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Dr. Carol Morales

A lifelong resident of Harlem, New York, Dr. Carol S. Morales was born, reared and educated in the community where she continues to work as a dentist and give back through volunteering.

After graduating from Washington Irving High School, Morales attended the City College of New York, receiving a degree in biological sciences. While completing her undergraduate coursework, Morales worked as a dental assistant in the office she now owns with her husband, Dr. Enrique Riggs. She received professional training from Howard University's College of Dentistry in Washington, D.C., where she earned the American Academy of Oral Medicine Award. After completing her residency in the Bronx, she has operated her own dental practice in Harlem since 1980.

Morales has been active in the community she calls home. She was selected to participate in a pilot project under the aegis of the William J. Clinton Presidential Foundation aimed at providing technical and business consulting to small businesses in Harlem. Additionally, she has worked with the Ice Hockey Program in Harlem, the Links Scholarship and Benefit Committee, and the Links Reading Project. Morales has also worked with the Links' Day Of The African Child Project, part of the International Trends Committee. She continues to participate in a number of professional associations, including the National Dental Society. Morales and her husband have been married since 1983.

Accession Number

A2003.220

Sex

Female

Interview Date

9/20/2003

Last Name

Morales

Maker Category
Occupation
Organizations
Schools

Washington Irving High School

City College of New York

Howard University College of Medicine

First Name

Carol

Birth City, State, Country

New York

HM ID

MOR05

Favorite Season

Spring

State

New York

Favorite Vacation Destination

Anywhere Warm

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Interview Description
Birth Date

12/11/1945

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New York

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Salmon

Short Description

Dentist Dr. Carol Morales (1945 - ) grew up in Harlem, New York, and moved back to her neighborhood to open a practice after graduating from dental school at Howard University. She worked on providing technical and business consulting to small businesses in Harlem with the William J. Clinton Presidential Foundation,

Favorite Color

Yellow

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Dr. Carol Morales' interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Dr. Carol Morales lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Dr. Carol Morales talks about her mother's family ancestry

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Dr. Carol Morales talks about her father's family ancestry and migration to Harlem, New York

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Dr. Carol Morales recalls her earliest childhood memories in Harlem, New York

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Dr. Carol Morales recalls the sights, sounds, and smells of Harlem, New York in the 1940s and 1950s.

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Dr. Carol Morales describes her relationships with her younger siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Dr. Carol Morales remembers throwing rent parties and attending St. Phillips Episcopal Church of New York on Sundays

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Dr. Carol Morales talks about her early academic interests in math and sciences

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Dr. Carol Morales remembers traveling to St. Kitts with her aunt at sixteen years old

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Dr. Carol Morales talks about her elementary school experience at P.S. 184

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Dr. Carol Morales talks about her experience at James Fenimore Cooper Junior High School in New York City

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Dr. Carol Morales remembers the influence of Adam Clayton Powell, Jr. and others in Harlem, New York in the 1950s

Tape: 1 Story: 14 - Dr. Carol Morales describes her experience at Washington Irving High School in New York City

Tape: 1 Story: 15 - Dr. Carol Morales explains her decision to go to the City College of New York and major in chemistry

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Dr. Carol Morales talks about her decision to pursue a career in dentistry

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Dr. Carol Morales talks about her mentor in dentistry, Dr. Marcus Moore

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Dr. Carol Morales describes joining Dr. Marcus Moore's private practice as a dental assistant

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Dr. Carol Morales describes traveling abroad before going to dental school

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Dr. Carol Morales describes her experience in the Howard University College of Dentistry in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Dr. Carol Morales talks about notable faculty at Howard University including HistoryMaker James E. Cheek and Dr. Jeanne Sinkford

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Dr. Carol Morales describes returning to Harlem, New York where she joined Dr. Marcus Moore's dental practice

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Dr. Carol Morales remembers an experience when a patient refused her treatment because she was female

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Dr. Carol Morales talks about how she and her husband HistoryMaker Dr. Enrique Riggs met

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Dr. Carol Morales talks about what she learned under the instruction of Dr. Marcus Moore

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Dr. Carol Morales talks about developing trends in the cosmetic dentistry at the time of her interview

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Dr. Carol Morales reflects on Dr. Marcus Moore's transition out of her dental practice

Tape: 2 Story: 13 - Dr. Carol Morales talks about her husband HistoryMaker Dr. Enrique Riggs joining her at her dental practice

Tape: 2 Story: 14 - Dr. Carol Morales recalls the history of her private practice

Tape: 2 Story: 15 - Dr. Carol Morales talks about her involvement with the New York County Dental Society

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Dr. Carol Morales explains how she and her husband balance their personal and professional relationship

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Dr. Carol Morales talks about how the emergence of the HIV/AIDS virus affected the dental industry

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Dr. Carol Morales talks about the importance of establishing healthy relationships with her patients

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Dr. Carol Morales explains what makes her dental practice a successful business

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Dr. Carol Morales talks about developing trends and modern technology in dentistry

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Dr. Carol Morales talks about her involvement in the Links, Incorporated

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Dr. Carol Morales speaks about her civic involvement in Harlem, New York

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Dr. Carol Morales describes the community in Westchester County, New York

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Dr. Carol Morales talks briefly about her relationship with her mother

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Dr. Carol Morales talks about redevelopment and gentrification in Harlem, New York

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Dr. Carol Morales considers what she would like to do that she has never done

Tape: 3 Story: 12 - Dr. Carol Morales reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 3 Story: 13 - Dr. Carol Morales shares advice for married couples

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$2

DAStory

2$8

DATitle
Dr. Carol Morales talks about her mentor in dentistry, Dr. Marcus Moore
Dr. Carol Morales remembers an experience when a patient refused her treatment because she was female
Transcript
And, and tell me about Dr. [Marcus] Moore, what was, you know what was his practice and you know what was his background?$$Dr. Moore was raised in the South, Fort Pierce, Florida. His father was a, a schoolteacher and he was one of about I'd say seven siblings. Very bright, very astute man. Went to Howard [University, Washington D.C.] Dental--no, first he was a teacher. He taught in the public schools down in the south and he realized the kind of lifestyle that he wanted, that he would never be able to support himself and a family on the money that he was making then. And I guess the opportunity presented itself to go to dental school and he went to dental school. Came north to New York. Had a prominent practice in the Bronx [New York], I guess you would call it South Bronx. Back then a number of prominent people lived there on that street. Sidney Poitier lived on that street, [HM] Harry Belafonte, gosh a number of physicians and dentists now, they were patients of his on Jackson Avenue. And he knew that his--he wanted to grow his practice and he said that he didn't think the Bronx would do it. He needed to be in Manhattan. The opportunity came for him to come in this new development that was just being constructed. And he had the personality such that you know, people just liked him. He came in, the owner of the new development was a man named Olnich [ph.], Mr. Olnich. He was the first person to buy and rent. Mr. Olnich carried his construction people to work and construct this office the way Dr. Moore wanted. You knock on that wall, it's all concrete and the walls in the room are lead-lined. And he had the foresight.$$So this was Dr. Moore's original office?$$This is Dr. Moore's original office.$$Okay, okay.$One of my worst experience as a, a, a resident at Montefiore Hospital [Bronx, New York], was an elderly woman of color, she was about eighty years of age. She refused to have me work on her 'cause she didn't believe I was a doctor. She'd never seen a black female doctor. Of course you know I looked much younger than I am now, and the head of department--he was gonna take a hard nose and say well then she couldn't be seen in the clinic. And I said no, that's not the way to handle that. That could be my grandmother, you know. So I was very fortunate when I came into this practice, and I think I finished my residency in 1980, and I came right into--it was the time of women's lib. Women were looking for other women practitioners, lawyers, women were supporting other women.

Dr. George Jenkins

Growing up in a rough neighborhood in Newark, New Jersey, Dr. George Jenkins beat the odds and followed a dream. Born on February 6, 1973, he attended University High, where his life changed. At age thirteen, while at a dentist's office, Jenkins became curious about the process, and the dentist proceeded to tell Jenkins about his different tools and teach him about teeth. From that moment, he wanted to be a dentist.

In high school, Jenkins befriended Sampson Davis and Rameck Hunt, two equally bright individuals living in the same rough area. Jenkins had learned about a program at Seton Hall University that paid for minority students to attend if they enrolled in a pre-medicine or pre-dental program. Jenkins set about convincing his friends to apply. All three were accepted, with Davis and Hunt pursuing medicine. The three spent the next four years studying together to keep their grades and spirits up. After graduation, the three were split, with Davis and Hunt heading to medical school, and Jenkins remaining in Newark to attend the University of Medicine and Dentistry in New Jersey. They remained in close contact, visiting one another each week to study and boost one another's morale. In 1999, the three young men became doctors, and the following day, a local newspaper ran a front-page story about them with the headline, "Start of Something Big." Today, Jenkins is a faculty member of community health at the University of Medicine and Dentistry.

The Three Doctors, as they have become known, have written a book about their experiences, The Pact: Three Young Men Make A Promise and Fulfill A Dream, which was a New York Times bestseller. They have also established a nonprofit organization, the Three Doctors Foundation, to provide scholarships to inner-city youth and they tour the country speaking and inspiring students to follow in their footsteps. In 2000, the three were honored with an Essence Award for their community service. They have plans to begin appearing in music videos and on billboards with the hopes of giving disadvantaged youth alternate role models.

Accession Number

A2003.135

Sex

Male

Interview Date

6/16/2003

Last Name

Jenkins

Maker Category
Organizations
Schools

University High School of Humanities

Louise A. Spencer Elementary School

Seton Hall University

New Jersey Dental School

First Name

George

Birth City, State, Country

Sumter

HM ID

JEN02

Favorite Season

Fall, Spring

State

South Carolina

Favorite Vacation Destination

None

Favorite Quote

Just Do It.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Interview Description
Birth Date

2/6/1973

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New York

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Pasta

Short Description

Health advocate and dentist Dr. George Jenkins (1973 - ) fulfilled his dream of becoming a dentist, although he grew up in a rough neighborhood in Newark New, Jersey. Along with Sampson Davis and Rameck Hunt, Jenkins wrote a book about his struggles titled, "The Pact: Three Young Men Make A Promise and Fulfill A Dream," and co-founded the Three Doctors Foundation, to provide scholarships to inner-city youth.

Employment

University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Dr. George Jenkins' interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Dr. George Jenkins lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Dr. George Jenkins talks about his difficulty in finding out about his family history

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Dr. George Jenkins talks about his father

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Dr. George Jenkins describes his mother's personality and the support she provided for him

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Dr. George Jenkins describes how his parents met and his mother's move to Newark, New Jersey

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Dr. George Jenkins describes growing up in and around the Stella Wright Housing Projects in Newark, New Jersey

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Dr. George Jenkins describes the sights, sounds, and smells of his childhood in Newark, New Jersey

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Dr. George Jenkins describes being inspired by his teacher at Louise A. Spencer Elementary School in Newark, New Jersey

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Dr. George Jenkins describes his experience at University High School in Newark, New Jersey

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Dr. George Jenkins describes his decision to become a dentist when he was thirteen

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Dr. George Jenkins describes how he avoided the distractions in order to pursue his dreams

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Dr. George Jenkins describes how his friends became involved in criminal activity in Newark, New Jersey

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Dr. George Jenkins describes meeting HistoryMakers Dr. Sampson Davis and Dr. Rameck Hunt at University High School in Newark, New Jersey

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Dr. George Jenkins talks about his extracurricular activities at University High School in Newark, New Jersey

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Dr. George Jenkins describes deciding to attend Seton Hall University in South Orange, New Jersey with HistoryMakers Dr. Sampson Davis and Dr. Rameck Hunt

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Dr. George Jenkins describes growing up without a father

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Dr. George Jenkins describes increased gang activity in Newark, New Jersey

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Dr. George Jenkins describes being racially profiled by the police in Newark, New Jersey

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Dr. George Jenkins describes his experience in dental school at the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Dr. George Jenkins talks about the difficulty of finding a sincere mentor

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Dr. George Jenkins describes the pact he made with HistoryMakers Dr. Sampson Davis and Dr. Rameck Hunt to support each other through medical school

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Dr. George Jenkins remembers the doubts he felt during his residency

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Dr. George Jenkins describes graduating from the University of Medicine and Dentistry in New Jersey in 1999 with HistoryMakers Dr. Sampson Davis and Dr. Rameck Hunt

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Dr. George Jenkins describes deciding on a career path after his residency

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Dr. George Jenkins describes how growing up in Newark, New Jersey helped him relate to patients during his residency

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Dr. George Jenkins describes his community health involvement at the New Jersey Dental School in Newark, New Jersey

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Dr. George Jenkins describes the Three Doctors Foundation

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Dr. George Jenkins talks about "The Pact," a book he co-wrote with HistoryMakers Dr. Sampson Davis and Dr. Rameck Hunt

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Dr. George Jenkins reflects upon the importance of staying in Newark, New Jersey

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Dr. George Jenkins describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Dr. George Jenkins describes his plans for the future, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Dr. George Jenkins describes his plans for the future, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Dr. George Jenkins talks about his faith

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Dr. George Jenkins reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Dr. George Jenkins describes how he would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

1$2

DAStory

11$10

DATitle
Dr. George Jenkins describes his decision to become a dentist when he was thirteen
Dr. George Jenkins describes the pact he made with HistoryMakers Dr. Sampson Davis and Dr. Rameck Hunt to support each other through medical school
Transcript
Okay, I wanna go back to I guess grade school I guess--no, or middle school. I read that when you were thirteen a dentist, you know, explained to you what dentistry was about, showed you some tools, and you were inspired by that.$$Yeah, that, that was the next sort of turning point for me when I think back because I went to those sessions to get my orthodontic treatment with the lessons that, that Ms. [Viola] Johnson taught me. So when I was there I, I guess I was searching for what, what am I gonna attach this dream to, this, this dream of becoming a professional. I guess I was just exploring, and then I was just curious with what he was doing. And I guess he picked up on that, so he took that as a teachable moment. And he was giving me information about the teeth and the tools, and then he would quiz me in the next visit, you know, no more than five minutes each time I saw him. And that, you know, and I think more so than his profession that interest me, it was him and how he seemed to be happy, seemed to be able to help people, and just be really, it seemed like he was just dynamic with what he was doing. And it just really impressed me at, at an early age, at that, at that age of thirteen. And that, from that moment on, I was like, I wanna be like him, whatever he's doing. And it was just, he was a dentist, and not even--you know, people would think: okay, he was an orthodontist, so why didn't you wanna do orthodontist? That's because I didn't know what he was doing. All I wanted to be like was him, and they told me he was dentist, so I wanna be a dentist. And I just from that day forward trying to model myself after him, but I don't even know what he looks like or his name or anything. He doesn't even know the influence that he's had on me as well as my other partners. So I'm sure he'd get a kick out of it if he was to know that. But--$$So you don't even know if he knows--$$I know he doesn't know.$$--knows it.$$I know he doesn't know. There's no way he can know 'cause I'm, I'm sure there were so many people in his seat, and--$$Was he in a clinic or something with a lot of-$$He was working in a clinic. He was a resident in training to, to, to become a full-fledged orthodontist. So I'm sure he didn't, he doesn't remember at all. I don't even remember him, so I know he doesn't remember me.$$Okay, all right, but, yeah, that's something. So the third, third grade really opened up a whole world of things for--(simultaneous)--$$It really did, it really did. That's, I think that, that echoes the importance of, of getting to our kids young, before--you know, it's easy--you can--like I was able to deal with the realities of my community after her lessons because I never let it get me down. I never let any of that stuff get to me because I knew all I gotta do is this here, and just keep doing these assignments, keep doing what these teachers ask of me, and I'm gonna be fine despite what I see around me. All I have to do is find a way to get around the challenges that are gonna come in my way and obstacles. And if I don't get over those obstacles, and I get stopped in the middle, then that's fine too, but I had to try, and I had to see for myself if it was out there. I could say okay, well, it look like, you know, the way the odds are stacked I'm not gonna make it so I'm not gonna try. The odds were, did look like that, but I had to figure out for myself if I could do it or not. I didn't wanna be a shoulda, coulda, woulda type of person. I know that I would have been eating myself--you know, I would have been eaten alive inside if I didn't at least try to go for my dreams. I wouldn't have been able to live with that.$When you were at dental school [New Jersey Dental School in Newark, New Jersey], did, did you have the same--well, I guess you couldn't have had the same level of interaction with your two friends [HM Dr. Sampson Davis and HM Dr. Rameck Hunt] because they're in medical school.$$Yeah. The interaction definitely decreased because we were living together. And when they moved away to, to pursue their medical degrees, we were on the phone all the time. And I was up where, where they were every weekend, or they were at my place every weekend. So we talked every day and saw each other every weekend, so it was pretty much the same thing. Like, everything that I needed in terms of our support system was already on autopilot. So it just took a phone call or a visit to get these things, you know. It was already, it was already a machine, a well-oiled machine. It was just a matter of continuously keeping it well-oiled, you know, and just--it was--the principles were instilled in us to the point where they became instinctual. So a lot of that stuff we had already instilled in each other. It was just a matter of keeping each other strong to, to keep doing what they were doing so that our academic endurance holds, hold out until we get across that stage.$$Okay, now, you all had it actually--did you all formally make a pledge to each other that you would do this or--$$We, we did--we never did any sort of corny blood, we didn't cut our fingers or, or sign any contracts, but when we agreed to go to school together, from high school [University High School in Newark, New Jersey] to embark on higher education, it was so many unsaid sort of rules that were made that day. We, we knew, we, we all knew we were in the same boat where we needed, financially we needed in a number of ways. And we all had to deal with these fears about college because it was unknown, and it was pumped to us in a negative sort of life, more so than it was promoted to us in a positive light. So all of us were dealing with a lot of these things, and we realized that, after all of us sat and thought about it and talked about it, realized that none of us would be as afraid to go if we were to go together. We realized that would be a--it's gonna be hard, but it's gonna be a little easier, because when we get there, we don't have to look for a support system, find friends. We could care less if we met another a friend when you got two good buddies from high school with you. I could care less if I meet another friend. But that attitude drew people to us, so we had lots of friends outside of our circle, but I guess they saw how tight we were. But we just felt good about it. I guess it was just God's way of just working through us that time at that early age because we didn't really think about it. We just went for it, didn't have any idea how magical that union would be, and how instrumental it would be in the pushing all of us to heights that none of us thought we could make individually; that I'm just glad it happened the way it happened. You know, I'm just excited that it happened the way it happened. But it wasn't very much thought. It was really all unsaid and, and just be--maybe we said it before and didn't realize it in our conversations as we were going through high school, but we knew. When we were gonna go together, we knew we would have to have each other's back when it came to protecting each other physically, protecting each other academically, just protecting each other. And that was, each other's responsibility was to make sure--you know, it was like the buddy system when you swim at camp, you know. You, you, you, you don't go out there without at least a buddy to, to alert someone if you're having trouble in the water if they can't save you. And that's, we, we kind of created a buddy system to help us navigate through academia because it was really scary like a sea, like being stranded in the sea. You're looking around, you don't see any horizon, and you just gotta keep swimming and keep swimming until you find land. And we just decided to kind of use each other to help that go on.

Dr. Ebenezer Bush

Born in Shreveport, Louisiana, on March 20, 1920, Dr. Ebenezer Bush attended segregated schools while growing up. Graduating from Shreveport's Central Colored High School, he was admitted to the Tuskegee Institute as a work student, taking classes at night and working during the day.

After graduating from Tuskegee, Bush taught agriculture at the high school level until the outbreak of World War II. In the Army for three years, Bush served a tour of duty in the Pacific theater. After being discharged, Bush enrolled in Howard University's School of Dentistry, graduating in 1952. From Howard, Bush moved to Long Beach, California, where he became the first African American to establish a dental practice.

Bush was a member of numerous professional organizations, including a life member of the American Dental Association. He received numerous awards. Family Service of Long Beach presented him with the Family Life Award, he received the key to the city of Long Beach, and he was honored by both Howard University and the Tuskegee Institute as a distinguished alumnus. He was also active with civic organizations, including founding and serving as the first president of the Long Beach Community Credit Union and serving on the board of the Long Beach City College Foundation.

Bush and his wife, Wynona, had two sons, both of whom are doctors.

Bush passed away on August 20, 2016 at age 96.

Accession Number

A2002.214

Sex

Male

Interview Date

11/21/2002

Last Name

Bush

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Occupation
Organizations
Schools

Central Colored High School

Central Elementary School

Stony Hill Elementary School

First Name

Ebenezer

Birth City, State, Country

Shreveport

HM ID

BUS01

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Louisiana

Favorite Vacation Destination

Baltimore, Maryland

Favorite Quote

The Lord Will Make A Way Somehow.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

California

Interview Description
Birth Date

3/20/1920

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Los Angeles

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Fish, Vegetables

Death Date

8/16/2016

Short Description

Dentist Dr. Ebenezer Bush (1920 - 2016 ) was the first African American dentist to establish a practice in Long Beach, California.

Favorite Color

Brown, Oxford Gray

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Dr. Ebenezer Bush's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Dr. Ebenezer Bush lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Dr. Ebenezer Bush talks about his paternal and maternal family history

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Dr. Ebenezer Bush describes his parents, Ebenezer Bush, Sr. and Gertrude Blackmore Bush and his sisters, Ruth and Eunice Bush

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Dr. Ebenezer Bush describes his father, Ebenezer Bush, Sr.

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Dr. Ebenezer Bush talks about attending Oakland Baptist Church in Shreveport, Louisiana as a child

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Dr. Ebenezer Bush describes his mother, Gertrude Blackmore Bush

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Dr. Ebenezer Bush talks about how his parents, Ebenezer Bush, Sr. and Gertrude Blackmore Bush, met

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Dr. Ebenezer Bush talks about growing up in segregated Shreveport, Louisiana during the Depression

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Dr. Ebenezer Bush describes the sights, smells, and sounds of his childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Dr. Ebenezer Bush describes himself as a child

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Dr. Ebenezer Bush talks about his role models in Shreveport, Louisiana

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Dr. Ebenezer Bush describes his social life while attending Central Colored High School in Shreveport, Louisiana

Tape: 1 Story: 14 - Dr. Ebenezer Bush talks about learning African American history as a child

Tape: 1 Story: 15 - Dr. Ebenezer Bush talks about successful African American role models in Shreveport, Louisiana

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Dr. Ebenezer Bush reflects on the advice of his role model in Shreveport, Louisiana, Mr. Ed Hudson

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Dr. Ebenezer Bush describes being accepted to Tuskegee University as a five-year work-study student in 1938

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Dr. Ebenezer Bush talks about contracting tuberculosis while a student at Tuskegee University

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Dr. Ebenezer Bush describes the difficulty of re-entering Tuskegee University after recovering from tuberculosis

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Dr. Ebenezer Bush talks about helping a fellow Tuskegee University student pay for his room and board

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Dr. Ebenezer Bush describes what he learned from Dr. George Washington Carver at Tuskegee University

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Dr. Ebenezer Bush describes the Tuskegee Airmen and Tuskegee Airfield

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Dr. Ebenezer Bush talks about the rituals and guest speakers at Tuskegee University

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Dr. Ebenezer Bush reflects on the change in Tuskegee University after his graduation in 1943

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Dr. Ebenezer Bush talks about the Tuskegee syphilis experiment conducted by the U.S. Public Health Service on African American men

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Dr. Ebenezer Bush talks about Frederick Douglass Patterson's United Negro College Fund and fundraising for Tuskegee University

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Dr. Ebenezer Bush talks about teaching agriculture at high schools in Louisiana

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Dr. Ebenezer Bush describes being mentored by Dr. Simms, a dentist in Louisiana

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Dr. Ebenezer Bush describes serving in the U.S. Army during World War II at Fort Leonard Wood and Camp Crowder in Missouri

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Dr. Ebenezer Bush describes the devastation he witnessed while serving in the U.S. Army in Japan during World War II

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Dr. Ebenezer Bush talks about experiencing Japanese culture while serving there during World War II

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Dr. Ebenezer Bush describes the last patient Dr. Charles Drew attended at Howard University's Freedman's Hospital in Washington D.C. in 1950

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Dr. Ebenezer Bush talks about working with the Long, Beach California NAACP against discrimination in the city when he moved there in 1954

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Dr. Ebenezer Bush describes fighting employment discrimination in Long Beach, California in the 1950s

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Dr. Ebenezer Bush talks about fighting educational discrimination at Long Beach City Colleges during the 1950s and 1960s

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Dr. Ebenezer Bush describes his hopes and concerns for the black community

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Dr. Ebenezer Bush reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Dr. Ebenezer Bush talks about his family

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Dr. Ebenezer Bush describes how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Dr. Ebenezer Bush narrates his photographs

DASession

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DAStory

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DATitle
Dr. Ebenezer Bush describes what he learned from Dr. George Washington Carver at Tuskegee University
Dr. Ebenezer Bush describes fighting employment discrimination in Long Beach, California in the 1950s
Transcript
Well, what about Dr. [George Washington] Carver? Now, I don't think you talked about (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) No.$$--him.$$Okay, Dr. Carver, that's a good story. And I guess we can end Tuskegee [University] with that, I guess. I was a regular student at Tuskegee on the ROTC [Reserve Officers' Training Corps], and I would have been an officer, but I did not take--accept my commission because I wanted to, I was just, it just wasn't, wasn't--I was disillusioned. I didn't, you know, fight--the [U.S.] Army means fighting. And I told you I didn't like to fight, so I wanted peace.$$Were you, did you consider yourself very patriotic in those days? Did you (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) I was not--I felt myself patriotic and all that other stuff. I didn't wanna die.$$Okay.$$'Cause the infan- we were in the infantry. That meant we had to lead men in battle, and I went on to be in the medics. I was a medical officer. I didn't wanna nothing to do with fighting. You know, I could, I was a sharp shooter and all that stuff, but I didn't wanna go into it. I just want--didn't want--so anyway, I turned my commission down and took a job. But anyway, before I left Tuskegee, I had seen Dr. Carver up and down the campus. He died in the '40s [1940s]. I finished in '43 [1943]. And all, every (unclear) some student working for him. Dr. Carver had a guy, fellow, man working for him named Moore. So I looked at Moore. I said, "Moore, I'd like to talk to Dr. Carver. You think it'd be possible for me to talk to him before I leave here?" He said, "Yes, I'll talk to him and ask him, and I'll let you know." So the answer came back in the affirmative. "Dr. Carver will see you in his museum on Saturday at such and such a time, he'll see you." So Ebenezer means the stone of help. I asked twelve other guys to go with me. I didn't wanna have him all by myself, so I asked all my friends, "Do you--I have an appointment with Dr. Carver. Do you wanna go?" So twelve of us, which with me I made thirteen, met in his museum on that morning, twelve, thirteen of us. And I got as close to him as you--I'm talking to you, looked right in his eyes. And he was so glad to see us, very brilliant. And he talked about all thing--how glad he was for--we thought of him enough to come see him, things like that. And we went on a lot of stuff. But there are four things he left me with I can remember of the zillion things he said; number one, always be a--always have unyielding faith in God, the maker and creator of everything; number two, be a student as long as you live because the world about you changes; number three, don't--always be trustworthy of people who trust you, don't betray their trust; four, don't let hate destroy you, care how much people hate you, you don't hate them. He said, "With these four things, young men," he bidded us as he told us goodbye, "these things will carry you through life." So he questioned us that day and gave us a--he looked out the window of his museum, and he said, "You see those magnolia that are falling on the ground there? I challenge you fellows to go and see what you can do with them, 'cause God didn't make--whatever God made there's a use for it. So go and see what you can do with it." He was a very nice fellow to talk with. He was very kind and gentle. He spent a lot of time with us. That's my experience with him.$Now, yeah, okay, so Long Beach [California], the NAACP [National Association for the Advancement of Colored People], you were talking about.$$Well, I was, I was telling you about the George Tolls and he told me to--let me talk--let me hold, I just want to get it right. We had to get some--we had this meeting with Governor Brown, secre- appointment secretary.$$This Pat Brown, right? Back in the (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Pat Brown, Sr., secretary and we met in St. John's [Baptist Church] basement. And all extolled Governor Brown's virtues except me and so he looked at me and said, "Dr., everyone has said something but you." I said, "I don't think you'd wanna hear what I got to say. While Governor Brown's a good governor, but he isn't doing anything in Long Beach to help me or help the people, not me particularly, get jobs from the department of employment because the way job--that's the way jobs originated. How do I expect private industry to look at me if the governor, government is not treating me fair?" "You mean to tell--." I said, "I'm looking, my eyes' 20/20. I'm telling you what I'm--." "You get somebody ready, we'll put him in there." So my wife and I got a notice out to all the churches to please send back to Xavier [University], Dillard [University], Central [State University], Ohio State, or wherever, wherever the schools were, to get someone out to take this exam. At that time, they were paying about seven thousand or eight thousand [dollars] a year. That was a lot of money then, and 'cause the examination was difficult. It was job interviewer and wasn't paying very good. Well, I'd preached all I could in two or three churches and as much as I could, and I sent notice to the rest of them. When the examination met, there were two were successful. So I got a call, "Dr., we're ready to make an appointment, but two people that pass the exam don't want to take the job, and we're ready to make an appointment to the office." So I said to him, I said, "Give me time. I'll find you someone to go in there." I had to go over my mind over and over. It was a fellow in Long Beach named Joseph T. Brooks, who was [Reverend Dr.] Martin Luther King [Jr.]'s classmate, went to Morehouse [College]. Well, he had been passed over in the [U.S.] Navy, and his wife was a principal of a school in Long Beach, and he didn't have a real job. He messed around trying to get something going, and he was going to USC [University of Southern California] a little while here and then he was selling insurance. And I could not buy all the insurance that Joe was selling, so I know what Joe needed was a real job. So I called his wife. I said, "Beryl, where's Joe?" "Oh he's so and so." I said, "Go down--tell him to go down on Broadway downtown to the department of employment office, wherever it is downtown L.A. [Los Angeles, California]. I got a job for him, and I'm sure it's an exam to be given. I'm sure he can pass the exam." So when Joe went down there and took the--make the--the makeup exam or the special exam, he passed it. I got a call two or three days later. "Dr., you sent the right man, and we're gonna make an appointment of Joseph T. Brooks this offer immediately." So when Joseph T. Brooks came to the window, a tickler file went out the window. I would get a call from Joseph T. in the middle of the day, say, "Bush, I need ten men to go out on the Avenue," on Orange Avenue at that time and Anaheim [Street] was where the black commerce was and black people hung out, "and make an announcement and tell them to come to my window, Harriet Tubman." So I'd leave my office, which was located in front of (Unclear) and Atlantic [Avenue], and go down and announce to the people do you want a job, do you need a job, do you need a job. And we broke all that stuff down. That's how that with Brown was broken down. When Joseph T. Brooks took that little job on the Kennedy administration, became the West Coast regional director of civil rights or whatever that part of the--(simultaneous)-$$(Simultaneous) Equal Opportunity Employment?$$Yeah, that's right, he took a--he became a West Coast region, including Hawaii and all the West Coast. That job sent him way up there from that little beginning. So we were able to help to get a lot of people jobs and mix the stuff, break it down.

Dr. Henry L. Cook

Highly regarded as a businessman and community leader, dentist Dr. Henry Lee Cook, Sr. was born on September 7, 1939 in Macon, Georgia. He earned a B. S. degree in Biology from Tuskegee University in 1962.

Cook served in the United States Air Force as a First Lieutenant from 1962 to 1965. He was married, in 1964, to the former Mamie Richmond and they have been married for the past 38 years. In 1965, Cook traveled to Nashville, Tennessee and earned a D. D. S. from Meharry Medical College in 1969. Setting up private practice as a dentist in Columbus, Georgia, Cook practiced dentistry successfully for 32 years. In 1976, he built the Martin Luther King, Jr. Shopping Center in Columbus' black community, which included an ultra-modern dental office.

Throughout his career, Cook has been involved in a variety of professional and civic organizations. His affiliations include: the American College of Dentistry, the Pierre Fauchard Academy, the National Dental Association, the Georgia Dental Association, the Western District Dental Society, and the State Health Strategies Council. He is the former chairman of the board of the Columbus Technical Foundation, the Columbus Technical Institute and the A. J. McClung Y. M. C. A. Cook is currently chairman of the Minority Assistance Corporation, the Columbus Business Development Center and the Supervisory Board of Personal Review. Among his many awards, Cook is the recipient of the Georgia Dental Society's highest honor, the Dr. J. E. Carter Award and the Civil Rights Award from the National Dental Association. Both of his children, Henry and Cathy are dentists.

Accession Number

A2002.015

Sex

Male

Interview Date

3/16/2002

Last Name

Cook

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

L.

Schools

Hazel Street Elementary School

Byron Elementary School

Fort Valley High School

Tuskegee University

Meharry Medical College

First Name

Henry

Birth City, State, Country

Macon

HM ID

COO02

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Georgia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Las Vegas, Nevada

Favorite Quote

To whom much is given, much is required.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Birth Date

9/7/1939

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Atlanta

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Chicken, Yams (Candied)

Short Description

Civil rights activist and dentist Dr. Henry L. Cook (1939 - ) was the former President of Georgia Dental Association and the recipient of the Georgia Dental Society's highest honor, the Dr. J. E. Carter Award. Dr. Cook was also awarded the Civil Rights Award from the National Dental Association.

Employment

United States Air Force

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Henry Cook's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Henry Cook lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Henry Cook talks about his family's history

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Henry Cook shares memories of his parents

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Henry Cook describes in his grandparents' home

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Henry Cook describes the teacher, Elizabeth Richmond, who became his adopted mother

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Henry Cook describes his childhood personality and activities

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Henry Cook talks about moving away from home in order to attend high school in Fort Valley, Georgia

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Henry Cook talks about his high school experiences and his siblings' lack of educational opportunity

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Henry Cook describes the support he received to attend Tuskegee Institute

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Henry Cook describes the sights, smells, and sounds of his childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Henry Cook describes his love of reading as a child

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Henry Cook talks about his decision to major in engineering at Tuskegee Institute

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Henry Cook talks about HistoryMaker Robert Church, a father figure in his life

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Henry Cook describes his desire to please authority figures and an unforgettable lesson about lying

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Henry Cook reflects upon his high school experiences

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Henry Cook talks about his decision to major in biology at Tuskegee Institute

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Henry Cook describes his experience at Tuskegee Institute

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Henry Cook talks about the gerrymandering in Tuskegee, Alabama, and his experience of racial discrimination

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Henry Cook describes how the ROTC inspired him to join the U.S. Air Force

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Henry Cook talks about his service in the U.S. Air Force and why he left the military

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Henry Cook describes his grandparents' deaths

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Henry Cook talks about his decision to attend Meharry Medical College

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Henry Cook talks about his first year at Meharry Medical College

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Henry Cook talks about his choice of dentistry and his involvement in professional dental organizations

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Henry Cook describes how he got his start practicing dentistry in Columbus, Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Henry Cook talks about setting up his dental practice and building his own office

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Henry Cook explains why medicine and law are intimidating fields for African American youth

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Henry Cook talks about the importance of mentorship to academic success

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Henry Cook talks about his children and how he made sure they saw examples of successful black and female professionals

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Henry Cook describes changes in healthcare access for African Americans and his work with indigent patients

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Henry Cook talks about his wife's role in building his dental office

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Henry Cook talks about impact of managed care on physicians and dentists

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Henry Cook talks about Meharry Medical College, Howard University, and Morehouse School of Medicine, important educators of African American medical providers

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Henry Cook talks about Meharry Medical College's contributions to dentistry

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Henry Cook describes how he gives back to his family and his community

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Henry Cook talks about his grandmother, Dora Jackson

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Henry Cook reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Henry Cook narrates his photographs

DASession

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DATitle
Henry Cook describes how he got his start practicing dentistry in Columbus, Georgia
Henry Cook talks about setting up his dental practice and building his own office
Transcript
So how does the practice bring you back to Columbus, Georgia?$$I was--had graduated, doing my internship with a desire to move to Atlanta [Georgia], which was my lifelong goal, just live in Atlanta, the big city, bright lights. You know everything happens in Atlanta. The girls are prettier in Atlanta they told me (laughter). Went to Atlanta to make an assessment to find out, you know, my--if the, the building that I was gonna lease would kind of blew me out in terms of what it would cost me. I made an assessment of my equipment that I needed. It just blew my mind again. I needed a house. The smallest house possible was a hundred--I mean we're talking about just a four box--four-room box--broke, no money. I said let me think about this. At the same time, there was a dentist in Columbus who passed. His name was Dr. Clifton Williams. And it just so happened that his wife was living with my adopted mom [Elizabeth Richmond] in Fort Valley [Georgia] working on her master's degree at Fort Valley State College. They called me and apprised me of the fact that Dr. Williams had passed and asked me would I be interested in seeing the practice before they mentioned it to anybody else. I wasn't excited about that, because I wanted to go to Atlanta. But my mom and my, my wife [Mamie Cook nee Richmond] said I think you ought to go down and take a look at it, which I did. And I came down here at a, a heapings of records--patient records, which was the biggest thing in a practice. He was well liked, had good people skill. He was in a building that had a history of healthcare. And on the corner of--"healthcare corner" we called it (laughter), which is not far from here, by the way; it's just a few blocks from here. After giving a lot of thought and then after reflecting on what it would cost me to get started in Atlanta, in a city would--that would take me years to even be known because of the numbers alone, I decided Columbus is not a bad idea. And I can always move to Atlanta if I want to. That was thirty-two years ago. And the, the fun of that is many times I called a colleague in Atlanta and said let's have a cocktail together at the bar in Atlanta. He said where are you, Henry? I said in ca--I'm in Columbus. He said well, well, when you get to Atlanta, call--I said no, no, you start now, and I'll start now. And I would always beat him to the bar, because the traffic's so bad in Atlanta. That was my private joke with him. And they never believed--you were not in Columbus. Yes, I was--hour 20 minutes I'm in Atlanta; hour and a half they were stuck in traffic (laughter).$So what did you go about to make the practice even grow more from the one you inherited? What--$$The first thing I did I assumed a--upstairs over a drugstore that was something like five or six rooms. There were three separate businesses up there, believe it or not. At one time a physician was upstairs, a, a CPA bookkeeper was upstairs, and a dentist was upstairs. And that was nothing, not enough space for me. I couldn't do anything with, with two-room dental practice. So I got the entire upstairs renovated, made it look, you know, appealing for what I thought, and I started there; did my own marketing. There was no, no mass media, just got out and just met folk; went to the churches. After work I would just go in the neighborhood and just meet people. And I just liked doing that anyway. That was just natural for me. That was a natural--and over a short period of time, I guess half of Columbus [Georgia] knew I was in town. The, the--a, a little boy is here (laughter). And of course the best one they said: "He's little and young, but he's good." And that one I could relate to. So it started there. And I always had business cards wherever I went. I thought about it like this, I can buy a thousand business cards for ten dollars. And if one patient come in I've paid for that and the next six orders, so I gave business cards everywhere.$$So how did the black community receive you--(simultaneous)--$$Quite well, quite well. I think they were impressed the way I came and took the entire upstairs and just renovated the entire thing, (unclear) in business, which has never happened before. And the word come out--he had the whole upstairs, which it was not really much. But given, you know, the history of three and sometimes four businesses, one in each room, you know, up there prior to that, I guess that kind of like got people attention.$$And the white community?$$Didn't make any impact on them at the time. But what I did, I went out to meet all of that, white guys, went to meet all of 'em. On my--on Thursday was my day off. I was in, in the dental office every Thursday, sometimes three and four. And it was, it was--I had motives, find out how do you do this, or what do you use for that, which piece of equipment is good, which is bad, you know. And I gleaned a whole lot of information from my colleagues, particularly the white ones who were buying new stuff. And, and my intentions after I was here for a short period was to build a building in five years. Nobody knew that but me and my, my family, but everything I did as of, I guess, a few months after I was--I, I--after I was here was to get around that. So I started gathering information on the how-to's, and what cost this, and what waste--don't waste your money on that. And I got good response, basically because I like people. And by and large, I think don't have a problem getting along with people at all, because I don't wait for them, you know, to come to me. I just get up and go.$$And your building?$$Five years I, I went into the new building, almost to the day. Built a building out on--it was Brookhaven [Georgia] at the time. We got the name changed to Martin Luther King Boulevard right in front of the WMCA, which is a black branch, very well located, very well traveled street; pulled some strings got a bus stop right outside the door (laughter).