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Dr. John E. Franklin, Jr.

Psychiatrist and professor Dr. John E. Franklin, Jr. was born on November 7, 1954 in St. Louis, Missouri to Arlena Scott Franklin and Dr. John E. Franklin, Sr. His family moved to Detroit, Michigan in the late 1950s and he graduated from the Interlochen Arts Academy in 1972. He studied theater at New York University School of the Arts before obtaining his B.S. degree in zoology from Michigan State University in 1976. In 1980, Franklin received his M.D. degree from the University of Michigan Medical School. He later earned an M.Sc. degree from the Harvard University School of Public Health in 1999 and an M.A. degree from Northwestern University in 2014.

Franklin began his career as an instructor in psychiatry at New York Hospital Cornell University Medical College in 1984. At the affiliated Westchester Division facility in White Plains, New York, he served as the attending physician in the substance abuse and eating disorder units. In 1986, Franklin moved to Newark, New Jersey to join the faculty of the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey - New Jersey Medical School. He worked with substance abuse patients at two Newark area institutions, the Institute for Counseling and Training and St. Barnabas Hospital, and held consultancies with the State of New Jersey and the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. In 1993, Franklin began a long-term career at Northwestern University and achieved the rank of full professor. He held faculty appointments in the departments of psychiatry, surgery and medical education/medical humanities and bioethics. Franklin provided psychiatric services for medical/ surgical inpatients, directed the Addiction Division and fellowship, had a general psychiatric practice and was the transplant psychiatrist for the Kovler Organ Transplantation Center. In 2002, Franklin was named associate dean for minority and cultural affairs at the Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, and in 2016, he became associate dean for diversity, inclusion and student support.

In 1985, Franklin helped found the American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry, and he has co-authored numerous papers, chapters, books in the areas of addiction, organ transplantation and health disparities. Franklin served on national committees for the National Institute for Drug Abuse, Institute of Medicine and Federal Drug Administration. He has served on community boards, including Lakefront Supportive Housing, Community Counseling Centers of Chicago, Westinghouse Scholars and did psychiatric disability examinations for the State of Illinois for 20 plus years. Franklin is a 2002 Leadership Greater Chicago fellow. He has served as a member of numerous professional organizations including the American Psychiatric Association, the National Medical Association and Black Psychiatrists of America. In 2017, he was elected into the Alpha Omega Alpha (AOA) honors medical society. Franklin has been recognized for his teaching contributions with awards and commitment to issues of diversity; in 2016, the Marco Ellis Legacy Award was renamed the John E. Franklin, MD Commitment to Diversity Award in his honor.

Franklin and his wife, Terri West Franklin, have three children.

Dr. John E. Franklin, Jr. was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on June 21, 2018.

Accession Number

A2018.111

Sex

Male

Interview Date

6/21/2018

Last Name

Franklin

Maker Category
Middle Name

E.

Occupation
Organizations
First Name

John

Birth City, State, Country

St. Louis

HM ID

FRA17

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Missouri

Favorite Vacation Destination

Italy

Favorite Quote

If it ain't broke don't fix it.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Illinois

Birth Date

11/7/1954

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Chicago

Favorite Food

Steak

Short Description

Psychiatrist and professor Dr. John E. Franklin, Jr. (1954- ) became an expert on addiction and organ transplants and has an over twenty five year career at Northwestern University Hospital and Medical School. In 2016, the Marco Ellis Legacy Award was renamed the John E. Franklin, MD Commitment to Diversity Award in his honor.

Favorite Color

Brown

Dr. Leonard E. Lawrence

Professor and psychiatrist Dr. Leonard E. Lawrence was born on June 27, 1937 in Indianapolis, Indiana. He graduated from Cathedral High School in Indianapolis and went on to receive his B.A. degree in pre-medicine in 1959 from Indiana University-Bloomington, and his M.D. degree in 1962 from Indiana University School of Medicine in Indianapolis.

Lawrence interned at E. J. Meyer Memorial Hospital in Buffalo, from 1962 to 1963 and then served two years as a general medical officer in the U.S. Air Force from 1963 to 1965. He returned to Indiana University School of Medicine and completed his residency and fellowship in child psychiatry and his chief residency in general psychiatry in 1969 at Indiana University School of Medicine. He was board certified in psychiatry in 1970 and child psychiatry in 1971. Lawrence was then assigned to the Child Guidance Clinic at Wilford Hall U.S. Air Force Medical Center in San Antonio, Texas from 1969 to 1972. He then joined the faculty of the Medical School of The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio (UTHSCSA) as assistant professor in 1972 and served as associate dean for student affairs (Dean of Students) in the Medical School in 1981, serving in that role until his retirement in 2005. Lawrence retired as tenured professor in the Departments of Psychiatry, Pediatrics and Family and Community Medicine in 2005. The University of Texas Board of Regents bestowed upon him the title professor emeritus in 2005, and Lawrence returned to the department of psychiatry on a half-time basis to construct the faculty development process for the department.

Lawrence served as a member of numerous organizations including as the 92nd President of the National Medical Association (NMA) from 1993 to 1994. He also served as past chairperson of the Group on Student Affairs (GSA) Minority Affairs Section of the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC). He was awarded the AAMC Minority Affairs distinguished Service Award for his leadership and work on behalf of underrepresented minority students throughout the U.S. in 2004. He also served on the Council of Children, Adolescents and their Families of the American Psychiatric Association (APA) of which he is a Distinguished Life Fellow. He is also a Distinguished Life Fellow of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP), he served as past membership chairperson. He received the 2005 AACAP Jeanne Spurlock Lectureship Award for his contributions nationally and internationally to the understanding of the role of race and culture in children’s mental health.

Lawrence served on the Executive Committee of United Way of San Antonio and Bexar County and chaired the Board of Trustees. He also chaired the Management Board of San Antonio Fighting Back, a major substance abuse intervention project funded through the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation.

Lawrence and his wife, Dr. Barbara Lawrence, have three children; Courtney Nicole Lawrence, MD, Leonard Michael Lawrence, MD, and David Wellington Lawrence, MPA. They also have five grandchildren.

Dr. Leonard E. Lawrence was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on June 6, 2018.

Accession Number

A2018.119

Sex

Male

Interview Date

6/6/2018

Last Name

Lawrence

Maker Category
Occupation
Organizations
First Name

Leonard

Birth City, State, Country

Indianapolis

HM ID

LAW06

Favorite Season

My Birthday

State

Indiana

Favorite Vacation Destination

Lisbon, Portugal

Favorite Quote

N/A

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Texas

Birth Date

6/27/1937

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

San Antonio

Favorite Food

Fried Chicken

Short Description

Professor and psychiatrist Dr. Leonard E. Lawrence (1937- ) was named professor emeritus University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio Medical School in 2005 and previously served as associate dean for Student Affairs in the Medical School in 1981, and a tenured professor.

Favorite Color

Blue

Dr. June Jackson Christmas

Psychiatrist Dr. June Jackson Christmas was born on June 7, 1924 in Cambridge, Massachusetts to Mortimer Jackson and Lillian Jackson. She earned her B.S. degree in zoology from Vassar College in 1945, and her M.D. degree in psychiatry from the Boston University School of Medicine in 1949. Christmas completed her psychiatric residencies at Bellevue Hospital, and Queens General Hospital. She also received a certificate in psychoanalysis from the William Alanson White Institute.

In addition to opening her own private practice, Christmas worked as a psychiatrist for the Riverdale Children’s Association in New York City from 1953 to 1965. In 1962, she became chief of the group therapy program at the Harlem Hospital Center and founded the Harlem Hospital Rehabilitation Center in 1964. From 1964 to 1972, she served as principal investigator on research projects for the National Institute of Mental Health; and in 1971, began teaching at Columbia University's College of Physicians and Surgeons. In 1972, Christmas was appointed deputy chief of the New York City Department of Mental Health and Retardation Services by Mayor John Lindsay. She was re-appointed in 1973 by Mayor Abraham D. Beame and again in 1978 by Mayor Ed Koch. In 1976, Christmas headed the Department of Health, Education and Welfare transition team for then president-elect Jimmy Carter. In 1980, Christmas began teaching behavioral science at the C.U.N.Y. Medical School. While teaching at C.U.N.Y. she co-founded the think tank Urban Issues Group. Christmas also served as a member of New York Governor Mario Cuomo's Advisory Committee on Black Affairs in 1986, and as chair of New York City Mayor David Dinkins' Advisory Council on Child Health in New York City from 1990 to 1994.

Christmas was a member of Vassar College's Board of Trustees from 1978 to 1989. She was the first African American woman president of the American Public Health Association in 1980. In 2003, she became a member of the board for the Jackie Robinson Foundation. Christmas also received numerous awards for her work, including the 1974 Human Services Award from the Mental Health Association of New York and Bronx Cities, as well as the 1976 Award for Excellence in the Field of Domestic Health from the American Public Health Association. She was named Vassar College’s President's 1988 Distinguished Visitor, and received the Lifetime Achievement Award from the National Medical Fellowships in 1999.

Christmas has three children: Vincent, Rachel, and Gordon.

Dr. June Jackson Christmas was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on January 19, 2017 and February 3, 2017.

Accession Number

A2017.004

Sex

Female

Interview Date

1/19/2017 |and| 02/03/2017

Last Name

Christmas

Maker Category
Marital Status

Widow

Middle Name

Jackson

Occupation
Organizations
Schools

Kendall Square Elementary School

Russell School

Cambridge Rindge and Latin School

Vassar College

Boston University School of Medicine

First Name

June

Birth City, State, Country

Boston

HM ID

CHR04

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Massachusetts

Favorite Vacation Destination

Jamaica

Favorite Quote

Do it

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Birth Date

6/7/1924

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New York

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Sushi

Short Description

Psychiatrist Dr. June Jackson Christmas (1924 - ) founded the Harlem Hospital Rehabilitation Center in 1964, and served as deputy chief of the New York City Department of Mental Health and Retardation Services under three consecutive New York mayoral administrations.

Favorite Color

Blue, variations of turquoise

Dr. Carl Bell

Psychiatrist Dr. Carl Compton Bell was born on October 28, 1947, in Chicago, Illinois, to Pearl Debnam Bell and William Yancey Bell, Jr. Bell grew up in Chicago’s Hyde Park neighborhood and graduated from Hyde Park High School in 1965. He received his B.A. degree in biology from the University of Illinois at Chicago in 1967. Bell received his M.D. degree in 1971 from Meharry Medical College in Nashville, Tennessee. He completed his psychiatric residency in 1974 at the Illinois State Psychiatric Institute in Chicago, where he worked with children, adolescents and adults. From 1974 to 1976, Bell served as a Lt. Commander in the United States Navy.

Bell has worked as a psychiatrist at numerous Chicago area institutions including Jackson Park Hospital, Human Correctional and Service Institute, Chatham Avalon Mental Health Center, the Chicago Board of Education, and the Community Mental Health Council. In 1982, Bell became the medical director of the Community Mental Health Council, one of the largest not-for-profit community mental health centers in the U.S. Since 1987, he has been the president and CEO of the Community Mental Health Council. He has been a professor of clinical psychiatry at the University of Illinois School of Medicine and School of Public Health. In addition, Bell hosted radio talk shows on mental health issues on WVON-AM and WJPC-FM in the late 1980s and early 1990s.

Bell is a National Institute of Mental Health international researcher and an author of more than 400 books, chapters, and scientific publications addressing issues of children exposed to violence, violence prevention, HIV prevention, isolated sleep paralysis and misdiagnosis of Manic Depressive Illness. He is the editor of Psychiatric Perspectives on Violence: Understanding Causes and Issues in Prevention and Treatment, and author of Getting Rid of Rats: Perspectives of a Black Community Psychiatrist and The Sanity of Survival: Reflections on Community Mental Health and Wellness.

Bell is the recipient of numerous awards including the E.Y. Williams Distinguished Senior Clinical Scholar Award from the National Medical Association in 1992. He received the American Psychiatric Association President's Commendation on Violence in 1997. Bell was appointed to the Violence Against Women Advisory Council by then U.S. Attorney General Janet Reno and was a participant in the White House's Strategy Session on Children, Violence, and Responsibility. He was appointed to the working group for the Surgeon General's Report on Mental Health - Culture, Race, and Ethnicity; and to the Planning Board for the Surgeon General's Report on Youth Violence. In recognition of his efforts to reduce violence, Bell became the first recipient of the American Psychiatric Foundation's Minority Service Award in 2004.

Bell is a member of the American Psychiatric Association, the American Association of Community Psychiatrists, the National Medical Association, Black Psychiatrists of America, and a former vice-president and editor of the American College of Psychiatrists. He is also a founding member and past board chairman of the National Commission on Correctional Health Care.

Accession Number

A2008.117

Sex

Male

Interview Date

11/3/2008

Last Name

Bell

Maker Category
Occupation
Schools

Hyde Park Academy High School

George Howland Elementary School

Charles Kozminski Elementary Community Academy

Harold Washington College

Olive-Harvey College, City Colleges of Chicago

University of Illinois at Chicago

Meharry Medical College

Speakers Bureau

Yes

Speakers Bureau Availability

Depends on Schedule

First Name

Carl

Birth City, State, Country

Chicago

HM ID

BEL05

Speakers Bureau Preferred Audience

Specifics: I prefer decision makers, people with power and juice.

Speakers Bureau Honorarium

Depends on audience - Negotiable

Favorite Season

None

Speaker Bureau Notes

Preferred Audience Specifics: I prefer decision makers, people with power and juice.

State

Illinois

Favorite Vacation Destination

None

Favorite Quote

Nobody Cares.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Illinois

Birth Date

10/28/1947

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Chicago

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Pizza

Short Description

Psychiatrist Dr. Carl Bell (1947 - ) served as the medical director, president and CEO of the Community Mental Health Council, one of the largest not-for-profit community mental health centers in the U.S. He was a professor of clinical psychiatry at the University of Illinois School of Medicine and School of Public Health.

Employment

Naval Station Great Lakes

Jackson Park Hospital

Chicago Board of Education

City of Chicago Department of Public Health

Human Resources Development Institute

Community Mental Health Council, Inc.,

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Favorite Color

Purple

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Dr. Carl Bell's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Dr. Carl Bell lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Dr. Carl Bell describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Dr. Carl Bell describes his father's family background, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Dr. Carl Bell describes his father's family background, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Dr. Carl Bell remembers his paternal grandfather, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Dr. Carl Bell remembers his paternal grandfather, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Dr. Carl Bell remembers visiting his paternal grandfather in South Boston, Virginia

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Dr. Carl Bell talks about his paternal grandfather's early life

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Dr. Carl Bell talks about how his parents met

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Dr. Carl Bell describes his father's role with the Urban League of Greater Atlanta

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Dr. Carl Bell remembers his father's career

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Dr. Carl Bell talks about his family's influence, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Dr. Carl Bell talks about his family's influence, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Dr. Carl Bell talks about the debate over nature versus nurture in psychology

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Dr. Carl Bell describes his parents' personalities

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Dr. Carl Bell describes his earliest childhood memories

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Dr. Carl Bell remembers his home life

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Dr. Carl Bell describes the Hyde Park neighborhood of Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Dr. Carl Bell recalls his early gang involvement

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Dr. Carl Bell remembers his neighbor, Bryant Gumbel

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Dr. Carl Bell recalls his early influences

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Dr. Carl Bell describes his early educational experiences, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Dr. Carl Bell describes his early educational experiences, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Dr. Carl Bell remembers his eighth grade teacher

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Dr. Carl Bell talks about developmental psychology

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Dr. Carl Bell recalls his interest in comic books

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Dr. Carl Bell reflects upon his experiences in the Hyde Park neighborhood of Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Dr. Carl Bell remembers Hyde Park High School in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Dr. Carl Bell remembers his graduation from high school

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Dr. Carl Bell recalls his acceptance to the University of Illinois at Chicago Circle

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Dr. Carl Bell remembers his mother's death

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Dr. Carl Bell talks about his college experiences

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Dr. Carl Bell describes his experiences of racial discrimination in Indiana

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Dr. Carl Bell remembers his college apartment in the Woodlawn neighborhood of Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Dr. Carl Bell talks about his brother's death

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Dr. Carl Bell remembers applying to medical school

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Dr. Carl Bell talks about the psychology of childhood trauma

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Dr. Carl Bell recalls the racial quota at the University of Illinois College of Medicine

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - Dr. Carl Bell recalls his first impressions of Meharry Medical College in Nashville, Tennessee

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Dr. Carl Bell recalls his arrest in Pulaski, Tennessee

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Dr. Carl Bell remembers being bailed out of jail by his medical professor

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Dr. Carl Bell recalls becoming the target of an FBI investigation

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Dr. Carl Bell describes his experiences at Meharry Medical College

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Dr. Carl Bell remembers his decision to study psychiatry, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Dr. Carl Bell remembers his decision to study psychiatry, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Dr. Carl Bell recalls his psychiatric residency

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Dr. Carl Bell recalls his service in the U.S. Navy

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Dr. Carl Bell recalls his role at the Naval Station Great Lakes in Illinois

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Dr. Carl Bell recalls his introduction to martial arts

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Dr. Carl Bell talks about racial discrimination in healthcare

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Dr. Carl Bell describes the Black Psychiatrists of America

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Dr. Carl Bell recalls working with Douglas Foster

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Dr. Carl Bell describes his public health initiatives in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Dr. Carl Bell describes his role at the Community Mental Health Council, Inc.

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Dr. Carl Bell describes the problems with psychology

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Dr. Carl Bell talks about Sigmund Freud's theory of spirituality

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Dr. Carl Bell describes his professional collaborations with Dr. David Satcher

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Dr. Carl Bell talks about predictive factors in childhood psychology

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Dr. Carl Bell describes the theory of collective efficacy

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Dr. Carl Bell talks about the suicide rate among African Americans

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Dr. Carl Bell describes the stigma against medical research in the African American community

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Dr. Carl Bell describes his initiatives at the Community Mental Health Council, Inc.

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Dr. Carl Bell talks about suicide in the African American community

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Dr. Carl Bell describes the importance of preventative healthcare

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Dr. Carl Bell shares his personal philosophy

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - Dr. Carl Bell reflects upon his life

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - Dr. Carl Bell talks about his experiences with the media

Tape: 8 Story: 6 - Dr. Carl Bell reflects upon his spirituality

Tape: 8 Story: 7 - Dr. Carl Bell describes the focus of his research

Tape: 8 Story: 8 - Dr. Carl Bell reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 8 Story: 9 - Dr. Carl Bell talks about his family

Tape: 8 Story: 10 - Dr. Carl Bell describes how he would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

6$7

DAStory

8$2

DATitle
Dr. Carl Bell talks about Sigmund Freud's theory of spirituality
Dr. Carl Bell talks about predictive factors in childhood psychology
Transcript
You mentioned that Freud [Sigmund Freud] didn't understand spirituality or black spirituality (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) No, no.$$--or.$$Freud, Freud, Freud thought spirituality was this oceanic feeling and he, he derided cosmic consciousness and expanded states of consciousness and satori and samadhi and, you know, peak experiences, he didn't understand any of that. He, he demeaned it to being something regressive as, as opposed to something enlightened. That's since been, those were, those were his two biggest mistakes, thinking that people who were hysterical who had anxiety disorders, posttraumatic stress disorder were, weren't really actually in harm's way, where someone had actually done something to them, he thought they were making it up. That was one mistake. The other mistake was that he demonized or dogged out spirituality. A big mistake. He called it magical thinking. And it's, it's a little difficult 'cause people who are schizophrenic have magical thinking. They think that God is talking to them. They think that they have an inside track to God but they're delusional, they're psychotic, it's not real. And the way you tell is that those people are the people walking down the street with no clothes on or are the people who walk down the street with twelve overcoats on in the middle of August or people who talk to themselves and they're special 'cause God has touched them. Nope, if God is touching you, he's touching you in the wrong way. Other people who meditate and who try to discipline their minds, who open themselves up to clarity and wisdom, and who open themselves up to spirituality and that special uncommon way of knowing, get information, they have foresight and insight, they have what religion refers to as gifts, prophecy, blah, blah, blah, blah, blah. Freud also was down on religion for the same reason he was down on spirituality. But those people are successful, they're flourishing, they're doing great and wonderful things, they're able to create their own future, they're able to have synchronicity, synergy plus alignment with events, so that they're always in the right place at the right time, being led by some internal compass that gets 'em exactly where they need to be. It sounds magical but it's not and the, the way you tell is that the proof is in the pudding. But see and then that's the other thing about psychiatry, most people think psychiatry just studies disease but actually psychiatry also studies creativity and wellness but we're not known for that 'cause nobody pays for that. They, people wanna get well, they wanna stop being scared, they wanna stop being psychotic, they wanna stop being depressed, they wanna stop being. Then you have this other conversation about, be proactive, begin with the end in mind, all these successful, you know, flourish, have a purpose in life, have a meaning in life, know who you are, know thyself, discipline your mind, meditate, cultivate, be CEO of self, create your own future. Hm, you start having those conversations with people they go, "Huh? What are you talking about?" Some people go, "Oh, okay. I got it." But most people don't understand that's a very, very good reason to go to a psychiatrist. But they, you know. I would say some of the work I do is ultra professional work, and I see like ultra professionals who are people making big money who are just so damn trifling, they're not stupid, my tendency is to call them stupid but they're not stupid, they just don't know any better, they're ignorant. And you try to, and then, you know, usually when they get to me, is when they've done something wrong. They're about to go to jail, "Can you help me? I'm about to go to jail." "Well, yeah," (laughter), "of course, you are 'cause you did this, this, and this. You got the wrong people around you, you're not right, you have no discipline, you haven't disciplined your body, you haven't disciplined your mind, you're not, you're not making an investment in your future, why do you think you wouldn't get in trouble? You've got all this money, what are you doing with it?"$The thing that people don't understand which I'm trying to, I'm on another mission, when I was doing children exposed to violence in '82 [1982], even though no one had ever heard of it, people were like, what are you talking about? What, and then other people came behind me and replicated my research and found that I was right. But back then I was under the impression that traumatized children had all these psychiatric disorders and they were bound and determined to have psychiatry disorders 'cause they had been exposed to trauma. So back then my notion was risk factors were predictive factors, again, kitchen table psychology, kitchen table psychiatry. Well, if you've seen your mother get killed, certainly you're gonna grow up messed up. No, gotta have protective factors. When we did the Institute of Medicine's [National Academy of Medicine] report and started doing that in around 1999 or 2000, we did a, a report on suicide prevention ['The Surgeon General's Call to Action to Prevent Suicide']. Twenty thousand out of a hundred thousand people get depressed, one fifth of all people get depressed. About eight thousand people attempt suicide. People who actually complete suicide, the average is twelve, twelve per one hundred thousand. So what's protecting 99,988 people who are depressed from completing suicide? What's keeping seven thousand and 1,988 people who have attempted suicide from completing suicide? Well, there have to be protective factors. So we're starting a whole new thing around public health and trying to say to people, rather than profiling, identifying, demonizing children exposed to violence, there's a study adverse childhood experiences study that looked at sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse, domestic violence, mother mentally ill, parent in prison, parent using drugs, seven adverse childhood experiences. Everybody has at least one of those. Six percent of this white middle class population studied in San Diego [California], 50 percent, college graduate, jobs, health insurance, have at least one adverse childhood experience, 50 percent have at least one, 6 percent have four or more. Your immediate assumption would be if you've had four physical abuse, child abuse, mother on crack [crack cocaine], whatever, you're doomed, it's horrible, you've had a horrible childhood, you're doomed. No, protective factors. It does turn out if you've had four or more, you're twelve times more likely to attempt suicide, ten times more likely to be depressed, three and a half times more likely to have sexually transmitted disease, traumatized stressed out children grow up feeling unloved, they trade sex for affection, get venereal disease, HIV [human immunodeficiency virus]. So they get all these psychiatric problems. But in addition, the 6 percent that have four or more adverse childhood experiences have twice the rates of cancer, twice the rates of heart disease, four times the rate of lung disease 'cause they smoke, they drink, they overeat, they got more obesity. The problem is that's just looking at the deficit, you don't really study the people who have been exposed to adverse childhood experiences but are resilient and who have protective factors. And it turns out people are more resilient than they are weak. So I'm trying to flip the paradigm to a resiliency conversation and we're coming out with another Institute of Medicine report in 2008 which hopefully will do that. The Bush [President George Walker Bush] White House tried to have the New Freedom Commission report [President's New Freedom Commission on Mental Health] come out which spoke about protective factors but they got shot down. So now we're trying again because other countries spend half as much money and have twice the healthcare and the wellness. This country spends tons of money and their healthcare is horrible so I'm trying to shift that paradigm. But Satcher [HistoryMaker Dr. David Satcher] was a part of that 'cause in his youth violence report ['Youth Violence: A Report of the Surgeon General'], he came up with this notion, although we argue back and forth, he says it's my idea, I say it's his idea, that risk factors are not predictive factors 'cause of protective factors. The violence report shows that you cannot profile or tell that a child's gonna be violent despite everybody's kitchen table psychology, psychiatry. Oh, that kid's rotten, you know, first grade teachers, I can tell the bad kids. I know who they're gonna be. No, you can't. It's kitchen table psychology. It's not true, behavior is multi-determined and complex, you just can't do it.

Dr. Janice Hutchinson

Pediatrician and child psychiatrist Dr. Janice Gertrude Hutchinson was born on September 22, 1947, in Chicago, Illinois to Dorothy and James Hutchinson. She and her twin brother Jamal J. Hutchinson began their education at the Catholic school, Holy Name of Mary. They then attended Morgan Park High School, graduating in 1965. Hutchinson enrolled at Stanford University, where she took pre-medical courses but majored in sociology. After receiving her B.A. degree in 1969, she attended the University of Cincinnati Medical School, earning her M.D. degree in 1973. During her final year of medical school, she worked at the John F. Kennedy Hospital in Monrovia, Liberia. She completed her residency in pediatrics at Montefiore and Rush University Medical Centers before returning to school to earn her M.P.H. degree from the University of Illinois.

In the early 1980s, Hutchinson joined the Rush University Medical School as adjunct faculty. Disinterested in private practice, she joined the U.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps before taking a leave of absence to work in a refugee camp outside of Bangkok, Thailand. When she returned to the United States, she completed a child and adolescent fellowship at the Institute for Juvenile Research (IJR) at the University of Illinois. At the same time, she served as a public health doctor at the American Medical Association (AMA) where she worked on issues of teen pregnancy and child abuse. When the HIV antibody was identified in 1982, she was concerned about the devastating effect of the disease on children and helped to organize the AMA's first major HIV conference in the mid-1980s.

After Hutchinson completed her residency in adult psychiatry at the University of Cincinnati and at St. Elizabeths Hospital in Washington, D.C. , she was selected as the medical director and administrator for Children's Mental Health Services in Washington D.C.'s Department of Mental Health. Hutchinson currently works at Howard University where she is an associate professor of psychiatry and pediatrics and the residency training director in psychiatry for the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences. Board certified in pediatrics, adult and child psychiatry, Hutchinson has taught and written about child abuse, domestic violence, teen pregnancy, HIV/AIDS, children’s impulsivity and aggression, incarcerated juveniles and mental illness, the use of antidepressants with children and youth suicide. In 2005, she received the American Psychiatric Association’s Irma Bland Excellence in Teaching Award. Hutchinson co-authored Losing Control: Loving a Black Child with Bipolar Disorder with Cassandra Joubert and Linda Thompson Adams in 2007. Hutchinson is a member at large of the Washington Psychiatric Society.

Dr. Janice Hutchinson was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on July 26, 2008.

Accession Number

A2008.095

Sex

Female

Interview Date

7/26/2008

Last Name

Hutchinson

Schools

Holy Name of Mary School

Morgan Park High School

Stanford University

University of Cincinnati

University of Illinois at Chicago

First Name

Janice

Birth City, State, Country

Chicago

HM ID

HUT02

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Illinois

Favorite Vacation Destination

None

Favorite Quote

Acknowledge God In All Thy Ways And He Will Lead Thy Paths. Lean Not On Your Own Understanding.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

9/22/1947

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Fried Fish, Fried Chicken

Short Description

Medical professor, pediatrician, and psychiatrist Dr. Janice Hutchinson (1947 - ) is an associate professor of psychiatry and pediatrics, and the residency training director in psychiatry at Howard University College of Medicine. In 2007, Hutchinson co-authored the book, "Losing Control: Loving a Black Child with Bipolar Disorder."

Employment

Rush University Medical Center

United States Public Health Service Commissioned Corps.

American Medical Association (AMA)

District of Columbia Department of Mental Health

Howard University Hospital

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:8675,122:11905,204:12380,210:14850,236:20075,307:24635,351:31380,467:43105,549:43389,555:43673,560:44454,576:45945,607:46442,615:47436,632:62417,886:62843,894:65399,944:66606,966:68665,1004:84664,1122:121307,1618:123132,1647:126490,1703:126928,1713:127366,1727:127804,1733:129337,1752:129921,1762:131454,1802:133936,1836:144400,1966:159320,2157:160280,2170:162368,2184:162912,2194:163456,2203:167944,2293:186448,2547:186752,2552:188044,2567:188348,2578:188804,2585:194456,2650:198406,2715:199986,2727:200618,2736:201250,2746:201566,2751:203462,2783:204884,2808:205911,2817:206701,2829:207096,2835:216020,2924:216344,2929:218126,2970:227490,3088:246420,3322:246636,3327:257230,3435:259160,3442$0,0:5046,110:38782,616:40645,624:41155,631:41495,636:51185,785:92152,1303:92468,1308:97682,1395:112898,1624:125350,1808:128200,1830
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Dr. Janice Hutchinson's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Dr. Janice Hutchinson lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Dr. Janice Hutchinson describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Dr. Janice Hutchinson talks about the land owned by her maternal grandparents in Paducah, Kentucky

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Dr. Janice Hutchinson describes her mother's adolescence in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Dr. Janice Hutchinson describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Dr. Janice Hutchinson talks about her father's experience as a Pullman porter in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Dr. Janice Hutchinson describes her mother's personality and how she takes after her

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Dr. Janice Hutchinson describes her childhood in Chicago, Illinois and her father's personality

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Dr. Janice Hutchinson recalls the sights, sounds, and smells of growing up in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Dr. Janice Hutchinson talks about her experience at the Holy Name of Mary School and Morgan Park High School in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Dr. Janice Hutchinson describes her childhood love for reading

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Dr. Janice Hutchinson describes life in her childhood home in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Dr. Janice Hutchinson talks about what inspired her to become a pediatrician

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Dr. Janice Hutchinson recounts her decision to attend Stanford University in Stanford, California

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Dr. Janice Hutchinson talks about her decision to major in sociology at Stanford University in Stanford, California

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Dr. Janice Hutchinson recalls her mentors and black organizations at Stanford University in Stanford, California

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Dr. Janice Hutchinson talks about her decision to attend medical school at the University of Cincinnati in Cincinnati, Ohio

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Dr. Janice Hutchinson reflects upon her mother's illness and death in 1970

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Dr. Janice Hutchinson describes the racism and sexism she experienced while attending the University of Cincinnati Medical School

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Dr. Janice Hutchinson recalls her medical work in Liberia between 1972 and 1973

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Dr. Janice Hutchinson describes her medical residency at Montefiore Medical Center in New York City

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Dr. Janice Hutchinson talks about how pediatrics has changed since the 1970s

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Dr. Janice Hutchinson describes her career in public health in the 1980s and working at a refugee camp in Bangkok, Thailand

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Dr. Janice Hutchinson describes her public health work with the American Medical Association in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Dr. Janice Hutchinson talks about her 1980s research into the effects of HIV/AIDS on vulnerable populations

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Dr. Janice Hutchinson talks about her work as medical director and Administrator for Children's Mental Health Services in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Dr. Janice Hutchinson talks about problems with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in youth

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Dr. Janice Hutchinson reflects upon how society and medicine treat mental disorders

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Dr. Janice Hutchinson describes coauthoring the book 'Losing Control: Loving a Black Child with Bipolar Disorder'

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Dr. Janice Hutchinson describes teaching at Howard University in Washington, D.C. and writing about minority health issues

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Dr. Janice Hutchinson reflects upon the shifting demographics of drug use and criminality among African Americans and women

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Dr. Janice Hutchinson talks about her hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Dr. Janice Hutchinson reflects upon her life choices and her spirituality

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Dr. Janice Hutchinson talks about how she would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$3

DAStory

4$7

DATitle
Dr. Janice Hutchinson recalls her medical work in Liberia between 1972 and 1973
Dr. Janice Hutchinson describes her career in public health in the 1980s and working at a refugee camp in Bangkok, Thailand
Transcript
Okay. All right. Well, anything happen before graduation that--was there ever a time when you thought you weren't gonna make it or wanted to stop?$$My mother's [Dorothy Howell Hutchinson's] death was a great challenge. It was a deep challenge, both in medical school and in life. It was a very profound challenge, but I, my senior year, I went to Liberia and worked at JFK Hospital [John F. Kennedy Medical Center] in Monrovia [Liberia], and I also worked what's called upcountry at a hospital called Phebe [Hospital, Bong County, Liberia]; you know, when you're in those situations where there are few medical resources you do everything. I fainted my first day on the wards, on the pediatric ward in Liberia. We were rounding on a hundred kids. About halfway through kid number fifty or so, I just hit the floor. I think I was just dehydrated. The same thing happened when I went to work in Thailand in a refugee camp. I fainted my first day in camp. I think I was just dehydrated. I don't seem to tolerate heat very well. I guess I just don't keep up with the fluids well enough, but anyway. So, I was in Liberia for a couple months or so, starting my Albert Schweitzer international healthcare work.$$What was Liberia like? Did you have any conception of what it would be like in Liberia or in Africa, period, that you--$$Not really, no, no. [President William R.] Tolbert [Jr.] was still in office. He died shortly thereafter. He was overthrown.$$Yeah, he was murdered--$$He was murdered viciously.$$Publicly and viciously, yeah.$$I made friends with a family there, the Stewarts, with whom I'm still friendly and close and going to the wedding of one of their grandchildren in a couple of weeks down in North Carolina. I met a number of doctors there who trained in the United States, guys who were surgeons, I came to appreciate the United States and all of the benefits and the wonders of our life. I was stunned by Africa, though. I've never, ever been any place that beautiful. When I was in Europe, and I was in Europe for six months as a student, I visited twelve countries including Hungary and Czechoslovakia, all of the Scandinavian countries. I never saw anything like what I saw in Africa, still haven't.$$You mean Liberia itself?$$In Liberia; well, in every African country I've been to since, but, I mean it was just stunning. I mean, it was breathtaking. I didn't, I mean, I can remember thinking to myself this must be the world as God first made it. That's how it hit me. I was going, we had a bus ride into a village that had a doctor once a month and I was going with a pharmacist on a big bus with some volunteers and we were going to provide the monthly medical services to pregnant women and sick children, and old men and I saw diseases, typhoid fever, malaria, things I've never seen in the United States, leprosy. At one point, I was little concerned I was going to come back and develop leprosy, but you're the doctor, (laughter) that's a chance you take, you know. It goes with the territory. But, it was a fabulous, fabulous experience. I learned to eat Liberian food; what they called chop, African chop, highly spiced food, saw hundreds of kids a day, had babies die in my hands and my arms, had interpreters, of course. It was a challenge; in some ways, very stressful, very stressful, but a tremendous, tremendous experience. So, that was my senior year of medical school.$All right. So, you're back in Chicago [Illinois] at Rush [University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois] as a resident, was it in psychiatry or--$$I finished pediatrics in Chicago, eventually wound up I was adjunct faculty in Rush Medical School [Rush Medical College, Chicago, Illinois]. I used to sit on the admissions committee there.$$So this is the early '80s [1980s] now?$$'80s [1980s] yes, yeah. I worked the AMA [American Medical Association] for a while, for about four years at their Public Health Division. I worked in the Commissioned Corps of the [United States] Public Health Service for about four years. During that time, I have accumulated a lot of leave. I went to work in a refugee camp about an hour-and-a-half outside of Bangkok [Thailand] with Cambodian and Laotian and Vietnamese refugees. I had a team of six medical students and two residents and we took care--we saw a hundred kids a day, at least. I had interpreters from all these other nationalities and I came to appreciate better why people have trouble differentiating black people, because I was unable to differentiate Cambodians from Laotians from Vietnamese and I was told that they were obviously different, so that was a good experience for me to, you know, step into another culture and to understand where some other people are coming from. Just like when I was in Africa, I, the first time in my life, had second degree burns on my face from exposure to the sun. I never could understand why white people were so upset about sunburn and used all this sunblock. I spent thirty minutes in the sun with some African kids on a basketball court and the next morning I had blisters everywhere and it was incredibly painful, and I never, ever said I didn't understand about sunburn again. So, I was able to cross cultures in some ways.

Dr. Lloyd C. Elam

Founder of Meharry Medical College’s Psychiatry Department and retired college president Dr. Lloyd C. Elam was born on October 27, 1928 in Little Rock, Arkansas. His parents, Ruth Davis Elam and Harry Penoy Elam met in church in Little Rock. Elam attended Stephens School and graduated from Paul Laurence Dunbar High School in 1944 at age fifteen. He went to junior college in Little Rock before moving to Harvey, Illinois. There, Elam worked for the Maremont Automobile Plant and commuted to Chicago to attend classes at Roosevelt University where he graduated with his B.S. degree in zoology in 1950. After a stint in the United States Army, Elam earned his M.D. degree from the University of Washington School of Medicine in 1957. From 1957 to 1958, Elam completed an internship at the University of Illinois Hospital in Chicago, and from 1958 to 1961, he served as a resident in psychiatry at the University of Chicago Hospital.

Elam joined Chicago’s Billings Hospital as staff psychiatrist and instructor of psychiatry in 1961. From 1961 to 1963, he served as assistant professor and chairman of the Psychiatry Department of Meharry Medical College in Nashville, Tennessee. Becoming a full professor in 1963, Elam was appointed interim dean of the college in 1966. In 1968, he was selected president of Meharry Medical College and supervised the school’s growth in that capacity until 1981. From 1981 to 1982, Elam was college chancellor. He served as Distinguished Service Professor of Psychiatry from 1982 to 1995 when he retired to serve as a volunteer faculty member. Elam served as a fellow at the Center for Advanced Study in Behavioral Sciences at Stanford, California in 1982. He was made Professor Emeritus of the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences in 1996 and Chairman Emeritus in 1997. Elam is a member of the Tennessee Psychiatric Association, Tennessee Medical Association, American Medical Association, National Medical Association, American Psychiatric Association, American College of Psychiatrists, Black Psychiatrists of America, R.F. Boyd Medical Society and the American College of Forensic Examiners.

In 1973, Elam was presented an honorary Doctor of Laws from Harvard University. His other awards include honorary degrees from Meharry Medical College and St. Lawrence University; the 1988 National Board of Medical Examiners Distinguished Service Award; induction into the Alpha Omega Alpha Honor Society; the 1972 Nashville Club Man of the Year Award; the 1976 Human Relations Award from the National Conference of Christians and Jews and the 1988 Eleanor Roosevelt Key, Roosevelt University’s highest alumni award. Meharry Medical College established the Lloyd C. Elam Mental Health Center in his honor and that building now bares his name.

Elam and his wife, Clara Elam, R.N., have two daughters: Dr. Gloria Elam-Norris of Chicago and Dr. Laurie Elam-Evans of Atlanta. Elam passed away on October 4, 2008.

Elam was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on March 14, 2007.

Accession Number

A2007.089

Sex

Male

Interview Date

3/14/2007

Last Name

Elam

Middle Name

Charles

Schools

Paul Laurence Dunbar High School

University of Washington

Stephens Elementary School

Roosevelt University

University of Chicago

First Name

Lloyd

Birth City, State, Country

Little Rock

HM ID

ELA02

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Arkansas

Favorite Vacation Destination

Hawaii

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Tennessee

Birth Date

10/27/1928

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Nashville

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Peas (Black-Eyed)

Death Date

10/4/2008

Short Description

College president, psychiatrist, and psychiatry professor Dr. Lloyd C. Elam (1928 - 2008 ) founded Meharry Medical College’s Psychiatry Department, and served as the college's president until 1981.

Employment

Meharry Medical College

Dupont Corporation

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:791,12:5650,140:6102,145:30696,395:31860,409:34382,445:50022,646:61102,735:62510,753:74602,924:77122,960:78550,985:108414,1291:110898,1326:111634,1338:173850,2051$0,0:418,5:786,10:1522,20:2166,25:6950,98:8330,115:9250,129:12194,165:12654,171:13298,179:18562,205:25321,275:26926,295:36312,362:38063,367:38973,378:40429,394:41248,406:42249,418:46981,475:51258,511:65404,685:68060,726:69637,750:78069,816:78818,824:86000,847:86658,855:90418,908:91546,921:92016,927:96460,1013:102080,1052:103250,1066:103700,1072:104060,1077:104780,1086:121683,1244:128958,1339:129734,1348:130122,1353:130510,1358:131577,1372:143411,1472:156529,1610:214180,2006:251253,2276:254050,2284
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Dr. Lloyd C. Elam's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam describes his mother's community in Arkadelphia, Arkansas

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam describes his father's education and occupation

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam describes how his parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam describes his likeness to his parents

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam describes his father's lumber business

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam talks about race relations in Little Rock, Arkansas

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam describes his paternal grandfather's career as a stagecoach racer

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam describes his earliest childhood memories

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam describes his household

Tape: 1 Story: 14 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam recalls his refusal to eat meat

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam describes his childhood diet

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam recalls his transportation to school

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam remembers his family's road trips to Arkadelphia, Arkansas

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam recalls his experiences as a migrant farmworker

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam recalls attending Stephens Elementary School in Little Rock, Arkansas

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam describes his family's daily prayers

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam recalls selling newspapers

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam remembers his teacher, Leroy Christopher

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam remembers an influential teacher

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam recalls his community's emphasis on education

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam recalls his early interest in medicine and psychology

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam remembers his early understanding of mental health

Tape: 2 Story: 13 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam recalls the popular ideas about mental illness during his youth

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam recalls the beliefs about mental illness in rural Arkansas

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam recalls his decision to attend Roosevelt College in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam remembers his high school graduation

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam describes his experiences at Roosevelt College

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam remembers serving in the U.S. Army's Medical Service Corps

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam recalls the University of Washington School of Medicine in Seattle, Washington

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam remembers meeting his wife

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam recalls race relations at the University of Washington School of Medicine

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam describes the findings of his medical study of stress

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam recalls the psychiatry program at the University of Chicago

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam recalls his influential professors

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam talks about the treatments for mental illness

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam describes the perceptions of psychiatry in the African American community

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam recalls founding the Department of Psychiatry at Meharry Medical College

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam describes the changes in the cost of psychiatric care

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam recalls establishing a day hospital in Nashville, Tennessee

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam recalls his presidency of Meharry Medical College in Nashville, Tennessee

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam describes his challenges as the president of Meharry Medical College

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam describes Meharry Medical College's contributions to Nashville, Tennessee

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam talks about his community health concerns

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam describes the increase in African Americans seeking psychiatric care

Tape: 4 Story: 12 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam talks about his retirement

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam talks about the underrepresentation of African Americans in the medical field

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam reflects upon the psychological effects of the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam reflects upon his life

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam talks about his involvement at the First Baptist Church in Nashville, Tenneesee

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam describes his civic activities

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam describes how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam narrates his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$4

DAStory

11$7

DATitle
Dr. Lloyd C. Elam recalls his early interest in medicine and psychology
Dr. Lloyd C. Elam recalls his presidency of Meharry Medical College in Nashville, Tennessee
Transcript
Now how was high school [Paul Laurence Dunbar High School; Dunbar Magnet Middle School, Little Rock, Arkansas]? Were you active in clubs in high school or student government or sports or anything like that?$$I went to all the football games but most of the people in my--most of the guys in my class were active and I was not. I enjoyed studying (laughter). As a matter of fact, the way I got interested in medicine I was thirteen and kind of browsing in the library one day and saw a little book and the title of it was 'Physique and Personality' [ph.] and I said, oh, that sounds interesting. I read it, it was fascinating and it went on to show how whatever kind of physique you has, you have determines what kinds of adjustment possibilities are open to you. If you're a little athletic boy and somebody does something on the playground, you might hit him or push him or something and he stops doing it. And so you figure that works and so you become that kind of an outgoing person. If you are a little thin, scrawny guy and you try that, the guy will hit you back and say that, that won't work. So you decide to go to the library, (laughter) read books and so that determines your--another little boy on the playground tries pushing, gets hit, tries studying, reading, he's not smart so that doesn't work. So he becomes the jokester and so the little fat boy becomes a jokester. And so it was fascinating the way he wrote the book but it has some motivational kind of lesson. And his students really tried to, to do a scientific study of all of this but they went too far. But as you know, your physical does affect your personality. But that's how I got interested in psychology and then found out, if you're gonna do research in psychology, you should go on and be a psychiatrist so you can do all kinds of research. And that's how I got interested in that.$$Okay, so at age thirteen you were aware of what a psychologist was and--$$Yeah (simultaneous).$$--(simultaneous) in terms of that--$$Yeah.$$--because of that study?$$Yeah.$Now, just about the time that I got all of that going the--there was progress in civil rights and desegregation of schools. And people had the idea that all of the black schools were gonna merge into the others and you wouldn't need them so we had that kind of crisis. And that's when I moved into administration and bunch of us met every Saturday night for a year struggling with what, what would be an appropriate approach to this problem. It was a problem for us.$$The funding began to dry up or--for the black institutions?$$No, probably, I don't know but you know, black institutions have always had funding problems so I don't know if it was drying up or not. I was--this is before I was in administration. But the question is, why do you need two whatever kinds of institutions, you know, and so what we decided after that year of, of talking about the problem is that, sure enough, you did need historically black institutions [HBCUs]. If, if Meharry [Meharry Medical College, Nashville, Tennessee] stopped it's existence, then number of black persons going into medicine would drastically decrease and so that we did, indeed, need to continue this institution. And that's when I went into administration and decided that, if we were going to, we needed to be a niche institution. And we should address those illnesses and problems that were unique to the population that we served. And, in order to do this, we had to do a number of things. One, was to build a campus and that's what a good number of years of my administration was involved. But the other was to establish a Ph.D. program, research programs, and so on. And we did that. And it's--and they are going very well in addition to medicine and dentistry.$$How long did it take to establish those?$$I, let's see, I became president in '68 [1968] so we started building campus in '69 [1969] and we started the research in, in graduate studies in about '75 [1975] somewhere in there, middle '70s [1970s]. And then it became a school of graduate studies and research in about '76 [1976]. So--excuse me, let me see, '76 [1976], yep, that's right in '76 [1976]. And now we will graduate a significant percentage of black Ph.D.'s. in the biomedical sciences and of course we still have the medical program.

Dr. Annelle B. Primm

Annelle Beneé Primm was born on January 26, 1956 in Geneva, Switzerland. Her mother was a music teacher and her father a physician. She lived in Switzerland until she was four years old while her father was attending medical school. After earning his medical degree, her father moved the family to his native New York. She grew up in the bedroom community of New Rochelle and graduated from New Rochelle High School in 1972.

Although she received an academic scholarship to the University of Virginia, Primm decided to attend Harvard-Radcliffe in Boston. She earned her bachelor's of arts degree in biology in 1976. Despite taking off the second semester of her junior year to help care for her mother who was dying of cancer, she graduated with her class. In 1980, Primm earned her medical degree from Howard University. After completing her residency in psychiatry at Johns Hopkins in Baltimore, she earned her MPH degree from Johns Hopkins School of Public Health in 1985.

While at Hopkins in 1985, she co-founded a program called COSTAR (Community Support Treatment and Rehabilitation), which provided in-home mental health treatment to patients. From 1985 until 1986, she worked as a psychiatrist at Provident Hospital in Baltimore. During this time she also worked as the director of the City Division of Springfield State Hospital, a Maryland psychiatric hospital. She also worked at Johns Hopkins Hospital from 1980 until 2004. She held a variety of positions at Hopkins including, staff psychiatrist, associate professor and the Director of Community Psychiatry.

In 1999, Primm produced a videotape called Black and Blue that highlighted depression in the African American community and encouraged minorities to seek treatment for mental illness. In 2001, she produced Gray and Blue, which helps senior citizens recognize and treat depression.

Currently, Primm works as the Director of Minority and National Affairs for the American Psychiatric Association. She also maintains a small private practice and is a psychiatric consultant to On Our Own, a drop-in center for adults with mental illness. She is a fellow of the American Psychiatric Association and the recipient of numerous awards for her work in community psychiatry.

She lives in Baltimore, Maryland her husband, Herbert, and daughter, India.

Accession Number

A2004.109

Sex

Female

Interview Date

7/26/2004 |and| 9/22/2004

Last Name

Primm

Maker Category
Middle Name

B.

Occupation
Schools

New Rochelle High School

Johns Hopkins University

Isaac E Young Middle School

Radcliffe College

First Name

Annelle

Birth City, State, Country

Geneva

HM ID

PRI03

Favorite Season

Spring

Favorite Vacation Destination

Jamaica

Favorite Quote

This Too Shall Pass.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

1/26/1956

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

Switzerland

Favorite Food

Spaghetti

Short Description

Psychiatrist Dr. Annelle B. Primm (1956 - ) served as Director of the City Division of Springfield State Hospital, a Maryland psychiatric hospital. Primm also held a variety of positions at Johns Hopkins, including staff psychiatrist, associate professor and the Director of Community Psychiatry.

Employment

CoStar Group, Inc.

Provident Hospital

Springfield State Hospital

Johns Hopkins Hospital

American Psychiatric Association

Delete

Favorite Color

Yellow

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Dr. Annelle B. Primm's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Dr. Annelle B. Primm lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Dr. Annelle B. Primm describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Dr. Annelle B. Primm describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Dr. Annelle B. Primm describes her ancestry and grandparents

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Dr. Annelle B. Primm describes her earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Dr. Annelle B. Primm describes childhood holidays and her mother teaching the children music

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Dr. Annelle B. Primm describes the sights, sounds and smells of her childhood in New Rochelle, New York

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Dr. Annelle B. Primm describes her grade school experience in Huntington, New York and her childhood personality

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Dr. Annelle B. Primm describes her sisters

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Dr. Annelle B. Primm talks about her elementary school teachers and aspirations

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Dr. Annelle B. Primm describes her religious education

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Dr. Annelle B. Primm remembers her family's home in New Rochelle, New York

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Dr. Annelle B. Primm talks about her experience at Isaac E. Young Middle School in New Rochelle, New York

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Dr. Annelle B. Primm talks about her aspiration to become a physician during her early teenage years

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Dr. Annelle B. Primm talks about her experience at New Rochelle High School in New Rochelle, New York

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Dr. Annelle B. Primm talks about New Rochelle, New York and her interest in Harvard-Radcliffe College in Cambridge, Massachusetts

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Dr. Annelle B. Primm remembers her University of Virginia in Charlottesville, Virginia scholarship offer and her choice to attend Harvard-Radcliffe College

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Dr. Annelle B. Primm talks about her life at Harvard-Radcliffe College in Cambridge, Massachusetts

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Dr. Annelle B. Primm talks about her mother's struggle with breast cancer

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Annelle Primm talks about the black community at Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Dr. Annelle B. Primm remembers coping with her mother's cancer and supporting her younger sisters

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Dr. Annelle B. Primm describes her experience at Howard University College of Medicine, her first experience at an all-black school

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Dr. Annelle B. Primm explains how she chose to specialize in psychiatry

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Dr. Annelle B. Primm talks about COSTAR (Community Support Treatment and Rehabilitation) the first urban support program for the severely mentally ill

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Dr. Annelle B. Primm talks about mental health disparities in the African American community

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Dr. Annelle B. Primm reflects on the stigma around mental illness in the African American community

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Dr. Annelle B. Primm describes 'Black and Blue,' her video-series on depression in the African American community

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Dr. Annelle B. Primm talks about how collaboration between the religious and mental health communities can improve the quality of mental health services

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Dr. Annelle B. Primm talks about needed changes in the African American community's relationship to therapy and psychiatry

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Dr. Annelle B. Primm describes common mental illnesses in the African American community

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Dr. Annelle B. Primm talks about combatting stigma against mental healthcare in the African American community

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Dr. Annelle B. Primm reflects on the cost of mental healthcare

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Dr. Annelle B. Primm talks about the state of the field of psychiatry

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Dr. Annelle B. Primm gives advice about pursuing a mental health career as an African American

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Dr. Annelle B. Primm reflects upon her life

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Dr. Annelle B. Primm describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Dr. Annelle B. Primm reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Dr. Annelle B. Primm narrates her photographs, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Dr. Annelle B. Primm narrates her photographs, pt. 2

DASession

2$2

DATape

3$3

DAStory

4$8

DATitle
Dr. Annelle B. Primm explains how she chose to specialize in psychiatry
Dr. Annelle B. Primm describes 'Black and Blue,' her video-series on depression in the African American community
Transcript
So while at Howard [University College of Medicine, Washington, D.C.], what were you thinking--what type of doctor were you thinking you wanted to be?$$Initially, at Howard I thought I would be an OB/GYN physician [obstetrics and gynecology] and, you know, I just had this fascination with the birth process, but it was interesting when I did my rotation in obstetrics, every single one of the deliveries except for one was a cesarean section, and I was not big on surgery and knew I didn't want to do that, and so that turned me off, as well as the hours that, that obstetricians have to keep and, I guess, now, you know, with their malpractice being so high, I think I made the right choice. So--$$How did you make the decision about psychiatry?$$You know, I'd always loved psychiatry, my psychiatry courses in medical school, and enjoyed reading the psychiatry text and, you know, took them to bed with me as if they were a pleasure book compared to some of the other text that were really, really rough to get through. But the psychiatry was actually enjoyable, and when I did my psychiatry rotation at Walter Reed [National Military Medical Center, Bethesda, Maryland], I just loved it. I mean, it came naturally. I enjoyed, you know, listening to the patients, talking with them, understanding their life stories and some of the psychological challenges they were dealing with. But still, I did not choose psychiatry outright for residency. I was going to do flexible medicine or surgery, which would have given me a little more time to make a decision about what I would ultimately do. But what happened was--I mean, I'll tell you why that is, because really psychiatry at that time and maybe still now a little bit, has been a thought of as a second class specialty in medicine, and you know, people don't think you're a real doctor if you're a psychiatrist. And we had to apply for what is called the residency match which is really like a lottery where you make a list of the programs that you want to apply to and be considered for, and then you go around doing interviews and those programs in turn rank you according to how much they want you in their program, and a computer puts together the best match between your top choices and the different program top choices. I didn't apply for enough places, really, in order to get any match, and so on match day when everybody was finding out where they were going to be, I did not match and what that meant was that I needed to go meet with a dean and find out from the book of programs that did not match all of their spaces--where might I go? So this was an opportunity for me to choose psychiatry because in the sort of unmatched space book, there were many psychiatry residency programs that had openings. Some of the best programs; Harvard [Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts], Yale [School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut], Baylor [College of Medicine, Houston, Texas], et cetera; and Johns Hopkins [School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland] which had an opening, and I ended up talking to the director of residency training and my dean spoke on my behalf. They were impressed with me, and so I ended up going into psychiatry after all, which was really the best decision for me.$And one of the ways you're reaching the African American community is through a videotape series called 'Black and Blue.' Can you tell us a little bit about that and how it came about?$$Yes. 'Black and Blue: Depression in the African American community' grew out of my awareness of lack of awareness of depression as an illness in African Americans. I was fortunate to have some patients of mine who were willing to be filmed talking about their own personal experiences with depression as a syndrome, a cluster of symptoms, and I'd asked each of them about their experience with it, how it affected their mood, how it affected their sense of self, their self-esteem, and how it affected their sense of well-being. In the video, I also included a pastor--a Baptist pastor, who, you know, talked about the fact that it's important for people to seek health for their mental health needs, there's nothing wrong with that in God's eyes. So I think that because the people who spoke on the video have had depression, have experienced it, that there's a certain sincerity or genuineness that comes across to the person who's watching; whether they're African American or regardless of, ethnic or racial background. I think it really goes a long way to educating people regardless of their literacy level because, you know, we often hand out all these pamphlets and written materials that are often written at a level much higher than the level that the average person reads, which is supposedly sixth grade. So using videotapes for public education, and, in particular, public mental health education is really effective, and I've used it as a tool and, you know, many different environments; in churches, in schools, even to educate health professionals about, you know, when--examples of African Americans who have are experiencing mental illness.

Dr. Bruce Ballard

Psychiatrist Dr. Bruce Ballard was born in Waverly Hills, Kentucky, on December 19, 1939. The youngest of four children, Ballard was the son of a physician and a secretary. Ballard attended Yale University, where he graduated magna cum laude in 1960, and went on to Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, earning an M.D. in 1964.

Ballard began his career in Chicago, Illinois, performing his internship at Michael Reese Hospital from 1964 to 1965. From there, he began his residency at the New York State Psychiatric Institute, where he remained for three years. Joining the Air Force in 1968, Ballard was sent to Hawaii's Hickam Air Force Base as the chief of mental health services, and after completing his service, he returned to New York in 1970. Taking a position at the Harlem Hospital Center, he was involved in the training of students performing their residencies. Ballard took a position with New York Hospital-Westchester in 1976 as the associate director of the Adult Outpatient Department and later as the coordinator of the residency program. In 1981, Ballard was hired by Cornell University as the associate dean for equal opportunity programs, and today he still works in that capacity as well as serving as the associate dean for student affairs. He has also maintained a private practice since 1972.

Ballard has been the director of the Travelers Summer Research Fellowship Program since 1981. The program aims to increase the numbers of underrepresented minorities enrolled in medical school programs through hands-on experience at partner universities. Ballard has also been active on a number of committees, and has chaired the Committee of Black Psychiatrists of the American Psychiatric Association (APA) and the Selection and Advisory Committee for the National Institute of Mental Health Minority Fellowship Program of the APA. He has published numerous scholarly articles, served on the editorial boards of several textbooks, and given presentations to various groups on ethnicity and psychiatry. The Air Force presented him with a Commendation Medal in 1970, and the APA presented him with the Nancy C.A. Roeske, M.D. Award for Excellence in Medical Student Education in 2001. Ballard and his wife, Eleanor, live in New York. They have two children.

Accession Number

A2003.218

Sex

Male

Interview Date

9/19/2003

Last Name

Ballard

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Occupation
Schools

Yale University

Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons

First Name

Bruce

Birth City, State, Country

Waverly Hills

HM ID

BAL01

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Kentucky

Favorite Vacation Destination

Sarasota, Florida

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Birth Date

12/19/1939

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New York

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Shrimp

Short Description

Psychiatrist Dr. Bruce Ballard (1939 - ) was the associate dean of student services and equal opportunity at Cornell University.

Employment

Hickam Air Force Base, Hawaii

Department of Psychiatry, Harlem Hospital

New York Hospital-Westchester

Columbia University Center for Psychoanalytic Training and Research

Cornell University Medical College

Delete

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Dr. Bruce Ballard narrates his photographs

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Slating of Dr. Bruce Ballard's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Dr. Bruce Ballard lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Dr. Bruce Ballard describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Dr. Bruce Ballard talks about his father's family history, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Dr. Bruce Ballard talks about his father's family history, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Dr. Bruce Ballard describes his earliest childhood memories

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Dr. Bruce Ballard describes the sights, sounds and smells of growing up in Waverly Hills, Kentucky

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Dr. Bruce Ballard recalls his early childhood education

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Dr. Bruce Ballard explains the intellectual and social environment of his childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Dr. Bruce Ballard describes the racial segregation in Louisville, Kentucky during his childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Dr. Bruce Ballard remembers the African American community of his childhood in Louisville, Kentucky

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Dr. Bruce Ballard explains his father's efforts to combat tuberculosis

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Dr. Bruce Ballard recalls his time at Louisville Central High School in Louisville, Kentucky during the 1950s

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Dr. Bruce Ballard describes the impact of the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Dr. Bruce Ballard explains how he decided to attend Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Dr. Bruce Ballard describes the demographics of the class of 1960 at Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Dr. Bruce Ballard describes his experiences at Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Dr. Bruce Ballard recalls his trips to New York, New York as a college student

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Dr. Bruce Ballard talks about how he spent his summers during college and his graduation from Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Dr. Bruce Ballard recalls entering Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York, New York in 1960

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Dr. Bruce Ballard describes the coursework that interested him at Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Dr. Bruce Ballard talks about his early interest in studying psychiatry

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Dr. Bruce Ballard explains his decision to specialize in psychiatry

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Dr. Bruce Ballard talks about the origins and evolution of psychiatry

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Dr. Bruce Ballard describes his residency at New York State Psychiatric Institute

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Dr. Bruce Ballard talks about Dr. Elizabeth Davis

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Dr. Bruce Ballard talks about the New York State Psychiatric Institute and HistoryMaker Dr. Alvin Poussaint

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Dr. Bruce Ballard explains how he was stationed at Hickam Air Force Base in Hawaii in 1968

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Dr. Bruce Ballard describes the population he treated at Hickam Air Force Base in Hawaii

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Dr. Bruce Ballard recalls lessons learned while a psychiatrist at Hickam Air Force Base in Hawaii

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Dr. Bruce Ballard describes his analytic training

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Dr. Bruce Ballard talks about his tenure as chair of Harlem Hospital's psychiatric residency training program

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Dr. Bruce Ballard talks about the APA and Cornell University's New York-Presbyterian Hospital's Westchester Division

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Dr. Bruce Ballard explains how he became associate dean for minority affairs at Weill Cornell Medical College in New York, New York

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Dr. Bruce Ballard details his work as the associate dean for minority affairs at Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Dr. Bruce Ballard details his work as the associate dean for minority affairs at Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Dr. Bruce Ballard explains his cross-cultural approach to psychiatry

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Dr. Bruce Ballard talks about the current focus on cultural competence in the field of medicine

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Dr. Bruce Ballard speculates about his future pursuits

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Dr. Bruce Ballard explains the need for African American psychiatric educators

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Dr. Bruce Ballard describes his concerns for the African American community

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Dr. Bruce Ballard shares his views on integration

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Dr. Bruce Ballard talks about advances in the field of psychiatry

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Dr. Bruce Ballard explains why he would enter psychiatry again

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Dr. Bruce Ballard reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Dr. Bruce Ballard describes his parents' impression of his career

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$4

DAStory

5$1

DATitle
Dr. Bruce Ballard describes the population he treated at Hickam Air Force Base in Hawaii
Dr. Bruce Ballard describes his residency at New York State Psychiatric Institute
Transcript
In a nutshell, there were these kinds of problems. First, a lot of youth problems. This is the late '60s [1960s]. This is the era of protests against the war [Vietnam War]. There were a number of young people who signed up for the [U.S.] Air Force. When you signed up for the Air Force, you signed up for four years. A number of young people did that to avoid being drafted into the [U.S.] Army, which was a two-year commitment, but could mean being shot at in a ditch in Vietnam, quite frankly (laughter). So, they signed with the Air Force. There, you were at least at the Air Force Base. And the Air Force has a different structure in terms of the--of how it works. In the Air Force, your pilots are officers. People who fly planes are officers. Your other people in the Air Force are what are called support troops. The primary mission is to keep the planes going so that this means that you're not going to be in a battlefield so much as a sergeant or whatever it is in the Air Force 'cause you're gonna be at the base involved in some aspect of keeping the whole thing going. So, some young people were savvy enough to realize this, that it was literally less dangerous for you if you were in the Air Force and got into the Air Force. However, for some young people, this meant four years. And a nineteen-year-old, nineteen to twenty-three, or twenty to twenty-four, can give many young people that this is taking some of the best years of my life (laughter). This is taking my youth, so you saw a lot of youth problems of people who are kind of sorry that they did it. Maybe it would have been better to take a chance to be drafted. Should I go to Canada, you know? I hate this war in the first place. We shouldn't be in it, so there were a lot of problems like that. A second set of emotional problems had to do with people who had been in the military and were on the verge of getting out of the military having done twenty years. And these were people who were often officers and they were now forty-five or forty-six. And if you didn't make certain promotional cuts in the military, you wouldn't get any farther. You would be just be discharged with some retirement pension perhaps. But in other words, if you were a lieutenant colonel, didn't make colonel, you were processed out at that twenty-year period. So, you couldn't stay on any longer, so this meant colonel so-and-so was going to a civilian world where you are Mr. so-and-so, and in your mid-forties. And they didn't know what was out there or whether or not they could make it in the "real world", so to speak.$$So were the--were you actually seeing people or were you doing more administration? Were you--$$No, I was seeing--I was taking care of them.$$You were, you were taking care--$$I was taking care of patients.$$Okay. So did you find that, that like on the colonel-level that they were like--I don't want to talk to you.$$Oh, no, no.$$You didn't have any of that--none of that?$$Oh, no, no, no, no, no, no, no.$$Okay, okay.$$No, people who are emotionally hurting want to see somebody who might help them.$$That's true, that's true.$$So--$$That's true. But you hear some of these stories sometimes--$$Yeah.$$Okay. I mean you do.$You were explaining that you were doing your residency--$$Um-hm.$$--at New York State Psychiatric Institute [New York, New York]--$$Yeah, um-hm, Columbia [University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York].$$--which is essentially Columbia University.$$Yeah.$$So you were saying and that, so you said that the focus was on, you know, the--I mean, what are the prevailing theories--$$Um-hm.$$--as you come out, you know, that are sort of prevailing terms of treatment?$$Um-hm, okay. Well, a lot of programs of that time were too tight. If you went to a kind of academic program that was university-based, and particularly, if it were a program in the East, there were, there were programs at say, Columbia, Albert Einstein [College of Medicine, New York, New York], where you largely worked with very ill psychiatric patients who were in the hospital a long time. And you had a cadre of supervisors who were training you in kind of psychodynamic methods. In this instance, they were usually psychoanalysts, so that I would say my own training had a distinct sort of dynamic and analytic focus. Partly because at that time, although we had some psychopharmacologic interventions available to us, there were three or four antidepressants. That was about it. There were several kind of medications that you could use in schizophrenia. That was about it. There were limitations in terms of what we could do. And in a training program like that, you certainly learn how to use those medications in an attempt to treat certain symptoms. But you were still very focused on, there must be some other sets of dynamic issues to explain why this person is presenting with the symptoms that they have. So it was really a combination, and heavily under an analytic emphasis. And for Columbia at the time, there was kind of always a message out there that the best of you in the residency will apply to the Analytic Institute [ph.] and become the best of psychiatrists. So that there was kind of the philosophy that if you really wanted a depth to understanding of things, you had become a psychoanalyst.$$Okay.$$And at the time, there's no question. It was probably the best education that we would term depth psychology, yes.

Dr. Alvin Poussaint

Dr. Alvin Poussaint was born in East Harlem, New York, on May 15, 1934. When he was nine years old he became ill with rheumatic fever and was hospitalized for three months and spent two months in a convalescent home. Poussaint could do little but read while recovering, and it became a passion. After leaving the convalescent home, Poussaint's physical activities were restricted and so he took up quiet activities, like playing the clarinet. Poussaint began his background in science when he was admitted to New York City's competitive science-focused magnet school, Stuyvesant. After high school, he attended Columbia University and, in 1960, received his M.D. from Cornell University. Dr. Poussaint completed his residency at the UCLA Neuropsychiatric Institute and in 1964, received a M.A. degree from that same institution.

After completing his training in psychiatry, Poussaint chose to join the Civil Rights Movement as it was taking shape in the South. With the belief that racism was the core mental health problem for the African American community, Dr. Poussaint thought overcoming segregation would be more effective for the community than individual counseling. He joined a team of healthcare professionals as the Southern Field Director of the Medical Committee for Human Rights in Jackson, Mississippi, in 1965. In this position, he and his team provided medical care to civil rights workers and helped to desegregate health care facilities across the South. His commitment to civil rights did not end when he left Mississippi to join the Tufts Medical School faculty in 1967. At Tufts, Poussaint served as director of the psychiatry program in a low-income housing project, and he continues to focus on increasing public awareness on the need for improved race relations in America.

In 1969, he joined Harvard Medical School's faculty, where he remains today as a professor of psychiatry and Faculty Associate Dean for Student Affairs. Poussaint is also presently director of the Media Center at the Judge Baker Children's Center in Boston.

As one of the nation's preeminent psychiatrists and experts on race relations, Dr. Poussaint has written many articles and the books: Why Blacks Kill Blacks (1972), Raising Black Children (1992), co-authored with Dr. J.P. Comer; and Lay My Burden Down (2000), co-authored with Amy Alexander. He is most well known, however, for his regular contributions to Ebony magazine and his work consulting for numerous television projects including The Cosby Show and A Different World.

For his outstanding contributions to the medical field, he has been honored with numerous awards and honorary degrees. Poussaint was one of the founding members of Operation PUSH, and today lends support to the SCLC, NAACP, Urban League, and many community organizations.

Accession Number

A2001.058

Sex

Male

Interview Date

2/13/2001 |and| 3/25/2005

Last Name

Poussaint

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Occupation
Organizations
Schools

Stuyvesant High School

Columbia University

Cornell Medical School

P.S. 171 Patrick Henry

Speakers Bureau

No

First Name

Alvin

Birth City, State, Country

New York

HM ID

POU01

Favorite Season

Summer

State

New York

Favorite Vacation Destination

Caribbean

Favorite Quote

It is better to have loved and lost than to never have loved at all.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Massachusetts

Birth Date

5/15/1934

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Boston

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Potatoes

Short Description

Psychiatrist Dr. Alvin Poussaint (1934 - ) joined Harvard Medical School's faculty as a professor of psychiatry, and remains one of the nation's preeminent psychiatrists and experts on race relations.

Employment

University of California, Los Angeles

Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)

Tufts University

Harvard University Medical School

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
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138,1454:117982,1510:118693,1520:119483,1532:119799,1537:120115,1542:121537,1565:125490,1605
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Alvin Poussaint speculates as to the origin of his family name

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Slating of Alvin Poussaint interview

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Alvin Poussaint's favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Alvin Poussaint discusses his parents' backgrounds

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Alvin Poussaint describes his childhood home, East Harlem, New York

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Alvin Poussaint describes his seven siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Alvin Poussaint describes his full household

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Alvin Poussaint discusses his Catholic upbringing

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Alvin Poussaint discusses the role of violence in his East Harlem childhood home

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Alvin Poussaint develops a rare case of rheumatic fever

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Alvin Poussaint describes his rheumatic fever ordeal

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Alvin Poussaint's poor health inspires him to become a doctor

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Alvin Poussaint witnesses drug abuse early in his life

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Alvin Poussaint considers what deterred him from using drugs

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Alvin Poussaint's peers respect his intelligence

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Alvin Poussaint excels academically in high school

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - The death of his mother affects Alvin Poussaint academically

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Alvin Poussaint's family traditions dissolve upon his mother's death

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Alvin Poussaint's brother begins to deteriorate after their mother's death

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Alvin Poussaint's brother goes in and out of drug abuse treatment

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Alvin Poussaint gets encouragement from his sister-in-law

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Alvin Poussaint's father encourages him to attend Columbia University

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Alvin Poussaint describes his family's influence on his school life

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Alvin Poussaint receives a full scholarship to attend Cornell University's medical school

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Alvin Poussaint encounters racism in his time at Cornell University's medical school

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Alvin Poussaint decides to pursue psychiatry

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Alvin Poussaint disagrees with widely-held psychiatric principles

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Alvin Poussaint confronts heterosexism and racism in the psychiatry profession

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Alvin Poussaint practices medicine with Civil Rights organizations

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Alvin Poussaint describes a chaotic scene from the Meredith March, Canton, Mississippi

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Alvin Poussaint describes the start of the Black Power Movement and FBI counter-intelligence operations against them

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Alvin Poussaint discusses black consciousness and racial tension within SNCC

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Alvin Poussaint contributes to race dialogues

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Alvin Poussaint becomes involved with 'The Cosby Show'

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Alvin Poussaint describes his plans for retirement

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Alvin Poussaint discusses his commitment to social justice

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Photo - Alvin Poussaint poses with wife, Tina and daughter, Alison

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Photo - Alvin Poussaint's family poses at Christmas, 1947

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Photo - Alvin Poussaint with brother, Kenneth

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Photo - Alvin Poussaint takes his first communion

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Photo - Alvin Poussaint is featured in 'Ebony' magazine

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Photo - Alvin Poussaint receives the John Jay alumni award at Columbia University

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - Photo - Alvin Poussaint joins the Meredith March

Tape: 6 Story: 11 - Photo - Alvin Poussaint poses for a publicity photograph

Tape: 6 Story: 12 - Photo - Alvin Poussaint, Director of Student Affairs at Harvard Medical School, is featured in a magazine article

Tape: 6 Story: 13 - Photo - Alvin Poussaint is featured in a magazine spread

Tape: 6 Story: 14 - Photo - Alvin Poussaint poses with his three brothers

Tape: 6 Story: 15 - Photo - Alvin Poussaint, Dean of Student Affairs, poses at the Harvard Medical School

Tape: 6 Story: 16 - Photo - Alvin Poussaint featured on the cover of 'Black Family' magazine with his son

Tape: 6 Story: 17 - Photo - Alvin Poussaint poses with Sharon Robinson and Camille Cosby

Tape: 6 Story: 18 - Photo - Alvin Poussaint poses with Tempest Bledsoe and Lisa Bonet on The Cosby Show set

Tape: 6 Story: 19 - Photo - Alvin Poussaint is featured in a magazine article, speaking with students

Tape: 6 Story: 20 - Photo - Alvin Poussaint's mother, Harriet Johnston Poussaint, poses for a photograph

Tape: 6 Story: 21 - Photo - Alvin Poussaint's mother poses with an unidentified man

Tape: 6 Story: 22 - Photo - Alvin Poussaint holding his daughter Alison

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Second slating of Alvin Poussaint interview

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Alvin Poussaint discusses his wife and daughter

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Alvin Poussaint reflects on his father's life

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Alvin Poussaint recalls his recruitment to the Medical Committee for Human Rights, 1965

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Alvin Poussaint recalls being drafted for the Vietnam War

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Alvin Poussaint reviews his medical work with the Civil Rights Movement, 1965

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Alvin Poussaint discusses issues of racial tension in Boston after his arrival in 1967

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Alvin Poussaint talks about the Black Consciousness movement in Boston from the 1970s through the 1980s

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Alvin Poussaint updates his 1969 notion of "Black Roadblocks to Black Unity"

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - Alvin Poussaint talks about black youth, hip hop culture and education

Tape: 9 Story: 1 - Alvin Poussaint talks about work/life balance at the end of his career

Tape: 9 Story: 2 - Alvin Poussaint discusses his work at the Judd Baker Children's Center

Tape: 9 Story: 3 - Alvin Poussaint talks about efforts to diversify the student body at Harvard Medical School

Tape: 9 Story: 4 - Alvin Poussaint recounts the events held in his honor at Harvard on February 7, 2005

Tape: 9 Story: 5 - Alvin Pussaint discusses his future work

Tape: 9 Story: 6 - Alvin Poussaint details certain obstacles he feels African Americans will face in the global economy of the future

Tape: 9 Story: 7 - Alvin Poussaint talks about how he would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$5

DAStory

4$1

DATitle
Alvin Poussaint's brother goes in and out of drug abuse treatment
Alvin Poussaint describes a chaotic scene from the Meredith March, Canton, Mississippi
Transcript
I went up and told him [brother, Kenneth 'Kenny' Poussaint] that the people, you know, people coming, he had to go to the hospital. And he started screaming, "Please don't--please don't let them take me. Please don't let them take me." And I along with my other brother and some other people held him down while the police came. And the police took him in the car, they may have put a straightjacket on him and took him to Bellevue Hospital [New York, New York]. And then I realized how symbolic my mother [Harriet Johnston Poussaint] was. I would go visit him at Bellevue hospital, where he was in a straightjacket, strapped to the bed, and sometimes he would sound rational and sometimes he didn't. But then sometimes he would sound a little rational and then I would be--I was leaving and he would say, "When you get home, please say hello to mama for me." And I knew he was not right. And finally they transferred him to a state hospital, Creedmore State Hospital [New York, New York], where he remained for about over a year and got all kinds of treatments, you know, not the modern treatments, they didn't have anti-psychotic drugs then. So he--he slowly got better in some ways and the family visited him I think quite regularly. We drove out there to see him. But then he came out and within two weeks he was back on heroin. And then became a real bad heroin addict going down hill, but he didn't act as psychotic, he wasn't talking crazy, but he became a real bad heroin addict and was drugged up all the time and I felt he was trying to kill himself.$$Did he ever steal to support his habit? Did he, you know, like did he steal to support his habit or do any--.$$I think he did all kinds of--he stole, he was a pickpocket. He would say--he would show me--and he did it well. He said, "I can show you how to pickpocket and never get caught." Then sometimes I would come in the room and he would hand me my wallet that he had pickpocketed off me. And he would sometimes demonstrate the techniques how you do it, you know. And we had a little strange thing going there. He would--he would--he would go to jail or something--or he had all these little criminal things and he would like--that was his status, you know. Like he would say, "Gonna teach me how to be a pickpocket." So he would say, "Well, you bump the person first, you know, you always bump the person, you know, so they are unaware for that second," and he said, "Then in a flash they don't even know you got it." And he would, you know, tell me all these things. One thing he did that he got arrested for--I said, "Boy, you're pretty creative." He would buy cases of cheap wine, right? And on Sunday would go down to the bowery where all the bowery drunkards were and sell them the wine at double the price or three times the price on Sunday and finally got arrested for that by the police. For selling wine to the--to the--to the alcoholics, you know, sitting in the doorways. So he was--he was creative, but he was also--he would make me anxious and I don't know if he knew what he was doing. But he would come out of Riker's Island [prison, New York, New York] and--again, he was still my roommate, and he would start telling me about the food, the quality of the food at Riker's Island Prison and he hears that Sing Sing [Correctional Facility, Ossining, New York] has better food and maybe if he goes in again he should go--he--he should go to Sing Sing. And I'd say--I would say, "What are you talking--" you know, just--how could you be talking this way? But I think on some level this was his thing and he knew this was a whirl and he was very--he was very intelligent and he would tell me all of the tricks that--that--that people--people did. He--he would go into get detox [drug detoxification], right? And this is many years later because he had disappeared for two years and we thought he was dead, we didn't know where he was, he was in jail. And he would talk about getting detox and he would say, "You know, most of these men in here," he said, "This is a bunch of jive." He said--he said, "What you do," he said, "When your habit gets real bad you develop a tolerance for this stuff," he knew that. The tolerance, you need higher and higher doses of the heroin to get you high. So he said, "Guys were going to get detox," so that they can come out and a smaller dose would make them high, and that's what a lot of it was about and that none of them had any intention of giving up drugs, right? Then in one hospital in East Harlem [New York, New York] where he was being--again getting drug treatment, Metropolitan Hospital, they had him take an electrical class, trying to rehab him and he started getting like all A's in these classes and he said--I went to visit him one time and he told me he never knew he was smart, that he didn't believe this and it made him--made him anxious. Then he went on to explain to me, he said, "You know, everybody's always trying, you know, give up drugs," he said, "It's so--" he said, "It's not that simple." He said, "My whole life, my social world is drugs and the people who do drugs." He said, "To give up drugs, I give up everything." He said, "I don't know how to talk to people who ain't dealing--involved with drugs. I don't know what to say, I don't know what I'm supposed to be without the drugs." And he was absolutely right about that. He finally, I think, did get off them, but was on them, off them, on them, methadone, all of this other stuff until he died at age forty-forty two. But there's some pictures in the album, you'll see that my mother used to dress us as twins when we were growing up because people thought we were twins. So it was like this--it was almost like a good/evil thing going on. I was going to be this good one and he was going--he was going to be the bad--bad one and I was very centered, I would never put any of my awards or things up on the wall, any of that because I was afraid it would hurt him, you know, for him to see those things, so I would never like talk about, you know, doing well or school stuff or anything else because he was having so much trouble in vocational school, training school. Making up a part of it was because he was a junky, it wasn't that he wasn't smart, he just was totally unfocused on that and focused on street stuff and where his next shot was coming from. And I don't know all the things that he did that were criminal, I don't know all the reasons he went to jail. I think some of them are unknown what he did. And for those two years that he disappeared why he was in--why he was in jail.$$Is he--of your family members, was he the one who was most out of control like that? The others--?$$(Simultaneously) He was--he was the one most out of control. I mean, I had a brother [Richard Poussaint] who's next to him in age and he never did drugs, but I know a lot of his friends did. And one of his best friends overdosed I remember and I think that scared the wits out of him and I didn't think he was going to go near that stuff. Overdoses were not uncommon 'cause you hear about someone up there, someone down there, someone over here had overdosed. Another thing, they were always sitting around on a stoop vomiting, which is a horrible sight to me, you know, scratching themselves, you know, which gave--would give me the willies. Why do you want to take something that makes you vomit?$State troopers surrounded the field and suddenly they went in and flung--flung on gas masks and start firing at the crowd--tear-gas canisters and it was bedlam. People started screaming. The canisters they fired at the people, not up in the air. So people were directly hit with these canisters and got burns and all kinds of things, but the most wrenching thing to me--. We ran out, went to the field, tried to get people, particularly on the--on the ground, and little kids, like one years old, had got detached from their mothers and their parents in the bedlam and they were running around saying,"I'm blind, I'm blind," 'cause they couldn't see because the tear-gas burned their eyes so bad. You know, they said, "Blind," they were "blind" and they were screaming. We went out there and all of these people, as the tear-gas cleared, were lying out there. One of my medical students was unconscious. And my ambulance driver was unconscious. We had to get them both--we had to call into Jackson [Mississippi]. And thank god for some courageous black people, but the funeral director, the black funeral home, sent up hearses as ambulances to bring these people down to Jackson and we said, "Send them down to Jackson," as fast--. We set up an all night medical station to deal with the burns. I called into Jackson to my friend Bob Smith who worked with me, a black doctor. I said, "We need doctors up here." He rounded up some black doctors, they all came up, we held clinic all night dealing with a lot of terrified people, but also with burns and trying to do triage as to who can go in the hospital.

Dr. Price Cobbs

Price Mashaw Cobbs, black psychiatrist, author, and management consultant, was born November 2, 1928, in Los Angeles, California, the youngest of three children. Cobbs's parents were politically left, sophisticated migrants from the American South, who called it the "old country." Cobbs's family invested in their son the analytical tools to answer his endless questions; as a youth, he read Richard Wright, Ernest Hemingway, Langston Hughes, Sigmund Freud, W.E.B. DuBois, and Booker T. Washington. Cobbs also eagerly followed Time Magazine, the Pittsburgh Courier and the Chicago Defender; his interests ranged from religion and lynching, to what it was like to live in other cities. Cobbs graduated from Jefferson High School in 1946 and started that same year at U.C.L.A. After transferring to the University of California at Berkeley, Cobbs dropped out to join the Army; he served in Germany before returning to Berkeley, where he graduated in 1954.

Cobbs graduated from Meharry Medical School with his M. D. in Psychiatric Medicine in 1958, and was board certified in 1966; he built his private practice with patients referred by local hospitals and doctors. The Civil Rights Movement exacerbated the problems experienced by Cobbs's black patients through the discomfort brought on by intense social change. In 1968, Cobbs co-wrote the classic work, Black Rage, with William Grier; this timely book contended that at the death of Dr. King, not some, but all blacks were angry. Black Rage's analysis of seething black anger and real white racism startled the country and challenged black people to reject practices based in the continuum of a slave culture. Black Rage became standard reading in college classrooms and community study groups across the nation. Cobbs was a popular lecturer and talk show guest. His next book, The Jesus Bag, further challenged the comfort zone of the establishment; his most recent work, Cracking the Corporate Code: From Survival to Mastery, co-authored with Judith L. Turnock, was about power.

Cobbs served as the president and CEO of Pacific Management Systems of San Francisco where he applied the principles of enthnotherapy to his work as a management consultant.

Cobbs passed away on June 25, 2018.

Accession Number

A2002.194

Sex

Male

Interview Date

3/26/2002

Last Name

Cobbs

Maker Category
Occupation
Organizations
Schools

Thomas Jefferson High School

First Name

Price

Birth City, State, Country

Los Angeles

HM ID

COB01

Favorite Season

Summer

State

California

Favorite Vacation Destination

Paris, France

Favorite Quote

Right on.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

California

Birth Date

11/2/1928

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Bay Area/San Francisco

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Fish

Death Date

6/25/2018

Short Description

Psychiatrist Dr. Price Cobbs (1928 - 2018 ) is an insightful African American psychiatrist and the author of, "Black Rage," "The Jesus Bag," and, "Cracking the Corporate Code: From Survival to Mastery."

Favorite Color

Red

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Price Cobbs interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Price Cobbs's favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Price Cobbs details his mother's background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Price Cobbs discusses his father's background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Price Cobbs describes why his family chose to move to Los Angeles, California

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Price Cobbs recalls his earliest memory

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Price Cobbs discusses family life in his Los Angeles, California home

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Price Cobbs contrasts forms of racism in the United States

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Price Cobbs remembers the sights, smells and sounds of his childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Price Cobbs details his educational background

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Price Cobbs describes himself as a curious child

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Price Cobbs recalls childhood influences outside the family sphere

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Price Cobbs discusses his relationship with his mother

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Price Cobbs discusses his turbulent relationship with his father

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Price Cobbs explains some of his college decisions

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Price Cobbs discusses his stint in the U.S. Army

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Price Cobbs describes some obstacles at Meharry Medical College

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Price Cobbs remembers his protected childhood environment

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Price Cobbs discusses his difficulties at Meharry Medical College

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Price Cobbs discusses his interest in psychiatry

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Price Cobbs considers psychiatry and the black community

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Price Cobbs describes memorable school instructors at Meharry and his decision to return to California

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Price Cobbs describes the extra scrutiny that black people face

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Price Cobbs reviews his professional choices

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Price Cobbs discusses the death of his first wife

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Price Cobbs explains how he established his private psychiatric practice

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Price Cobbs discusses patient afflictions in the 1960s

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Price Cobbs considers factors affecting psychiatric health

Tape: 3 Story: 12 - Price Cobbs discusses management consulting, a new facet of his career

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Price Cobbs details the inspiration for his book, 'Black Rage'

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Price Cobbs recalls public response to his book 'Black Rage'

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Price Cobbs discusses his second book, 'The Jesus Bag'

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Price Cobbs discusses his corporate consulting endeavor

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Price Cobbs reflects on behavioral trends in corporate America

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Price Cobbs reveals his findings on successful corporate players

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Price Cobbs recalls his consulting stint with the television comedy show, 'In Living Color'

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Price Cobbs calls for a critical discussion of race in America

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Price Cobbs discusses cultural exchange in America

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Price Cobbs outlines a plan for the advancement of African Americans

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Price Cobbs evaluates the megachurch trend

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Price Cobbs emphasizes the significance of building wealth in the black community

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Price Cobbs opines on the overuse of prescription psychiatric drugs

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Price Cobbs details his professional history and future

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Price Cobbs discusses his latest book project, 'From Rage to Entitlement'

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Price Cobbs reflects on his father's personality

Tape: 5 Story: 11 - Price Cobbs looks back upon his life

Tape: 5 Story: 12 - Price Cobbs considers his legacy

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$4

DAStory

4$1

DATitle
Price Cobbs considers psychiatry and the black community
Price Cobbs details the inspiration for his book, 'Black Rage'
Transcript
You were the one in your class interested in psychiatry?$$At that time, but yeah, there were you know--there were four or five hundred black psychiatrists in the--oh, about 19--maybe three hundred or four hundred about 1970, '72 [1972], around the country. So a handful. But, you know, critical mass. Then in the '60s [1960s] and '70s [1970s] a fair number of black physicians went into psychiatry, and I think for some of the reasons we're talking about. Trying to understand things, trying to understand themselves. I don't know what the numbers are now.$$You know, when I try--you know, this is gonna sound somewhat like a naive question. But, you know, in our community, psychiatry has always been accepted.$$(Simultaneously) That's true.$$And so I find it fascinating that you at the time--and, you know, when we interviewed Dr. [Alvin] Poussaint I thought--you know I--the first--the question was, "What did you think you were gonna do?"$$(Simultaneously) Yeah.$$You know. Because this is a community that--you know, where were you thinking$$(Simultaneously) Yeah.$$You'd practice and all that at that time?$$I didn't--you know, I don't think I thought about where I was going to practice until you got closer to that time. I made a conscious decision to come up to San Francisco [California] to intern rather than to intern in Los Angeles [California]. So I made a decision to be here. I, you know, I knew I would--I would get black patients. You know, I didn't--and I was very aware that, you know, I mean--"If you see a psychiatrist, you gotta be crazy," you know. I mean very aware of cultural things that would keep it away. But with every reaction, there's an equal and opposite reaction. So while at the same time you have that it--you know, it would be if I could get somebody to sit in the office, I could get my hooks in them. And by getting my hooks--just by listening--by conveying to them that, you know, "What you are telling me is important." And not through any contrived--not through any acting, it would just be that so many people that I would see--and in those days, welfare mothers, on--nobody'd ever taken them and their story seriously. Nobody'd ever sat down, you know, they had--most of their medical stuff had been in clinics. You know, where, "Come here. Come there." They would--you know, people would describe sitting three or four hours waiting for somebody. I would see a welfare mother, and would be someone who would say, "Man, you can't see welfare patients. They'll never be on time." And I would say to somebody, "I'm going to see you next Thursday and every Thursday at eleven o'clock [A.M.]. I will be on time. If I'm not available at eleven o'clock [A.M.], you will know that I had an accident or something happened. But I will be on time." And the next Thursday person might be there at eleven eight [11:08]. From then on, they were there at eleven o'clock just like any other patient. Because they would know I was gonna be there. So it wasn't that, you know, kind of self-fulfilling prophecy--"Well I'll come late. Because whenever I see my doctor, you know, I have a three o'clock appointment. I don't get in until 5:15 anyway." And so that it just--you know, I guess there would have been levels of naivete around it. Or you're aware of something and you close your eyes. But I never had any, I never had any sense that I wouldn't see patients--then don't forget also, I'm in San Francisco, so that a fair number of my patients are non-black. You know, that--I laugh with a guy that when I first started in practice, I became fashionable. You know, that it was--people were fashionable if they had a Japanese dentist and a black psychiatrist. Well since I was the only psychiatrist in private practice they said--somebody would say, "Man I heard your name at a party," you know. You know it just--everything comes together.$I want to go back to you writing 'Black Rage' and how that even came about. You said it came out of your private practice?$$Yeah. You know, it's coauthored with [Dr. William] Bill Grier. It came out of our private practices. The world as we knew it was exploding. The Watts [Los Angeles, California neighborhood] riot had occurred in 1965. The Selma [Alabama] to Montgomery [Alabama] march. The Civil Rights Movement was turning, you know, 'Black Power' had come in as its slogan. It was turning away from nonviolence. The consciousness of black people was just being elevated exponentially so that people were getting in touch with being angry. They were angry, you know, "Not gonna take this any more." You know, "Dammit, I've been quiet--." You know, someone would come in, "You know, I've been quiet on the job." You know, I remember one guy saying, you know--he said, "My nick-name is Brownowski." I said, "Why that?" He said, "You know, there are a lot of Poles [Polish people] there. And so they're Stepenowski this or that. So they just make me Brownowski." He said, "And I hate it, you know. I don't like it." And he said, "Yeah, you're supposed to take a joke. It's supposed to be good-natured. They're mocking me and I know it, you know." Or people would just say, "You know, I'm tired of hearing nigger. I'm tired of hearing it at work. I'm tired--I'm tired of knowing that I'm not gonna get promoted." So that people were--black people at least the sample that we were seeing--and don't forget it's a selected sample because these are the people who are coming to see you. They were angry, you know. They were, you know, "Help me understand it. Help me understand myself. Help me understand the--you know, the external milieu."$$And what was--what was your--how did--but how did the book even come--I mean how did it come about? How did you and Bill Grier--,$$Okay.$$How did you decide you were gonna go--?$$Bill was in Detroit [Michigan]--had gotten divorced and moved to San Francisco [California] to take over a child psychiatric clinic. Since our world, our universe, was so small, we clearly met very early--connected and we started talking about it, you know. I had been writing an article. I think he had been writing an article--"Let's get together and write a book." And, you know, it kind of went from there. And it was, it was time, it was timely. It was, you know--that was, that was what was happening. That was what was going on. Plus a lot of people were, you know--part of what you say of--quotes--"Our resistance to mental health treatment," but, you know people were seeing folks. We were reading articles in the literature about people treating black patients that were as rife with stereotypes and racism as anything else. You know, so that we wanted to have some kind of manual to help people understand. To make understandable some of the clinical issues that African Americans were having as we saw it.$$And it's not that 'Black Rage' was anything new. But do you think it was--I mean it had been articulated in other things like, you know, you mentioned 'Native Son.'$$Yeah.$$You know.$$Hadn't been articulated in a clinical sense.$$But that's--,$$(Simultaneously) Yeah, yeah, yeah.$$what I want.$$(Simultaneously) Yeah.$$So that's what the importance of this was.$$(Simultaneously) Yeah, yeah, yeah. Right. So it was articulated in a clinical sense.$$Okay.$$Exactly.$$And what were your--what were some of the underlying theses?$$That all blacks are angry, and that they are angry with legitimate reason to be angry. But by saying that, then that means that we've gotta help people understand it and effectively manage it, you know, because they'll think it sometimes got misconstrued. "Oh! Well then you're saying it's okay for them to--." "No. I'm not saying it's okay to do anything. We're just saying before you can treat a problem, you have to understand it." You know, and there were so many clinicians that would see black patients with absolutely no understanding of the context of their lives--you know, where they were coming from, what was infringing on them, what went on in their heads. You know, so they would just impose a model on them that many times was inappropriate for the people with whom they were working with, then or now. You know. I think there is now much more a thrust to help people be much more culturally competent in a broader sense. But even so, it's still--we're a long, long way from that. Yeah.$$Did you find that in the book--that book really catapulted you--.$$(Simultaneously) Very much so. Yeah.$$Okay.$$No question.$$And did it--do you think it catapulted you as well or legitimized you in a different--or opened up, a viewpoint to the white community as well as the black community.$$No question.$$Okay.$$Yeah. Absolutely. No question.$$Okay.$$Yeah.$$Okay.$$Yeah. It was, you know, I say it was time and it was timely. Dr. [Martin Luther] King [Jr.] was assassinated in April of 1968. Our book came out in June of 1968--and, you know, with all the--you're too young. With all the attendant urban unrest, riots around the country. In some cities it still hasn't been in--hasn't been rebuilt--so it came out with all that. Eldridge Cleaver's book ['Soul on Ice'] had come out the year before didn't do very well and it was one of those books that came back a year later. They reissued it and it did well. So it was, you know, right in the middle of people--at least a certain part of the cultural elite wanting to understand what was going on. And it fit right into that.