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Sondra Akins

Education professor and chemist Sondra Akins was born on March 16, 1944 in Winston-Salem, North Carolina. She became interested in chemistry by the time she graduated from Atkins High School in 1962. Akins earned her B.S. degree in chemistry in 1967 from the University of California, Berkeley where she also worked as a laboratory technician. She received her M.S. degree in chemistry with a minor in higher education from Florida State University in 1970.

After earning her master's degree, Akins taught physical science at Greco Junior High School in Tampa, Florida. Between 1971 and 1974, she served as instructor of chemistry at St. Petersburg Junior College which is currently known as St. Petersburg College. She left St. Petersburg in 1974 to teach at Hillsborough Community College where she rose to the rank of associate professor. In 1978, she taught at Northern Virginia Community College, and in 1980, Akins worked as an honors physics teacher in Lexington Massachusetts Public Schools. She also spent two years as an industrial hygienist at Hewlett Packard, Co. from 1981 to 1983. Akins began her long career with the Englewood Public School District in Englewood, New Jersey in 1983 where she started as a science and mathematics teacher. In 1988, she became the director of mathematics, science, and technology. In 1993, she received her Ed.D. degree in science education from Columbia University. She returned to teaching at Englewood Public Schools between 1995 and 1997 and served as a high school principal for one year in 1997. From 1998 to 2001, Akins was a staff developer for Englewood Public Schools where she served as a mentor, giving advice to teachers. Since 2001, Akins has worked as a professor in the Department of Secondary and Middle School Education at William Paterson University. She has written numerous essays on science education including a chapter in the National Science Teachers Association book, Exemplary Science: Best Practices in Professional Development.

Over her long career in science education, Akins has been recognized many times by her community including the Award for Dedication to Science Teaching from Sigma Xi of Ramapo College. She has been a member of the American Chemical Society, the National Science Teachers Association and the Association of Science Teacher Educators. Sondra Akins lives with her husband Daniel Akins, a chemist, in Teaneck, New Jersey.

Sondra Akins was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on May 15, 2012.

Accession Number

A2012.108

Sex

Female

Interview Date

5/15/2012

Last Name

Akins

Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Barber

Schools

University of California, Berkeley

Brandeis University

Teachers College, Columbia University

Florida State University

Atkins High School

Howard University

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Sondra

Birth City, State, Country

Winston-Salem

HM ID

AKI02

Favorite Season

Fall

State

North Carolina

Favorite Vacation Destination

Winston-Salem, North Carolina

Favorite Quote

Keep an open mind.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New Jersey

Birth Date

3/16/1944

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Englewood

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Cake (Strawberry Shortcake)

Short Description

Education professor and chemist Sondra Akins (1944 - ) was an authority in the field of science education with over thirty-nine years of professional teaching and consulting experience.

Employment

William Paterson University

Englewood Public Schools

Hewlett Packard Co.

Northern Virginia Community College

Hillsborough Community College

St. Petersburg Jr. College

Greco Jr. High School

Favorite Color

Green

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Sondra Akins' interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Sondra Akins lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Sondra Akins describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Sondra Akins describes her mother's growing up in Greensboro, North Carolina

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Sondra Akins talks about the Mary Potter School in Oxford, North Carolina

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Sondra Akins talks about her mother's desire to have a long-lasting marriage and family-life

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Sondra Akins describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Sondra Akins talks about how her parents met, and describes their long marriage and employment at Winston-Salem Teachers College

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Sondra Akins lists her siblings, and talks about her name

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Sondra Akins describes her parents' personalities and who she takes after, and talks about them being her role models

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Sondra Akins describes her childhood home and her close-knit family

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Sondra Akins talks about her childhood neighborhood in Winston-Salem, North Carolina

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Sondra Akins describes the sights, sounds and smells of growing up in Winston-Salem, North Carolina - part one

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Sondra Akins describes the sights, sounds and smells of growing up in Winston-Salem, North Carolina - part two

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Sondra Akins describes her childhood experience on the Winston-Salem Teachers College campus

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Sondra Akins talks about the towns of Winston and Salem, North Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Sondra Akins talks about segregation in Winston-Salem, North Carolina in the mid-1900s

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Sondra Akins talks about segregation in the public school system in Winston-Salem, North Carolina, and describes her experience in elementary school

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Sondra Akins talks about the influence of Zion Memorial Church on her awareness of the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Sondra Akins talks about her introduction to television in the 1950s, and her interest in science programs and talent shows

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Sondra Akins describes her experience with science experiments in the eighth grade

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Sondra Akins talks about her family's travels when she was growing up

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Sondra Akins talks about the demographics of Winston-Salem Teachers College, and the schools for African American students in Winston-Salem

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Sondra Akins describes her academic excellence, her extracurricular involvement, and her interest in science at Atkins High School

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Sondra Akins talks about her role model, Togo West, Jr. and her scientific mentor, Togo West, Sr., at Atkins High School

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Sondra Akins describes her experience with the integration of her high school advanced placement chemistry class in Winston-Salem, North Carolina

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Sondra Akins talks about her decision to pursue chemistry as her major in college

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Sondra Akins describes her decision to attend Howard University for her undergraduate studies

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Sondra Akins recalls the Civil Rights sit-ins at the Woolworth's store in Greensboro, North Carolina, which led to its desegregation in 1960

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Sondra Akins describes her early experience studying chemistry at Howard University

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Sondra Akins describes her experience studying science at Howard University, and her love for science

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Sondra Akins describes the 'black is beautiful' cultural movement in the United States in the early 1960s

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Sondra Akins talks about the advent of the space age in the 1950s and 1960s

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Sondra Akins talks about her exposure to black history and culture at Howard University

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Sondra Akins talks about her decision to pursue research, and not go to medical school

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Sondra Akins talks about getting married to HistoryMaker Daniel Akins, withdrawing from Howard University, and moving to Berkeley, California

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Sondra Akins describes her experience at the University of California, Berkeley in the 1960s

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Sondra Akins talks about becoming a parent while pursuing her undergraduate studies at the University of California, Berkeley

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Sondra Akins describes her and her husband's relationship with their advisor, C. Bradley Moore, at the University of California, Berkeley

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Sondra Akins talks about her employment as a lab technician at the University of California, Berkeley

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Sondra Akins talks about the Civil Rights Act of 1964, and the Black Panther Party's presence in the San Francisco Bay area in the late 1960s

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Sondra Akins talks about her family's move to Florida State University in 1968 and their experience there

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Sondra Akins talks about her interest in physical chemistry, and the growing interdisciplinary nature of science

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Sondra Akins describes her different experiences as an undergraduate at UC Berkeley and as a graduate student at Florida State University

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Sondra Akins talks about her role model, Lidia Vallerino, and other women who are scientists

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Sondra Akins talks about her decision to become a physical science teacher at Greco Junior High School in Tampa, Florida

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Sondra Akins describes her experience as a physical science teacher at Greco Junior High School in Tampa, Florida

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Sondra Akins reflects upon the diverse styles of learning and teaching in the classroom

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Sondra Akins talks about her decision to move from St. Petersburg Junior College to Hillsborough Community College

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Sondra Akins talks about balancing her family life and her career

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Sondra Akins talks about her experience as a science teacher at Northern Virginia Community College and at Lexington High School

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Sondra Akins talks about her decision to discontinue her graduate studies and become an industrial hygienist at Hewlett-Packard Corporation

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Sondra Akins describes her experience as an industrial hygienist at Hewlett-Packard Corporation in Waltham, Massachusetts

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Sondra Akins describes her experience as a teacher at Dwight Morrow High School and her decision to pursue a degree in science education

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Sondra Akins describes her doctoral dissertation on restructuring the math and science curriculum, with a focus on elementary school - part one

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Sondra Akins describes the importance of teaching students to think scientifically in their early childhood education

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Sondra Akins describes her doctoral dissertation on restructuring the math and science curriculum, with a focus on elementary school - part two

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Sondra Akins describes the findings of her doctoral dissertation on restructuring the math and science curriculum in elementary school education

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Sondra Akins talks about her involvement in professional development programs for the teachers in the Englewood School District

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Sondra Akins talks about the African American Educational Center of Northern New Jersey

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Sondra Akins describes her professional activities in the Englewood School District

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Sondra Akins reflects upon the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Sondra Akins describes her experience as a professor of science education at The William Patterson University of New Jersey

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Sondra Akins talks about her article entitled 'Exemplary Science: Best Practices in Professional Development'

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Sondra Akins discusses the balance between inquiry and discipline as part of the process of learning

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Sondra Akins describes her involvement with the New York African Burial Ground Project General Audience Report at Howard University

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - Sondra Akins describes the history of the New York African Burial Ground Project and her involvement with the General Audience Report

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - Sondra Akins describes her hopes and concerns for the African American community today - part one

Tape: 8 Story: 6 - Sondra Akins describes her hopes and concerns for the African American community today - part two

Tape: 8 Story: 7 - Sondra Akins talks about her plans to write a book about her experience with learning and teaching science

Tape: 8 Story: 8 - Sondra Akins reflects upon her life

Tape: 9 Story: 1 - Sondra Akins reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 9 Story: 2 - Sondra Akins talks about her family

Tape: 9 Story: 3 - Sondra Akins reflects upon the significance of teaching and science

Tape: 9 Story: 4 - Sondra Akins talks about how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 9 Story: 5 - Sondra Akins describes her photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$8

DAStory

6$4

DATitle
Sondra Akins describes her experience with the integration of her high school advanced placement chemistry class in Winston-Salem, North Carolina
Sondra Akins describes the history of the New York African Burial Ground Project and her involvement with the General Audience Report
Transcript
Now, how did that work? Did they segregate you after you got over there [white high school in Winston-Salem, North Carolina]?$$No, no, no, no. All of a sudden, twelfth grade, I had to be ready to go and hold my own in a class with white students. That was an experience. There was one girl from the school who took biology, advanced biology, while I took chemistry. So we practically went hand-in-hand because, you know, actually, our fathers [Akins' father, Alexander Eugene Barber] drove us there, kind of--it gave us moral support. And then the bus would bring us back. And we would stay, I guess maybe an hour and a half, then come back to our own high school [Atkins High School, Winston-Salem].$$So, but you weren't, you were allowed to participate? There's no--$$In twelfth grade.$$--no problems at the school?$$Nothing like what I had, had been afraid of because, as I mentioned before, I had seen actually on television the little, Little Rock [Arkansas] Nine [a group of African American students enrolled in Little Rock Central High School in 1957]. And I knew it was coming, as I said, from the time I was in maybe sixth or seventh grade, that I was gonna have to go to school (laughter) with white kids, you know. So I was anticipating, I didn't know what to anticipate, but it was very civil. As it turned out, the class had only six or seven students in it, and they came from the other high--, the white high schools. And it was held at Reynolds [High School]. So they must have had one or two kids who went to Reynolds, and a couple who went to Gray [High School]. And then there was Sondra Barber who came over from Atkins (laughter) High School and very cordial. Nevertheless, it was not easy.$$Okay, so this is Reynolds High School, named after R.J. Reynolds [tobacco industrialist]--$$After R.J. Reynolds.$$--Tobacco thing. Okay. So, now, this is interesting because, you know, there are so many stories that are still to unfold in the South where there's like big conflict when a black student comes to the door, and then later on, even in the North, the bussing--$$Oh, yes. Well, I--$$--crisis in the '70s [1970s] where even--$$Right.$$--the breaking of defacto segregation caused violence.$$Um-hum, now, it turns out there had been a black girl at Reynolds, and she was there. We knew she was there. That was like the token. I'm sure it was, it couldn't have been easy for her, but we didn't hear horror stories. We didn't hear horror stories. I'm sure she went through something. When I went, it was a, it was not so publicized. After all, it was just an advanced placement [AP] class. It wasn't all day, real desegregation. So, but I can remember walking in there, and students staring just like a sea of white children or students, and they were staring, but nobody said anything out of, out of the way. Nobody said anything. I remember the teachers' names, Dr. Hounshell (ph.) and Mr. Gerald (ph.). There were two teachers. And we would have our class and our lab all together in the same place, and they would have coffee at the--you know, it was quite interesting, but nevertheless, it was not easy because I felt different. I mean I was in a place different from what I was used to, and I felt self-conscious. But, no, there was, I cannot speak of any negative comments or anything like that. We worked with partners. I remember the girl I worked with. She was very nice, very quiet (laughter). I remember we went on a field trip. We must have gone to Raleigh [North Carolina]. I don't believe it was Chapel Hill [North Carolina], to the state university [North Carolina State University]. And then we kind of hung together because we were these little, we were these young kids with, in the midst of these college students. And I felt like I belonged to them (laughter) at that time, you know, because we were on that field trip.$$Okay, so, but you did all right?$$Yeah.$$Did you? Okay.$$Yes.$$All right.$$I did all right, and I did all--and the reason is because of, well, it's just the nurturing of the community that I came up in. You know, everybody was concerned that I would do all right. When I came back to my school, my physics teacher asked, "Well, how are things going? How's Dr. Hounshell?" Somehow he knew of him. He must have been talking to him.$It [New York African Burial Ground Project General Audience Report] tells how when they were digging for the building, how the bones were discovered and what had to happen as a result of that and how the community got involved, how the community wanted to know certain things about the people who were buried and a researcher listened to them. And then, of course, there are different parts. Now, the original research covers the skeletal biology. So they were looking at the diseases that they obviously had based on what they learned about the--$$I think the first thing they'd probably wanna know is how do we know they're Africans, right?$$Well, there is, there is history about that burial ground and when it, when it first--I can't, I don't wanna say when it first. But the report tells, it puts it all in a historical perspective of the company, the, what do you wanna, is it the Manhattan? No, they don't call it Manhattan. I'm trying to think of the Dutch, the Dutch settled the--$$Right, the Dutch West India Company.$$Yes, yes, they settled the area, and what was going on in history. And there are some records they found of this burial ground. So--$$And then what you were saying, you were just saying the, you know, conditions, I mean under which the people died--$$Exactly.$$--what their physical condition was.$$Right, and then there was some study, and I don't wanna try to quote everything because there's so much. The people who came over after--how do I wanna put it? For those who were born and brought over, that they have some of the same kinds of diseases that people who had been living under the conditions of slavery and were already here. They somehow looked at that as well, but I--and I will do this. I'm gonna go back and re-read everything because I plan to make that a unit (laughter). We do a lot of unit, unit work in my methods class, one of my methods classes, where I get the students to develop a unit and develop lessons where they embed these standards that we want in those lessons. And what I do with my middle school and secondary students, different from the elementary where they only do lessons, I get the students to develop their units collaboratively so that it is ensured that it is interdisciplinary and that it has different perspectives, and they're working together, like teachers, like the teachers that I worked with in the [Englewood] school district [New Jersey] in restructuring. That's the way they worked. They worked collaboratively. So I brought that into my courses at William Patterson [University, The William Patterson University of New Jersey, Wayne, New Jersey], that the science methods students, some of them, would work collaboratively on curriculum and bounce ideas off each other and ensure that they're looking at, you know, chemistry and biology and earth science, all in the same unit. And some are pathology majors, some are chemistry majors, some are earth science majors, it works nicely that way. So those are some of the new ideas in professional development that I've been pushing since I've been at William Patterson.$$Okay, now, just on the African Burial Project, I think it was Dr. Rick Kittles [geneticist] was important in that. He was a scientist at Howard [University, Washington, District of Columbia]. Did you have a chance to meet him?$$No, no. Now, the thing that's probably, I don't wanna say disappointing. I didn't get a chance to work with, and I don't wanna say I didn't get a chance, they didn't give me a chance. It's just the way when I got involved and how much time there was before this general report had to be done, I was, I talked with a writer, the Howard writer who really didn't write the book either, but she's a writer. And Dean [James] Donaldson, who is also a HistoryMaker, and Oscar Cole (ph.) who was a special assistant to the president, and who was in charge of the project, those were the people that I interacted with and gave my recommendations to. And as I said, when the drafts came back, I read and I made recommendations along with other people who were also reading the draft.$$Okay.

Christine King Farris

Civil rights activist and education professor Christine King Farris was born in Atlanta, Georgia, on September 11, 1927, to Alberta Christine Williams King and Martin Luther King, Sr. She was the eldest of three children: her younger siblings were Martin Luther King, Jr., and Alfred Daniel (A.D.) Williams King. Farris and her family belonged to Ebenezer Baptist Church, where her father preached. Farris attended Yonge Street Elementary School, famous for its organization of the first black Parent-Teacher Association, before transferring to Oglethorpe Elementary. From 1940 to 1942, she attended Atlanta University’s Laboratory High School, and when it closed, she enrolled at Booker T. Washington High School, which her grandfather helped to found. In 1944, Farris graduated from Washington High School and entered Spelman College, where her grandmother, mother and great-aunt had all matriculated.

In 1948, Farris graduated from Spelman College with her B.A. degree in economics. One year later, she graduated from Columbia University with her M.A. degree in the social foundations of education. Over the next few summers, she earned a second M.A. degree from Columbia University in special education. In 1950, Farris took her first job as a teacher at W.H. Crogman Elementary, where she taught a seventh grade reading class. In 1958, Farris was hired as director of the freshman reading program at Spelman College, and eventually became director of the Learning Resources Center, a position she still holds. She is Spelman's longest-serving faculty member. In 1965, when her brother, Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr., led the campaign to vote in Selma, Alabama, Farris sang at the opening rally on the day they departed for Montgomery. After his death, his wife, Coretta Scott King, founded the Martin Luther King, Jr. Center for Nonviolent Social Change in Atlanta, Georgia. Farris served as the treasurer and taught workshops on nonviolence. Farris also went on to found the Martin Luther King, Jr. Child Development Center.

The recipient of the Fannie Lou Hamer Award, Farris helped establish the Martin Luther King Jr. National Historical Site in 1980, at the suggestion of President Jimmy Carter. She is the author of the acclaimed children's book, My Brother Martin, and of an autobiography, Through It All: Reflections on My Life, My Family, and My Faith. Currently, Farris resides in Atlanta with her husband, Isaac Newton Farris. They have two children, Isaac Newton Farris, Jr., and Angela Christine Farris, and one granddaughter, Farris Christine Watkins.

Christine King Farris was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on July 11, 2010.

Accession Number

A2010.074

Sex

Female

Interview Date

7/11/2010 |and| 11/19/2017

Last Name

Farris

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

King

Schools

Spelman College

Teachers College, Columbia University

Atlanta University Lab School

Booker T. Washington High School

First Name

Christine

Birth City, State, Country

Atlanta

HM ID

KIN15

Favorite Season

None

State

Georgia

Favorite Vacation Destination

None

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Birth Date

9/11/1927

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Atlanta

Country

United States

Favorite Food

None

Short Description

Civil rights activist and education professor Christine King Farris (1927 - ) was the eldest sibling of the late Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr. She was the longest serving faculty member of Spelman College, and served as vice chair and treasurer of the King Center.

Employment

Spelman College

W. H. Crogman Elementary School

Favorite Color

None

Timing Pairs
0,0:2483,13:3036,21:3826,33:4221,39:4537,44:7460,110:7855,116:8171,121:8724,129:14359,213:14683,218:15817,230:19381,290:27624,403:29034,423:31384,461:32982,478:33640,498:36030,503:36653,511:37810,536:38255,542:38611,547:38967,552:39679,562:41459,585:42794,607:59344,813:59818,821:60213,827:66356,881:69852,940:90975,1150:92221,1165:94575,1180:96007,1192:96421,1201:96904,1210:97870,1228:102079,1323:102424,1329:102907,1338:104287,1370:104839,1379:105115,1384:107047,1411:107323,1416:107668,1422:108220,1435:116459,1512:117802,1536:118434,1547:119619,1573:122870,1584:124886,1614:125270,1619:131990,1703:145516,1850:153114,1928:153672,1938:154602,1949:154974,1958:156648,1986:159996,2053:160368,2058:169832,2151:170648,2161:172178,2183:176768,2269:177176,2274:178196,2279:190119,2379:190701,2386:194387,2444:209013,2573:212010,2625:212820,2637:213306,2645:219664,2701:220180,2709:228701,2795:229283,2802:232775,2865:240998,2970:242230,2997:243110,3015:245574,3057:246014,3063:249468,3082:249958,3088:251240,3094:256512,3153:258150,3180:258774,3191:259242,3198:261001,3263$0,0:929,2:1748,11:2216,16:7518,57:8478,75:9758,105:11038,137:11550,146:11806,151:12254,161:12510,170:12766,175:13278,184:13598,190:14046,199:14302,204:14558,209:14942,217:15390,226:15646,231:16222,269:16478,274:21528,291:21856,296:22184,301:22512,306:28744,429:36052,498:38070,508:39470,518:40030,524:41770,529:42155,535:43772,562:45466,593:46082,602:53130,639:53670,645:57126,687:60912,706:62372,730:63102,736:66436,763:66708,768:67048,774:67320,779:67864,809:69632,845:74354,887:77686,932:79940,965:82292,997:88358,1029:91246,1101:91550,1106:94590,1169:94894,1174:96034,1192:101370,1225:105330,1280:105825,1286:113195,1369:115910,1386:116504,1393:117791,1411:118682,1423:124226,1502:126899,1545:131064,1555:131376,1560:132468,1581:132936,1588:134496,1621:136134,1654:136446,1659:150402,1829:150754,1834:151194,1840:151546,1845:157068,1878:157677,1891:158721,1910:159852,1922:160200,1927:162462,1964:163506,1979:178540,2142:181650,2169:182550,2181:182910,2186:183360,2192:183720,2197:205381,2436:225216,2623:225588,2628:229122,2684:230238,2700:231633,2719:237320,2752:242612,2840:243102,2846:243592,2852:244082,2858:261324,2953:262368,2963:263499,2979:263934,2985:264891,2994:265674,3000:266022,3005:266544,3013:266892,3018:267762,3031:268110,3037:268458,3042:269154,3055:269589,3061:270285,3071:270633,3076:272634,3118:273330,3127:273678,3132:284734,3219:285089,3225:289810,3279:290756,3297:291100,3302:292390,3317:293078,3326:294454,3343:302238,3410:305205,3421:305561,3426:305917,3431:306807,3445:317368,3586:333004,3797:333944,3824:335730,3840:336106,3846:342710,3886:346700,3963:347460,3972:347840,3977:348220,3982:367008,4124
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Christine King Farris' interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Christine King Farris discusses her childhood home, her parents Dr. Martin Luther King, Sr. and Alberta Williams King, and her maternal grandparents, part 1

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Christine King Farris discusses her childhood home, her parents Dr. Martin Luther King, Sr. and Alberta Williams King, and her maternal grandparents, part 2

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Christine King Farris discusses the sights, sounds and smells of her childhood at 501 Auburn Avenue

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Christine King Farris describes her neighborhood and how she spent her leisure time as a child

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Christine King Farris discusses her relationship with her brothers Martin Luther King, Jr. and Alfred King

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Christine King Farris talks about family traditions and her earliest memories growing up

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Christine King Farris talks about being a part of Ebenezer Baptist Church

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Christine King Farris talks about her home environment growing up

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Christine King Farris discusses family dinners and her father, Dr. Martin Luther King, Sr., as an activist

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Christine King Farris discusses her father's activist influence

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Christine King Farris discusses the death of her maternal grandmother, Jennie Celeste Williams, and the impact on her family

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Christine King Farris discusses choosing a college and her family's legacy at Morehouse College and Spelman College

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Christine King Farris discusses her family's homes at 501 Auburn Avenue, 193 Boulevard and Dale Creek Drive in Atlanta, Georgia.

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Christine King Farris describes her childhood neighborhood and its businesses

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Christine King Farris talks about her brothers' and father's names, traditions at Ebenezer Baptist Church and the Baptist denomination

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Christine King Farris talks about her brother's decision to join the ministry

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Christine King Farris talks about her brother's development as a young minister and his influences

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Christine King Farris talks about attending graduate school at Columbia University and her brother's theological education at Crozer Theological Seminary

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Christine King Farris talks about her family's relationship with Dr. Benjamin Mays and conflicts within the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Christine King Farris discusses her brother's beginnings as a civil rights activist, the SCLC and SNCC

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Christine King Farris talks about her family's role in supporting Martin Luther King, Jr.

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Christine King Farris talks about the Baptist World Alliance, her brother Alfred's role in the Civil Rights Movement and danger in Alabama

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Christine King Farris discusses her father and brother's name change and provides anecdotes about Ebenezer Baptist Church

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Christine King Farris talks about homecoming at Ebenezer Baptist Church

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Christine King Farris explains and describes baptism and tithing

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Christine King Farris describes the church during her childhood, church traditions and her Uncle Joel King

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Christine King Farris talks about the Sunday morning murder of her mother, Alberta Williams King by Marcus Chenault

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Christine King Farris talks about childhood pets and her brother's grief over the death of their maternal grandmother

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Christine King Farris discusses her brother, Martin, Jr.'s burial and his accomplishments

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Slating of Christine King Farris's interview, session 2

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Christine King Farris remembers the opening of the Martin Luther King, Jr. Center for Nonviolent Social Change in Atlanta, Georgia, pt. 1

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Christine King Farris remembers the opening of the Martin Luther King, Jr. Center for Nonviolent Social Change in Atlanta, Georgia pt. 2

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Christine King Farris describes the idea for a living memorial for Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Christine King Farris remembers the 1969 celebration of Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.'s birthday

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Christine King Farris talks about preserving Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.'s birth home

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Christine King Farris recalls balancing teaching with the Martin Luther King, Jr. Center for Nonviolent Social Change

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Christine King Farris talks about recognition of Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.'s work

Tape: 7 Story: 9 - Christine King Farris describes Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.'s life's work

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Christine King Farris remembers the assassination of her brother, Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Christine King Farris recalls the aftermath of her brother's assassination

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Christine King Farris talks about her friendship with Coretta Scott King

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - Christine King Farris talks about the early locations of the Martin Luther King, Jr. Center for Nonviolent Social Change

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - Christine King Farris remembers fundraising for the Martin Luther King Jr. Center for Nonviolent Social Change

Tape: 8 Story: 6 - Christine King Farris describes her efforts to teach nonviolence

Tape: 8 Story: 7 - Christine King Farris talks about the role of faith through her family's struggles

Tape: 8 Story: 8 - Christine King Farris recalls parenting with Coretta Scott King

Tape: 9 Story: 1 - Christine King Farris recalls her decision to become an educator

Tape: 9 Story: 2 - Christine King Farris remembers the birth of her granddaughter, Farris Christine Watkins

Tape: 9 Story: 3 - Christine King Farris talks about her granddaughter's interest in education

Tape: 9 Story: 4 - Christine King Farris remembers meeting her husband, Isaac Newton Farris, Sr.

Tape: 9 Story: 5 - Christine King Farris describes campus life at Spelman College in Atlanta, Georgia, pt. 1

Tape: 9 Story: 6 - Christine King Farris remembers Spelman College President Florence M. Read

Tape: 9 Story: 7 - Christine King Farris recalls singing with the Spelman College glee club

Tape: 9 Story: 8 - Christine King Farris describes the campus rules at Spelman College in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 10 Story: 1 - Christine King Farris remembers slipping off of Spelman College's campus as a student

Tape: 10 Story: 2 - Christine King Farris talks about her classmates at Spelman College in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 10 Story: 3 - Christine King Farris recalls returning to Spellman College as a professor

Tape: 10 Story: 4 - Christine King Farris talks about the relationship between Spelman College and Morehouse College

Tape: 10 Story: 5 - Christine King Farris remembers her classmates at Spelman College and Morehouse College

Tape: 10 Story: 6 - Christine King Farris describes campus life at Spelman College in Atlanta, Georgia, pt. 2

Tape: 10 Story: 7 - Christine King Farris talks about her marriage to Isaac Newton Farris, Sr.

Tape: 10 Story: 8 - Christine King Farris remembers her wedding

Tape: 10 Story: 9 - Christine King Farris remembers her mother's support following her brother's assassination

Tape: 10 Story: 10 - Christine King Farris remembers her relationship with Coretta Scott King

Tape: 11 Story: 1 - Christine King Farris reflects upon the many losses in her family

Tape: 11 Story: 2 - Christine King Farris reflects upon her life

Tape: 11 Story: 3 - Christine King Farris remembers the death of Coretta Scott King

Tape: 11 Story: 4 - Christine King Farris talks about the exposure that comes from her brother's prominence

Tape: 11 Story: 5 - Christine King Farris talks about the Martin Luther King, Jr. Memorial in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 11 Story: 6 - Christine King Farris describes various collections of her brother's papers

Tape: 11 Story: 7 - Christine King Farris describes her hopes for the Martin Luther King, Jr. Center for Nonviolent Social Change

Tape: 12 Story: 1 - Christine King Farris talks about race in the United States

Tape: 12 Story: 2 - Christine King Farris reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 12 Story: 3 - Christine King Farris talks about her children

DASession

1$1

DATape

1$6

DAStory

6$2

DATitle
Christine King Farris discusses her relationship with her brothers Martin Luther King, Jr. and Alfred King
Christine King Farris discusses her brother, Martin, Jr.'s burial and his accomplishments
Transcript
Now, did you parents talk at all about your role as the youngest [oldest]? Were you required to sort of look after your younger brothers [Martin Luther King, Jr.] [Alfred Daniel]?$$Well, in a way, yes. I recall that someone had made a good cake and given it to our family. And it was so good, the boys were just eating it away and slipping and getting it. So Dad [Martin Luther King, Sr.] called us together, and so he told them, "You know, now, you're not supposed to--you know, you don't eat cake without permission. You need to check with your mother or something." And so as they were putting the cake up and my brother M.L., [Martin Luther King, Jr.] who you would refer to as Martin, but we called him "M.L", he said, and so Dad told him, now, Christine is the oldest. So she's in charge. So you'll have to check with her. And, so as we were putting up the cake and everything, and there were crumbs around, and so it was so interesting and pitiful and M.L. said, "Well, Christine, can I have some of these crumbs?" (laughter) And, of course, I said, yes.$$So, were you a good big sister?$$I was a good, big sister, yes.$$Were you a disciplinarian yourself?$$Not really, not really. That was supposed to be my role, but I wasn't really a disciplinarian cause a lot of times I would be with them.$$Tell me about what the relationship, you know, because siblings have relationships. So can you talk about each of your brothers and yourself as young people?$$Well, we were very close because the three of us, I mean oft times, you know, we would go with my parents to places. And so we were, were very close, and, of course, I'm being the only girl and the oldest, and Dad would stress that, "She is in charge". Of course, they, you know, leaned on me a lot. But we played together.$$So was M.L. or A.D. [Alfred Daniel], were they mischievous like boys are or--$$Typical boys, typical boys. And I would want people to understand that. I mean he was, he was normal, typical boy, played and things.$$So give an example because we all have memories. So give an example from your memory.$$Yeah, well, I mean M.L. played those games, baseball, basketball. We had a basketball thing out in the yard, and they would play that. One day, and, of course, they were always, as I said, a little on the mischievous side. We had a garage in the backyard, and it had a slight incline. Dad kept the car in the garage, and, of course, typical boys wanting to explore and see what it was, they got in the car. And apparently, Dad had left the keys in the car, and they turned on the ignition, and they went straight through the back of that garage. And, of course, you know, they were taken care of when Dad found out (laughter) what had happened, yeah. They were typical. They were always exploring, seeing what things were all about. And, of course, like all boys, they wanted to drive a car. They weren't old enough to drive, so they were experimenting with the car, carried them right through the back of the garage.$$So how old were they about that time?$$Hum, I guess about nine, ten.$$So your father was pretty upset I bet ya.$$Oh, definitely (laughter).$$So they got a little hand to the--$$Yeah, they got a little taken care of on that one.$I have two more questions, and one is, if, you know, the facility has been built there, you know, and we have the Center and we have the National Park Service. What are your feelings about what has been done here in honor of your brother [Martin Luther King, Jr.] and your family?$$Well, I feel very good because I was right on, in from the beginning. I worked with my sister-in-law [Coretta Scott King], we worked through the design and what it should be. So, it's a humbling experience, but I think one that, you know, that we're pleased with. And all the time we were building this and thinking about the entombment, I was the one, along with my sister-in-law, who my brother was moved to his final location. It was about three times. We first moved him from South View Cemetery [Atlanta, Georgia]. That's where he was entombed at the beginning. And we decided that we had to move him there because hate was still on the move. And one day we discovered that there were bullet marks in that mausoleum. Of course, you know, it couldn't get through, but just the idea of somebody--we didn't know what they were trying to do. So we said, we've got to get him away from where we can protect him more. And so that's when we first brought him over--there was a vacant lot right next to the church [Ebenezer Baptist Church]. And we put him in a mausoleum there temporarily. He stayed there for several months, and then we built, there was space further up. And while we were constructing the King Center, as it is now, that's where he rested in that space. And we put a picket fence around it, and, of course, people are coming visiting. And then finally, we moved him to where he is now entombed. And I was at the forefront of all of those moves, you know, along with my sister-in-law. And when we first moved him from South View Cemetery, we did it early in the morning, and right then, it was unusual for much traffic to be out like 1:00 and 2:00 o'clock in the morning. So we met, got a few deacons from Ebenezer. And I went along with Coretta, and I think that was all, along with those deacons. And Ralph Abernathy was with us at that point, and brought him from South View Cemetery to the funeral home, which was on Bell Street, Hanley Bell Street, and brought the casket there. And they sprayed it because it had a little bit of mildew or something on it, and, of course, Coretta and I did not look at him. I think Ralph looked at him, and I don't know, but Coretta and I sat in the back. We didn't look at him, yeah, my father. I mean my husband. And then after that, and then we brought him over here. And, of course, we had somebody guarding it, you know, overnight because it was not protected at all. But he's been moved from South View to this temporary location, and then a little bit further up. So about three times before he was entombed where he is now.$$Oh, the last question was gonna go (laughter). I was wondering also about, you know, what you think your father, your brother, you know, your family would think about the work that, you know, has been done even by the National Park Service? What do you think they would think?$$Yeah, it's a humbling experience, and I think that my brother Martin [Martin Luther King, Jr.], you know, he would be very humble and not thinking that he deserves this. I mean he was self effacing. He didn't look for praise and honor. He felt more like it was a call for him. He was not doing it for the limelight like I see a lot of people now who do things. But it's, you know, so that I can get on camera or whatever, but my brother was not like that. So he would be very humbled by this experienced. And as I, I reflect on it, and I look at it, and it's very humbling to me because I'm saying, "This is my brother, and here he is up here among, you know, presidents." It's really something just growing up, you know, a normal individual, and never would have thought that anything like this would have happened in our family.$$That's it. Okay, thank you. Thanks a lot. Thanks Mrs. Farris.$$Okay.$$So it wasn't so bad, was it?$$No.

Julia Purnell

The 16th International President of Alpha Kappa Alpha (AKA) Sorority, Inc. (1962 – 1966) Julia Brogdon Purnell was born on March 19, 1916 in Belton, South Carolina. Purnell and her two sisters, Sadie Brogdon Blackwell and the late Christine Brogdon Gilchrist (both AKA Sorority members), were born to the Reverend and Mrs. Richard E. Brogdon Purnell. Under Purnell’s leadership, the AKA Sorority, Inc. opened its first National Program Office in Washington, D.C. Purnell’s administration also secured a $4 million contract to operate the first federal Job Corps Center for women.

Purnell completed her B.A. degree with honors with a major in psychology and a minor in education at Allen University in Columbia, South Carolina and went on to receive her M.A. degree in educational psychology from Atlanta University in 1942. Afterwards, she pursued advanced work at several other universities and earned her specialist teaching certificate in reading from Colorado State College of Education. Since then, Purnell has been the recipient of eight honorary degrees.

Purnell’s lifelong service to the AKA Sorority began with her initiation into the Beta Zeta Omega Chapter in Orangeburg, South Carolina. She fulfilled many leadership roles in her home chapter, including Chapter President, Vice President, Parliamentarian, advisor to the Undergraduate chapter and Recording Secretary. She also served as the South Eastern Regional Director.

Purnell was elected as the 16th International President of the Sorority in 1962 at the Sorority’s national convention in Detroit, Michigan, succeeding Marjorie H. Parker in office. One of her first challenges as president was the implementation of the recommended changes outlined by the Sorority’s Study Commission Report. The result was the creation of new manuals and handbooks that continue to influence the Sorority’s structure and operation. Other highlights of Purnell’s term included obtaining a multi-million dollar contract for the establishment of a Residential Job Corps Center for Women in Cleveland, Ohio. She played a significant role in the effort for civil rights as a participant at the invitation of President Kennedy in the “White House Conference of Three Hundred Women,” and in 1964, she mustered national support for the passage of the Civil Rights Act. Under Purnell’s leadership, a program office was set-up in Washington, D.C.; the second chapter of the Sorority was established outside of the United States in Nassau, Bahamas, and in 1965, she convened the first Undergraduate Leadership School held in Zion, Illinois.

Purnell is a well-respected professor, having spent more than two decades at Southern University in Baton Rouge before her retirement in 1986.

Purnell has long been dedicated to community service and launched, with her late sister Christine, a Service Center at Bethel A.M.E. Church. As a member of the AKA Sorority and the Links, Inc., she holds the distinction of being the only African American female to have been president of both organizations. She is also a life member of the National Council of Negro Women and the NAACP. She has further served her community through the Baton Rouge YWCA, Women in Politics, the League of Women Voters, The Blundon Home for Orphans, the local Girl Scouts’ Executive Board and the Steering Committee of the Status of Women in Louisiana.

Purnell is the widow of Clifton A. Purnell, Sr., long-time athletic director at Capitol Senior High School in Baton Rouge, she has one son, Clifton, Jr. and two grandchildren. She continues to live in Baton Rouge, Louisiana where she has been honored by several local and national organizations including the Women’s Greater Council of Baton Rouge.

Purnell was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on March 28, 2008 as part of the Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority’s Centennial Boulé 2008 celebration. Segments of these interviews were used in a DVD entitled A.K.A. Sorority: A Legacy of Supreme Service.

Accession Number

A2008.066

Sex

Female

Interview Date

3/28/2008

Last Name

Purnell

Maker Category
Schools

Howard High School

Allen University

University of Michigan

Clark Atlanta University

Waverly Elementary School

First Name

Julia

Birth City, State, Country

Belton

HM ID

PUR03

Favorite Season

Fall

Sponsor

Alpha Kappa Alpha

State

South Carolina

Favorite Vacation Destination

None

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Louisiana

Birth Date

3/19/1916

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Baton Rouge

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Fish

Death Date

10/21/2013

Short Description

Association chief executive and education professor Julia Purnell (1916 - 2013 ) was the sixteen president of Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Inc. Purnell was also the president of The Links, Inc., and served as a Southern University professor for two decades.

Employment

Southern University

Morris College

Colored Normal, Industrial, Agricultural and Mechanical College of South Carolina

Main Sponsor
Main Sponsor URL
Favorite Color

Black

DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Julia Purnell's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Julia Purnell recalls becoming the supreme basileus of Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Inc.

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Julia Purnell talks about her leadership of Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Inc., pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Julia Purnell talks about her leadership of Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Inc., pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Julia Purnell describes the legacy of Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Inc., pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Julia Purnell describes the legacy of Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Inc., pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Julia Purnell lists her favorites

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Julia Purnell describes her mother's family background

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Julia Purnell describes her mother

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Julia Purnell describes her father's family background

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Julia Purnell talks about her father's education

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Julia Purnell describes her parents' personalities

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Julia Purnell lists her sisters

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Julia Purnell describes her home life

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Julia Purnell describes racial discrimination in South Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Julia Purnell remembers her early education

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Julia Purnell remembers her elementary school education

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Julia Purnell describes lessons from her father

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Julia Purnell remembers Howard High School in Georgetown, South Carolina, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Julia Purnell remembers Howard High School in Georgetown, South Carolina, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Julia Purnell describes Allen University in Columbia, South Carolina

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Julia Purnell remembers early forms of entertainment

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Julia Purnell recalls experiencing color discrimination in Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Julia Purnell talks about color discrimination within the black community

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Julia Purnell remembers pledging Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Julia Purnell remembers Atlanta University in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Julia Purnell remembers W.E.B. Du Bois

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Julia Purnell talks about her Ph.D. dissertation

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Julia Purnell recalls the start of her career at Southern University in Baton Rouge, Louisiana

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Julia Purnell reflects upon her teaching career

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Julia Purnell remembers her experiences in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Julia Purnell describes her presidency of The Links, Incorporated

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Julia Purnell talks about her husband

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Julia Purnell describes her hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Julia Purnell reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Julia Purnell talks about her family

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Julia Purnell narrates her photographs

Maxine B. Mimms

Educational institution founder, Maxine Mimms was born on March 4, 1928, in Newport News, Virginia, to Isabella DeBerry Buie and Benson Ebenezer Buie. Influenced by her grandparents' love for Marcus Garvey and educational lectures by Howard Thurman and other black leaders at nearby Hampton University, Mimms attended Booker T. Washington School and graduated from Huntington High School with highest honors in 1946. She earned her B.A. degree from Virginia Union University in 1950. In the early 1950s, Mimms served as a social worker in Detroit, Michigan. There, she was married and would eventually earn her Ph.D. in educational administration from Union Graduate School.

Accompanying her husband to Seattle, Washington, in 1953, Mimms taught at Leschi Elementary School, where Jimi Hendrix was a student. In 1961, Mimms taught in Washington’s Kirkland Public Schools until working for the Seattle Public School Administration in 1964. In 1969, Mimms served as the assistant to the director of the Women’s Bureau in the United States Department of Labor. In 1972, Mimms returned to the education field, working as a faculty member at Evergreen State College. At Evergreen State College, Mimms focused on developing an educational program that would serve place-bound working adult students. Her focus on serving the educational needs of urban, African American adult learners combined with an interest in teaching inner-city adults, led to the founding principles of the Tacoma Campus. Mimms eventually became the first Director of the Tacoma Campus, where she used her position to help satisfy the African American community’s demand for adult education programs.

In 1982, the Evergreen-Tacoma campus was formally established under Mimms’s leadership. Mimms’s mission as Director of Evergreen-Tacoma was to increase the number of African Americans in Washington with degrees and improve the household value on education for the African American community. Mimms became a national consultant in curriculum design and instructional methods. In 1990, Mimms retired as Director of Evergreen-Tacoma and became an emeritus faculty member. In 2001, Mimms was awarded the first annual Sustainable Community Outstanding Leadership Award. Recently, Mimms founded the Maxine Mimms Academy, a non-profit organization in Tacoma’s Hilltop neighborhood established to serve youth expelled or suspended from public schools.

Accession Number

A2007.312

Sex

Female

Interview Date

10/29/2007 |and| 10/07/2017

Last Name

Mimms

Maker Category
Middle Name

B.

Organizations
Schools

Huntington High School

Booker T. Washington Middle School

First Name

Maxine

Birth City, State, Country

Newport News

HM ID

MIM01

State

Virginia

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Washington

Birth Date

3/4/1928

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Seattle

Country

United States

Short Description

Academic administrator and education professor Maxine B. Mimms (1928 - ) is the former dean of Evergreen College Tacoma campus. She founded the Maxine Mimms Academy, a non-profit organization in Tacoma’s Hilltop neighborhood established to serve youth expelled or suspended from public schools.

Vivian R. Johnson

Retired educator Vivian R. Johnson was born in Chicago, Illinois and grew up in Los Angeles, California where she graduated from Polytechnic High School in 1952 and entered the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA). In 1955, she became the first African American elected as a Women’s Representative on the Student Council. Influenced by the UCLA University Religious Conference (URC), Johnson was chosen to participate in the URC sponsored Project India in 1953 where she worked with Indian students to build a one-room school house in a village near Calcutta, India. Following receipt of her B.A. degree in English/Speech from UCLA in 1956 and a year of graduate studies, she traveled to the East Coast with her husband, Willard R. Johnson. For four years, she served as a scholarship assistant placing students from newly independent African nations in American universities for the Africa-American Institute in Washington, D.C. and Harvard University’s African Scholarship Program of American Universities.

From 1968 to 1972, Johnson served as a social studies curriculum writer for the Newton Massachusetts Public Schools. In Boston, Massachusetts, she founded a resource center on African American culture and directed Reading is Yours to Keep, Inc. from 1973 to 1978 in which parents were trained to tutor students. In 1974, she received the Certificate of Advanced Study and in 1975 the Doctorate in Education in Administration, Planning and Social Policy from the Harvard Graduate School of Education.

From 1976 to 1980, Johnson served as a consultant to a number of educational institutions including multicultural film evaluation for WGBH Boston, curriculum development for University of Nairobi and Kenyatta University College and school-staff development for Boston University’s African Studies Outreach Program. After serving as Co-Coordinator of the Collaborative Planning Study for the College and University Planning Program with the Boston Public Schools, in 1980, Johnson began a six-year tenure as the Campus Coordinator for Boston University School of Medicine’s Strengthening Health Delivery Systems Program operating in twenty countries in central and west Africa.

In 1987, Johnson was a Scholar in Residence at the Rockefeller Foundation Bellagio Center in Bellagio, Italy, where she completed the book West African governments and volunteer development organizations : priorities for partnership, co-authored with her husband. In 1989, she joined the faculty at Boston University’s School of Education as an Associate Clinical Professor in the Department of Administration, Training and Policy Studies. During her time at Boston University, Johnson received the prestigious Fulbright Summer Seminar Award to study multicultural education in Indonesia.

After retiring from Boston University as Associate Professor Emerita in 2003, Johnson’s work in her specialties continued. In 2005, she joined her colleagues in teaching a summer course in Geneva, Switzerland, and she co-authored a book on family, school and community partnership in education published in 2007.

Throughout her career, Johnson has been involved with numerous civic organizations including serving on the Board of Directors of the Trust for Public Land, National Audubon Society, Oxfam America and the National Center of Afro-American Artists.

Vivian R. Johnson was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on September 13, 2007.

Accession Number

A2007.260

Sex

Female

Interview Date

9/13/2007 |and| 10/11/2012

Last Name

Johnson

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Occupation
Schools

Polytechnic High School

Ralph F. Wilson Elementary School

Betsy Ross Elementary School

University of California, Los Angeles

Harvard Graduate School of Education

First Name

Vivian

Birth City, State, Country

Chicago

HM ID

JOH32

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Illinois

Favorite Vacation Destination

Africa, Mexico

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Massachusetts

Birth Date

7/24/1935

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Boston

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Mangoes

Short Description

Education professor Vivian R. Johnson (1935 - ) was a member of the faculty at Boston University’s School of Education as an associate clinical professor in the Department of Administration, Training, and Policy Studies.

Employment

Boston University. School of Education

Africa-America Institute

Harvard University African Scholarship Program of American Universities

Newton Massachusetts School District

Resource Center on African American Culture

Reading Is Yours To Keep, Inc.

WGBH TV

Kenyatta University College

University of Nairobi

Boston University. African Studies Outreach Program

Boston Public Schools

Boston University. School of Medicine

Rockefeller Foundation

Favorite Color

Purple

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Vivian R. Johnson's interview, session 1

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Vivian R. Johnson lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Vivian R. Johnson describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Vivian R. Johnson remembers researching her family history

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Vivian R. Johnson describes her maternal family's move to Muscogee, Oklahoma

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Vivian R. Johnson talks about her mother's upbringing

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Vivian R. Johnson describes her family's interest in African American history

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Vivian R. Johnson remembers reading African American newspapers

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Vivian R. Johnson describes her mother's experiences in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Vivian R. Johnson describes her father's family background, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Vivian R. Johnson describes her father's family background, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Vivian R. Johnson talks about her father's career

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Vivian R. Johnson describes her earliest childhood memory

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Vivian R. Johnson recalls how her mother and stepfather met

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Vivian R. Johnson remembers moving to Los Angeles, California

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Vivian R. Johnson describes the sights, sounds and smells of her childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Vivian R. Johnson recalls the Trinity Baptist Church in Los Angeles, California

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Vivian R. Johnson describes the segregation of schools in the South

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Vivian R. Johnson recalls her maternal grandfather's role in the Universal Negro Improvement Association

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Vivian R. Johnson describes her elementary school experiences

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Vivian R. Johnson remembers Birdielee V. Bright

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Vivian R. Johnson recalls her aspirations to become a teacher

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Vivian R. Johnson describes her early interest in reading

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Vivian R. Johnson recalls her interest in theater

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Vivian R. Johnson describes the neighborhood of West Los Angeles

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Vivian R. Johnson remembers John H. Francis Polytechnic High School in Los Angeles, California

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Vivian R. Johnson recalls joining the debate team

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Vivian R. Johnson describes her involvement with the debate team

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Vivian R. Johnson remembers her prom dress

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Vivian R. Johnson recalls graduating from John H. Francis Polytechnic High School

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Vivian R. Johnson talks about her brother, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Vivian R. Johnson talks about her brother, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Vivian R. Johnson recalls the Stevens House at the University of California, Los Angeles

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Vivian R. Johnson recalls the Panel of Americans at the University of California, Los Angeles

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Vivian R. Johnson remembers Project India, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Vivian R. Johnson remembers Project India, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Vivian R. Johnson recalls her experiences in Paris, France

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Vivian R. Johnson describes her first impressions of India

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Vivian R. Johnson remembers Adeline Gunther

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Vivian R. Johnson remembers Lillian Granderson

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Vivian R. Johnson recalls assisting a student from Malawi

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Vivian R. Johnson recalls learning about colonial independence movements

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Vivian R. Johnson describes the poverty in India

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Slating of Vivian R. Johnson's interview, session 2

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Vivian R. Johnson recalls returning to the University of California, Los Angeles

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Vivian R. Johnson remembers marrying Willard Johnson

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Vivian R. Johnson describes her mentors at the University of California, Los Angeles

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Vivian R. Johnson describes her early career in Boston, Massachusetts

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Vivian R. Johnson recalls working with the Circle Associates

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Vivian R. Johnson remembers her interest in African American history

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Vivian R. Johnson talks about her husband's early career

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Vivian R. Johnson describes the Circle Associates' resource center

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - Vivian R. Johnson recalls the desegregation of Boston Public Schools, pt. 1

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Vivian R. Johnson recalls the desegregation of Boston Public Schools, pt. 2

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Vivian R. Johnson recalls the success of Reading is Yours to Keep

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Vivian R. Johnson explains her challenges with the Boston Public Schools

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Vivian R. Johnson recalls coordinating an international public health program, pt. 1

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Vivian R. Johnson recalls coordinating an international public health program, pt. 2

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Vivian R. Johnson remembers studying international development organizations

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Vivian R. Johnson talks about the American Museum of Negro History in Boston, Massachusetts

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Vivian R. Johnson remembers Sue Bailey Thurman

Tape: 7 Story: 9 - Vivian R. Johnson describes her interest in Boston's African American history

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Vivian R. Johnson talks about the Institute for Responsive Education

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Vivian R. Johnson remembers Dr. James Comer

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Vivian R. Johnson recalls teaching at Boston University in Boston, Massachusetts

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - Vivian R. Johnson remembers training teachers in Portugal

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - Vivian R. Johnson recalls conducting education research abroad

Tape: 8 Story: 6 - Vivian R. Johnson describes her experiences abroad

Tape: 8 Story: 7 - Vivian R. Johnson describes her success as a teacher trainer

Tape: 8 Story: 8 - Vivian R. Johnson describes the Trust for Public Land

Tape: 9 Story: 1 - Vivian R. Johnson talks about Tremont Crossing, pt. 1

Tape: 9 Story: 2 - Vivian R. Johnson talks about Tremont Crossing, pt. 2

Tape: 9 Story: 3 - Vivian R. Johnson talks about her work with international students

Tape: 9 Story: 4 - Vivian R. Johnson recalls her retirement from Boston University

Tape: 9 Story: 5 - Vivian R. Johnson describes her collaborations with WBGH-TV

Tape: 9 Story: 6 - Vivian R. Johnson talks about her book, 'Beyond the Bake Sale'

Tape: 9 Story: 7 - Vivian R. Johnson talks about the Young People's Project

Tape: 9 Story: 8 - Vivian R. Johnson describes the Association for the Study of African American Life and History

Tape: 9 Story: 9 - Vivian R. Johnson describes her concerns for the African American community

Tape: 9 Story: 10 - Vivian R. Johnson talks about her older daughter

Tape: 9 Story: 11 - Vivian R. Johnson talks about her younger daughter

Tape: 10 Story: 1 - Vivian R. Johnson reflects upon her life

Tape: 10 Story: 2 - Vivian R. Johnson talks about her daughters' international travels

Tape: 10 Story: 3 - Vivian R. Johnson describes how she would like to be remembered

DASession

1$2

DATape

3$7

DAStory

1$4

DATitle
Vivian R. Johnson remembers Birdielee V. Bright
Vivian R. Johnson recalls coordinating an international public health program, pt. 1
Transcript
Yeah, we were talking about Miss Bright's [Birdielee V. Bright] class and--$$Yes, the marvels of Miss Bright's class. Miss Bright not only insisted that you be helpful to others, but she provided all the support each of us needed; everything, anything she could do to make certain that you learned, was done, and Miss Bright taught us the skills that we have carried throughout our lives in, in a number of areas; let me give one example. There was no library in our local elementary school [36th Street School; Birdielee V. Bright Elementary School, Los Angeles, California], and so we were lined up and walked to the public library that was, I would estimate, let's call it, six or seven blocks from our school. Before going to the public library, we had a library skills class that I (laughter), I have drawn on forever because Miss Bright not only taught us the Dewey Decimal System [Dewey Decimal Classification] and what it was and why it was, but she helped us to imagine interest that we didn't already have; we knew that we had specific goals for that library visit, but she would then let us think about, or influence us to think about, the Dewey Decimal System as a way of imagining all of the knowledge that you can examine in the world, and so therefore, her ability to capture your imagination and to take you inside yourself in a way that you could dream and reach was just extraordinary. She did that also about our little garden in the back of the school; that was one of our science projects. And so you were encouraged to learn about how things grow in terms of growth--your own growth, the growth of cities, changes in environments, so when I think about climate change now, I smile and I think about how Miss Bright would teach about climate change because everything she taught was done in this context of you and your development, and your development was connected always to the development of your family and your community, and your community was the world. So she was just an extraordinary (laughter) human being, gifted in all kinds of ways--gifted instructionally, and I'm an educator and I know how important that is--but gifted motivationally so that she could literally inspire on a daily basis, and she did. She was also a no-nonsense person. You did not, quote, waste time in Miss Bright's class, and she said the reason that you don't waste time is that it is yours, and you don't waste what you have. These are things (laughter) that we learned, as I said, in the fourth--and of course we were terrified of her--terrified. We--I, I would visit her later on in Los Angeles [California], and I would tell her how terrified we were, and she said, "I would see you sitting there, all of you, quaking, and I thought, all right, now I've gotten their attention" (laughter). So she had a marvelous sense of humor, she knew what she was doing, and she did it very well.$$Now, did she use corporal punishment where they--$$Occasionally, I think she did. I think she rapped on some knuckles, but she was not a--an abusive human being in any way, shape or form; abuse was not what she was about. What she was about was development of the human spirit, development of specific skills, learning in the traditional sense, and learning beyond the school house.$Nineteen eighty [1980] you started--$$In 1980, I was asked by Dr. David French [David M. French] at the Boston University School of Medicine [Boston, Massachusetts] to become his campus coordinator, the backup person at Boston University, because he was conducting a primary health care training program in twenty countries in West Africa, and he needed someone who would run the office at Boston University because he had his office established in Abidjan in Cote d'Ivoire, Ivory Coast, and he needed to have a coordinator who would take care of all of the administration of that program back at Boston University. I began doing that in 1980 and continued until the program ended in 1986, and it was really a challenging and very interesting experience. The program required that nurses be given additional training, and those nurses were brought to the United States, and if they were English-speaking, they went to the Boston University School of Nursing [Boston, Massachusetts]; if they were French-speaking, and many of them were--incidentally, there were fifteen francophone countries and five Anglophone countries--they went to Montreal [Canada]. So I was in fact paying the expenses--all of the, the fees and, and all of the expenses for nurses in two universities for six years, and those nurses received their training, went back to their countries, and were then able to open clinics in other parts--more--in remote parts of the country. They had come from the urban hospital centers, and now they were trained to work in the remote areas. The program was very successful; it had been requested, incidentally, by the twenty ministers of health of those countries, and it was requested of World Health Organization who in turn requested funding from our state department--from the U.S. state department [U.S. Department of State]. So the program had, in that sense, many people who were interested in and enthusiastic about it, and what David wanted was someone who would report to most of those actors so that he could get on with the program, and that's what I did for six years. I also got all of the equipment out to the field because the U.S. Congress requires that we buy American equipment; also that we fly over the Atlantic [Atlantic Ocean] and Pacific [Pacific Ocean] on American-owned carriers, so that all of the arrangements for travel, the arrangements for vehicles, the arrangements for computers had to be made in this country and all those things shipped to Abidjan. I went to Abidjan about once every three months, and literally connected the office in Abidjan, including office management and benefits, with Boston University; it was a very complex and unusual arrangement.$$So this is, this is every, every three months for six years.$$That's right.$$And--now, you were telling me you had, you had to deal with about twelve boxes of (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) That's right; I had to take--$$--papers.$$That's right. I had to take office equipment material--remember, this is the Boston University, so it's gotta have Boston University stationery; it is a Boston (laughter) University office in Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire. So, in order to make that office act like a Boston University office, with all of its procedures and regulations and so on, we took materials--I took materials actually on the plane, flying from Boston [Massachusetts] through Paris [France] and, and then to Abidjan, and I took about ten or a dozen boxes with me every time. And the miracle is that in six years, I never lost a box--not even delayed.

Elizabeth B. Rawlins

Elizabeth B. Rawlins, dean and professor emeritus at Simmons College in Boston, Massachusetts, was recognized for her effective and tireless dedication to numerous educational and community organizations in Boston, across private and public higher education in Massachusetts, over a fifty-year period. Born on November 25, 1927, in Cambridge, Massachusetts, Rawlins attended the local public schools and graduated from Cambridge High and Latin School in 1944.

After high school, Rawlins attended Salem State Teachers College, where she earned her B.S. degree in education in 1950; from there she became an elementary school teacher in urban and suburban public schools, and in private schools in Massachusetts. From 1953 to 1954, Rawlins taught at Narimasu Elementary School in Tokyo, Japan. After earning her master’s degree in urban education from Simmons College in 1967, Rawlins left elementary school teaching and began working as a lecturer at Simmons, where she was an associate professor by 1976. From 1979 to 1992, Rawlins served as the associate dean of the Human Services Program; she became a professor of education in 1991, the same year that she received her Ed.D. degree from the University of Massachusetts at Amherst.

For ten years, Rawlins served as chairperson of the Salem State College board of trustees; she also served as a board member of the Massachusetts Board of Higher Education, and a member of the Simmons College Corporation. Rawlins also served as president of the Massachusetts Association of Mental Health; between 1982 and 1988, she served on the Education Commission of the States.

During her long career at Simmons, Rawlins often addressed racially sensitive issues; the establishment of the Elizabeth B. Rawlins Scholarship Fund at Simmons, and the Salem State College Rawlins Oratorical Contest are testaments to her leadership and contributions to higher education in Massachusetts, and the respect she earned in the process.

After her retirement in 1992, Rawlins served on the advisory council to the Martha’s Vineyard Regional High School on the island of Martha’s Vineyard, and as the vice president of the Martha’s Vineyard branch of the Association for the Study of African American Life and History.

Accession Number

A2005.146

Sex

Female

Interview Date

6/22/2005

Last Name

Rawlins

Maker Category
Middle Name

B.

Schools

Cambridge Rindge and Latin School

Martin Luther King Jr. School

Salem State University

University of Massachusetts Amherst

First Name

Elizabeth

Birth City, State, Country

Cambridge

HM ID

RAW02

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Massachusetts

Favorite Vacation Destination

Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Massachusetts

Birth Date

11/25/1927

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Martha's Vineyard

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Ice Cream

Short Description

Academic administrator, education professor, and elementary school teacher Elizabeth B. Rawlins (1927 - ) served as the associate dean of the Human Services Program and a professor of education at Simmons College.

Employment

Raytheon

Buckingham School

Simmons College

Favorite Color

Yellow

Timing Pairs
303,0:2121,26:2525,31:6670,147:9394,164:9961,172:10609,182:11014,189:13444,226:13849,232:18857,292:19302,298:22417,365:23574,406:23930,411:28647,495:29092,501:32029,536:35920,543:37180,575:42080,678:42640,689:44040,719:48114,825:49542,846:54050,887:54530,895:55490,902:55970,909:56610,919:57090,926:59670,934:60186,941:61648,963:62164,970:62680,977:63110,983:64486,1010:65518,1030:65948,1036:69434,1058:69770,1063:72962,1112:78236,1156:88870,1270:90520,1294:92245,1321:99910,1393:105171,1464:106194,1481:106845,1490:107217,1495:107682,1501:112454,1544:113310,1555:113845,1561:120005,1664:121997,1698:125275,1713:125905,1721:133941,1803:134487,1810:135033,1817:146788,1976:147292,1985:147652,1992:148156,2000:150470,2013:151631,2025:153490,2031:156064,2055:156449,2061:159290,2077:159770,2086:160670,2107:161510,2124:164000,2138:169630,2201$0,0:880,13:2376,32:4136,56:5016,67:9856,133:14256,226:14872,237:22380,265:26890,299:27210,304:27610,310:28650,325:28970,330:29450,337:29770,342:30890,361:31290,368:31930,380:32570,389:35930,449:37930,485:38730,490:39370,495:39850,502:41530,568:47290,688:48250,708:48970,718:53632,733:57434,759:58730,779:59621,793:63185,873:64157,903:67154,957:67802,966:68126,971:68774,981:70232,1012:74760,1029:75210,1035:77820,1084:79170,1107:80610,1126:81510,1139:85650,1194:88620,1227:89160,1234:89610,1241:89970,1246:93120,1320:105772,1416:107030,1436:107844,1456:109990,1505:110804,1521:111470,1535:117030,1570:119920,1613:122912,1628:126481,1691:128970,1709:129266,1714:130746,1739:131856,1756:134780,1768:135220,1774:135924,1783:136364,1789:146960,1925:148347,1952:148858,1960:149515,1975:151048,2002:151778,2015:154041,2063:154479,2070:158202,2151:161730,2161
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Elizabeth B. Rawlins' interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Elizabeth B. Rawlins lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Elizabeth B. Rawlins describes her mother

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Elizabeth B. Rawlins describes her maternal grandmother's family

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Elizabeth B. Rawlins recalls being raised by her grandmother in Cambridge, Massachusetts

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Elizabeth B. Rawlins describes her maternal grandmother

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Elizabeth B. Rawlins describes her community in Cambridge, Massachusetts

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Elizabeth B. Rawlins describes her father's side of the family

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Elizabeth B. Rawlins details her maternal ancestry

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Elizabeth B. Rawlins describes her siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Elizabeth B. Rawlins describes her relationship with her younger brother

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Elizabeth B. Rawlins describes the sights, sounds and smells of growing up

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Elizabeth B. Rawlins describes her earliest childhood memory

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Elizabeth B. Rawlins describes her time at Cambridge's Houghton School

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Elizabeth B. Rawlins recalls being dissuaded from a teaching career

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Elizabeth B. Rawlins describes her educational experience in Cambridge

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Elizabeth B. Rawlins describes her time at Cambridge High and Latin School, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Elizabeth B. Rawlins describes her time at Cambridge High and Latin School, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Elizabeth B. Rawlins recalls working for Raytheon in Watertown, Massachusetts

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Elizabeth B. Rawlins describes her first year at Salem Teachers College

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Elizabeth B. Rawlins describes her financial challenges as a college student

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Elizabeth B. Rawlins describes her early teaching career

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Elizabeth B. Rawlins recalls teaching at Cambridge's Buckingham School

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Elizabeth B. Rawlins describes applying to teach in Japan

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Elizabeth B. Rawlins describes her relationship with her husband, Keith W. Rawlins, Jr.

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Elizabeth B. Rawlins describes her teaching experience in Tokyo, Japan

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Elizabeth B. Rawlins describes the teaching careers of Boston-area African Americans

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Elizabeth B. Rawlins describes her children

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Elizabeth B. Rawlins talks about her children and grandchildren

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Elizabeth B. Rawlins recalls becoming a lecturer at Boston's Simmons College

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Elizabeth B. Rawlins recalls her teaching experience at Simmons College, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Elizabeth B. Rawlins recalls her teaching experience at Simmons College, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Elizabeth B. Rawlins recalls becoming associate dean at Simmons College

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Elizabeth B. Rawlins describes her role as associate dean at Simmons College

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Elizabeth B. Rawlins recalls Salem State College establishing a graduate social work program

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Elizabeth B. Rawlins describes serving on the Massachusetts Board of Regents of Higher Education, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Elizabeth B. Rawlins describes serving on the Massachusetts Board of Regents of Higher Education, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Elizabeth B. Rawlins describes chairing Salem State College's board of trustees

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Elizabeth B. Rawlins describes Simmons College's involvement in school desegregation

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Elizabeth B. Rawlins remembers students from her tenure at Simmons College

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Elizabeth B. Rawlins describes leading black alumni symposia at Simmons College, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Elizabeth B. Rawlins describes leading black alumni symposia at Simmons College, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Elizabeth B. Rawlins reflects upon her life, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Elizabeth B. Rawlins reflects upon sharing her story

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Elizabeth B. Rawlins reflects upon her life, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Elizabeth B. Rawlins describes her hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Elizabeth B. Rawlins describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Elizabeth B. Rawlins describes organizations she belongs to on Martha's Vineyard

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Elizabeth B. Rawlins narrates her photographs, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Elizabeth B. Rawlins narrates her photographs, pt. 2

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$4

DAStory

5$1

DATitle
Elizabeth B. Rawlins recalls being dissuaded from a teaching career
Elizabeth B. Rawlins recalls her teaching experience at Simmons College, pt. 1
Transcript
When I got ready to go to high school [Cambridge High and Latin School; Cambridge Rindge and Latin School, Cambridge, Massachusetts] and choose my program, I chose college because I knew I wanted to be a teacher. I--I didn't think about what it cost or how I was gonna pay for it. I didn't think about that, I just knew that's what I wanted to do. My [maternal] grandmother [Grace Hawkins Williams], by this time, was about eighty-two or three years old, you know. And she'd had a couple of heart attacks, but she was really a very strong woman. She didn't pay a lot of attention to what the doctor said, so she was up on her feet sooner than she should have been. And so when I got ready to go, the eighth grade teacher [at Houghton School; Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. School, Cambridge, Massachusetts] I had, who was also the principal's assistant, looked at what I'd chosen and told me that I really needed to choose another course because they were not really hiring black teachers, she said colored teachers then and I would want to get a job. I will never ever forget it. And when I talked with my grandmother about it, she said you know, "I just can't fight, I can't go up tho- I can't climb those stairs. Maybe if you take," what did she tell me, "take something with typing," this is the secretary, "so you'll be able to get this job if you're not able to teach." And I was distressed, but I did it. That's the way kids did then, you know. My minister who had heard me talk about wanting to teach since I've been that high during the first term said to me, "How you doing," you know, and that sort of thing. And I said, "Well, I'm not in the program I want," and told him the story. And he wrote a letter to the dean of--of students and the next day I was in what they called the normal course because this--we were on the fringes then in the '40s [1940s] of normal school and college. So that the on--thing that I missed taking was Latin. Everything else was like a college course. And that was my first racial experience. The first time I ran into somebody saying I couldn't do something on the basis of race that I recognized anyway. It turned out okay because I did it.$How was that transition for you leaving the teaching in elementary school and becoming a instructor--teacher at a place like Simmons College [Boston, Massachusetts]? How was that--how did that transition feel?$$It was scary, really. I remember it as--Erma Brooks asked me, you know, she--she said what we're asking here is what you've been doing for, at that point, thirteen or fourteen years. I had taught several of the grades. I had run some workshops. I, you know, I had done like with Circle Associates [Circle Inc., Boston, Massachusetts] and all of that. Said that's what we need, that's what the students are asking for that kind of experience. So, you know, te--teach the course in Nature of Classroom Teaching. And frankly I thought well it would be convenient because of my daughter [Pattie Rawlins] and her age and so forth. So I approached one of the faculty in the ed [education] department and said to her, "Lydia [ph.], I don't see anywhere that teachers, professors have been taught to teach and so how about some hints for me." She said, "You're right, we haven't been taught to teach, but--so you have all the skills and knowledge and pedagogy and so forth, and we just have the information and we should make a good team." So I taught thinking the way I did teaching elementary and junior high kids, that you gotta have a plan. You have to know what you're gonna teach. You gotta do something to engage them. And that was always the way. And--and that you have to think about the whole person. So I approached it in that way. And as long as I was doing the urban teacher prep program, I was really fine. But then, when these black students who began to come and saw that they were not in the material anywhere, wanted somebody to teach thinking about that and approached me. (Laughter) I thought I was--might be getting a little above my head, but what I did was to ask them to help me plan what it was they were talking about. That's because that's not been my experience. What you wa- I know what it is you want, but it hasn't been my experience so I need you to be engaged in this, and they were, they were wonderful.

Percy Bates

Educational psychologist Percy Bates was born July 8, 1932 in Pensacola, Florida. Raised by his mother, Gladys Travis Bates, he attended Spencer Bibbs Elementary School and Booker T. Washington High School. After moving to Detroit, Bates ran track and played football at Hamtramack High School, and he graduated from there in 1950. Entering the United States Army in 1952, Bates served at Fort Bliss in El Paso, Texas, where he sang with fellow soldier and pianist Earl Grant. After earning his B.S. degree in biology from Central Michigan University in 1958, Bates received his M.A. in vocational rehabilitation in 1961 from Wayne State University and his Ph.D. in educational psychology from the University of Michigan in 1968.

In 1968, during a strike of black students demanding black faculty at the University of Michigan, Bates was promoted to assistant professor of education. At the University of Michigan’s School of Education, Bates served as assistant division director of curriculum, teaching and psychological studies and as director of programs for educational opportunity. He later became deputy assistant secretary of special education in the United States Department of Education.

Bates is a member of the Board in Control of Intercollegiate Athletics at the University of Michigan. He is also very active in University of Michigan’s Student Athlete Advisory Committee. A founding board member and former chairman of the Higher Education Commission of the National Alliance of Black School Educators, Bates has received numerous awards. Bates lives in Ann Arbor with his wife Cheryl.

Accession Number

A2005.020

Sex

Male

Interview Date

1/19/2005

Last Name

Bates

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Occupation
Schools

Booker T. Washington High School

Spencer Bibbs Elementary School

Spencer Bibbs Academy

Hamtramck High School

Central Michigan University

Wayne State University

University of Michigan

Speakers Bureau

No

First Name

Percy

Birth City, State, Country

Pensacola

HM ID

BAT06

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Florida

Favorite Vacation Destination

None

Favorite Quote

You Bet.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Michigan

Birth Date

7/8/1932

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Detroit

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Banana Cream Pie

Short Description

Education professor Percy Bates (1932 - ) served as assistant division director of curriculum, teaching and psychological studies and as director of programs for educational opportunity at the University of Michigan’s School of Education. Bates was also a member of the Board in Control of Intercollegiate Athletics at the University of Michigan, and has served in the United States Department of Education.

Employment

University of Michigan

U.S. Department of Education

Boys Training School

Ypsilanti Public Schools, Program in Educable Mentally Impaired

Detroit Public Schools

Favorite Color

Green

Timing Pairs
0,0:395,5:892,14:5933,146:7140,183:11536,196:18489,247:19233,252:19698,258:22674,294:23232,305:23976,315:26774,331:28654,362:30158,379:34840,438:35148,443:38004,472:41720,505:42195,515:42955,525:43335,530:47705,618:53718,671:56094,765:56710,775:57326,789:59614,850:101673,1406:106603,1443:113250,1559$0,0:1513,41:7757,111:12716,216:20140,281:37970,509:38270,514:38570,519:41120,573:44237,585:70492,1008:73433,1049:73921,1059:74226,1065:74836,1078:75080,1083:75324,1088:78552,1121:83558,1174:85799,1196:86629,1208:90615,1231:90945,1238:91220,1245:91660,1255:92155,1265:94124,1287:97015,1313:97555,1318:99040,1334:102844,1350:103676,1360:104612,1370:110272,1448:110674,1461:122150,1653:123340,1671:128456,1686:129286,1698:129618,1704:129950,1709:130282,1714:131112,1726:141254,1926:141622,1931:141990,1936:142450,1942:143738,1961:144382,1969:145118,1978:146130,1983
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Percy Bates' interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Percy Bates lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Percy Bates describes his maternal family history

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Percy Bates talks about his mother

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Percy Bates describes his paternal family history, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Percy Bates describes his paternal family history, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Percy Bates talks about his father

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Percy Bates describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Percy Bates describes the sights, sounds, and smells of his childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Percy Bates talks about his childhood in Pensacola

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Percy Bates describes church and the music of his childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Percy Bates describes Spencer Bibbs Elementary School

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Percy Bates describes his experience in segregated schools and reflects on the pitfalls of school integration

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Percy Bates remembers being well-behaved in school from a young age

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Percy Bates talks about moving to Detroit, Michigan

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Percy Bates describes his neighborhood in Detroit

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Percy Bates talks about his activities at Hamtramck High School, Hamtramck, Michigan

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Percy Bates recalls an English teacher who cared about him

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Percy Bates talks about expectations around college

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Percy Bates talks about his job in the U.S. Army base in El Paso, Texas

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Percy Bates describes starting college

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Percy Bates remembers his friendship with musician Earl Grant

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Percy Bates describes his short-lived singing career

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Percy Bates remembers becoming an A student at Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, Michigan

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Percy Bates remembers the support of Bernard Meltzer

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Percy Bates describes his decision to get a PhD in psychology

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Percy Bates talks about receiving support from his mother, Gladys Travis Bates

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Percy Bates talks about his Ph.D. dissertation on motivation, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Percy Bates talks about his Ph.D. dissertation on motivation, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Percy Bates talks about the ways black people have been socially conditioned

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Percy Bates talks about the importance of questioning assumptions in learning

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Percy Bates describes his career path from the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, Michigan to U.S. Department of Education

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Percy Bates describes the demands of the Black Action Movement at University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Percy Bates describes the peaceful Black Action Movement negotiations at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Percy Bates talks about his position for the U.S. Department of Education

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Percy Bates describes his position as NCAA representative from the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Percy Bates talks about the difficult choices of student athletes

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Percy Bates describes the financial situation of college athletes

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Percy Bates describes his concerns for the African American community

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Percy Bates talks about his disagreement with Bill Cosby's remarks

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Percy Bates reflects upon his life

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Percy Bates talks about being the longest serving African American faculty member at University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Percy Bates reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 11 - Percy Bates talks about affirmative action at University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan

Tape: 5 Story: 12 - Percy Bates talks about his family

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Percy Bates describes how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Percy Bates narrates his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$4

DAStory

6$5

DATitle
Percy Bates remembers his friendship with musician Earl Grant
Percy Bates describes his career path from the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, Michigan to U.S. Department of Education
Transcript
What kinds of things would you sing? Now these are--you would go in popular venues and you're singing popular songs?$$Popular songs. I actually when I got, when I was in the [U.S.] Army I met a young man who was a musician named Earl Grant, and Earl later became reasonably famous. But Earl played the piano and organ and so he would accompany me and then we would sing duets together and so forth. When I got out of the [U.S.] Army, Earl said that his sister owned a club in Missouri some place, and that if I wanted to come there he could get me a job and I could go. I said well actually I think I wanna go to college, and I'm not sure I wanna do this. And so I came to Central Michigan [College; Central Michigan University] in Mount Pleasant [Michigan], Earl went home, and the next thing I knew Earl was on ['The] Ed Sullivan [Show'] and then he had a couple of hit records there--$$He had a couple. I'm trying to think of his big hits, but he was big in the '50s [1950s].$$He did, he, he--I remember he had one called the number 64 [sic. 54], the house, the house with the bamboo floor [sic. 'House of Bamboo']. I've forgotten the name of the, all of the song. He did, he did quite well for himself--$$Earl Grant was very (simultaneous)--$$--(simultaneous) and then he was killed in an automobile accident. He--it was ironic because when I was in the Army I used to kid him about his, his driving and then he actually stopped driving and got himself a driver and was driving to a gig somewhere and ran off the road and he was, he was killed--$Well tell me about your career now when, when you, now after you got your Ph.D. what did you, where did you go next with your career?$$I was, I got my Ph.D. at the University of Michigan [Ann Arbor, Michigan] and at that time we had a rule that we didn't hire our own Ph.D.'s, but that was in 1968 we were right in the middle of a frantic search for minority persons. In fact, we had just had a student strike here on campus and I had been teaching while I was working on my degree, and the dean said didn't make much sense for him, for me to go someplace else while he's looking for minority professors.$$Let me put this in perspective a bit. This is like '68 [1968], this is right after the or just before the assassination of [Reverend] Dr. [Martin Luther] King [Jr.]. He was assassinated--$$Right.$$-in '68 [1968]. A lot of students are calling for reform on campus and black studies programs.$$Oh, we shut down the, the University of Michigan was shut down. It was called the BAM strike, the Black Action Movement, and the university both black and white students was shut down completely, and we had, they had placed ten demands on the table, one of which was to increase the minority faculty and students on campus and that's when I became an assistant professor here at the university. When I moved from that to I was a program head, I became an assistant dean with a couple of deans, in the end of the [President James Earl "Jimmy"] Carter [Jr.] administration I was appointed as a deputy assistant secretary in the U.S. Office of Education [U.S. Department of Education] and I took a leave of absence from the university and when I left that, then I came back here. In addition to that, I've been involved in athletics here on campus. I'm also the, what's called the faculty athletic representative for the university to the Big Ten [Conference] and the NCAA [National Collegiate Athletic Association]. So, I've been doing that now for about fifteen years as well.

The Honorable Mary T. Christian

Educator and politician Mary Taylor Christian was born on August 9, 1924 in Hampton, Virginia. Her mother was a homemaker and her father was a businessman. In 1941 she earned her high school diploma from Phenix High School in Hampton where she was a member of the National Honor Society, basketball, drama and debate teams. After graduation she married her high school sweetheart and by the time she was 19 she was a divorced mother of two.

While working in the laundry at Hampton University she began taking typing courses and eventually landed a secretarial job at the University. She was encouraged by her mentor to further her studies and earned her Bachelor of Science degree in education in 1955. From 1955 until 1960 she worked as a teacher at Hampton city schools. During the summers she attended Columbia University, where she earned her Masters degree in Speech and Drama in 1960. In 1968 she earned her PhD from Michigan State University while working as a professor at Hampton University. In 1968 Christian helped organize a voter registration drive at Hampton which resulted in more than a thousand people registering to vote.

In 1980 she was named the Dean of Hampton's school of education. Christian was the first African American to serve on the Hampton City School Board. She worked as a campaign manager for four political candidates and in 1985 decided to take the plunge into politics herself. In 1986 she was elected to the Virginia House of Delegates and became the first African American since reconstruction to represent the state's 92nd district, the city of Hampton.

Christian served seven terms in the Virginia General Assembly where she championed legislation on education, healthcare and prescription drugs. Christian was among three African Americans appointed to the powerful House Appropriations Committee. She also served on the Education and Rules Committees.

Christian, affectionately known by her thousands of students as "Dr. C" is professor emeritus at Hampton University. She is the recipient of numerous awards for her community and humanitarian service.

Accession Number

A2004.100

Sex

Female

Interview Date

7/20/2004

Last Name

Christian

Middle Name

T.

Organizations
Schools

Phenix High School

Union Elementary School

Hampton University

Columbia University

Michigan State University

First Name

Mary

Birth City, State, Country

Hampton

HM ID

CHR01

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Virginia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Jamaica

Favorite Quote

To God Be The Glory

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Virginia

Birth Date

8/9/1924

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Hampton

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Lamb Chops

Death Date

11/11/2019

Short Description

Education professor and state delegate The Honorable Mary T. Christian (1924 - ) was the first African American to serve on the Hampton City School Board. Christian was also elected to the Virginia House of Delegates to became the first African American since reconstruction to represent the city of Hampton.

Employment

Hampton City Schools

Hampton University

Hampton School Board

Virginia General Assembly

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:2295,70:2635,75:3315,84:6375,128:15370,190:17770,211:18170,216:21070,263:21670,271:44624,517:49683,571:51454,628:65391,885:65853,892:67316,916:78981,1023:80601,1055:82788,1094:83841,1111:84246,1117:84732,1124:104398,1311:108714,1421:125526,1555:133343,1610:139426,1693:146457,1808:147800,1834:148195,1840:153251,1927:153725,1935:154278,1943:155621,1961:155937,1966:165760,2026:167690,2053:168334,2062:191440,2409:192518,2427:194828,2468:195213,2474:202186,2506:205651,2585:206344,2601:207191,2615:207653,2622:207961,2627:221744,2821:223592,2860:224824,2885:266640,3396:270560,3466:270880,3471:271360,3479:272560,3513:272880,3518:283382,3740:313808,4137:319891,4267:332762,4388:333522,4400:336866,4463:337854,4479:338386,4487:344660,4556$0,0:2007,32:2504,40:4208,71:5628,95:8397,137:8752,143:19616,284:20255,294:21533,320:27710,429:28491,456:29982,486:31260,507:31828,517:34952,613:45157,719:74342,1120:76578,1156:99674,1507:102122,1580:109034,1714:109394,1720:116522,1844:116810,1904:117242,1911:126460,1986:130642,2051:138926,2169:141716,2200:145715,2256:153820,2290:160156,2363:160532,2368:165335,2436:167960,2506:177860,2749:178235,2756:185735,2941:192732,2974:200376,3106:213372,3319:215880,3379:216336,3386:220136,3509:230548,3653:230852,3658:233208,3697:244766,3791:253504,3893:256020,3957:267925,4094:275320,4169
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of The Honorable Mary T. Christian's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - The Honorable Mary T. Christian lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - The Honorable Mary T. Christian describes her mother

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - The Honorable Mary T. Christian describes her father's personality, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - The Honorable Mary T. Christian describes her father's personality, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - The Honorable Mary T. Christian recalls her father's storytelling

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - The Honorable Mary T. Christian recalls how her whole neighborhood in Hampton, Virginia helped make her homecoming queen outfit

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - The Honorable Mary T. Christian talks about her maternal and paternal family backgrounds

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - The Honorable Mary T. Christian describes her early school experiences and childhood insecurities

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - The Honorable Mary T. Christian lists her siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - The Honorable Mary T. Christian describes her childhood neighborhood on Lincoln Street in Hampton, Virginia

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - The Honorable Mary T. Christian describes the sights, sounds and smells of her childhood in Hampton, Virginia

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - The Honorable Mary T. Christian describes her childhood aspirations and experiences at Union Elementary School in Hampton, Virginia

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - The Honorable Mary T. Christian talks about being raised in the church

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - The Honorable Mary T. Christian describes her experience attending George P. Phenix High School in Hampton, Virginia

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - The Honorable Mary T. Christian talks about becoming a young mother and working at Hampton Institute after graduating from Phenix High School

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - The Honorable Mary T. Christian recalls learning about racism for the first time

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - The Honorable Mary T. Christian explains how she completed her undergraduate degree at Hampton Institute in Hampton, Virginia

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - The Honorable Mary T. Christian reflects upon being a single mother in the segregated African American communities in the 1940s and 1950s

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - The Honorable Mary T. Christian recalls teaching at Aberdeen Elementary School in Hampton, Virginia before attending Columbia University

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - The Honorable Mary T. Christian describes her experiences studying speech and drama at Columbia University in New York, New York

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - The Honorable Mary T. Christian talks about earning her doctorate from Michigan State University in East Lansing, Michigan

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - The Honorable Mary T. Christian recalls organizing a voter registration drive in Hampton, Virginia and the opening of the Y. H. Thomas Community Center

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - The Honorable Mary T. Christian describes the political activism and community service of Hampton Institute students

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - The Honorable Mary T. Christian talks about being the dean of Hampton Institute School of Education and Human Development

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - The Honorable Mary T. Christian explains her decision to run for the Virginia General Assembly

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - The Honorable Mary T. Christian talks about being elected to the Virginia General Assembly as an independent

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - The Honorable Mary T. Christian describes her experiences in the Virginia General Assembly

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - The Honorable Mary T. Christian talks about successfully sponsoring a bill requiring insurance companies to pay for bone marrow transplants

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - The Honorable Mary T. Christian talks about white teachers' expectations of African American students

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - The Honorable Mary T. Christian explains why she thinks history is important

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - The Honorable Mary T. Christian describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - The Honorable Mary T. Christian describes her hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - The Honorable Mary T. Christian talks about the Virginia's government under Governor Mark Warner

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - The Honorable Mary T. Christian reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - The Honorable Mary T. Christian reflects upon her life

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - The Honorable Mary T. Christian narrates her photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

1$3

DAStory

9$6

DATitle
The Honorable Mary T. Christian describes her early school experiences and childhood insecurities
The Honorable Mary T. Christian explains her decision to run for the Virginia General Assembly
Transcript
Dr. [HistoryMaker Mary T.] Christian if you will please share with us your earliest memory of growing up? What's your earliest memory?$$Oh my goodness, well my earliest memory growing up I think was, it was in high school. I-- during my childhood at the time I went to school if you could read very well, you were skipped from one grade to the other. So I went to school a year ahead because I went to kindergarten and a lady named Ms. Violet [ph.] taught me to read and I was doing the Lord's Prayer and the 23rd Psalm and all of that and my great aunt who reared me after my mom [Viola Webster Robinson] moved to the other house, I stayed with her and that was our birth place on Lincoln Street [Hampton, Virginia] and she would parade me up and down the street. I did a lot of recitations of poems and stories and so forth. So I went to school, I was really two years ahead of myself because I went one year earlier and I was skipped to the second grade and so I got to the fifth grade and I was still the smallest person in the class. And I can remember Mrs. Broadfield [ph.] was the teacher. It was right around Christmastime and they were giving their experiences about Santa Claus and so she said--we were talking about Santa Claus and how we used to think and somebody was pointing at me and she said which one are you pointing at and she said everybody knows--[HistoryMaker] Mary [T. Christian] don't you know who Santa Claus is and I said yes ma'am, he is a big fat man, I'm in fifth grade, a big fat man with a white beard and big tummy that shook like jelly and the class roared. And I was never-- so when I had to ever counsel parents and children my grade to skip, never skip because you're chronological age and your social experiences is far below. So I was just so devastated about that, that I repeated the fifth grade, I just would not do anything. I wanted to be with my peers and so forth. So I think I started growing up during that time but when I was a freshman at [George P.] Phenix [High] School [Hampton, Virginia] that was when I think I really knew that I was growing up and I was in the choir. I was always tiny and very skinny and I didn't want to wear silk hose because in the choir you had to wear silk hose. So I dreaded it, I was so much younger than the others and small in stature. Had I been larger, I wouldn't have been so much aware of it. My growing up days were--when I first started growing up and I was in my older sister-- the same grade with my oldest sister [Lillian Robinson] and peers. So my growing up days were not as happy as theirs because I was always very ashamed of my size and everybody would say little Mary. I just remember those days when I was in--my dad [John Robinson] called me when we were growing up, string bean and those were the names that stood out in my mind. I remember when I was going to high school and all of the people were developing and so forth. On little story. So at that time people had their Sunday clothes on and my mom had one pair of silk stockings and we had to dress up that day and I took my mom's silk stockings and I tucked them down to make them look like (unclear) and so I actually forgot to put them back. So this Sunday morning, my mother said, "Where are my-- who has seen my silk stockings," and I had the silk stockings and I had fabricated to make myself look like I was older than I was. So I had to share that I had my mom's silk stockings and also when we went to get weighed at school, in high school and all of the children-I didn't weigh but like seventy pounds and everybody else weighed about 110 and so forth. So this particular day when we had to go to the weight room, I got violently ill and so they had to take me to the clinic. I was just so sick because I didn't want--they call out your weight after you lined up and they call out your weight. They would say Lillian, Lillian Brown [ph.], 110 so and so, Mary Robinson sixty-two pounds and everybody broke out laughing. So I learned how to get ill when that happened and then they had to weigh me separately. So it was coming up that I always had this-- I always wanted to--I would always say oh God if I could just have enough hips to wear a girdle. Now I wish I didn't-- but that was what my growing up years were and then when I found out people accepted me, I think I was in the National Honor Society and then I was Miss Homecoming so I had arrived because people had accepted me and then my early growing up days were much more comfortable but I just had that.$We did black poetry and I had a singing group and a poetry group and a speech choir and all of those dramatic kinds of things and people would give us money and then we'd go and put it in Pine Chapel [Village, Hampton, Virginia] for the quote, unquote poverty kids. So it was a very enjoyable experience. I carried my students to do voter registration; I had them during the elections. I worked a lot in the community. I was appointed to the [Hampton] School Board and I was on the school board for six years and I've had the students but at the time they said Dr. C [HistoryMaker Mary T. Christian] we don't mind working but you never have a candidate who wins and I said but we keep plotting, we had no blacks on anything. So anyway there came an opening at the [Hampton] City Council and so the folks came to me and said Dr. C. you've been in the community all these years, we'd like to run you for city council. So I said, in a very cavalier manner, I said, "Look I have paid my dues at the local level, I have worked hard on that school board, should anything come in Richmond [Virginia] or Washington [D.C.] then you come and get me." Knowing that we had a white representative and knowing there wasn't going to be anything, I just shooed them off. Dick Bagley [Richard M. Bagley, Sr.] who was in the [Virginia] General Assembly was leaving to throw his hat in the pool to be governor so it left the delegate from Hampton [Virginia] slot open. So people came knocking on my door, "Dr. C. you said and something has come open in Richmond," and I said, "What?" They said, "We want you to run for delegate in the general assembly." I said, "Now wait a minute, I'm a behind the scenes person, I'll do voter registration, I'll work to get people"--I said, "you know how I work but I don't want to be the delegate." I said, "If I'm that I can't mobilize the community, that's my gift getting people together," but they insisted. They said, okay we're going to all put in a hundred dollars and everybody here will put in--one person was a doctor who put in one thousand. I said, oh my God, I don't know what to do and so that night--I'm religious, I go to church and but I didn't--I was exhausted. They're trying to convince me, I didn't get down on my knees to pray but as I step into the group I said, oh Lord what in the world am I going to do. That morning I woke, there was no ambiguity, I called my minister at the church, I said, "Revered [Jason Carl] Guice, I'm making a decision, I decided to run for house delegate." "Go my child with your blessing." I called [HistoryMaker] Dr. [William] Harvey my president [at Hampton University, Hampton, Virginia], I didn't ask him could I go, I said, "Dr. Harvey I'm going to run, I made a decision, I'm going to run for delegate for the general assembly." He was getting ready to go on a trip and he said, "Okay why don't you"--and I said, "I've got to make my declaration today." He said, "Why you do it under the Emancipation Oak that's historical and that's where the Emancipation Proclamation was read at the big oak." I did all of that in two hours, had all the politicians there, had the press there and I made my declaration to run for the [Virginia] House of Delegates. The Democratic committee was there, students came and oh it was a big time. So I had to go and speak in Baltimore [Maryland] and coming back I said oh my God what have I done, all of this before me. So I said oh my goodness, what have I done. They said you have just become a candidate, my family said, that's what you have done. So anyway people were rallying toward me and so forth. Less than two days before and what had been our plight is that too many African Americans--blacks would run, split the vote and that's why we never had anybody anywhere. So as fate would have it, there comes a black minister who was running, there is a white commonwealth attorney who was running, I was going to run against him. Now the vote is split, here we are just before the primary, just before I had to send in my petition of voters. So I'm at this dilemma and I said what am I going to do, you're black, you're female.

Geraldine D. Brownlee

Geraldine Brownlee has spent most of her life as an educator. Born in East Chicago, Indiana, Brownlee’s father was a skilled worker for Inland Steel and both her mother and her stepmother were homemakers. Brownlee attended West Virginia State College, where she graduated cum laude in 1947 with degrees in biology and Spanish. Brownlee earned an M.S.T. in urban education from the University of Chicago in 1967, and completed her Ph.D. there in 1975. She also spent time at both the University of Illinois and the University of Michigan graduate schools of social work.

In 1947, Brownlee took a job with the Cook County Department of Public Welfare, where she worked as a caseworker from 1948 until 1955 when she began a career in teaching. She taught elementary school for eleven years in the Chicago public schools. From 1967 until 1970, Brownlee worked with the University of Chicago graduate school of education as a staff associate, becoming assistant director of teacher training in 1970. The following year, Brownlee was made an assistant professor and assistant dean of student services in the University of Illinois-Chicago (UIC) College of Education. During 1975-1976, Brownlee served as director of Title VII desegregation projects for Illinois School District 163. She continued as an assistant professor with UIC until her retirement in 1990, teaching curriculum and instruction within the school of education to both undergraduate and graduate students. During that time, she worked as a visiting professor to Indiana University Northwest and was active evaluating programs within the Chicago public school system. In 1995, Brownlee became a consultant to the Center for Urban Education at DePaul University in Chicago, where she remained for a year.

Brownlee has been the recipient of numerous awards throughout her career. She has also been active both in professional and civic organizations. Some of her honors include the 1990 YWCA of Metropolitan Chicago Outstanding Achievement Award in the field of education; selection as a member of the Chicago Presbyterian Delegation to Cuba in 1998; and election as a commissioner to the 2000 General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church of America. She has served on the YWCA of Metropolitan Chicago Board of Directors, the Chicago Urban League Education Advisory Committee and Links, Inc. Brownlee and her husband Brady live in Chicago.

Accession Number

A2003.302

Sex

Female

Interview Date

12/17/2003

Last Name

Walker

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Occupation
Schools

Benjamin Franklin Elem School

East Chicago Central High Sch

West Virginia State University

University of Michigan

University of Chicago

First Name

Keronn

Birth City, State, Country

East Chicago

HM ID

BRO17

Favorite Season

Fall

Speaker Bureau Notes

Will send VITAE to Crystal. She's an Elder in Presbyterian Church - lc; Charles Branham

State

Indiana

Favorite Vacation Destination

Georgia

Favorite Quote

The Truth Of The Matter Is.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Illinois

Birth Date

4/13/1925

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Chicago

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Salmon

Short Description

Education professor Geraldine D. Brownlee (1925 - ) has taught for many years at the University of Illinois Chicago.

Employment

Cook County Department of Public Welfare

Chicago Public Schools

University of Chicago

University of Illinois, Chicago

Illinois School District 163

Indiana University Northwest

Center for Urban Education at DePaul University

Favorite Color

Yellow

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Geraldine D. Brownlee's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Geraldine D. Brownlee lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Geraldine D. Brownlee talks about her mother's side of the family

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Geraldine D. Brownlee talks about her stepmother

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Geraldine D. Brownlee talks about her father

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Geraldine D. Brownlee describes her father's personality

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Geraldine D. Brownlee recalls her birth mother

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Geraldine D. Brownlee describes the culture of reading in her household as a child

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Geraldine D. Brownlee remembers her neighborhood growing up

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Geraldine D. Brownlee recalls the sights, sounds, and smells of growing up in East Chicago, Indiana

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Geraldine D. Brownlee describes herself as a child

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Geraldine D. Brownlee lists her siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Geraldine D. Brownlee remembers Benjamin Franklin Elementary School in East Chicago, Indiana

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Geraldine D. Brownlee talks about a racist experience at Benjamin Franklin Elementary School in East Chicago, Indiana

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Geraldine D. Brownlee recalls her favorite subjects at Benjamin Franklin Elementary School in East Chicago, Indiana

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Geraldine D. Brownlee talks about encountering racism at George Washington High School in East Chicago, Indiana

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Geraldine D. Brownlee explains how discrimination kept her from entering the National Honor Society

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Geraldine D. Brownlee explains how she decided to attend West Virginia State College in Institute, West Virginia

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Geraldine D. Brownlee describes her experience at West Virginia State College in Institute, West Virginia

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Geraldine D. Brownlee talks about her extracurricular activities at West Virginia State College, Institute, West Virginia

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Geraldine D. Brownlee describes her studies at West Virginia State College, Institute, West Virginia

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Geraldine D. Brownlee recalls President John W. Davis at West Virginia State College in Institute, West Virginia

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Geraldine D. Brownlee talks about her interest in the Quakers

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Geraldine D. Brownlee describes the speaker series at West Virginia State College in Institute, West Virginia

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Geraldine D. Brownlee remembers learning about black history in her childhood

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Geraldine D. Brownlee talks about the impact of World War II on West Virginia State College in Institute, West Virginia

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Geraldine D. Brownlee explains how she entered the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor for special training in administering to the blind

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Geraldine D. Brownlee talks about encountering racism in Ann Arbor, Michigan

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Geraldine D. Brownlee remembers declining a job with the W.C. Handy Foundation in Birmingham, Alabama

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Geraldine D. Brownlee recalls her experience as a social worker in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Geraldine D. Brownlee talks about her early teaching experience

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Geraldine D. Brownlee explains her motivation for pursuing graduate studies in education

Tape: 3 Story: 12 - Geraldine D. Brownlee describes her philosophy of curriculum development

Tape: 3 Story: 13 - Geraldine D. Brownlee discusses the challenges facing contemporary education

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Geraldine D. Brownlee talks about the work of HistoryMaker Dr. James Comer

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Geraldine D. Brownlee philosophizes about leadership

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Geraldine D. Brownlee describes her dissertation research on teacher leadership

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Geraldine D. Brownlee details her work with various community and social organizations

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Geraldine D. Brownlee describes her work as a professor at the University of Illinois at Chicago

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Geraldine D. Brownlee talks about black studies at the University of Illinois at Chicago

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Geraldine D. Brownlee talks about her work as principal evaluator for the Chicago Public School system

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Geraldine D. Brownlee talks about her work as a director of a desegregation program

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Geraldine D. Brownlee talks about the importance of setting expectations in education

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Geraldine D. Brownlee explains the lack of pro-union sentiment in her family

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Geraldine D. Brownlee describes her hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Geraldine D. Brownlee reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Geraldine D. Brownlee considers what she would do differently

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Geraldine D. Brownlee remembers her mentors

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Geraldine D. Brownlee talks about the challenges of implementing affirmative action effectively

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Geraldine D. Brownlee describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Geraldine D. Brownlee narrates her photographs pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Geraldine D. Brownlee narrates her photographs pt. 2

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$4

DAStory

6$5

DATitle
Geraldine D. Brownlee describes her experience at West Virginia State College in Institute, West Virginia
Geraldine D. Brownlee describes her work as a professor at the University of Illinois at Chicago
Transcript
Okay. What was West Virginia State like? I mean, who were some of the teachers and personalities that you met there?$$Well, West Virginia State College [West Virginia State University, Institute, West Virginia] is a--on its sign it says, a liberal education, and I always knew from my mother that that was the best kind of education one could get. And when I went there, the dean of the college was Dr. Harrison Ferrell, who was from Chicago [Illinois] and had finished his doctorate at Northwestern [University, Evanston, Illinois]. And he greeted me right away, because you had to send in your picture with your application. And when I walked into the administration building, he said, "Hi, Gerri [HM Geraldine D. Brownlee]," the first day when I registered. And my psychology teacher was Dr. Herman Canady, who had received his doctorate at Northwestern. And I really have never regretted that decision. My whole life changed. I just felt as if I were just liberated from all of the racism, whether it was subtle or not, that I could go--belong to any organization I wanted to belong to. I wasn't afraid of failing, because I knew I had the ability to learn. And then it would put me in contact with my own people, because I was very limited in East Chicago [Indiana] in knowing people, black people--we were colored then--except for church and the limited number who went to school with me, 'cause there were only twenty-six in my graduation class out of over three hundred blacks. And so it was--I was very impressed with the faculty. I was impressed with the students. I didn't like the dorm. I thought the dorms were crummy. But it just made a different person out of me in my life.$$Were there a lot of restrictions on students at West Virginia, West Virginia State at that point (simultaneous)?$$(Simultaneous) Oh, yeah. Yes. In those days you couldn't get in a car. One could not leave campus without written permission from your parents. We had to be in the dorm at certain hours of night. You know, yes. There were a lot of restrictions. But I didn't mind that because I had restrictions at home. And then we--as we learned, we could do everything we wanted to do within a certain--anyway, within a certain time.$$(Laughter) Once you figured out the system.$$That's right.$$That's right.$$But then, I also didn't know, until I got to West Virginia State, and Dr. Canady gave everyone--now that I look back on it, it may have been the Stanford Binet test [Stanford Binet Intelligence Scales]; it was an I.Q. test, and then told us, you know, who did well and who did this. And I was the highest one in the class, and it was a very high I.Q. And he said--told them that. And I was so pleased, because I knew I had a good I.Q., but I didn't know how high it was or how good it was, because they never told me in high school. So with Dean--Dr. Canady and Dr. Ferrell, I could take as many--you know, how a load could be, like, sixteen hours? I was permitted to take twenty, twenty-two, twenty-four. You know, I could--they gave me a lot of privileges, because they said I could do it. And that's how I got the double major, 'cause with a double major, one has to have a double minor, which means you have to have certain courses in two dif- four areas. I had to do it.$Okay. Well, speaking of professing, you've been a professor at University of Illinois of Chicago [Chicago, Illinois] for a number of years. Right? And you're now professor emeritus. Right, or--?$$From the University of Illinois.$$Yeah.$$Um-hm.$$University of Illinois at Chicago.$$At Chicago.$$Yeah. Right.$$Um-hm.$$Right. Okay.$$That was an experience.$$Okay.$$That was truly an experience (laughter).$$Well, I can, you know, I see a balloon above your head, but you got to fill in the blanks. Now, what happened at the University of Illinois at Chicago?$$Well, because it is a large institution. And to leave a college like West Virginia State [College; West Virginia University, Institute, West Virginia] and to go to a university like the University of Chicago, where there are small populations and to go into a public urban university, where there are thousands and thousands of faculty and student is quite a challenge--students. It's quite a challenge. And it was an eyeopener because I went there because I've always been committed to urban education. And I got there and found that they were still searching for their urban mission. And it was very difficult because there's such a mix there of Hispanics, blacks, Indians, and whites of different origins. And there are very relatively speaking, very few tenured black faculty, which puts the burden on those of us who are tenured to meet the needs of the black students, and I--which even though there may not be more than 15 percent, to meet their needs. Because if one is there, one is likely to come to a person who is of, you know, of the same origin. And it was very, very difficult for white faculty to understand the demands made on black faculty in terms of publications and research and funding, when we have these other issues that have to do with race and our students. That was one eyeopener for, you know, for me. The fact that it's a revolving door for black professors was another issue. As a matter of fact, the chancellor asked me to serve as a--to chair his committee on the status of blacks at UIC, which I did for a couple of years before I left, and it was most challenging. I don't--but, I did get in to know a couple of other black faculties from what we call the other campus, the west campus, the medical science campus, who were most supportive, for example, [HM] Dr. [Maurice F.] Rabb, I don't know whether you know him.$$Maurice Rabb?$$Maur- that's how I got to know him. When I was president he was very, very supportive. There were other faculties I would not have gotten to know if I had not had that post. But it was--it also was at the expense of getting my own work done. I was not given off--you know, time off to do this. But that's, that's what happens to us when we are in certain positions. We have to take on certain responsibilities, because--not only because we're needed, but because we have a commitment to do so.$$Okay.$$So it was--there were--I guess I've touched on the primary problems, trying to serve and support minority students while doing what professors are expected to do was a real problem.

Kenneth Walker

Educator and basketball referee Kenneth R. Walker, Sr. has devoted his career to serving his home state of Rhode Island. Born in East Providence on December 19, 1930, to Lillian and Frank Walker, Walker has dedicated his professional life to improving urban education.

Walker attended Providence College, where he received a B.A. in 1957. Upon graduating, he began teaching English and social studies for the East Providence School District while also serving as a guidance counselor. He earned an M.Ed. from Rhode Island College in 1962, where he worked part time from 1967 to 1969 as the assistant director of Project Upward Bound, a federally supported program for economically and educationally disadvantaged youth. Walker was promoted to assistant principal at Central Jr. High School before accepting a position as assistant professor of education at Rhode Island College in 1970. He remained on the education faculty at Rhode Island College until 1993, rising to the rank of full professor in 1989. Walker also earned a Ph.D. in education from Boston University.

During his tenure at Rhode Island College, Walker directed the Teacher Corps, a project of the college and the Pawtucket School Department aimed at raising the quality of education for low-income students. Walker also served as director of urban education at the university. In 1963, Walker became a basketball referee and officiated Division I games in the East Coast, Big East and Atlantic 10 athletic conferences. He traveled with a team of Big East all-stars to Angola in 1982. Walker also serves on the Rhode Island Board of Parole.

Since 1998, Johnson has been an associate professor at Johnson & Wales University. He has been a member of several educators and basketball referee organizations and served as president of the Big Brothers of Rhode Island. Walker has been honored several times for his service to youth and education, and was the 1980 recipient of the NAACP Freedom Fund Award in Education. He married Gail B. Smith in 1955, and has three children. Walker still lives in his hometown of East Providence.

Accession Number

A2003.186

Sex

Male

Interview Date

8/13/2003

Last Name

Walker

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Organizations
Schools

Virginia Union University

East Providence High School

Bliss Elementary School

Central Junior High School

Providence College

Rhode Island College

Boston University

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Kenneth

Birth City, State, Country

East Providence

HM ID

WAL03

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Rhode Island

Favorite Vacation Destination

Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts

Favorite Quote

Jeepers, Girl.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Massachusetts

Birth Date

12/19/1930

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Boston

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Meatloaf

Short Description

Education professor and basketball referee Kenneth Walker (1930 - ) is a collegiate basketball referee and educator who has worked to improve urban education in Rhode Island.

Employment

East Providence School District

Rhode Island College

Central Junior High School

Johnson & Wales University

Favorite Color

Purple

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Kenneth Walker's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Kenneth Walker lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Kenneth Walker talks about his mother, Lillian Frye Walker's, family and how his parents Frank and Lillian Frye Walker, met

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Kenneth Walker describes his father, Frank Walker

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Kenneth Walker talks about his father, Frank Walker's, family history and lists his siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Kenneth Walker describes his earliest childhood memory of East Providence, Rhode Island

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Kenneth Walker describes the sights, sounds and smells of growing up in East Providence, Rhode Island

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Kenneth Walker talks about Rhode Island's colonial history and its Portuguese and Cape Verdean communities

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Kenneth Walker describes his experience working on his father's rubbish removal truck

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Kenneth Walker describes his experience as an African American in a majority white neighborhood in East Providence, Rhode Island

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Kenneth Walker talks about Bliss Elementary School in East Providence, Rhode Island

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Kenneth Walker describes his childhood personality and extracurricular activities

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Kenneth Walker remembers student teaching and serving on the faculty at Central Junior High School in East Providence, Rhode Island

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Kenneth Walker talks about his basketball coach, Frank Saraceno, at Central Junior High School in East Providence, Rhode Island

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Kenneth Walker talks about aspiring to be a teacher and his love of history

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Kenneth Walker describes his mentor Reverend Dr. Samuel D. Proctor, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Kenneth Walker talks about playing sports at East Providence Senior High School, in East Providence, Rhode Island

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Kenneth Walker describes the African American community in Providence, Rhode Island

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Kenneth Walker describes his mentor Reverend Dr. Samuel D. Proctor, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Kenneth Walker describes his experience at Virginia Union University in Richmond, Virginia

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Kenneth Walker talks about serving in the Korean War and finishing his undergraduate degree at Providence College in Providence, Rhode Island

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Kenneth Walker talks about returning to teach at Central Junior High School in East Providence, Rhode Island in 1957

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Kenneth Walker describes an incident of racial discrimination at East Providence Senior High School, East Providence, Rhode Island

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Kenneth Walker talks about working at a settlement in Providence, Rhode Island and teaching at Central Junior High School in East Providence, Rhode Island

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Kenneth Walker talks about completing his M.A. degree at Rhode Island College in Providence, Rhode Island

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Kenneth Walker describes his teaching philosophy and the evolution of the use of slang by the students he taught

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Kenneth Walker explains how he was recruited to teach at Rhode Island College in Providence, Rhode Island

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Kenneth Walker explains the Upward Bound program at Rhode Island College in Providence, Rhode Island

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Kenneth Walker describes the process of becoming a basketball referee

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Kenneth Walker talks about balancing being both a referee and a teacher

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Kenneth Walker talks about confronting disrespectful players and coaches during his career as a basketball referee

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Kenneth Walker lists some of the places he's travelled as a referee and his favorite coaches

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Kenneth Walker talks about being paid off the books as a referee

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Kenneth Walker talks about the demanding schedule of basketball officials

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Kenneth Walker lists his favorite college basketball players and talks about traveling in inclement weather

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Kenneth Walker explains how he was appointed to the Rhode Island State Parole Board

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Kenneth Walker describes the professional background of the members of the Rhode Island Parole Board

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Kenneth Walker talks about the racial demographics of the inmates in the Rhode Island correctional facilities and the cost of incarceration

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Kenneth Walker talks about the role of race in the United States' penal system

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Kenneth Walker details the importance of helping inmates transition back into society

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Kenneth Walker talks about contractors who profit from the United States prison system

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Kenneth Walker remembers his daughter being afraid to be at home alone

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Kenneth Walker talks about the Attica Prison Riot in 1971

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Kenneth Walker explains how drug and alcohol addiction lead to incarceration

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Kenneth Walker talks about Federal Correctional Institutions in New England

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Kenneth Walker describes how he would change the penal system

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Kenneth Walker describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Kenneth Walker reflects upon his legacy

DASession

1$1

DATape

1$3

DAStory

13$8

DATitle
Kenneth Walker remembers student teaching and serving on the faculty at Central Junior High School in East Providence, Rhode Island
Kenneth Walker talks about confronting disrespectful players and coaches during his career as a basketball referee
Transcript
The interesting thing about Central Junior High School [East Providence, Rhode Island], I, you know, started there in the seventh grade, twelve years of age-- never thought I'd be talking about the future, never gave any thought to the future at that school. But after--I, I did my student, and to jump forward, I did my student teaching at Central Junior High School. I wanted to go back there to see teachers that I had had as a student. I did my student teaching there. And the principal, who had been the principal when I was there as a student--the last day I was there, I went in to thank him for allowing me to do my student teaching. And I was sitting there in front of him and he's sitting behind the desk. And he, he looked at me, and he asked me if, if I, if I would like to come back there to teach. I said, "Oh, absolutely." So, I went back to that same junior high school that I went to. I went back there as a social studies teacher. I left that school--I graduated from the ninth grade in 1946. And in 1957, I went back to that school as a social studies teacher, and stayed there until 1970 when I left to go to college. But I came in as a classroom teacher of social studies and, and left there as the assistant principal. Is that significant? It's significant in the sense that I was the second person of color to be hired--what, what, I'm sorry, I mean, the third person of color to be hired in the system, the first to be hired on the secondary level as a, not only as a male, but also as a black. And so, that was a, you know, I, and, and then I have youngsters who I taught, youngsters who I had to discipline, and now, you know, 19-, I mentioned I started in '57 [1957]. I left in 1970, so there's a period of unrest. And the, the black is beautiful and, and some of the young people did not appreciate some of the discipline that I had to dole out, especially some of the black kids they thought, he, he's supposed to be different.$And, and tell us some stories. You know, I had asked you earlier about just some stories from your, you know, from your time as a referee?$$I think of--well, I, I remember once I teched, I called a technical foul on this young man.$$What game is this, do you remember?$$No, no, I don't remember the game. But a coach, you know, I teched him. And the coach said, "Well, what, what happened?" So I said, "Well, I happen to know, coach, that my mother and father were married for at least a couple of years before I was born. And, and he called me something that--related to me being born out of wedlock." Well, the coach laughed. He thought, you know, he thought that was funny. He, "Wow, that's pretty good, Ken." I can think of being at Dartmouth College in Hanover, New Hampshire and it, the game was almost over and I, I guess, I guess Dartmouth had called a time out. We're ready to play and the team that calls a time out, when they're ready to play, you, you begin playing. You don't wait. And the other team has to be ready to play, too. Well, the other coach and I, I don't know, I may be illusioned. So, I say, "Okay, men, let's go, we'll ready to go." So he said to me, this other coach said, "Yeah, Walker, we know, you got to get back to punch a clock in the morning." I said, "What did you say?" Officially, you're not supposed to talk to coaches, see. I, I was, I'm always guilty of that. I mean, I could be indicted on that every day. So, "What did you say?" He said, "Aw," said, "yeah, you got to get, get back, got to punch a clock in the morning." "Well," I said, "let me tell you something. I got more degrees behind my name than the president of your institution, so don't give me this business about, I got to punch a clock. As a matter of fact, I think I'll stay over and do some skiing," which wasn't really true. So the next time I saw him, he, he, he said, you know, he said, "Gee, you know, we had those words." He said, "I, I wasn't really, you know, I just had something to say." I said, "Well, I work too long and hard for what I have for, for you to make, and you, you probably did think that I was a blue collar worker." I said, not to (unclear) being a blue collar worker, but I'm not a blue collar worker. He said, "Yeah, and I heard that, yeah, yeah, you, you're a doctor, right? I, yeah, yeah, you're right." So, and so that, I mean, I think of those two stories. I think of, of going somewhere. And I, I had been chairman of the Rhode Island Parole Board for a number of years. And someone had seen me, had seen at least an article or something I had done--he said, "Gee, you, you, you, you, you lead a different type of life. I guess, see, calling a ball game is easy, huh? I mean, when you're making decisions on people." I said, "Yeah, it's," I said, "but it all affects people one way or the other, whether it's there or there." So, yeah, but it is different, so, you know, you, so and it, and as I said, there are some coaches that are just good people and there are some others that, that--$$Who--(simultaneous)