1930 - ) was the founder of the Trumpet Awards, and the first black woman in the South to host a regularly scheduled prime-time talk show, Variations, which became The Xernona Clayton Show on WAGA-TV.

Employment

WAGA TV

Turner Broadcasting System, Inc.

Chicago Urban League

Favorite Color

Yellow

Timing Pairs
0,0:1428,20:4896,86:6460,124:7412,145:8772,198:9248,206:10404,240:11492,261:13532,295:20102,335:20772,347:25931,474:28611,524:29080,531:34373,662:34641,667:35311,684:37388,728:37656,733:38728,759:48161,859:52111,922:53770,956:54323,962:54718,968:57325,1016:62855,1137:72650,1279:72946,1284:78940,1445:79606,1457:84130,1471:88546,1561:89098,1574:108552,1934:109514,1953:110180,1964:113436,2019:114324,2033:116618,2077:116914,2082:121310,2106:121913,2120:132365,2350:133839,2380:135782,2417:137926,2491:140338,2520:149904,2596:150480,2603:151440,2615:153700,2631$0,0:810,26:1260,32:1980,42:3420,95:7248,145:8132,165:10924,193:14476,266:15734,290:16474,303:20026,368:21950,403:36902,541:37832,554:48126,694:48498,702:49490,720:49924,728:55776,809:57017,939:57309,944:58915,972:59426,982:63500,1020:65100,1047:70124,1128:75674,1304:76414,1316:85410,1475:87621,1542:88157,1555:96202,1666:104808,1765:105340,1773:105644,1778:105948,1783:107848,1819:108456,1828:116227,1938:127268,2065:132164,2129:135899,2207:143330,2325:143890,2337:147460,2416:148160,2433:148440,2438:150610,2509:151240,2519:151520,2524:155806,2554:156400,2564:156928,2576:157654,2591:157918,2596:162604,2731:163462,2752:163726,2757:167092,2849:167752,2862:176930,2963:181840,3002:185840,3092:186480,3101:190960,3188:200900,3290:201868,3303:206895,3482:207155,3487:207415,3492:208260,3507:209885,3543:210210,3549:213966,3600:215144,3638:215392,3643:216260,3667:216818,3678:217128,3690:217500,3699:221096,3787:224800,3817
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Xernona Clayton's interview, session 1

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Xernona Clayton lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Xernona Clayton describes her mother's family background, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Xernona Clayton describes her mother's family background, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Xernona Clayton describes her childhood home

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Xernona Clayton talks about her mother's paternal background

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Xernona Clayton relates lessons from her father

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Xernona Clayton describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Xernona Clayton recounts how her parents met in Muskogee, Oklahoma

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Xernona Clayton recalls her father's leadership in the Baptist church

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Xernona Clayton remembers her father's work with the Bureau of Indian Affairs in Muskogee, Oklahoma

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Xernona Clayton recalls her father's humbling response to public praise of Clayton and her twin sister

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Xernona Clayton recalls growing up as an identical twin, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Xernona Clayton recalls growing up as an identical twin, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Xernona Clayton describes her earliest childhood memory

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Xernona Clayton describes the sights, sounds and smells of her childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Xernona Clayton describes Dunbar Elementary School in Muskogee, Oklahoma

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Xernona Clayton recalls her favorite teachers and classes

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Slating of Xernona Clayton's interview, session 2

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Xernona Clayton talks about her educational foundation

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Xernona Clayton remembers Manual Training High School in Muskogee, Oklahoma

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Xernona Clayton talks about being a twin

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Xernona Clayton describes her father's role in Muskogee, Oklahoma

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Xernona Clayton describes her adolescent career aspirations

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Xernona Clayton recalls her decision to attend Tennessee Agricultural and Industrial State College

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Xernona Clayton recalls being named the smartest girl in her class at Manual Training High School

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Xernona Clayton recalls matriculating at Tennessee Agricultural and Industrial State College

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Xernona Clayton considers how her childhood influenced her activism, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Xernona Clayton considers how her childhood influenced her activism, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Xernona Clayton recalls her collegiate extracurricular activities, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Xernona Clayton recalls her collegiate extracurricular activities, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Xernona Clayton recalls being sheltered from discrimination during college

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Xernona Clayton recalls participating in a University of Wisconsin twin study

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Xernona Clayton recalls studying with her twin at Tennessee Agricultural and Industrial State College

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Xernona Clayton describes her approach to learning

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Xernona Clayton explains her decision to attend the University of Chicago

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Xernona Clayton reflects upon the impact of her father's lessons on humility

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Xernona Clayton recalls how she became involved with the Chicago Urban League

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Xernona Clayton describes her initial work with the Chicago Urban League in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Xernona Clayton talks about the Chicago Urban League's position on labor integration

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Xernona Clayton recalls chairing the most successful Chicago Urban League charity dinner

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Xernona Clayton remembers deciding to leave graduate school

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Xernona Clayton talks about meeting her husband, Edward Clayton

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Xernona Clayton recalls her involvement in Chicago's South Side society

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Xernona Clayton recalls teaching a prominent Chicago businessman to read and write

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Xernona Clayton reflects upon her legacy as an elementary school teacher in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Xernona Clayton recalls meeting Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Xernona Clayton explains how she began working for Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

DASession

1$2

DATape

2$5

DAStory

3$1

DATitle
Xernona Clayton recalls growing up as an identical twin, pt. 1
Xernona Clayton describes her initial work with the Chicago Urban League in Chicago, Illinois
Transcript
But as a twin, now, people say it's--did you feel special--I guess you'd have to feel special as a twin, and did you have a special relationship with your twin [Xenobia Brewster]?$$Yes, we did feel special because when we found out we were rare and people made such notice of it--$$When did you first kind of realize it that something unusual was going on?$$Well, since we heard it every day, we started saying, "Mm-mm, you know, we're pretty special." But then we were so close. I mean, my sister and I, it's so like you have a best friend all the time. Everybody else has to go and try to find one and chose one. But I had one, and she had one, and we had each other. And it's somebody you really trust. I mean, you can tell your innermost secrets to your twin sister, and she could tell me hers. As a matter of fact, when we started courting, she'd tell me, like, she's going to slip out tonight when we had the curfew on and we couldn't get out after eight o'clock, and she had this hot date that she was determined to keep. And she says, "I'm going to slip out of the window"--we shared a bedroom; we slept together all the years. She said, "I'm going to slip out because my boyfriend's going to rap on the window, then I'm going out of the window, and then when I come back, I'm going to rap on the window, you let me back in and Mother [Lillie Elliott Brewster] will never know." And, of course, I didn't want her to do it, but that was my sister and my closest friend. And so, she was determined to slip out, that I was going to help her and support her, rather. And I was the one who really was always Miss Goody Two-Shoes. You know, I'd say, "Oh, no you can't break the rules. No, no, no." But she'd say, "Oh, yes, yes, yes." And so, since she was determined, I was going to support her because I didn't want her to get a whipping. And so, like we had those little secrets that nobody knew but us. But one night it backfired because my mother, having her own leveled wisdom, kind of figured something was going on I guess by the behavior pattern or body language. And so, that night when my sister slipped out and I was to assist her to slip back in when she rapped on the window, my mother opened the window (laughter). And she said, "Help me in," and the voice said, "Okay," and she thought it was my voice; it was my mother's voice. And when she came up, you know, she wanted to run back then; of course, it was too late then. Then when my mother gave her that little spanking, then I cried, too, because I didn't want her to, you know, to get spanked. But we shared everything, just everything.$We were talking about the Urban League of Chicago [Chicago Urban League]. And--$$Yes.$$--they needed--$$Well, discrimination was a reality, but they couldn't get a handle on it. So what they decided to do was, let's see if we can, you know, catch come--let do our homework to see if it's really being practice like what we think. So the pattern then was to, or the process was to look in the want ad sections and see who's hiring, what jobs are open, and then apply; apply meaning--now, this was in '52 [1952], and requirements or skills were not all that involved. Like, if you were a clerk, you could apply for a clerk/typist job if you could type and you could spell. And so you didn't have to have, you know, a medical degree to get a job. Now, my sister [Xenobia Brewster] and I had graduated from college [Tennessee Agricultural and Industrial State College; Tennessee State University, Nashville, Tennessee], so you assume we knew something. We could spell, read, and write, and we could type, and, and we learned how to type in, in college. And I don't know if you remember a man name Cortez Peters, who was the fastest man in, in America.$$Right, Cortez Typing School [sic. Cortez W. Peters Business School].$$Yeah, he was a typist. And we had a chance to meet him. And he came to our college one year, and I got a chance to meet, and boy, I was so fascinated by him. And I said one of these days I'm gonna type like Cortez Peters. And I learned to be a pretty good typist, you know, of course nowadays it doesn't matter much. But I learned how to be a good typist, and so was my sister. So we were both good typists. And so the Urban League said well, let's do this: you be our front men. And we'll always like, position five minutes, ten minutes away from where we'd call. So we called, say Marshall Field's [Marshall Field & Company]. There would be an ad in the paper for a clerk typist. And we'd call and said, "I see you have an ad in the paper." "Yes." "Is the job still open?" "Yes." "It's okay to apply?" "Yes." Then we'd make a beeline over there, like ten minutes away. And we'd get there and, "We're here to apply. I understand you got a clerk/typist at"--we don't tell we're the ones that called. You said, "I came to apply for your clerk/typist job." "Oh, so sorry, but we just filled that." You know, (laughter), well, then you got them right there. Well, that happened with so many companies, Spiegel [Spiegel Inc.]--well, I don't wanna name all of the companies that were kind of guilty but major companies that looked like they were good guys. You know, Marshall Field's, everybody went to Marshall Field's. It was a joy to go to Marshall Field's. They looked like good guys. Spiegel was a good mail order place and oh, a lot of places. And my sister and I went to many of those places that did the same pattern, apply--I mean broadcast the--advertise an opening, and then when you got there, you're black, it's not for you. And we broke down a lot of that. And it was kind of, you know, fun job; job meaning, you know, it was assigned tasks. They were really very--and I was waiting for school to start anyways, then the summer, so it was before we went to col- before I went to school.$$So, so would the Urban League then confront the business in, in a (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) And they would--$$--formal setting--$$Oh yeah, and then they, they would document it.$$(Unclear)--$$And so they put, I mean had very good documentation, which means--and then they called a press conference. And of course, then you embarrass the company. And then the, you know, the good guys say well, we gotta change our image. You know, we can't be out here looking this bad. So that's how the integration took place, is all I think just felt embarrassed.$$

Maxine Beatrice Baker

Foundation chief executive Maxine Beatrice Baker was born on February 29, 1952 in Homestead, Pennsylvania. Her paternal great-grandfather, Cumberland Posey, was the first African American engineer and boat builder in Pennsylvania. Her paternal great-uncle, Cumberland Posey, Jr., played for and eventually owned the Homestead Grays baseball team. Raised in Washington, D.C. by her mother and maternal grandmother, Baker attended Washington, D.C public schools and graduated from Western High School in 1969.

Attending Emerson College in Boston on a National Merit scholarship, Baker earned her B.S. degree in speech communications in 1973. After spending several years in the aviation industry, Baker joined the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (Freddie Mac) in 1982 as a budget administrator. She quickly moved through the management ranks at Freddie Mac, serving in various leadership positions including vice president of administration & corporate properties and vice president of human resources. While working as vice president of industry & trade relations, Baker expanded minority business development programs and minority recruitment. In 1997, Baker was named vice president of community relations and president and chief executive officer of the Freddie Mac Foundation, one of the nation's largest corporate philanthropy programs. Under her leadership, the Foundation’s net assets grew from $22 million in 1997 to $235 million in 2003.

Active in many organizations including the Congressional Coalition on Adoption Institute, the Washington Regional Area Grantmakers, the Metropolitan Washington Boys and Girls Club and Voices for America's Children, Baker has received many awards for her civic leadership.

Baker was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on March 1, 2005.

Accession Number

A2005.057

Sex

Female

Interview Date

3/1/2005

Last Name

Baker

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Beatrice

Organizations
Schools

Western High School

Jefferson Middle School Academy

John Quincy Adams Elementary School

Mrs. Dorothy's Garden of Children

Emerson College

Speakers Bureau

No

First Name

Maxine

Birth City, State, Country

Homestead

HM ID

BAK05

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Pennsylvania

Favorite Vacation Destination

Beaches

Favorite Quote

You've Been Paid For.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

2/29/1952

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Mexican Food

Short Description

Foundation chief executive Maxine Beatrice Baker (1952 - ) was the President and CEO of the Freddie Mac Foundation.

Employment

Air Transport Association

Beauvais, Robert, and Kurth

Urban Institute

Pacific Consultants

Freddie Mac

Freddie Mac Foundation

Favorite Color

Purple

Timing Pairs
0,0:2368,59:3182,71:5550,125:17114,321:19058,361:25313,459:25637,464:26204,475:32684,609:37301,700:37706,706:38111,712:59692,881:60132,887:76917,1146:85665,1351:117752,1831:120144,1872:120604,1878:121340,1886:121892,1893:122536,1904:129770,1947:132003,1985:153018,2210:153510,2217:157692,2290:177040,2567:179845,2617:180370,2630:180895,2639:206260,2988:210474,3050:212882,3092:213226,3097:218386,3196:222411,3206:224412,3246:224760,3251:230280,3319:232189,3359:233268,3389:233932,3398:245004,3481:246466,3536:246810,3541:253948,3638:257910,3665$0,0:1725,26:4350,77:4875,162:11025,273:12675,299:13800,318:17550,420:19875,472:20400,495:20850,502:21225,508:35320,635:36850,663:37570,674:38650,685:44820,714:46982,754:47640,762:50366,803:54220,862:67508,1019:68344,1031:69636,1055:72220,1105:73360,1125:74044,1135:74956,1148:76552,1167:77084,1175:81832,1212:82840,1226:83344,1233:88720,1316:89812,1328:95608,1423:97456,1459:103504,1549:112040,1626:115666,1709:118848,1757:120032,1794:120698,1806:121512,1819:121808,1824:122104,1829:137214,1979:138594,2020:141446,2068:142734,2100:145954,2134:152118,2288:161504,2336:161872,2341:162332,2348:165092,2405:166104,2418:171070,2467
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Maxine Beatrice Baker's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Maxine Beatrice Baker lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Maxine Beatrice Baker describes her mother

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Maxine Beatrice Baker describes her father and her parents' meeting

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Maxine Beatrice Baker describes her mother's work and family background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Maxine Beatrice Baker remembers childhood rituals

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Maxine Beatrice Baker describes her earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Maxine Beatrice Baker describes her paternal grandparents

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Maxine Beatrice Baker describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Maxine Beatrice Baker describes her great-uncle, Cumberland Willis Posey, Jr.

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Maxine Beatrice Baker recalls her maternal grandparents' dry cleaning shop

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Maxine Beatrice Baker describes a typical day in her childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Maxine Beatrice Baker remembers her childhood birthday parties

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Maxine Beatrice Baker remembers holidays in Washington, D.C., pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Maxine Beatrice Baker remembers holidays in Washington, D.C., pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Maxine Beatrice Baker remembers growing up in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Maxine Beatrice Baker describes her elementary schools in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Maxine Beatrice Baker describes her childhood personality

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Maxine Beatrice Baker describes the sights, sounds, and smells of her childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Maxine Beatrice Baker recalls attending Berean Baptist Church in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Maxine Beatrice Baker remembers her junior high school years

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Maxine Beatrice Baker remembers her experience at Jefferson Junior High School

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Maxine Beatrice Baker remembers feelings of privilege

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Maxine Beatrice Baker describes her time at Western High School in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Maxine Beatrice Baker describes her decision to attend Emerson College in Boston, Massachusetts

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Maxine Beatrice Baker remembers being on the homecoming court at Western High School in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Maxine Beatrice Baker remembers changing her name at Emerson College in Boston, Massachusetts

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Maxine Beatrice Baker recalls her time at Emerson College in Boston, Massachusetts

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Maxine Beatrice Baker describes her jobs after college

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Maxine Beatrice Baker recalls her initial impressions of Freddie Mac

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Maxine Beatrice Baker remembers adopting her daughters

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Maxine Beatrice Baker describes being a working mother

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Maxine Beatrice Baker describes her work with Freddie Mac and the Freddie Mac Foundation

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Maxine Beatrice Baker describes her work with 'Wednesday's Child'

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Maxine Beatrice Baker describes changes at Freddie Mac

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Maxine Beatrice Baker talks about philanthropy

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Maxine Beatrice Baker describes her experience with breast cancer

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Maxine Beatrice Baker reflects upon being a role model

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Maxine Beatrice Baker reflects upon her life

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Maxine Beatrice Baker describes her hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - Maxine Beatrice Baker reflects upon her career

Tape: 4 Story: 12 - Maxine Beatrice Baker reflects upon her legacy and how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Maxine Beatrice Baker narrates her photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$4

DAStory

5$6

DATitle
Maxine Beatrice Baker remembers changing her name at Emerson College in Boston, Massachusetts
Maxine Beatrice Baker talks about philanthropy
Transcript
You decided to go to Emerson?$$Um-hm.$$And, what were your experiences like there?$$Well I got to Emerson College in Boston, Massachusetts, my mother [Thelma Maxine Reynolds Baker] drove me up and my recollection, she dropped me off on the curb and her last thing she said to me was, "Make sure you're getting a minor in education in case you ever have to fall back on it." And so that mentality of, of a woman getting a degree, but always have something to fall back on in case your husband and you split up, you know it was very important. When I went to school I had very long hair, it, the movement was really between the Vietnam War movement and the Black Power movement, I think about two or three weeks later, I cut all my hair off, I went to this black salon in, in Boston, I had an afro created. Now my hair is pretty, pretty dead straight, so I got this permanent and every night I would put a 125 perm rods in and then I could roll 'em real fast, you know, I'd get 'em all in and I'd get up in the morning and take 'em out and I'd pick my hair out, pick, pick, pick, pick, pick, pick, pick, it'd take a while to pick it out and I'd take a can of hairspray and I'd spray my hair and then I'd put this scarf on it, I'd hold the scarf and sort of do it, you know, and it big like [HistoryMaker] Angela Davis, you know, and of course when I walked, you know, it would sort of like--it would sort of move--$$(Laughter).$$--like this, you know? It, it definitely moved with me and I was finding myself. Changed my name.$$What did you change your name too?$$My name was Amanata [ph.]. My friend, my good friend from high school [Western High School; Duke Ellington School of the Arts, Washington, D.C.], Linda [ph.], with whom I'm still friends with named me Amanata. It had a, it had a meaning but to this day we can't remember, I should probably look it up. Never told my family that I had changed my name and changed my persona and that Thanksgiving when I came home, I came off of the airplane, I had my head wrapped in a gele, and my mother was standing at the gate when I got off and she saw this very tall head wrapped, I had on a gorgeous navy blue suede coat with zippers all over. And I caught that eye of hers and walked over to her and she says, "I'll meet you out front," and she scurried on away and I said, "Well what about my bags?" She was gone. And I come out with my bags and I get them in the, in the car and we're riding home and she says, "Well what is, what is this rag on your head?" And I said, "It's a gele and I say it's an African head dress." And she says, "Well Maxine, what, what's going on here?" "Don't call me Maxine anymore, I've changed my name, that's my slave name and I'd prefer if you'd call me Amanata." We got home, I had a date that evening with my boyfriend, I went upstairs, 'cause I had the perm rods underneath the gele, okay? So I took the gele, and got the, got the afro positioned and I told her I was going out about eight o'clock, and about a quarter to eight, or seven thirty, eight o'clock she called me downstairs, I came downstairs, through the living room and dining room, turned into the kitchen and she took a pot of water and threw it on me and she said, "Let me be real clear about this, as long as I'm supporting you, I'm sending you to school, you're living in my house, your name is [HistoryMaker] Maxine Beatrice Baker and blow that hair out and no more Amanata."$$What happened to Amanata after that?$$It was almost like a reverse baptism, or, or in that scene in 'The Wizard of Oz,' when the Wicked Witch just sort of, she sort of left.$$Amanata just kind of faded away?$$Um-hm.$Why is philanthropic work important?$$Well, I think it's the, the essence of what the company's [Freddie Mac, Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation] about. Our company is about financing homes, our foundation [Freddie Mac Foundation] is about making homes a safe, sound, healthy, happy places for children. We know that if children are stabilized, families are stabilized, if families are stabilized, communities are stabilized, so, you know it all goes together about making a better place, better place than what we found. We understand that to whom much is given, much is required, and so we, we take our philanthropic work, as like any other business, we want to be effective, efficient.$$And do you think that, what are some of your thoughts on African Americans and philanthropic work? Often times, it, it's usually not the face that you see when you hear of philanthropy and that kind of thing, what are some of your thoughts?$$You know, I think it depends on how you define philanthropy. I many times our traditional model is someone who is wealthy, and is investing money and putting their names on, you know, different buildings or programs. I would suggest that I think the African c- American community has always been philanthropic, I think we're taught very early on to take care of our own, to support our family and, you know, the, the neighborhood, you don't have to just give dollars, you can give time and we certainly know that our ancestors, those that we know and those that we, that were here before us, have made this place a better place for us to live in. That's what I think philanthropy is about. I love when Dr. Angelou [HistoryMaker Maya Angelou] talks about we've been paid for, we've been paid for by the generation that came before us, by their giving back to the community to make sure that which they came to is better. And that's what I think philanthropy is all about. So, while we may not have big names, other than the Cosbys or that are giving at, at, you know, to may institutions, or Oprah [Winfrey] or whatever, I think we have a history, a rich history of giving back and taking care of others. I--it reminds me of Aunt Beulah's [Beulah Burke] table (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) (Unclear).$$You know it's, Aunt Beulah taught me early on, it doesn't matter if they're related, they have a right to be here at this table and if as long as we have something to offer, and to share, then that's what we will do.

Charles R. Jordan

Charles Ray Jordan was born on September 1, 1937 in Longview, Texas. His mother raised Jordan along with his sister and brother working as a domestic in rural Texas. He never knew his father. At the age of thirteen his mother moved the family to Palm Springs, California where they lived on an Indian Reservation.

Jordan earned his high school diploma from Palm Springs High School in 1956. As a high school basketball star he was offered numerous athletic scholarships. From 1956 until 1961 he attended Gonzaga University in Washington where he earned his Bachelor of Science degrees in Education, Sociology and Philosophy. He did graduate work in Education at Loma Linda University and in Public Administration at the University of Southern California.

Upon graduation from Gonzaga, Jordan was unable to obtain a job in his field of study. He was forced to work as a gardener for California actors Lawrence Harvey and Jack Lambert. From 1961 until 1970 Jordan worked for the City of Palm Springs. After being hired as the first African American Recreation Leader for the city, he went on to become Assistant Director of Recreation and Assistant to the City Manager. From 1962 until 1964 he took a leave of absence to fulfill a two-year tour of duty in the United States Army. In 1970 Jordan moved to Portland, Oregon to work on the federal Model Cities Program. Jordan then went on to become Portland’s first elected African American. He served on the city council from 1974 until 1984, where he served as City Fire, Police and Parks Commissioner. From 1984 until 1989 Jordan was appointed Parks Director of Austin, Texas. In 1989 he returned to Portland to oversee its Parks system, a post he held until 2003. Jordan stepped down to take the helm at the Conservation Fund, a non-profit environmental organization.

In 1985 Jordan was appointed to the President’s Commission on Americans Outdoors by former President, Ronald Reagan. During the Clinton administration, Jordan was appointed to the American Heritage Rivers Advisory Committee. He was known worldwide for his commitment and leadership in involving African Americans in the conservation movement.

Jordan passed away on April 4, 2014, at the age of 77.

Accession Number

A2004.167

Sex

Male

Interview Date

9/20/2004

Last Name

Jordan

Maker Category
Middle Name

R.

Schools

Palm Springs High School

Gonzaga University

First Name

Charles

Birth City, State, Country

Longview

HM ID

JOR03

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Texas

Favorite Vacation Destination

Palm Springs, California

Favorite Quote

You're Kidding.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

9/1/1937

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Southern Food

Death Date

4/4/2014

Short Description

City parks administrator and foundation chief executive Charles R. Jordan (1937 - 2014 ) was the first African American elected to an office in Portland, Oregon as a member of the city council. He also served as City Fire, Police and Parks Commissioner.

Employment

City of Palm Springs

United States Army

Federal Model Cities Program

Portland City Council

City of Austin, Texas

Portland Parks and Recreation

Conservation Fund

Favorite Color

Brown

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Charles R. Jordan's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Charles R. Jordan lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Charles R. Jordan describes his mother

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Charles R. Jordan describes his father

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Charles R. Jordan talks about father figures from his childhood in Longview, Texas

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Charles R. Jordan describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Charles R. Jordan describes his earliest childhood memories

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Charles R. Jordan describes his childhood holidays and celebrations in Longview, Texas

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Charles R. Jordan describes his childhood home of Longview, Texas

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Charles R. Jordan describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Charles R. Jordan talks about his experiences in elementary school in Texas

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Charles R. Jordan narrates his photographs

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Charles R. Jordan talks about living on a Native American reservation in Palm Springs, California

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Charles R. Jordan talks about his family community in Palm Springs, California

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Charles R. Jordan describes his experiences growing up in the Baptist faith

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Charles R. Jordan describes his experiences at Palm Springs High School in Palm Springs, California

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Charles R. Jordan describes his experiences at Gonzaga University in Spokane, Washington, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Charles R. Jordan describes his experiences at Gonzaga University in Spokane, Washington, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Charles R. Jordan describes the events that led him into parks and recreation work in Palm Springs, California

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Charles R. Jordan narrates his photographs, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Charles R. Jordan describes his career in city government in Palm Springs, California

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Charles R. Jordan describes being hired to work for the City of Portland, Oregon

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Charles R. Jordan talks about his tenure on the Portland City Council

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Charles R. Jordan talks about his tenure as the parks director in Austin, Texas

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Charles R. Jordan describes working with Claudia "Lady Bird" Johnson in Austin, Texas

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Charles R. Jordan talks about his tenure as parks director in Portland, Oregon

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Charles R. Jordan reflects on his decision to leave the public sector

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Charles R. Jordan narrates his photographs, pt. 3

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Charles R. Jordan describes the operations of The Conservation Fund

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Charles R. Jordan talks about his experiences on the President's Commission on American Outdoors in 1984

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Charles R. Jordan describes his experience serving as chairman of The Conservation Fund

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Charles R. Jordan describes his hopes for conservation efforts in the African American community

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Charles R. Jordan describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Charles R. Jordan reflects on the reasons for his success

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Charles R. Jordan offers advice to those interested in a career in the environmental field

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Charles R. Jordan describes his plans for the future

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Charles R. Jordan describes how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Charles R. Jordan describes why he believes history is important

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - Charles R. Jordan reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 4 Story: 12 - Charles R. Jordan narrates his photographs, pt. 4

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$4

DAStory

1$2

DATitle
Charles R. Jordan talks about living on a Native American reservation in Palm Springs, California
Charles R. Jordan talks about his experiences on the President's Commission on American Outdoors in 1984
Transcript
[HistoryMaker] Mr. [Charles R.] Jordan we had--we were just talking about when your family moved to [Palm Springs] California in 1950, so tell us a little bit about what life was like on the Indian reservation?$$Well, there was no grass, of course, and most of us had centralized facilities, in the middle of the reservation at certain places there were showers and bathrooms and washing areas that we would go to and I mean just all sand. Cars rolled on sand, I mean there was no roads there were pathways that cars had created over the years but there was no pavement at all. And we all lived on the reservation surrounded by desert, just as far as the eye could see mountains and desert. And it was--we used to make bow and arrows and we would go hunting in the desert with bow and arrow--(simultaneous)--$$So did the Native American children there teach you how to make the bows and arrows and--(simultaneous)--$$Oh yeah, and we would all go out in the desert, 110, 115 degrees and we would go hunt and walking in the desert, hunting, and they would have Indian burials that lasted three to five days. I mean the same way, I mean, three to five days. The chief, Chief Ward, he lived a couple of doors from us and it was a--but we could go to movies, and movies were integrated, the schools were integrated. But Louis Armstrong came to town, he had to stay on the reservation, and yet he performed downtown. It was sorta strange; it was half and half there. But it was rich, wouldn't have changed it for anything. And then I started school, middle school.$$What was the name of the school?$$[Nellie N.] Coffman Middle School [Cathedral City, California], the first year of that, two-year school and from there to high school. But I started playing basketball on the reservation, I started--there was a Boys Club [Boys & Girls Clubs of America] in the middle of the desert that I would go to and the gentleman's name was Frank [ph.], I'll never forget him as long as I live. I don't know whether he was properly trained to be a Boys Club director or not, that wasn't important. And that's--and so now, when I became a director I realized the importance of caring, the kids don't care how much you know they just wanna know how much you care. And that's why I'll always remember him. I knew he really cared about us; there was no doubt in my mind. And we had a basketball court paved, it was pavement and oh, and we used to go out there at night and play five and six hours and that's all we had. But I remember Frank was so kind and never forget him. And we'd play basketball at night and during the daytime we would sit under mesquite trees, play dominoes, my parents [M.C. Shepard and Willie Mae Glaspie] would and I would be shooting baskets every day of my life, every day. I didn't miss a day during that four or five years--$I was appointed by President [Ronald Wilson] Reagan in 1984 to serve on a presidential commission. It was the President's Commission on American Outdoors [sic. President's Commission on Americans Outdoors]. He appointed seventeen Americans to travel around this country for a year and a half and talk to Americans about the great outdoors and what they wanted to do in the great outdoors for the next thirty-five years and on that commission he had one black and one woman. And I was that black. And we traveled around the country. On that committee was Pat Noonan, I didn't know who Pat Noonan was, but he--but of course Reagan had his real shakers and movers, you know the big ones, [Sheldon] Coleman [Jr.], the Coleman Company who has all of the camping gear, Gil Grosvenor [Gilbert Melville Grosvenor] of 'National Geographic,' he had the heavyweights on there, I was the lightest one on there (laughter). And--but during that--(simultaneous)--$$Say you.$$--time as we traveled around every region of the country--talking to Americans, thousands of them about the great outdoors and what they like to do in the great outdoors and what they wanted to do. We were gathering information; we had studies, hundreds of studies from people at hearings, people were coming out, sharing their dreams and hopes with us about the great outdoors. And there weren't very many people of color, so that was stressful for me because I knew that we cared about the outdoors but we were not coming out expressing it and so I was trying to be objective and listen but I was also trying to speak on behalf and that's--that was hard to do and so I struggled with that. And we finally came up with the report and when the report was finished, Pat Noonan, whom I hadn't--I just knew him I didn't know him very well, came up to me and said, "You know," he said, "I saw your struggle and I heard your story and I want to help you tell that story." And said, "I want you to come and serve on my board." That was, what, that was eighteen years ago and I didn't know anything about conservation. But, "Come and serve on my board." So I looked into it and I did and that guy, he got it then, I mean he really, you know, I didn't tell him, he just noticed, and he has opened doors. You talking about someone who can open doors, that I never would have been able to even darken, and he just started opening doors for me and putting me out there and making sure people heard my story because I tell it from a black perspective and not, you can see not angrily, I'm not angry--so, you know, that's why it resonates because I'm not angry with anyone. I just tell it from someone who has seen and has grown up in America in a black skin. And so there are times when I saw a different America, it's not the one you're explaining to me, that's not what I saw, but let me tell you what America I saw. And therefore what's important to me, and so I can do that without offending people because I'm not angry. And so I've had a chance to do that all around the country and he just opened doors, I mean just incredibly so and ever since I've been on his board he has done that.