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Andrew Heidelberg

Norfolk 17 member Andrew Heidelberg was born on November 6, 1943 in Norfolk, Virginia to Lena and Colonal Heidelberg. After desegregation rulings by federal judges in 1957 and 1959 against a fight led by Governor J. Lindsay Almond, Heidelberg began his education at Norview High School, five years after the U.S. Supreme Court ruling Brown v. Board of Education. At the age of fourteen, Heidelberg joined sixteen other African Americans selected out of the 151 who had applied to attend all-white schools. Split between three junior high and three high schools, The Norfolk 17 started Norfolk’s schools’ integration efforts in Virginia. In 1961 during his senior year, Heidelberg made the school football team and was the first African American to play varsity football at an all-white public school in Virginia and in the South. That same year, his team won the Eastern District championship for the State of Virginia and brought together black and white families alike.

In 1967, Heidelberg entered the banking industry and worked at Industrial National Bank of Providence, Rhode Island. He became the bank’s first African American Branch Manager, Credit Officer, and Commercial Loan Officer before he left in 1976 to found Heidelberg, Clary & Associates, Inc. After the firm closed, Heidelberg worked at Barclays Bank of New York and Banco de Ponce-New York as a Vice President and Corporate Manager. In 2001, Heidelberg graduated from Norfolk State University with his B.S. degree in Interdisciplinary Studies. He went on to serve as Assistant Treasurer and Chief Deputy Treasurer for the City of Hampton in 2003. He returned to Norview High School in 2009 to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the end of “Massive Resistance” in Virginia.

Heidelberg was selected by Governor Mark Warner in 2005 to serve a two-year term as a member of the Brown v. Board of Education Scholarship Awards Committee. He was appointed to serve two additional consecutive two-year terms (through 2011) by Governor Tim Kaine. In 2006 he published his story in the book The Norfolk 17: A Personal Narrative on Desegregation in Norfolk, Virginia in 1958-1962. Heidelberg also finished writing a screenplay in 2009 based on the book The Colored Halfback scheduled for publication in 2010.

Heidelberg passed away on July 6, 2015 at the age of 71.

Andrew Heidelberg was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on May 10, 2010.

Accession Number

A2010.015

Sex

Male

Interview Date

5/10/2010 |and| 5/13/2010

Last Name

Heidelberg

Marital Status

Married

Organizations
Schools

Norview High School

Norfolk State University

Oakwood Elementary School

First Name

Andrew

Birth City, State, Country

Norfolk

HM ID

HEI04

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Virginia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Bermuda

Favorite Quote

Prior Planning Prevents Poor Performance.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Virginia

Birth Date

11/6/1943

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Hampton

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Seafood

Death Date

7/6/2015

Short Description

Banker, civic leader, and cultural heritage lecturer Andrew Heidelberg (1943 - 2015 ) was a member of The Norfolk 17 who strove for desegregation in the South in the late 1950s. He lectured at events about the impact of segregation and civil rights.

Employment

Norfolk 17: A Personal Narrative

Beacon At The Crossroads

Hampton Treasurer's Office

Eastland Savings Bank

Banco de Ponce New York

Barclays Bank of New York

Heidelberg, Clary and Associates, Inc.

Fleet National Bank

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Andrew Heidelberg's interview, session 1

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Andrew Heidelberg lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Andrew Heidelberg describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Andrew Heidelberg recalls his mother's upbringing

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Andrew Heidelberg talks about his father's name

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Andrew Heidelberg describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Andrew Heidelberg recalls his father's talents

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Andrew Heidelberg describes his paternal grandmother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Andrew Heidelberg talks about the origin of his father's first name

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Andrew Heidelberg describes his paternal grandmother's murder

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Andrew Heidelberg recalls how his parents met

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Andrew Heidelberg talks about his father's occupation

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Andrew Heidelberg describes his parents' personalities

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Andrew Heidelberg describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Andrew Heidelberg talks about medical care available to African Americans in Norfolk, Virginia

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Andrew Heidelberg describes his childhood homes

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Andrew Heidelberg recalls his jobs as a young boy

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Andrew Heidelberg describes his personality as a young boy

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Andrew Heidelberg recalls attending school at Bank Street Baptist Church in Norfolk, Virginia

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Andrew Heidelberg remembers moving to Chesapeake Manor in Norfolk, Virginia

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Andrew Heidelberg recalls attending Oakwood Elementary School in Norfolk, Virginia

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Andrew Heidelberg describes his desire to excel academically

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Andrew Heidelberg recalls the discipline at Oakwood Elementary School

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Andrew Heidelberg remembers how he came to join the Norfolk 17, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Andrew Heidelberg remembers how he came to join the Norfolk 17, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Andrew Heidelberg recalls the organizing efforts of Evelyn T. Butts

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Andrew Heidelberg describes segregation in Norfolk, Virginia

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Andrew Heidelberg recalls the selection of the Norfolk 17

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Andrew Heidelberg talks about the admission process for Norview High School in Norfolk, Virginia

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Andrew Heidelberg recalls his mother's advice about interacting with white students

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Andrew Heidelberg remembers the closing of public schools in Norfolk, Virginia

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Andrew Heidelberg recalls his nonviolence training from the NAACP

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Andrew Heidelberg describes his fear of desegregating Norview High School in Norfolk, Virginia

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Andrew Heidelberg talks about the emotional toll of desegregating Norview High School

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Andrew Heidelberg recalls adapting to an integrated school environment

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Andrew Heidelberg describes the effects of school closings in Norfolk, Virginia

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Andrew Heidelberg recalls the segregationist leadership in Virginia

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Andrew Heidelberg recalls the reopening of public schools in Norfolk, Virginia

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Andrew Heidelberg remembers walking to Norview High School on his first day

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Andrew Heidelberg recalls arriving at Norview High School on his first day

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Andrew Heidelberg describes his first day at Norview High School

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Andrew Heidelberg recalls meeting a sympathetic student

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Andrew Heidelberg remembers the African American workers at Norview High School

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Andrew Heidelberg talks about his lunch period at Norview High School in Norfolk, Virginia

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Andrew Heidelberg describes Norview High School's football history

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Andrew Heidelberg recalls his isolation at Norview High School in Norfolk, Virginia

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Andrew Heidelberg describes his treatment at Norview High School

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Andrew Heidelberg recalls playing intramural sports at Norview High School

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Andrew Heidelberg remembers trying out for Norview High School's football team

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Andrew Heidelberg recalls being rejected from the football team

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Andrew Heidelberg describes the Church of God and Saints of Christ in Norfolk, Virginia

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Andrew Heidelberg recalls joining the football team at Norview High School in Norfolk, Virginia

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Andrew Heidelberg talks about the dehumanizing rumors about African Americans

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Andrew Heidelberg recalls desegregation of Norview High School football games

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Andrew Heidelberg describes integration at Norview High School

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Andrew Heidelberg recalls the fifty-year reunion of the Norfolk 17

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Andrew Heidelberg describes his football career with Norview High School

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Andrew Heidelberg recalls playing football in Prince Edward County, Virginia, pt. 1

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Andrew Heidelberg recalls playing football in Prince Edward County, Virginia, pt. 2

Tape: 7 Story: 9 - Andrew Heidelberg remembers a racist encounter in a white community

Tape: 7 Story: 10 - Andrew Heidelberg recalls discriminatory refereeing during a football game

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Andrew Heidelberg describes the erasure of Virginia's desegregation history

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Andrew Heidelberg explains why he shares the history of the Norfolk 17

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Andrew Heidelberg recalls his academics at Norview High School in Norfolk, Virginia

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - Andrew Heidelberg describes his good grades at Norfolk State College in Norfolk, Virginia

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - Andrew Heidelberg recalls his decision to attend Norfolk State College

Tape: 9 Story: 1 - Slating of Andrew Heidelberg's interview, session 2

Tape: 9 Story: 2 - Andrew Heidelberg recalls his reasons for attending Norfolk State College in Norfolk, Virginia, pt. 1

Tape: 9 Story: 3 - Andrew Heidelberg recalls his reasons for attending Norfolk State College in Norfolk, Virginia, pt. 2

Tape: 9 Story: 4 - Andrew Heidelberg describes his college football contemporaries

Tape: 9 Story: 5 - Andrew Heidelberg recalls his motivations at Norfolk State College

Tape: 9 Story: 6 - Andrew Heidelberg remembers his football career at Norfolk State College

Tape: 9 Story: 7 - Andrew Heidelberg describes his academic experiences at Norfolk State College

Tape: 9 Story: 8 - Andrew Heidelberg recalls being recruited to the Rhode Island Steelers

Tape: 9 Story: 9 - Andrew Heidelberg remembers joining the Pittsburgh Steelers

Tape: 10 Story: 1 - Andrew Heidelberg recalls his experiences at the Pittsburgh Steelers training camp

Tape: 10 Story: 2 - Andrew Heidelberg remembers his teammates on the Pittsburgh Steelers

Tape: 10 Story: 3 - Andrew Heidelberg recalls his career with the Pittsburgh Steelers

Tape: 10 Story: 4 - Andrew Heidelberg talks about leaving the Pittsburgh Steelers

Tape: 10 Story: 5 - Andrew Heidelberg reflects upon his unusual name

Tape: 10 Story: 6 - Andrew Heidelberg recalls working at Industrial National Bank in Providence, Rhode Island

Tape: 10 Story: 7 - Andrew Heidelberg describes a problematic advertising campaign at Industrial National Bank

Tape: 10 Story: 8 - Andrew Heidelberg recalls helping to apprehend a bank robber

Tape: 10 Story: 9 - Andrew Heidelberg talks about improving the diversity of an advertising campaign at Industrial National Bank

Tape: 10 Story: 10 - Andrew Heidelberg recalls asking to join the managerial training program at Industrial National Bank

Tape: 11 Story: 1 - Andrew Heidelberg recalls being accepted to Industrial National Bank's management program

Tape: 11 Story: 2 - Andrew Heidelberg talks about his promotion to branch manager

Tape: 11 Story: 3 - Andrew Heidelberg describes the history of Industrial National Bank

Tape: 11 Story: 4 - Andrew Heidelberg recalls managing a bank branch in Cranston, Rhode Island

Tape: 11 Story: 5 - Andrew Heidelberg talks about his experiences in the credit department at Industrial National Bank

Tape: 11 Story: 6 - Andrew Heidelberg remembers his mentor, Arthur Lowenthal

Tape: 11 Story: 7 - Andrew Heidelberg describes the prejudice against his mentor, Arthur Lowenthal

Tape: 11 Story: 8 - Andrew Heidelberg recalls his plan to start his own business

Tape: 12 Story: 1 - Andrew Heidelberg recalls partnering with Anderson W. Clary, Jr.

Tape: 12 Story: 2 - Andrew Heidelberg remembers founding Heidelberg, Clary and Associates, Inc.

Tape: 12 Story: 3 - Andrew Heidelberg recalls the aid of the Jimmy Carter Administration

Tape: 12 Story: 4 - Andrew Heidelberg describes his earliest contracts with Heidelberg, Clary and Associates, Inc.

Tape: 12 Story: 5 - Andrew Heidelberg recalls being hired at Barclays Bank of New York

Tape: 12 Story: 6 - Andrew Heidelberg describes the racial demographics of Barclays Bank of New York

Tape: 12 Story: 7 - Andrew Heidelberg talks about his experiences at Barclays Bank of New York

Tape: 12 Story: 8 - Andrew Heidelberg recalls leaving Barclays Bank of New York

Tape: 12 Story: 9 - Andrew Heidelberg remembers joining Banco de Ponce

Tape: 13 Story: 1 - Andrew Heidelberg recalls investing in the film 'First Blood'

Tape: 13 Story: 2 - Andrew Heidelberg remembers his client, Dr. Michael Truppin

Tape: 13 Story: 3 - Andrew Heidelberg recalls leaving Banco de Ponce

Tape: 13 Story: 4 - Andrew Heidelberg talks about his return to Rhode Island

Tape: 13 Story: 5 - Andrew Heidelberg recalls returning to Norfolk State University in Norfolk, Virginia

Tape: 13 Story: 6 - Andrew Heidelberg remembers working at Beacon at the Crossroads in Hampton, Virginia

Tape: 13 Story: 7 - Andrew Heidelberg recalls publishing his first book

Tape: 13 Story: 8 - Andrew Heidelberg describes his second book, 'The Colored Halfback'

Tape: 13 Story: 9 - Andrew Heidelberg talks about his hopes for his books

Tape: 13 Story: 10 - Andrew Heidelberg describes his concerns for the African American community

Tape: 14 Story: 1 - Andrew Heidelberg describes his hopes for the African American community

Tape: 14 Story: 2 - Andrew Heidelberg reflects upon his life

Tape: 14 Story: 3 - Andrew Heidelberg reflects upon his legacy, pt. 1

Tape: 14 Story: 4 - Andrew Heidelberg remembers the death of his brother

Tape: 14 Story: 5 - Andrew Heidelberg reflects upon his legacy, pt. 2

Tape: 14 Story: 6 - Andrew Heidelberg describes his family

Tape: 14 Story: 7 - Andrew Heidelberg talks about The HistoryMakers

Tape: 14 Story: 8 - Andrew Heidelberg talks about his religious faith

Tape: 14 Story: 9 - Andrew Heidelberg describes how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 15 Story: 1 - Andrew Heidelberg narrates his photographs, pt. 1

Tape: 15 Story: 2 - Andrew Heidelberg narrates his photographs, pt. 2

DASession

1$1

DATape

5$5

DAStory

4$6

DATitle
Andrew Heidelberg describes his first day at Norview High School
Andrew Heidelberg remembers the African American workers at Norview High School
Transcript
And so the bell rang (makes sound). So then Fred [Alvarez Gonsouland] and I, as slowly as we're walking, went up the steps [of Norview High School, Norfolk, Virginia]. And I really didn't, I had never been to high school, so I didn't really know what I was supposed to do, you know. And the NAACP [National Association for the Advancement of Colored People] had told us nothing about this. So I said to Fred, I said, "Where do we go now?" (Laughter) So, and I don't even know how he knew. He said, "I have to go, I have to report to the cafeteria. I don't know where you go." I said, "Where do I go?" (Laughter) He say, he said, "Well, follow these freshmen here." And it was a whole bunch of them. He said, "Just follow them." So, so, and when you got inside it was like, oh, they were all around you, you know. And so, Freddy went on his way, and that was the last that I saw of Freddy. Now--$$So you were by yourself in a sea of (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) I was by myself.$$--white freshmen.$$Oh yeah, oh yeah. So--$$And were they doing the same thing--$$Oh, they were just calling names, and, and they couldn't even walk in front. They could turn around--"Hey we got a nigger here." "Why don't you go home, nigger?" "Get out of our school," you know, and all the way down, and, and, and, and I was just following them. And then we went on down, and then I saw the sign said gymnasium, freshmen--I mean auditorium, freshman. So then I, I turned the corner, and I was following, and I walked in, so. When I walked into the auditorium, man, it was like, they started to singing. I could hear it coming. I didn't know the school had a balcony in the auditorium. All I could hear was, (singing) "Fe-fe-fi-fi-fo-fo-fum, I smell a nigger in the auditorium, Charlie Brown." I mean, and, and it was, it was like, it was--you know how the rock singers sing? That's what they were doing. I mean they were like--and I'm saying, "Oh," and then everybody in there turned around and started looking. So then I looked and I saw down, the teachers were standing down in front of the stage, and they had tables. I guess they were giving the assignments, so. And they, they were just singing. They were all around us, "Go home, nigger; go home, nigger." So, I walked down. I said well, best thing I'd better do is go down here as close to the teachers as I possibly can because if they try to kill me, hopefully the teachers (laughter), you know, to at least try to stop them from killing me, right. So, I got, I got down to the--near the front, so. And then I saw a row, you know, and I went in about maybe four rows from the front and went in. I went into the aisle and you know, I walked and I sat down right in the middle. Man, as soon as I sat down, everybody in that row that I was (laughter) on got up and left. Everybody in the row in front of got up and left. Everybody in the row behind me got up and left. And all of a sudden, from the place being jammed packed, here I was sitting with nobody. And I mean they just like--and I, I really didn't even know what to do. And so the teachers called my name, "Heidelberg [HistoryMaker Andrew Heidelberg]," and so I went up. I went up, and she gave me my, my, my schedule, and I walked out. I didn't really know where--I had to go to the, my homeroom class, but I didn't really know where it was 'til I got back in the hall and I realized it was up on the second floor. And I followed, I followed that up to the second floor. And so I saw the numbers and went into the classroom. So when I got in the classroom, I wanted to sit--they had, the classroom had a window, the long windows on the side. So I said well, I'm gonna sit by the window, that way if they try to lynch me, I can jump out the window. You know, I was (laughter)--I thought that's my quickest ex- I mean, it, this was survival. You was thinking how do I get out of here if they--because I'm, I'm, I was so sure somebody, they were gonna try to kill me, and there was no question about it. So, so I go in, and I sat down right on the second row on the end, on the end, second row. The guy in front of me got up; the girl beside me got up; and the guy in the back of me got up, so again I had my own space. And you know, and the teacher was standing up there, and I'm saying to her--and they, they come in, "Why do we have to have a nigger in our classroom?" "We don't want no niggers in here." I'm thinking the teacher is gonna say, "Hey, hey, calm down." She just let it; she just (laughter) let it. I mean it just went on until the, the bell rang the second time, when you're supposed to be in your homeroom, you know. And so, so she said, "Well, okay, class calm down," and she started calling the roll. And I mean they were like, shooting spit wads at me, throwing paperclips, you know. And, and she never, ever, ever said a freaking word to any one of them. And it was, it was like--so then, I mean it, it, that, that first day was so bad. You know, like I, I--you, you know, you go to every class, and in every class it was the same exact thing.$So, I walked on down, and the line got shorter. And I mean, I got to the door where you go in, right. And one of the reasons--(crying)--whoa. I got to the door and like, there were like, black people serving the food. And they were so proud of me. I think about that 'cause, you know, all my life you done heard--you, you see movies, and, and they always have them Stepin Fletchit [sic. Stepin Fetchit] type people talking, who can't talk, and old slow talking and stuff like that. And when I walked in there, there was like, these two black ladies and, and a black guy, (crying) and I knew her 'cause I used to like--I knew her daughter. I used to like, go with her daughter. I didn't know she worked there. She said, "How you doing, [HistoryMaker] Andrew Heidelberg?" She just called my whole name loud. It just made me feel so good, you know, like, 'cause they didn't tell you that black people talk like that. She ain't scared of no white people, at all; you could tell, her voice. It just made me feel--and all the other white--other black ladies said, "Hi, Andrew Heidelberg." And then the black guy, he was--had a big pot in his hand, man, he said, "How you doing, son?" You know what I'm saying? And it's like, they didn't care that there were white people there; I mean it didn't mean nothing. I just can't tell you how, how it made me feel. It was like whoa, you know, like, thank you; I needed that. And they said, "What you want to eat?" You know what I'm saying, you know, like--and you know, you smile, man, and, and, and I--and they say, "You, don't worry." I mean the look on their face, I never seen people so proud of me. I, I, I didn't even know what I had done. But just the fact that I was there [Norview High School, Norfolk, Virginia], to them, you know, and, and, and that's when I knew that it meant something more. You know, you, you look at them, she was like in her thirties, and the guy was like--I mean, they were so proud, man. It was like whoa; I mean it gave me a whole different perspective of what happened, because it was like they, they, they were waiting. They, they, they waited. You know, it's, I guess it's the same feeling like I felt when Obama [HistoryMaker President Barack Obama] got elected. It was like whoa, man, look at this, I mean, the, the tears. I mean they were just, I mean they smiled and, man, they called my name so loud. I mean that was what got me. And they called my whole name. She said, "How are you doing, Andrew Heidelberg?" And man, and everybody in there looked around, and they weren't gonna say nothing to her. You know what I'm saying?

Robert R. Lavelle

Realtor and banker Robert Roselle Lavelle was born on October 4, 1915 in Cleveland, Tennessee, to Franklin Pierce Lavelle, a pastor, and Mary Anderson Lavelle, a domestic. Lavelle’s father passed away when he was nine years old, and Robert, his mother and his four brothers and three sisters met difficult times during the Great Depression, leading to Lavelle dropping out of high school to work several odd jobs.

In 1935, Lavelle reached a turning point when, while working as a dishwasher in a department store restaurant, he was approached by the president of the black-owned Pittsburgh Courier, who offered him a job. It would be the start of Lavelle’s life-changing twenty-one-year career with the paper, where he worked in the office, mailroom and later, in accounting. Lavelle met his future wife, Adah Moore, while working at the courier. The two wed in 1942. Lavelle left the paper for four years when he was drafted into the U.S. Army during World War II, during which time, the Courier adopted the “Double V” campaign, signifying victory for African Americans at home and abroad. Lavelle pursued his education in night school while working at the Courier, and received both his B.S. and M.A. degrees from the prestigious University of Pittsburgh and the University of Pittsburgh Katz Graduate School of Business in 1951 and 1954, respectively. Lavelle started his own real estate business in 1951, and in 1956, he left the Pittsburgh Courier to work full-time at Lavelle Real Estate. In 1957, Lavelle was made an executive at a savings and loan business. Both Lavelle Real Estate and the savings and loan business focus on the poor black community. Lavelle maintains both of his businesses in the Hill District of Pittsburgh, where he continues to provide loans to black clients who would not otherwise qualify for bank loans.

Lavelle is a longtime member of Grace Memorial Presbyterian Church, where he is an elder, and he also serves on the Board of the Pittsburgh Theological Seminary. He is currently a member of the Board of Visitors at the Katz Graduate School of Business, where the Robert Lavelle Scholarship is named in his honor. In 2008, Lavelle notably switched his voting registration from Republican to Democratic so that he could vote for Barack Obama in the Pennsylvania primary election. He resides in the Hill District of Pittsburgh with his wife, and the couple has two grown sons, Robert Moore Lavelle and John Franklin Lavelle.

Lavelle was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on August 15, 2008.

Mr. Lavelle passed away on July 4, 2010.

Accession Number

A2008.109

Sex

Male

Interview Date

8/15/2008

Last Name

Lavelle

Maker Category
Middle Name

Roselle

Schools

University of Pittsburgh

Schenley High School

First Name

Robert

Birth City, State, Country

Cleveland

HM ID

LAV02

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Tennessee

Favorite Vacation Destination

Cape May Point, Maryland

Favorite Quote

Jesus Loves Me.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Pennsylvania

Birth Date

10/4/1915

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Pittsburgh

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Greens

Death Date

7/4/2010

Short Description

Banker and real estate agent Robert R. Lavelle (1915 - 2010 ) was the owner and operator of Lavelle Real Estate and Dwelling House Savings and Loan.

Employment

Dwelling House Savings and Loan Association

Lavelle Real Estate, Inc.

Pittsburgh Courier

Favorite Color

Blue

DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Robert R. Lavelle's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Robert R. Lavelle lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Robert R. Lavelle describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Robert R. Lavelle remembers his mother's illness

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Robert R. Lavelle talks about his mother's childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Robert R. Lavelle describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Robert R. Lavelle remembers his early experiences of segregation in St. Louis, Missouri

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Robert R. Lavelle recalls his early understanding of racism

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Robert R. Lavelle remembers his father's commitment to his work

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Robert R. Lavelle recalls his father's death

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Robert R. Lavelle lists his siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Robert R. Lavelle talks about the East Liberty neighborhood of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Robert R. Lavelle describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Robert R. Lavelle talks about his experiences at Westinghouse High School in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Robert R. Lavelle talks about his experiences at Westinghouse High School in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Robert R. Lavelle remembers leaving high school to work

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Robert R. Lavelle talks about being hired at the Pittsburgh Courier

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Robert R. Lavelle remembers his first week at the Pittsburgh Courier

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Robert R. Lavelle recalls joining the NAACP

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Robert R. Lavelle recalls his first day at the Pittsburgh Courier

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Robert R. Lavelle describes his working relationship with Ira Lewis and Robert Lee Vann

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Robert R. Lavelle remembers boxer Joe Louis

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Robert R. Lavelle describes his famous acquaintances

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Robert R. Lavelle talks about finishing college after leaving the U.S. Army

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Robert R. Lavelle remembers marrying his wife

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Robert R. Lavelle recalls attending the University of Pittsburgh in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Robert R. Lavelle talks about a series of burglaries at his home during the 1970s

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Robert R. Lavelle remembers his first promotion in the U.S. Army

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Robert R. Lavelle describes his experiences as a sergeant in the U.S. Army

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Robert R. Lavelle remembers applying for Officer Candidate School

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Robert R. Lavelle talks about his decision to leave the U.S. Army

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Robert R. Lavelle remembers fighting against discrimination

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Robert R. Lavelle recalls the beginning of his career in real estate

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Robert R. Lavelle remembers founding Lavelle Real Estate, Inc. and Dwelling House Savings and Loan Association

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Robert R. Lavelle talks about the mission of Dwelling House Savings and Loan Association

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Robert R. Lavelle remembers joining Pittsburgh's Grace Memorial Presbyterian Church after his mother's death, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Robert R. Lavelle remembers joining Pittsburgh's Grace Memorial Presbyterian Church after his mother's death, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Robert R. Lavelle talks about his challenges at Grace Memorial Presbyterian Church in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Robert R. Lavelle talks about his challenges at Grace Memorial Presbyterian Church in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Robert R. Lavelle recalls overcoming his academic obstacles

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Robert R. Lavelle remembers filing a suit against Greater East End Multilist, Inc., pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Robert R. Lavelle remembers filing a suit against Greater East End Multilist, Inc., pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Robert R. Lavelle talks about his professional accomplishments

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Robert R. Lavelle recalls serving on the board of directors of Pittsburgh Theological Seminary

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Robert R. Lavelle reflects upon his life

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Robert R. Lavelle reflects upon the legacy of his parents

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Robert R. Lavelle reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Robert R. Lavelle talks about his family

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Robert R. Lavelle remembers a confrontation with his son, John Lavelle, pt. 1

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Robert R. Lavelle remembers a confrontation with his son, John Lavelle, pt. 2

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Robert Lavelle talks about 'Bodies: The Exhibition'

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Robert Lavelle describes how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Robert R. Lavelle narrates his photographs

Charles Teamer, Sr.

Banker and civic leader Charles Teamer, Sr. was born on May 20, 1933 in Shelby, North Carolina to B.T. Teamer and Mary Teamer. He received his B.S. degree from Clark Atlanta University in Atlanta, Georgia in 1954. He served in the U.S. Army from 1956 to 1958, and later received his M.A. degree from the University of Nebraska and his Ph.D. degree from Tulane University in New Orleans, Louisiana.

Teamer worked in the office of the business manager at South Carolina State University in 1954. He then became assistant business manager at Tennessee State University in 1958; and, in 1962, Teamer was hired as business manager at Wiley College. In 1965, Teamer became vice president of finance at Dillard University and was promoted to chief financial officer in 1968. In 1983, he was appointed by Louisiana Governor David Treen as the first African American on the Board of Commissioners of the Port of New Orleans. From 1985 to 1988, Teamer served as the national president of Alpha Phi Alpha fraternity. In 1993, Teamer co-founded the Dryades Savings Bank and served as chairman. He later retired from Dillard University in 1997, and continued to work as a consultant to Clark Atlanta University. In 2001, Teamer led a partnership of investors in opening The Cotton Exchange and Holiday Inn Express Hotel in downtown New Orleans, and became president of the World Trade Center of New Orleans in 2003.

Former executive director of the Amistad Research Center and a consultant to the U.S. Department of Education, Teamer has held numerous board appointments on the Board of Education of the United Methodist Church, the Ford Foundation, the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools, the Common Fund, the National Association of Colleges and University Business Officers, the Ochsner Medical Foundation and the Audubon Institute. Teamer also served as board chair for the Urban League of Greater New Orleans, the Metropolitan Area Committee, Harrah’s New Orleans Casino, the Greater New Orleans Foundation and the United Way. He was a member of the business and higher-education council for the University of New Orleans and served on the board of the Southern Education Foundation. Teamer was president of the Southern Association of College and University Business Officers and vice president of fiscal affairs at Dillard University and Clark Atlanta University. He was a member of the board of supervisors for the University of Louisiana System and was on the board of administrators of Tulane University. Teamer was also the director of Entergy New Orleans.

Teamer was married for forty-seven years to the late Mary Dixon Teamer. They have three children: Charles, Jr., Roderic, Sr. and Cheryl. Teamer has six grandchildren.

Charles Teamer, Sr. was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on March 28, 2008 and April 27, 2019.

Accession Number

A2008.061

Sex

Male

Interview Date

3/28/2008

3/28/2008 |and| 4/27/2019

Last Name

Teamer

Maker Category
Marital Status

Widower

Schools

Clark Atlanta University

Cleveland School

Tulane University

J.C. Price High School

University of Nebraska-Omaha

First Name

Charles

Birth City, State, Country

Shelby

HM ID

TEA01

Favorite Season

Fall

Sponsor

Boule Foundation

State

North Carolina

Favorite Vacation Destination

Any golf course

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Louisiana

Birth Date

5/20/1933

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New Orleans

Country

United States

Favorite Food

All food

Short Description

Banker and civic leader Charles Teamer, Sr. (1933 - ) served as chief financial officer at Dillard University for over thirty years and co-founded Dryades Savings Bank and served as chairman.

Employment

Texas Southern University

Wiley College

Dillard University

Dryades Savings Bank, F.S.B.

Tennessee State University

South Carolina State College

Clark Atlanta University

World Trade Center

U.S. Army

Main Sponsor
Favorite Color

Black and Gold

Timing Pairs
0,0:770,16:1694,54:2002,59:3311,133:6880,166:7280,171:14080,259:14580,265:21454,314:21718,319:25084,432:25678,442:27394,485:27790,492:28780,511:30364,548:31486,586:59486,843:69250,973:69775,981:70900,1000:71725,1015:82764,1137:86820,1176:98286,1291:99294,1306:99726,1313:115490,1550:116290,1563:116690,1569:119490,1613:131256,1781:136559,1841:137126,1849:137450,1854:150328,1983:151960,2017:152708,2026:154680,2059:164135,2198:164475,2207:165750,2234:170808,2280:171116,2285:171501,2291:172040,2300:172502,2308:172887,2314:185650,2513:186574,2523:191870,2565$0,0:666,25:5106,148:8325,248:9102,256:16612,380:17404,392:18052,402:20850,418:31900,558:32290,564:33772,584:42981,749:43366,755:46138,809:46754,824:49130,830:49922,850:52990,871:53234,876:53722,887:54027,893:54515,902:55491,927:58053,989:70904,1151:77600,1230:77900,1235:83300,1368:83825,1377:84650,1392:85325,1403:90800,1475:91625,1492:92375,1505:96141,1515:98066,1549:99914,1584:100530,1594:103240,1608:107676,1629:110050,1640:110809,1665:111430,1675:111706,1680:118544,1769:119156,1779:119904,1794:121128,1864:123100,1925:123576,1933:126228,2042:132098,2079:132616,2088:132912,2093:141570,2259:148960,2307:149404,2315:149996,2325:150884,2334:151180,2339:158194,2408:158579,2414:161428,2457:164592,2484:166209,2493:176400,2552:177048,2561:177615,2575:179559,2605:180288,2616:180936,2625:181260,2630:182811,2639:184116,2656:185508,2674:186030,2681:197495,2800:208290,2913:211060,2925:215000,2971
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Charles Teamer, Sr.'s interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Charles Teamer, Sr. lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Charles Teamer, Sr. talks about his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Charles Teamer, Sr. describes his father's side of the family

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Charles Teamer, Sr. talks about his paternal grandparents

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Charles Teamer, Sr. describes his father's background

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Charles Teamer, Sr. describes his parents

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Charles Teamer, Sr. recalls his induction into the Masonry

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Charles Teamer, Sr. remembers the Boy Scouts of America, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Charles Teamer, Sr. remembers the Boy Scouts of America, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Charles Teamer, Sr. describes Salisbury, North Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Charles Teamer, Sr. recalls the Cleveland County Training School in Shelby, North Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Charles Teamer, Sr. recalls his early interests

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Charles Teamer, Sr. remembers Joe Louis' boxing matches

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Charles Teamer, Sr. describes his early awareness of African American history

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Charles Teamer, Sr. remembers J.C. Price High School in Salisbury, North Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Charles Teamer, Sr. remembers his extracurricular activities

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Charles Teamer, Sr. remembers moving to Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Charles Teamer, Sr. recalls the faculty of Clark College in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Charles Teamer, Sr. remembers the influence of communism

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Charles Teamer, Sr. recalls his teachers at Clark College in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Charles Teamer, Sr. recalls pledging Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Charles Teamer, Sr. remembers his U.S. Army service

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Charles Teamer, Sr. remembers the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Charles Teamer, Sr. describes interstate travel during the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Charles Teamer, Sr. recalls a sit-in at the Hotel Marshall in Marshall, Texas

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Charles Teamer, Sr. remembers Hobart S. Jarrett

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Charles Teamer, Sr. talks about the influence of African American leaders

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Charles Teamer, Sr. remembers moving to New Orleans, Louisiana

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Charles Teamer, Sr. talks about the Mardi Gras krewe of Rex

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Charles Teamer, Sr. recalls his introduction to corporate board service

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Charles Teamer, Sr. recalls serving on the Boy Scouts of America council

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Charles Teamer, Sr. recalls Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr.'s assassination

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Charles Teamer, Sr. recalls working at Dillard University in New Orleans, Louisiana

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Charles Teamer, Sr. recalls founding the Dryades Savings Bank, F.S.B. in New Orleans, Louisiana

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Charles Teamer, Sr. recalls his work for Clark Atlanta University in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Charles Teamer, Sr. describes the impact of Hurricane Katrina

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Charles Teamer, Sr. describes his role as grand sire of Sigma Pi Phi Fraternity, Inc.

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Charles Teamer, Sr. describes the role of Dryades Savings Bank, F.S.B. in New Orleans, Louisiana

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Charles Teamer, Sr. describes his hopes for New Orleans, Louisiana

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Charles Teamer, Sr. recalls acquiring the Historic Cotton Exchange in New Orleans, Louisiana

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Charles Teamer, Sr. describes his work with the Amistad Research Center in New Orleans, Louisiana

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Charles Teamer, Sr. describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Charles Teamer, Sr. reflects upon his life

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Charles Teamer, Sr. reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Charles Teamer, Sr. describes his children

Tape: 5 Story: 11 - Charles Teamer, Sr. describes how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Charles Teamer, Sr. narrates his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

5$5

DAStory

3$5

DATitle
Charles Teamer, Sr. describes the role of Dryades Savings Bank, F.S.B. in New Orleans, Louisiana
Charles Teamer, Sr. recalls acquiring the Historic Cotton Exchange in New Orleans, Louisiana
Transcript
Fast forwarding back to New Orleans [Louisiana] as we talk about the bank [Dryades Savings Bank, F.S.B., New Orleans, Louisiana] and where we're going, a part of the role that I see is that the p- the percentage of people in the community who are underserved still remain. They're unbanked. And especially as we talk about rebuilding the community, you've been here for several days now and you've driven through the city and you recognize that you can be in a--what we would call a pretty good neighborhood, you're on one street, it seems to be growing and prospering, you go on the next street it's like, is this the same neighborhood? The patterns are so unpredictable. Let me give you an example. As I told you my wife [Mary Dixon Teamer] passed away in 2004. The storm [Hurricane Katrina] occurred in 2005. I had not completed the succession of the estate when, when the storm occurred. If something had happened to me, my children would've been in a terrible problem because the estate would still be open and the question would be who actually owns the property. If you transform that to people who are less informed you find incident after incident where the title to the property is unclear. New Orleans is a very old city. Its traditions are very old, so you might have generations of people living in the same house and they do not know where the title is. In the 9th Ward [New Orleans, Louisiana], for example, I'm told, that there's home after home in which the mortgages had been paid, the people have been there for years, there was no flood insurance. So flood insurance is mandatory when you have a mortgage, well if you don't have a mortgage you have no flood insurance and obviously then you're not gonna have any wind in- wind storm insurance. So consequently, the problems of redeveloping these properties becomes even more severe. What we are doing looking for innovative ways to serve the people in our community to, to, to, to come up with new products, but maybe more than new products just to be available to work and talk with the people in our community on a one-to-one basis. While everybody wants to use the Internet and the computer, the challenge is that the people who really need the services probably are not computer savvy. So that means that the cost of doing business is a little more expensive for hands on, but that's the only way we're gonna do it. And so what we're trying to do is create a way to do what needs to be done in our community while at the same time being a profitable and viable institution.$Tell me about the Cotton Exchange [Historic Cotton Exchange, New Orleans, Louisiana] and the Holiday Inn Express, now you were--$$Happy to.$$Okay.$$When we developed the franchise, the bank [Dryades Savings Bank, F.S.B., New Orleans, Louisiana], I learned from actually our congressman, [HistoryMaker] William Jefferson, that there were opportunities available for us in terms of purchase of buildings that had housed banks by the RTC [Resolution Trust Corporation]. And through my relationships with people in the real estate business, I identified two or three properties of which this was one, this--that we would be interested in. One day somebody came and said to me, Charlie Teamer [HistoryMaker Charles Teamer, Sr.] there's some--there's a white group interested in your building, so to speak. So I decided that I would make an inquiry. I went to my bank, the bank that I was doing business with and talked with the people there and said I'm interested in purchasing the Cotton Exchange. No, I said I need a half million dollars. They in turn said, "What are you gonna do?" I said, "I'm gonna put a bid on the Cotton Exchange building." Because of my experience with them and having been a customer for a long time, they realized that the Cotton Exchange building was worth more than I was gonna pay for it. So they said, "We'll cover you." So I led a group of investors. We bought the building that we're in for considerably less than $500,000, eight story building, it was empty at the time. We purchased the building, moved the bank into the building, leased the first two floors to the bank for ninety-nine years, and decided that we would do something else with floors three through eight. We tried a number of things. We wanted to, to develop something like the Equal Opportunity [Equal Employment Opportunity Commission] building in New York [New York], you know, where the United--where the Negro College Fund [United Negro College Fund] and Urban League [National Urban League] and all--but we weren't able to do that. So the first couple of years, three or four years, the third through the eighth floor was vacant. And then one day one of my acquaintances came in and said, you know, we are in the process of developing empty buildings, boutique hotels, and therefore, we'd like to develop a hotel in this building, floors three through eight. We created a partnership with three groups, our Cotton Exchange partners, one, which own this building to create a hotel. We sold floors one through two to our partnership, invested three through eight into a new partnership, bought the building next door and created a hotel, which we call the Cotton Exchange Hotel, it's a Holiday Inn franchise. So we are one-third owners of the hotel property that is next door. So therefore, we own these two floors and we're one-third owners of the building next door.$$Okay, okay.$$So we are substantial hoteliers in downtown New Orleans [Louisiana].

Marvin Perry

Founder of the Black Board of Directors Project, Marvin Early Perry, was born on November 10, 1944, in Elmore City, Oklahoma. Perry earned his B.A. and M.S. degrees in economics from the University of Central Oklahoma and Oklahoma State University respectively. Shortly thereafter, Perry graduated from the American Bankers Association Commercial Lending School, beginning his professional career in banking.

In response to the vastly underrepresented amount of minorities on corporate boards, Perry founded the Black Board of Directors Project in Phoenix, Arizona in 1984. The project’s purpose is promoting the involvement of minorities in executive positions within corporate, nonprofit, and public policy making institutions at the state and national level. In the organization’s history, which spans over two decades, the Black Board of Directors Project has placed over 1,800 blacks and other minorities on various boards and commissions. By facilitating seminars and conferences centered on corporate board education, Perry hopes to empower members of Arizona’s black community by encouraging them to seek board membership on a corporate level. In doing so, local businesses and agencies will involve more minorities in their policy-making processes.

In 1995, Perry broadened his commitment to community service by becoming a founding board member on the Arizona State University College of Extended Education Dean’s Council. Perry aided the College of Extended Education for years in its mission to broaden access to quality education to all learners in Maricopa County and beyond. His leadership helped the college reach out to Arizona’s traditional and nontraditional learners through innovative locations, methods, curricula, schedules and technologies to meet their lifelong learning needs.

Perry was awarded for his dedicated service to higher education in 2002 when he was given a Distinguished Service Award from Arizona State University, and again in 2007 by receiving an honorary doctorate degree from the University of Advancing Technology. In 2008, Perry selected as the co-recipient of the Arizona State Bar of Arizona's Award of Appreciation.

Perry continues to expand his long history of civic involvement, including board service with the Arizona State Bar Association, the Hispanic Leadership Institute, the Arizona Civil Rights Advisory Board, the Valley of the Sun United Way, the Scottsdale Cultural Center, as well as a list of municipal and county committees and boards. Perry also serves as President of P.E. International, a Phoenix-based marketing and public relations firm.

Accession Number

A2007.209

Sex

Male

Interview Date

7/14/2007

Last Name

Perry

Maker Category
Schools

Averitt School

Katie School

Elmore City-Pernell High School

Oklahoma State University

University of Central Oklahoma

Oklahoma City University

First Name

Marvin

Birth City, State, Country

Elmore City

HM ID

PER03

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Oklahoma

Favorite Vacation Destination

San Diego, Santa Barbara, California

Favorite Quote

When The Going Gets Tough, The Tough Get Going.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Arizona

Birth Date

11/10/1944

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Phoenix

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Italian Food

Short Description

Banker and nonprofit chief executive Marvin Perry (1944 - ) was the founder of the Black Board of Directors Project in Phoenix, Arizona, whose purpose was to promote minority executive leadership in corporate, nonprofit and policy making institutions.

Employment

Federal Reserve Bank of Boston

Omaha National Bank

Arizona Bank

P.E. International

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:838,22:5740,198:9868,279:11072,301:16576,604:17178,612:17780,637:37106,842:41804,942:42239,948:54726,1257:57911,1381:58366,1437:71676,1631:72250,1642:83946,1840:93018,2067:112826,2541:122738,2642:132890,2881:140692,3108:141162,3114:142196,3137:155132,3275:155860,3284:158590,3353:166180,3455:166675,3473:167060,3481:171375,3817:176721,3925:191772,4086:214779,4419:215111,4424:216771,4487:220838,4571:224656,4663:225071,4669:231128,4735:232874,4757:234697,4782:240701,4854:241017,4960:250497,5326:263827,5455:264408,5587:275754,5686:276774,5718:277318,5728:278882,5765:279222,5771:279630,5779:280378,5822:280854,5830:284662,5897:292971,6063:294429,6107:305437,6345:314337,6553:314693,6558:317820,6565$0,0:14536,481:19044,595:24580,601:27370,665:28858,682:30625,703:32113,752:32485,757:41925,849:45390,996:53509,1164:88102,1505:89037,1511:100924,1653:106788,1718:125325,1992:127825,2026:129075,2184:129575,2195:136200,2342:142196,2419:148148,2569:150380,2604:161481,2906:182620,3070:184672,3108:185128,3113:186154,3130:187066,3139:189232,3176:211500,3519:214325,3533:216215,3598:219050,3649:223260,3714
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Marvin Perry's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Marvin Perry lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Marvin Perry describes his mother's family background, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Marvin Perry describes his father's family background, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Marvin Perry describes his father's family background, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Marvin Perry describes his mother's family background, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Marvin Perry describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Marvin Perry describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Marvin Perry remembers the Averitt View School in Elmore City, Oklahoma

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Marvin Perry describes the community of Elmore City, Oklahoma

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Marvin Perry recalls the integration of the Katie School in Katie, Oklahoma

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Marvin Perry talks about the implementation of Brown v. Board of Education in the State of Oklahoma

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Marvin Perry remembers his teachers at Katie School in Katie, Oklahoma

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Marvin Perry talks about his early experiences of religion

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Marvin Perry talks about the integration of Elmore City High School in Elmore City, Oklahoma

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Marvin Perry remembers the teachers at Elmore City High School

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Marvin Perry describes his experiences at Elmore City High School

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Marvin Perry recalls his decision to move to Oklahoma City, Oklahoma

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Marvin Perry describes his decision to enroll at Oklahoma City University in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Marvin Perry talks about the segregation of Oklahoma City, Oklahoma

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Marvin Perry describes his decision to attend Central State College in Edmond, Oklahoma

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Marvin Perry remembers the assassinations of Medgar Evers and President John Fitzgerald Kennedy

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Marvin Perry talks about the assassination of Malcolm X

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Marvin Perry describes his experiences at Central State College in Edmonds, Oklahoma

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Marvin Perry recalls the assassination of Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Marvin Perry talks about his decision to attend graduate school at Oklahoma State University

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Marvin Perry remembers his influential professors

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Marvin Perry remembers studying under Richard Leftwich at Oklahoma State University

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Marvin Perry talks about his career at the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston in Boston, Massachusetts

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Marvin Perry describes how he came to work at the Omaha National Bank in Omaha, Nebraska

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Marvin Perry describes his role in the Midwest Executive Development Leadership Conference

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Marvin Perry talks about his presidency of the Mid-City Business and Professional Association, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Marvin Perry talks about his presidency of the Mid-City Business and Professional Association, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Marvin Perry recalls his election as president of the Mid-City Business and Professional Association

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Marvin Perry describes how he came to work for the Arizona Bank in Phoenix, Arizona

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Marvin Perry remembers his first day in Phoenix, Arizona

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Marvin Perry recalls his introduction to the African American community in Phoenix, Arizona

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Marvin Perry describes his experiences of racial discrimination at the Arizona Bank in Phoenix, Arizona

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Marvin Perry recalls filing an EEOC complaint against the Arizona Bank

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Marvin Perry talks about the Arizona Bank's investments in South Africa

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Marvin Perry recalls the outcome of his discrimination case against the Arizona Bank

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Marvin Perry remembers partnering with the Association of Community Organizations for Reform Now

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Marvin Perry talks about the Black Board of Directors Project

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Marvin Perry talks about his civic involvement

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Marvin Perry describes his hopes for the future of black business

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Marvin Perry reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Marvin Perry describes how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Marvin Perry shares his advice for aspiring businesspeople

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Marvin Perry narrates his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

5$2

DAStory

7$5

DATitle
Marvin Perry talks about the Black Board of Directors Project
Marvin Perry talks about the integration of Elmore City High School in Elmore City, Oklahoma
Transcript
You've got a knack of networking you--$$Yeah (simultaneous).$$--(simultaneous) you've, you've learned how to network and how to put, to find out what's going on. So you started, you start something called the Black Board of Directors Project?$$Right, yeah.$$Tell us about that.$$Well, during the same time, I had talked to the bank [Arizona Bank, Phoenix, Arizona] about putting minority on their board, in which they did do, put a Hispanic on their board there named Ronnie Lopez. And, and I started talking about, "Hey, you know, more blacks--," this is something I had done in Omaha [Nebraska], and I started talking to black leaders about, you know, "this is something, we should do this, I was persona non grata so I'm not the person to do it," you know. Started talking about putting blacks on different boards and stuff. And finally a friend of mine who worked for a company called Greyhound [ph.] who was an attorney, he said, "Look, these people are not gonna do anything, if it's gonna happen you gonna have to do it yourself." So the first year we did it, and we brought, had a dinner where we brought in a guy named Charles Duncan [HistoryMaker Charles T. Duncan], which was an excellent choice 'cause Charles Duncan was on the board of Eastman Kodak [Eastman Kodak Company] and TRW [TRW, Inc.] and Procter and Gamble [Procter and Gamble Company] and like that. Gave a great presentation about corporate boards and stuff, so that was '84 [1984]. Then, you know, of course, the other thing which you saw to is there was a need for blacks not just on the corporate boards but also on other boards too where they're gonna make major impact. Plus, a person who normally serve on a corporate board is somebody who had done their tutelage on, on little boards, nonprofits, governmental boards, commissions, who is really known in the community and has risen to the top of their profession or business--$$Now, let me ask you this. Now you've had, you had had experience on boards?$$Yeah.$$Do you think that a lot of, a lot of the black, black professionals were unaware of the, of the power of sitting on a board?$$Very much so, very, very much so. Yeah, very much so. Now, the only thing they could understand now, that on corporate boards you got paid some money. When I, I wish I had never mentioned that early because that's about the only thing they, "Oh, I wanna be on this board because it, it, you know, I can get some money from it," you know. But no they, they were almost totally unaware of that.$$Who were some of the first people that you placed, Arizonians on boards or you helped get on boards?$$Well, you know, they, the first year what we did is went through and identified about thirty, it was kind of done more of a kind of a, a discussion piece about thirty people we profiled. And we sent that to different corporations and other people. One of the first people who served on a corporate government board was a lady called Janice Carson [ph.]. I remember that time, we got her on the board of Logan Developmental Corporation [sic. Logan Development Corporation, Surprise, Arizona], which make loans to a lot of small businesses, including minority businesses. So that was like in '84 [1984] we did that and then some others too. So we saw a need to continue that effort and stuff. And I always say I'm gonna do it for one more year, you know, (laughter) but one thing, you know, led to another. And then another thing too we saw that when we were dealing with a lot of the major nonprofits and government boards, and commission, and some of the people we were reaching out to really didn't have any idea of what a board was, excuse me, and what they're supposed to do so. We started doing a couple of things, one is bringing people in to teach them about what the roles and responsibilities were (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Education.$$Yeah, education. And also one of the characteristics of a good board member is somebody who knows the community and are known in the community, so we started giving them a lot more visibility and stuff like that in the community and stuff (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) So far, so far what has been the placement rate since '84 [1984] when this--$$Eighty-four [1984]--$$'Til now.$$Well, the people we had in '84 [1984] was, a lot of them were already on different boards. Starting in '85 [1985] let's say, everybody who have participated in that, has been given an invitation to serve on a number of boards and most of them have accepted it, you know, to serve on different boards so.$$Would you have a number of approximately how many you may have--$$Placed? Yeah, our calculation would be now about sixteen to seventeen hundred placements. Now, keep in mind that's over this twenty-four year period. During that time, you know, there is gonna be rotation of the boards and stuff like that and there are gonna be some people who unfortunately are not with us anymore or some people left the state and like that so.$$Now, you--$$--we did that (unclear) (simultaneous)--$$--(simultaneous) you were very, you were very busy in placing these boards, in placing people on these boards--$$Uh-huh.$$--and identifying new Arizonians coming into the town you, you seem to have a knack, not just for placing but knowing who got to town?$$(Laughter).$$Can you explain that briefly?$$Yeah, well, I, I, you know, one of the things is that we get referrals from different employers and from previous members and just from people in general. And then, you know, as I circulate around to, I meet some people on our own and stuff like that so that has fed into it to, you know.$$So would, so would you just say it's, it's a matter of being out there?$$Part of it is being out there and if we see somebody that we think that is going to be beneficial, you know, can, can benefit from the organization, we're gonna go after them too, you know, we might see somebody in the Business Journal [Phoenix Business Journal] that they just been promoted to sit in this place that we don't know about or something that we look for. And one of the things we look for people, you know, who first of all they gotta have, you know, good character we're looking for, and not somebody we can do a FBI [Federal Bureau of Investigation] check on those, but people who have those (unclear) check too, but we have people who are gonna be able to handle confidential information and conduct themselves in a professional manner in meetings and stuff like that to add to the organization. But we scan the waterfront for, for good people.$So, now you, you get to Elmore high [Elmore City High School; Elmore City-Pernell High School, Elmore City, Oklahoma]--$$Uh-huh.$$--and there's more kids now I would imagine (simultaneous)?$$(Simultaneous) Yes, there was.$$And were there, was it still the same integrated feeling there at that school?$$I found it to be--to be honest, the way I could put it was a living hell.$$Okay. Let's talk about that (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) A living nightmare.$$Let's talk about it.$$Well--$$And, and before you do that, do you think the kids are getting older and, and their opinions are becoming more, more (unclear) just tell us why.$$No, I think it had more to do with the school, with the city itself because it had been I understand--a black family some years ago had tried to move in there and they chased 'em out, you know. And this was a, you know, blacks were not allowed to live in this town, yeah, at all. And at one time they said if you're black they wanted you gone before, you know, before the sun went down, you know, that was the kind of the philosophy there. So it was, I had, it was integrated in 1958, I think, nineteen fifty--yeah, no, it would have been integrated in 19--my brother graduated in '50 [1950], in '60 [1960], so and he, it was totally integrated in 1956, it was by three blacks, my brother, you know, Cleaven [Cleaven Perry], a sister, Nova [Nova Perry], and another guy we called Teny Kendrick, we called him, referred to him as Teny, Jr., Teny Kendrick. Those were the three that integrated the school. My brother immediately began to face, you know, the hostilities and stuff.$$What were some of those hostilities?$$Well, like when you walk to the store, you know whatever, they'd call you, nigger, coon, jigaboos, and names I could never think of, you know, (laughter) very creative names, black bastard, the way you think of. And like he was talking about he was walking to the store one day and this Coke [Coca-Cola] bottle came right by his face like that you know--no, it was a brick that came right by his face, you know. And he was a very respected and mild mannered person. Now, my sister, she didn't have many problems except for one guy that would really, you know, harass her. And the guy, Teny, Jr., he, you know, the, he was a rather big guy there too, you know, so they didn't take too much there. And he was older, so was my brother too, older than the people he was with, so it was difficult on them, but not as difficult, but it was very much a hostile environment they would call you--and then even if you had the white kids who wanted to associate with you, you know, the other ones would discourage them and like that.$$So you got there and it was still hostile?$$I came there two years later.$$And it was the same way?$$Very much so, very, and I had the added burden because of the fact that, whereas my brother was probably, Cleaven, he was like, when he came there he probably was fifteen, so he would have been older and bigger than a lot of people in the freshmen class. When I came there I was, I think the second youngest in the class and also very small. I was in, thirteen years old, I was weighing eighty-two pounds soaking wet (laughter) with my clothes on (laughter). So I was a real good target with so- one exception though, I did have a older brother, John [John Perry] was there, and John was two years older than I was and he, you know, he had grown up there too so, again this situation he was almost as big, if not as--larger than most of the people in the class there; and, you know, he got into some scuffles there with some folks and stuff I guess. So, as long as I was with those two, I, I felt pretty well protected, you know, there.

Emma Chappell

A trailblazer in African American commerce, Emma Chappell, née Bayton, was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, on February 18, 1941. It was at age 16 that she first became interested in banking when her pastor and civil rights activist, Reverend Leon H. Sullivan, noted her mathematical abilities and encouraged her to pursue a career in banking. So, in 1959, she started as a bank clerk right out of high school.

However, Chappell set her ambitions higher than the clerk level. She went to night school for five years at Temple University, graduating in 1967. After graduation, the bank placed her in its executive training program, which she finished in 1971. By 1977, she had become Continental Bank's first African American Vice President. She was the first female Vice President of a major bank in all of Pennsylvania. In charge of the Community Business Loan and Development Department for loans to minority-owned and women-owned small businesses, she used her position to assist in the development of Philadelphia's black community. During this time, she also organized the Model Cities Business and Commercial Project, now Philadelphia Commercial Development Project, to revitalize commerce in the inner city. Chappell returned to school in 1982 and earned a masters degree from the Stonier Graduate School of Banking at Rutgers University.

Throughout her career, Chappell has maintained an interest in socio-political movements, serving as Chairperson on the Operation PUSH Board and as a founding Vice President of the National Rainbow Coalition. In 1984, Chappell took a leave from Continental Bank to serve as National Treasurer for Reverend Jesse Jackson's 1984 presidential campaign.

In 1987, a group of prominent black Philadelphians approached Chappell about the possibility of starting a black controlled bank, slating her as the potential leader. They contributed $600,000 to the venture and Chappell was left to solicit the remaining capital. The stock market crash of October 1987 stalled her efforts. Undeterred, Chappell sold stock for ten dollars a share in blocks of 50, raising over 6 million in capital. Commanding overwhelming community support from black churches and small investors, the United Bank of Philadelphia opened for business on March 23, 1992 with Chappell as CEO. In 1999, in recognition of its unprecedented growth, the United Bank received the coveted Blue Chip Enterprises Award, sponsored by Mass Mutual and the US Chamber of Commerce. Chapell left in 2000, but United Bank of Philadelphia remains a force in black banking, reflecting her tireless commitment to community empowerment and advocacy.

At the time of the interview, Chapell currently served as Director of the Rainbow Push Wall Street Project, a non-profit corporation that works to build bridges between large and small businesses.

Emma Chappel was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on May 16, 2001.

Accession Number

A2001.013

Sex

Female

Interview Date

5/16/2001

Last Name

Chappell

Maker Category
Occupation
Organizations
First Name

Emma

Birth City, State, Country

Philadelphia

HM ID

CHA02

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Pennsylvania

Favorite Vacation Destination

San Diego, California

Favorite Quote

Believe in yourself.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Pennsylvania

Birth Date

2/18/1941

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Philadelphia

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Seafood

Short Description

Banker Emma Chappell (1941 - ) was a trailblazer in African American commerce and Director of the Rainbow PUSH Wall Street Project. In 1992, Chappell started the United Bank of Philadelphia, which became the first black controlled bank in the city. She also served as the bank's CEO.

Employment

Continental Bank

United Bank of Philadelphia

Favorite Color

Red

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating for Emma Chappell

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Emma Chappell's favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Emma Chappell talks about her father's background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Emma Chappell talks about her mother and the need to research her family tree

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Emma Chappell identifies her siblings and family name

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Emma Chappell shares early memories of Virginia

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Emma Chappell recalls how her mother's illness and early death affected the family

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Emma Chappell describes herself as a youth

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Emma Chappell remembers Leon Sullivan and other mentors during her youth

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Emma Chappell reflects on high school and her start in banking

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Emma Chappell talks about her start in banking in the 1960s

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Emma Chappell describes gender discrimination in her first banking job

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Emma Chappell examines the role of race in her early banking career

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Emma Chappell recalls learning about the monetary system while working in a bank treasurer's office

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Emma Chappell recounts white male co-workers opposition to her advancement

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Emma Chappell traces various positions held at Continental Bank

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Emma Chappell talks about a new lending department she created as a response to redlining

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Emma Chappell discusses her transition into community economic development

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Emma Chappell talks about working for Operation PUSH

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Emma Chappell discusses working for Jesse Jackson's presidential campaign

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Emma Chappell talks about working with the Rainbow Coalition

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Emma Chappell discusses creating a black-owned bank in Philadelphia

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Emma Chappell talks about Leon Sullivan and the origins of the Sullivan principles

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Emma Chappell reflects on United Bank in Philadelphia's accomplishments

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Emma Chappell discusses Rainbow/PUSH's Wall Street Project

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Emma Chappell reflects on economics in the black community

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Emma Chappell compares and contrasts Jesse Jackson and Leon Sullivan

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Emma Chappell encourages black women entrepreneurs and shares her concerns for the black community

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Emma Chappell comments on federal funding for faith-based charities

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Emma Chappell discusses the power of prayer and the black church

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Emma Chappell reflects on how her parents would view her success

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Emma Chappell speaks about her legacy

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$3

DAStory

6$1

DATitle
Emma Chappell traces various positions held at Continental Bank
Emma Chappell talks about working for Operation PUSH
Transcript
Now once you entered the executive program, can you just trace the positions that you held. You know, in the area? You know, you...$$[Simultaneously] Yes.$$--were in the different departments.$$Yes, I went through... Well I had already been a teller and a platform assistant. And then I got a chance to work in a branch as a branch manager. Then they started taking me through the various loan departments, consumer loans, commercial loans, construction loans, etcetera. In the consumer loan department, that was interesting to me. Because nine out of ten people came to a bank came because they wanted to borrow money for a car or for a home or something of that sort. And the way they evaluated loans was fascinating. Because they would take all the information on your application and score it. And that's how they made a decision as to whether or not you got loans. And so--and some banks still do that today. So I came through almost all of the departments. All of--certainly all the loan departments. The--what is it? One was called Proof--Proof Department, Transit. Proof is where the work--the teller's work would come at night. And we would go through the deposits and the checks and things of that sort. And set 'em up and get 'em prepared to go to the clearinghouse. Another area that I really enjoyed is--as I mentioned where- was the money where--I call them the money-changers. Where they did the investment at night, they borrowed money in the morning; they had sufficient money during the course of the day. As the money came in, they invested it at night. And took advantage of the float and earned interest on that float for the bank to use to cover its expenses and things of that sort. So--and then--so I spent a lot of time in loans. Because that's where my interests lie. It was also in the marketing department. In fact, I started the marketing department at Continental Bank. And we had six vice presidents running that department. And I was the administrative assistant at--during this period. And it was so nice because it was like I was secretary to six V.P.s. And yet if you... If any of the V.P.s came in or somebody came in to see them, the vice presidents, they would make sure that I was in on the meeting. So it was just like I was assistant vice-president. Because I had a lot of good ideas on how they could market the bank. New business development. Also we worked in a new business--where a bank officer would go out in the community. And go get a customer, talk to them about the importance of banking and why they should bank at Continental Bank and things of that sort. So all in all--I was in international banking, spent a good amount of time in international banking and dealing with all of the documents that are there like the letters of credit and things of that sort. And the exchange, foreign exchange for money. So my life truly has been-- has evolved around banking and finance.$In 1974, he [Rev. Jesse Jackson] came to Philadelphia and started talking to people about economic equality and leveling the playing field. And he was attempting to branch out with Operation PUSH which had started in 1971 in Chicago. And the thing that I liked about, best about his message was he was talking about African Americans taking control of their own economic destiny. And the way he suggested we do that was by creating a vehicle like a bank. And taking full control of our own economic destiny in our community. And not waiting for somebody else to do it for us. So the more I listened to him and his speeches, the more I got moved into action. And so one day somebody came to see me and told me that Reverend Jackson would like to meet me. Because he had heard that I was "the banker" quote unquote in town. That everybody looked up to and thought he should know and that we should know each other. 'Cause he's talking about blacks starting banks. And I'm the banker--the senior banker at this point. So this young lady picked me up and took me to meet him at a church. And he was having a big speech that night. And I was encouraged by it. And we met afterward. And we maintained a friendship. And then he ultimately put me on the board of directors in Chicago of PUSH. And I got to meet Reverend Willie Barrow and a number of other key Chicagoans. And I really did enjoy my experience with it, with Operation PUSH.$$Let's talk a little bit about that.$$Sure. My experience is that I ended up as chairman of the board of PUSH Philadelphia. Created it in a chapter in Philadelphia. We had our Saturday morning community meetings. People would come in with whatever their problems might be. And we would advocate for them. Just like they did in Chicago. And we'd air our concerns on radio with the Saturday morning broadcast. And so we were a miniature Chicago. And it,--we ran it for a number of years. So that was in '74 [1974]. So when Reverend Jackson decided to run for president he,-- before--even before that he used to tease me. And say I was too conservative to be in the movement. Because everything-- He said, "Emma, you see things black or white. There are shades of gray." And so I always felt like he didn't like me because of that, because I was this conservative banker. Even though I was on the other side telling people what was going on in banking, about red lining. In fact, Reverend Gray, if he were to admit it was-- He was the chairman of PUSH for a while. And I was the one behind the scenes telling them how banks operate. So that they could speak out against red lining during the period.

William Hudgins

Banker William Hudgins was born on April 30, 1907, in Richmond, Virginia, and was adopted by Agnes and William Hudgins at the age of two. He attended John Pierce Academy in New York for real estate and bank management after high school. Hudgins then studied business and real estate at Columbia University, and later received an honorary L.H.D. from Shaw University in 1968.

Hudgins began his career in door-to-door sales and real estate in New York City. He and real estate rival Robert Bell formed B&H Realty Corporation and, with business soaring, formed another side-venture, Best Yet Hair Products mail order company for black women, in 1943. Best Yet Hair Products had an exclusive arrangement with China and specialized in the manufacture of human hair wigs. With the success of his business arrangements, Hudgins became the first African American in the merchant's division of the Uptown Chamber of Commerce.

Hudgins organized Carver Bank with seven other community leaders in Harlem in 1948. He served as president of Carver Bank for eighteen years before resigning to join a group that included baseball great Jackie Robinson in forming the Freedom National Bank to help meet the needs of the Harlem community by providing low-cost loans to home owners and small businesses who had difficulty obtaining loans from large banks. Hudgins was the first president of Freedom National Bank, which, after six years under Hudgin's presidency, grew to be the largest bank in the United States owned and operated by African Americans. He has served on numerous business and civic boards and has received various honors. He married his wife, Dorothy, in New York City in 1979. Hudgins passed away on August 31, 2007.

Accession Number

A2002.057

Sex

Male

Interview Date

4/15/2002

Last Name

Hudgins

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Randolph

Organizations
Schools

Peabody Elementary School

Peabody High School

John Pierce Academy

Peabody Middle School

Petersburg High School

First Name

William

Birth City, State, Country

Richmond

HM ID

HUD01

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Virginia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Florida

Favorite Quote

Keep the faith.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Florida

Birth Date

4/30/1907

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Tallahassee

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Fish, Chicken, Cabbage

Death Date

8/31/2007

Short Description

Bank chief executive and banker William Hudgins (1907 - 2007 ) is the founder of both Carver Bank and Freedom National Bank. After six years under Hudgin's presidency, Freedom National Bank grew to be the largest bank in the United States owned and operated by African Americans. Hudgin also formed another side-venture, Best Yet Hair Products mail order company for black women, in 1943.

Employment

Horn & Hardart

Delete

Model Beauty Salon

Carver Federal Savings & Loan

Freedom National Bank

Favorite Color

Yellow

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Willian Hudgins interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Slating of William Hudgins interview continued: dates and location

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - William Hudgins's favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - William Hudgins describes his family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - William Hudgins shares memories from his childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - William Hudgins describes his adoptive parents

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - William Hudgins discusses his early religious upbringing

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - William Hudgins recalls changes in family structure during his youth

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - William Hudgins details his early travels, marriage and career pursuits

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - William Hudgins recalls establishing his Model Beauty Salon

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - William Hudgins considers the success of his hair product manufacturing business

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - William Hudgins describes his business relationship with China

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - William Hudgins talks about his future business endeavors

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - William Hudgins discusses his dealings in the real estate industry

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - William Hudgins details a profitable real estate venture

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - William Hudgins reflects on his success in the liquor industry

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - William Hudgins remembers his business advisors

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - William Hudgins details the founding of Carver Federal Savings Bank, Harlem, New York

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - William Hudgins comments on the success of the Carver Federal Savings Bank, Harlem, New York

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - William Hudgins details his involvement with Freedom National Bank

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - William Hudgins details his experiences at Freedom National Bank, Harlem, New York

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - William Hudgins talks about the difficulty in establishing the charter for Freedom National Bank

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - William Hudgins discusses Jackie Robinson and the demise of Freedom National Bank

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - William Hudgins comments on Dr. King's financial transactions at Freedom National Bank

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - William Hudgins talks briefly about the Freedman's Bank during the Civil War

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - William Hudgins talks about other black-owned banks in the United States

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - William Hudgins gives his views on African American business enterprises

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - William Hudgins discusses his daughter's business endeavors

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - William Hudgins discusses his involvement with 100 Black Men of America, Inc.

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - William Hudgins discusses his family members

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - William Hudgins details his family's education and business pursuits

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - William Hudgins comments on the legacy of wealth in African American families

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - William Hudgins shares political reflections

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - William Hudgins acknowledges influential political and business leaders

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - William Hudgins reflects on the business developments of the black community

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - William Hudgins remembers his foster sister

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - William Hudgins reflects on his life's course

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$3

DAStory

1$4

DATitle
William Hudgins recalls establishing his Model Beauty Salon
William Hudgins details the founding of Carver Federal Savings Bank, Harlem, New York
Transcript
I developed that skill steam, steaming velvets and I was offered positions as a velvet steamer in three, four different plants--dry cleaning plants. There are wholesale dry cleaners then there are the retailers and these were by wholesale companies. And they offered me, that's how I happened to get more money was because I, I told my employer I said, "I've been offered a job by X cleaner and which pays me much more than you're paying me so can you do anything about it?" So they did it a couple of times and finally they, they decided that I was greedy. I just wanted to get paid what somebody else would pay me for doing the same work and I left there and went to, that's when I went to New York. No, I was in New York. I left there and I wanted to go into the beauty business. I took a course in beauty culture and I got that idea from observation. There was a fellow who was a good looking chap in Philadelphia [Pennsylvania], in New York rather and he was quite successful in the beauty business 'cause he was a handsome guy and so forth. And I looked at him and I looked in the mirror. I said, "If he's handsome enough to do it and make a success of it, I'm sure I could do it," so I did it but I didn't have any money. So I went to a bank and tried to get a loan and they told me, "No, you don't have any security you can't get a loan." So I went to a supply house and convinced him, supplied beauty products and all that sort of thing and equipped me to set up a beauty establishment and convinced him that I was good. I don't know how I did it but I did it. And he set my shop up, took notes for the money I owed him and it was a beauty, it was the most beautiful beauty parlor and I lived in Harlem [New York, New York], I worked in Harlem, most beautiful beauty parlor in the city and there were a lot of them in New York. In Harlem there was a lot of black people and I made out very well. I made money and I paid him off. But in doing that I established credit and I made profit too. For years I had it. And from there I went into the hair manufacturing business and I got that idea from dealing with people in the, in the beauty business.$$Okay. I want to take you back--,$$Okay.$$--a little bit to when you're first arriving in New York. And I mean or even let's take you back even to when you get, went to Philadelphia. But you had, your whole exposure really had been--well you had that exposure working in Atlantic City [New Jersey]. But I'm just wondering when you first came North what you saw as really different from what you, you know from Virginia and where you were raised? Was there things that were different and you know were different in terms of your adjustment or did you just fit right in?$$No, I had no part, no problem making any adjustments that I had to make because fortunately every move I made was another step progressive step that I was accomplishing as I made those moves. I, I'd been in a lot of different businesses. As you interview me it will come up.$$But Mr. Hudgins what I have a question about, you got married [to Martina Fitzgerald] what in nineteen, was it like nineteen--?$$'27 [1927].$$'27 [1927] okay. And then you, you arrive in New York really just a little bit before the depression, right? You arrive in Harlem just in--?$$In '33 [1933] I think the Depression was--.$$Oh you, I thought you were just in Philadelphia about a year and a half?$$Yeah well I was.$$Okay.$$I was there a short period of time.$$Okay. So in 1933 you're in Harlem, right?$$Yes.$$Okay. And Harlem is a bustling place, right?$$Yes.$$Okay. And you know when you're doing this dry cleaning what I'm wondering is in what year was it when you set up the beauty salon and what was it called?$$Model, Model Beauty Salon. I don't know where I got that name from. What year? It was about thirty, I think around '33 [1933], 1933 something like that.$$And Modell was M-O-D-E-L-L?$$Single L, M-O-D-E-L.$$Oh M--I keep wanting to add letters, M-O-D-E-L. You don't know where you got the name?$$No, I don't know where. Probably, my wife's name was Martina and maybe I got it from that because she did work in the shop that was--yeah she did work in the shop.$$Now where was the shop located, what street?$$132nd Street on 7th Avenue. You know New York?$$A little.$$Okay. Yeah, it was in, in the very heart of Harlem and it was, my shop was patronized by progressive people because it was something unusual. It was really a dream. Each booth, I had seven booths and each booth was a complete beauty shop. Get everything done on there, shampoo, press, curl, fingernails, the works. You don't have to move out of your booth just pull the curtain, yeah. It was wonderful, beautiful place. Had lot of people, white people coming to visit, see it, they heard about it and I had a few white customers back, way back then, yeah.$$How did you--but see I'm trying to figure out how you were able to do, you know to, to be able--who consulted with you? Why did you want to do such a high-class place and who and where did you get that from?$$Within, within, within. I saw white people were going, going to beautiful shops like that. I had a catalog with the man who sponsored me and I read and saw and I was impressed with what I saw and said, "Well they have it, why can't my people have it?" So I gave it to them and it was a total success. And from that I learned about the hair business and a need for hair, braids, bangs, chignons. You know what a chignon is? And all of those pieces I made, plus a cap, wig, the whole wig. I had twenty three women working for me in my factory. The factory was where my office building is now in New York. And well that's it.$$But let's, let's talk about that a little bit though. You, here you are, you have Model the salon.$$Um-hmm.$$And how long did you have the salon sir?$$About twelve years.$Let's talk about Carver [Federal Savings] Bank and how that came about--,$$Well--.$$--'cause you said that you know I was--that was around the time--but see you were still in the hair business.$$1948.$$I'm getting--.$$1948.$$'48 [1948] right--,$$Yeah.$$--was when you and several business people got together and organized it. And you said--.$$Carver Bank.$$Right, at Carver Bank, right.$$Yeah.$$And you said that you--so I just want--you said you were really motivated because you wanted to teach--.$$People get a better deal.$$Right.$$Black folks get a better deal. And they weren't getting a fair deal and I, I could become a part of making it possible for them to get a better--not all of them were worthy. A lot of them were not worthy of the treatment they were getting but a whole lot of them were and were successful.$$But can we talk about what was actually happening you know because banking, that's not an area that blacks had, you know--there were some black banks.$$Not in New York.$$Not in New York.$$No.$$But there were some around the country and what I'm wondering is--so that's an industry that blacks were not really in?$$That's right.$$Okay. And so but I want you to describe what was actually happening in New York. You know I mean what people had to do to get money, where there were opportunities. I'm just trying to--for you to paint the picture that existed.$$Well I had to do a lot of educating people. For instance their credit, they had to protect that. You can't borrow money if you have a poor credit history and we, we taught that. Matter of fact we had classes on Thursday night. That was our policy--it wasn't just banking, we had classes on Thursday night. People were invited to come and maybe have a piece of cake, cup of coffee and something like--just a little refreshment and as a result people began to buy houses. White, white banks wouldn't loan them money to buy houses. We knew that the real estate business is good. Not always, but you got--that's what you got to fend them yourself. I remember in Carver Bank, there was a liquor store that a man had and his father was a high ranking officer in the police department and--I just threw that in. But this man had a good liquor store about two blocks away from the bank and--but he was--business was going down, he was losing his business. So we had him to come to the classes and we found out that his, that his problem was women, buying fur coats and all that stuff for women other than his wife. His wife was a school teacher and the money she made had to go into their living and whatnot. So I asked him to come in and bring his wife. I learned, I learned this about his wife working, helping to support the needs of the family. And she, we had a meeting with her and I asked her how did she feel about him getting a loan? She said, "Mr. Hudgins, I don't think he can pay a loan off and keep on doing the things he's doing." That's what she said. I said, "Well, I will give him the loan. I will have the board to approve a loan." I couldn't give him the loan. I had him--credit board. "I'll have the board to give him a loan if you will sign on the paper." She said, "Oh no, no!" Two weeks later she called me up said, "Mr. Hudgins that offer you made, I'll take it." I said, "Well come on in, sign the papers." She came in, the credit manager worked with her and so forth and she stayed on top of him to be sure that he didn't buy anymore fur coats and he didn't buy anymore anything unless it was going into his home. And that's what we had to do and we a loan and she saw to it, but he paid that loan off. It was an ed-, not just banking but we had to do an education job too and that was, that's what we did. That was our policy and that bank is moving, thriving. It's thriving now.

Walter Clark

Walter H. Clark embodies the American image of the self-made man. After receiving his degree in accounting in 1951 from Southern Illinois University, Clark began what would become an exceptional career in banking as an accountant at the Illinois Federal Savings & Loan. In 1955, Clark joined the accounting team at the First Federal Savings & Loan of Chicago, the largest S & L in the state. During his time at First Federal, Clark acquired the reputation of an innovator. With keen investment skills, he ably managed First Federal's diverse portfolio. More and more responsibility transferred into his capable hands, so that by 1973, Clark was promoted to Executive Vice President, Chief Financial Officer and a member of the Board of Directors. While serving as the Executive Vice President of First Federal, now Citicorp Savings of Illinois, Clark received an M.B.A. from DePaul University and completed the Advanced Management Program from the Harvard Graduate School of Business.

Clark left Citicorp in 1986 for a position as Chairman of the Board of the Chicago Transit Authority (CTA). Clark revolutionized the city transit system by increasing minority involvement in contracting, acquiring new buses and streamlining internal financial processes. During this time, Clark also held a position as Vice President at Bear Stearns, a prestigious investment banking, securities trading, and brokerage firm. In 1991, however, Clark left both jobs behind to start his own business, the Clark Consulting Company, a full service asset management and financial planning firm.

Not confining his skills merely to the world of finance, Clark has always remained active in the community. As Chairman of Harold Washington's Finance Committee in 1983, Clark played a crucial role in Washington's successful mayoral campaign. He has served on numerous boards and committees including the Finance Authority for the Chicago Board of Education; the Board of Directors for the College of Business Administration for the University of Illinois and the University of Southern Illinois; and as the Chairman of the Peer Group, a group of CFOs from the ten largest savings & loans in the United States.

Clark passed away on November 15, 2018.

Accession Number

A2000.015

Sex

Male

Archival Photo 1
Interview Date

11/8/2000

Last Name

Clark

Maker Category
Organizations
Schools

Crispus Attucks High School

Southern Illinois University

DePaul University

Harvard Business School

Archival Photo 2
First Name

Juanita

Birth City, State, Country

Carbondale

HM ID

CLA01

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Illinois

Favorite Vacation Destination

Hawaii

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Illinois

Birth Date

6/5/1928

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Chicago

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Lobster

Death Date

11/15/2018

Short Description

Banker and financial entrepreneur Walter Clark (1928 - ) is the owner of Clark Consulting Company, a full-service asset management and financial planning firm, and has held positions with First Federal and the Chicago Transit Authority.

Employment

United States Army

Clark Consulting Company

Bear Stearns

Chicago Transit Authority

Illinois Federal Savings & Loan

First Federal Savings & Loan of Chicago

Favorite Color

Purple

DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Walter Clark's favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Slating of Walter Clark

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Walter Clark talks of his father and his family history

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Walter Clark talks of his mother and her family history

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Walter Clark describes Carbondale, Illinois

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Walter Clark on growing up in Carbondale, Illinois

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Walter Clark speaks about high school

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Walter Clark as a young person

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Lessons Walter Clark learned from his father

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Walter Clark's childhood friends

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Walter Clark's college experience with his brother

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Walter Clark tells college football stories

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Walter Clark can't get hired as an accountant

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Walter Clark's jobs after college

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Walter Clark speaks of his Army experience

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Lessons Walter Clark learned from being in the United States Army

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Walter Clark returns from Korea

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Walter Clark talks about the Illinois Federal Savings and Loan

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Walter Clark changes jobs

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Walter Clark's early years at First Federal Savings of Chicago

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Walter Clark speaks of the changes at First Federal Savings of Chicago

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Walter Clark's accomplishments at First Federal

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Professional organizations with which Walter Clark was involved

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Walter Clark describes the lack of minorities at First Federal

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - The various social clubs to which Walter Clark belonged

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Walter Clark speaks of the significance of his organizations

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Walter Clark tells the history of the Boule

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Walter Clark gives information about his wife and children

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Walter Clark's work situation 1986 - 1988

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Walter Clark's job at the Chicago Transit Authority

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Walter Clark works for Bear Stearns investment banking firm

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Walter Clark enjoys retirement

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Walter Clark speaks of African Americans in his field

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Walter Clark's advice to young African Americans

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Walter Clark remembers his parents

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Walter Clark on the importance of family

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - Walter Clarke's disappointment

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Walter Clark recalls his small town beginnings

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Walter Clark's legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Photo - Walter Clark and the Board of Directors of the First Federal Savings Bank of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, 1975

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Photo - Walter Clark shaking hands with Walter Wriston, 1984

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Photo - Walter Clark at work at First Federal Savings of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, ca. 1969

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Photo - Walter Clark with E. Stanley Enlund, Jane Byrne and Grover Hansen, ca. 1978-1979

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Photo - Walter Clark speaking at Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Chicago, Illinois, 1989

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Photo - Walter Clark with his wife, Juanita Clark next to a photo of their daughter, Juanine Clark, 1989

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Photo - Walter Clark, his father and the basketball team at Crispus Attucks High School, Carbondale, Illinois, 1945

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Photo - Walter Clark and the homecoming court at Crispus Attucks High School, Carbondale, Illinois, ca. 1944-1945

Tape: 5 Story: 11 - Photo - Walter Clark, his brother, John Quincy Clark Jr. and friends, Los Angeles, California, 1948-1949

Tape: 5 Story: 12 - Photo - Walter Clark with the board of trustees for the Congregational Church of Park Manor, Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 5 Story: 13 - Photo - Walter Clark's brother, John Quincy Clark, Jr. in his Army uniform, 1946

Tape: 5 Story: 14 - Photo - Walter Clark with his brother and father at their college graduation, Carbondale, Illinois 1951

Tape: 5 Story: 15 - Photo - Walter Clark in his Army uniform, Yong Dung Po, South Korea, 1954

Tape: 5 Story: 16 - Photo - Walter Clark and others watch Chicago Mayor Harold Washington speak at a CTA function, Chicago, Illinois, ca. 1986-1987

Tape: 5 Story: 17 - Photo - Walter Clark's daughter receives her master's degree from Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, June 18, 1988

Tape: 5 Story: 18 - Photo - Walter Clark and his wife, Juanita Dillard Clark at their wedding reception, Chicago, Illinois, July 13, 1957

Tape: 5 Story: 19 - Photo - Walter Clark standing outside of his Army tent, Yong Dung Po, South Korea, 1954

Tape: 5 Story: 20 - Photo - Walter Clark with Clark Burrus and Ted Jones, Chicago, Illinois, ca. 1990-2000

Tape: 5 Story: 21 - Photo - Walter Clark and wife, Juanita Clark celebrating their son, Hilton Clark's birthday, Chicago, Illinois, August 8, 1999.

Tape: 5 Story: 22 - Photo - Walter Clark and others celebrating the opening of a bus facility for the Chicago Transit Authority, Chicago, Illinois, 1987

Tape: 5 Story: 23 - Photo - Walter Clark with members of the Royal Coterie of Snakes fraternity, Chicago, Illinois, May, 1984

Tape: 5 Story: 24 - Photo - Walter Clark and Juanita Dillard Clark cutting their wedding cake, July 13, 1957