The Nation’s Largest African American Video Oral History Collection Mobile search icon Mobile close search icon
Advanced Biography Search
Mobile navigation icon Close mobile navigation icon

Sala Udin

Politician and activist Sala Udin was born Samuel Wesley Howze on February 20, 1943 in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania to William and Mary Howze. Raised in the Hill District of the city, he was one of eleven children. In 1961, Udin graduated from Port Richmond High School in Staten Island, New York and joined the Freedom Rider campaign that same summer.

Upon his return from the segregated South, Udin served as the president of the State Island Chapter of the NAACP for three years. In 1963, Udin took a group of college students to hear Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. give his “I Have A Dream” speech at the March on Washington. The following year, he worked for the Mississippi Freedom Summer Project registering voters in Holmes County. The next year, in 1965, Udin co-founded the Centre Avenue Poets’ Theatre Workshop in his childhood neighborhood of the Hill District with friends and renown playwrights, August Wilson and Rob Penny. By 1967, Udin had become a strong advocate of Black Power attending numerous conferences and started the performing arts company, Black Horizons Theatre, modeled after Amiri Baraka’s Spirit House. Over the next four years, the company produced plays reflective of the Black Arts Movement and used black playwrights such as Sonia Sanchez, Ed Bullins, and Amiri Baraka. The programs were held in the Leo A. Weill School. Additionally, Udin helped to establish a Black Studies program at the University of Pittsburgh and published articles in The Pittsburgh Courier entitled, “Afrikan View.”

Beginning in 1968, Udin had numerous run-ins with the law including gun charges and driving without a valid license. In 1970, he was indicted in Louisville, Kentucky for illegal transportation of firearms and possession of distilled spirits. Sentenced to five years at a federal penitentiary, he began serving his sentence at the Lewisburg Federal Penitentiary in 1972. Seven months later, he was paroled. In 2006, he attempted to have his sentence pardoned.

Throughout the mid-1970s, Udin worked in social service agencies including as Executive Director at the House of Crossroads, a drug treatment facility and the Multicultural Resource Training Center in San Francisco. He moved back to Pittsburgh in 1992, and ran for City Council in a special election in 1995. He served as Councilmen for the Sixth District, his childhood neighborhood for ten years. As a councilman, he introduced legislation to establish a Citizen’s Police Review Board and sat on numerous committees including the Plan B Oversight Committee, which helped to provide jobs to women and minorities; the Housing Authority: City of Pittsburgh Board; and the Disparity Study and Implementation Commission.

In 2005, Udin lost in the primary to former employee Tonya Payne. Udin advocates the improvement of the Sixth District and was instrumental in the creation and maintenance of the Freedom Corner, a civil rights monument located in the Hill District neighborhood.

Udin was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on August 12, 2008.

Accession Number

A2008.104

Sex

Male

Interview Date

8/12/2008

Last Name

Udin

Maker Category
Organizations
Schools

Port Richmond High School

First Name

Sala

Birth City, State, Country

Pittsburgh

HM ID

UDI01

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Pennsylvania

Favorite Vacation Destination

San Francisco, California

Favorite Quote

Power Concedes Nothing Without a Demand. It Never Has, and It Never Will.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Pennsylvania

Interview Description
Birth Date

2/20/1943

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Pittsburgh

Country

USA

Favorite Food

None

Short Description

Civil rights activist and city council member Sala Udin (1943 - ) worked for the Mississippi Freedom Summer Project in 1964 and started the performing arts company, Black Horizons Theatre. Udin has worked in social service agencies, including as executive director at the House of Crossroads, a drug treatment facility and the Multicultural Resource Training Center in San Francisco, and has served as a councilmen for the Sixth District in Pittsburgh.

Favorite Color

None

Timing Pairs
0,0:11820,66:12275,72:15240,96:15625,102:25940,181:28050,195:28578,203:29018,209:34620,251:36033,266:44122,331:44586,336:49606,349:49986,355:50746,368:52266,400:55674,431:57852,443:60350,469:60987,476:62352,495:67141,530:68248,540:68986,547:69970,557:79584,603:80904,614:81828,623:82488,629:90610,656:90990,662:95250,678:98604,694:99199,700:99794,706:102360,718:102787,727:103031,732:103397,740:103946,750:104312,757:104861,768:109455,785:109795,790:110560,801:111155,809:111580,815:115011,854:115473,862:116089,873:116397,878:116705,883:117167,890:117552,896:118245,906:119323,923:120016,933:120632,942:121017,948:130378,1012:131170,1019:132410,1024:133724,1031:134044,1037:134300,1042:137618,1085:137988,1091:156769,1249:159060,1256:164345,1283:165675,1298:169920,1354:170704,1363:174070,1372:174934,1382:176182,1397:182584,1549:183728,1563:188484,1593:189732,1606:191916,1631:197910,1687:204958,1770:205714,1778:211816,1798:214588,1847:215380,1863:216502,1886:221000,1896:221770,1910:222890,1929:223240,1935:223730,1943:224430,1961:228340,2019:228840,2025:229540,2033:232440,2066:235339,2081:236323,2090:236938,2096:240720,2123:241952,2145:245298,2180:245593,2186:246301,2199:247710,2207:248906,2220:249826,2232:252358,2245:252904,2254:253294,2260:253840,2268:255400,2302:255946,2310:256492,2323:256882,2329:259950,2354:260643,2363:261039,2368:263250,2386$0,0:1653,31:2088,37:2697,45:4524,62:7934,93:8456,103:10370,177:27470,397:28998,403:30066,410:30956,416:33160,422:33826,432:34122,437:34566,444:40721,495:41056,501:41994,518:42329,524:42664,530:43602,547:45958,568:46430,578:46666,583:47315,595:47551,600:50422,629:51129,638:51836,647:52341,653:53351,664:55068,687:55674,694:56583,704:62830,776:63280,782:74640,919:75560,928:83418,958:96872,1062:97700,1078:99536,1101:109580,1134:110212,1139:122500,1225:123064,1233:125280,1245:125976,1250:129528,1275:132275,1300:133730,1313:134630,1325:135260,1334:136160,1347:136700,1354:141990,1424:143550,1454:146205,1474:149040,1498:158466,1583:159326,1600:161200,1610:161480,1615:161970,1623:162530,1632:164400,1653:164778,1660:165156,1667:167402,1685:168572,1712:171068,1787:191672,1884:192092,1890:192428,1895:194528,1931:195620,1946:196544,1958:197300,1968:197636,1973:198560,1987:199400,1999:200156,2010:206746,2097:211484,2161:211816,2166:212812,2187:213642,2198:215468,2237:218788,2303:220365,2336:220863,2343:222108,2357:222855,2369:228710,2392:229318,2402:229622,2407:230610,2425:232586,2460:232890,2465:233574,2475:235018,2501:235702,2511:236006,2516:240066,2534:240510,2542:242555,2563:243315,2573:243885,2582:244835,2593:245215,2598:246260,2610:246830,2617:247970,2632:248635,2641:249015,2646:249395,2651:252815,2716:258680,2753:262728,2817:263464,2826:266159,2846:266887,2856:270840,2904:271392,2919:271576,2924:271990,2934:273933,2952:274249,2957:274802,2965:275671,2980:275987,2985:276856,2998:279542,3083:280332,3096:280648,3101:281596,3113:285450,3133
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Sala Udin's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Sala Udin lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Sala Udin describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Sala Udin talks about his maternal grandparents

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Sala Udin describes his mother's background and education

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Sala Udin talks about his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Sala Udin talks about potential family ties in his paternal ancestry

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Sala Udin describes his father's life in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Sala Udin talks about his parents and his siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Sala Udin recalls his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Sala Udin describes his childhood neighborhood in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Sala Udin recalls the sights, sounds, and smells of growing up in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Sala Udin describes his experience at Holy Trinity Catholic Church and Catholic school in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Sala Udin talks about his classmates in the school at Holy Trinity Catholic Church in Pittsburgh, including Rob Penny and August Wilson

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Sala Udin talks about his grade school years at Holy Trinity Catholic Church in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Sala Udin recalls his fifth-grade teacher at Pittsburgh's Holy Trinity Catholic Church

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Sala Udin talks about the roles of church and of the community in shaping his values

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Sala Udin recalls television and film during his childhood

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Sala Udin describes the Hill District community of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Sala Udin talks about the Crawford Grill jazz club and the Negro League baseball teams in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Sala Udin talks about jazz artist George Benson and other musicians from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Sala Udin recalls moving from the Lower Hill District to the Bedford Dwellings projects in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Sala Udin describes his year at Central Catholic High School in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Sala Udin talks about his experience at Schenley High School in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Sala Udin describes moving to New York City with his friends

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Sala Udin describes moving in with his aunts and his cousin in Staten Island, New York

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Sala Udin recalls Port Richmond High School in Staten Island, New York, seeing Malcolm X in Harlem, and the 1963 March on Washington

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Sala Udin recounts his semester studying to be an undertaker at the American Academy McAllister Institute

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Sala Udin talks about his involvement in the NAACP Youth League

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Sala Udin recounts meeting a representative of SNCC and his decision to go to Mississippi during the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Sala Udin recounts his arrival in Durant, Mississippi in 1965, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Sala Udin recounts his arrival in Durant, Mississippi in 1965, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Sala Udin describes ideological changes in the Civil Rights Movement during the mid-1960s, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Sala Udin describes ideological changes in the Civil Rights Movement during the mid-1960s, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Sala Udin talks about his role as a black northerner and the role of white liberals in the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Sala Udin explains SNCC's safety trainings for incoming civil rights workers

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Sala Udin recounts his confrontation with Mississippi police during the Civil Rights Movement, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Sala Udin recounts his confrontation with Mississippi police during the Civil Rights Movement, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Sala Udin recounts his confrontation with Mississippi police during the Civil Rights Movement, pt. 3

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Sala Udin reflects upon the expulsion of white civil rights workers from SNCC, and on the philosophy of nonviolence

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Sala Udin talks about returning to Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania in 1968

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Sala Udin describes moving from Mississippi back to Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania in 1968

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Sala Udin describes his entry into the Black Power, Black Arts, and Black Nationalist movements

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Sala Udin talks about the Black Power Movement's strategies and the origin of the House of the Crossroads drug treatment program

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Sala Udin describes August Wilson and Rob Penny's Black Horizon Theatre in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Sala Udin talks about Amiri Baraka, HistoryMaker Maulana Karenga, and the formation of the Congress of African People

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Sala Udin talks about Amiri Baraka and the Congress of African People's transition from cultural nationalism to Marxism-Leninism

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Sala Udin recalls his 1972 incarceration for transporting a rifle across state lines

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Sala Udin talks about leaving the Congress of African People after its transition from a Black Nationalist to a Marxist-Leninist focus

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Sala Udin recounts the decline of the Congress of African People in the late 1970s

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Sala Udin talks about his first marriage

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Sala Udin talks about moving to California in 1982 to lead the Multicultural Training Resource Center

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - Sala Udin describes disengaging from local politics and leaving his sons in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania after moving to California in 1982

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - Sala Udin talks about raising AIDS awareness through the Multicultural Training Resource Center in the San Francisco Bay Area of California

Tape: 8 Story: 6 - Sala Udin describes his life in California and traveling as a diversity consultant for the Multicultural Training Resource Center

Tape: 8 Story: 7 - Sala Udin talks about the death of his mother, the death of his friend Jake Milliones, and his first run for Pittsburgh City Council

Tape: 8 Story: 8 - Sala Udin recalls his 1995 election to the City Council of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Tape: 8 Story: 9 - Sala Udin talks about fighting police brutality on the Pittsburgh City Council after the 1995 killing of Jonny Gammage in police custody

Tape: 9 Story: 1 - Sala Udin recounts his accomplishments on the City Council of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, pt. 1

Tape: 9 Story: 2 - Sala Udin recounts his accomplishments on the City Council of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, pt. 2

Tape: 9 Story: 3 - Sala Udin talks about leaving the Pittsburgh City Council and becoming President of the Coro Center for Civic Leadership

Tape: 9 Story: 4 - Sala Udin describes the Coro Center for Civic Leadership's training program

Tape: 9 Story: 5 - Sala Udin talks about his second marriage

Tape: 9 Story: 6 - Sala Udin talks about what he would do differently

Tape: 9 Story: 7 - Sala Udin describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 9 Story: 8 - Sala Udin talks about his two living sons

Tape: 9 Story: 9 - Sala Udin talks about his acting experience and the beginning of the August Wilson Center for African American Culture in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Tape: 9 Story: 10 - Sala Udin describes how he would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

7$7

DAStory

2$3

DATitle
Sala Udin describes his entry into the Black Power, Black Arts, and Black Nationalist movements
Sala Udin talks about the Black Power Movement's strategies and the origin of the House of the Crossroads drug treatment program
Transcript
Okay. Now, what would you describe your ideology at that point?$$Black Power developing toward Black Nationalism.$$Okay. And how would you define Black Nationalism?$$Initially, a desire on the part of black people to establish the independence of a nation and the respect that nations have among nations. And I never bought the idea that anybody would concede to a certain number of states in the Southland, but I thought that, that wasn't necessary for nationhood, that a nation could exist even as a scattered nation if they developed enough unity and power to exert, exert that nationhood. So, I identified with the Black Power Movement with black, black consciousness. Eventually, the Black Power Conferences that had been held in different cities around the country realized that nothing in between those conferences was getting organized, and that as long as we just kept having these impromptu conferences in a different location every year, our political roles couldn't get realized. And so, I was really glad when I heard that there was going to be a culmination of all those Black Power Conferences in Atlanta, Georgia in 1980.$$Nineteen--not '80 [1980], but--$$Nineteen-seventy [1970], 1970--$$Yeah.$$--when the Congress of African People gathered and it gave me an organizational entree for those of us in Pittsburgh [Pennsylvania] who needed a national political affiliation to attach to.$$Okay. Now, prior to that time, you were involved in the Black Arts Movement here, the theater movement, and that sort of--$$Yes. As I was transitioning into Pittsburgh, we formed an organization called the Afro-American Institute. And the Afro-American Institute had several committees. Eventually, I became chairman of the Afro-American Institute, and our various committees achieved certain accomplishments within the realm of that committee. For example, the education committee worked on the establishment of a Black Studies Department at the University of Pittsburgh [Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania] and a black student organization to increase student enrollment and increase black faculty and administrative representation at the University of Pittsburgh. Many of these achievements that we started then continue to exist today, like the black studies program and like the Black Action Society which is the black students' organization. They are well institutionalized.$Now, the institutionalizing of these studies programs suggest that there must have been some sort of a cultural reawakening or girding up of, you know. So, did you--you didn't have black studies in school when you were growing up, now did you? I mean, had you had been reading all along, or trying to develop what a concept black culture was?$$No, the movement was a university.$$Okay.$$And the other cities where these struggles were taking place was the course subject that we studied. And these conferences, the Black Power Conferences, and other conferences is where all this information came together, and people learned what the goals of local organizing should be. So, it was really something that was modelled for us by other communities around the country.$$Now, which ones and like, what kind of work--I mean, specifically, what works were you reading, and/or what individuals were informing you?$$What I remember most is Amiri Baraka, Stokely Carmichael, [H.] Rap Brown--their readings--Malcolm-X's writings and recordings. Those were the things that I remember most--$$Okay.$$--about that period. We had a committee that worked on offing the [drug] pusher. We had a group of thugs in our organization who, when we noticed how much drugs was permeating our community, we decided to confront the pushers who were few enough to be easily identified at the time, and we started beating up pushers and robbing them, and throwing their dope down the sewer, and taking their money, and using it for the movement. But we ran our mouths too much, and next thing you know, they knew who we were, and they started fighting back. And we took a couple pretty good ass-kickings before we figured out that that is not going to be the way we get rid of drugs in our community. And that effort evolved into an attempt to recruit drug addicts, clean them up, politicize them, and bring them into our movement, so that we could understand the underground operation that these pushers operated in because we were not hoodlums, so we didn't really understand that life, and didn't understand how they operated, but we were so above-board and ran our mouths so much that they understood everything about us. We understood nothing about them. So, we wanted to recruit some of them into our movement to inform us, so that we would stop taking these defeats that we had taken. But during the course of that effort to recruit them and politicize them through a drug treatment program, it was a kind of political drug treatment program that we started. During the course of that, we discovered that confronting street pushers is not going to stop this explosion of drugs in our community. It's going to have to be a political battle. And, but the drug program is still a good thing to have, 'cause we saved a lot of people's lives, and it was a source of some employment for a lot of us in the movement working in the drug treatment program. And so, that program continued, and that continues to this day. It's called the House of the Crossroads [Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania]. It's still in the same building it started in, in 1969.

Robert Wright

Dimensions International, Inc., founder and chairman emeritus Robert Lee Wright was born on March 17, 1937, in Columbus, Georgia, to a bricklayer and a nurse. After graduating from high school, Wright went on to attend Ohio State University where he became classmates with future world class athletes Bob Ferguson and Mel Noel. Wright graduated in 1960 from Ohio State University College of Optometry with his degree in optometry. He returned to Georgia where he began practicing as an optometrist.

Upon his return home to Georgia, Wright became deeply involved in the Civil Rights Movement. In 1965, he participated in the Selma to Montgomery March. Then, in 1968, Wright’s career interest changed to politics when he was recruited by the Republican Party to run for Columbus City Council. He won and was re-elected three times before being appointed to the position of Associate Administrator for Minority Small Business and Capital Ownership Development by President Ronald Reagan. After two years of working with the Reagan Administration, Wright resigned, and in 1985, he founded Dimensions International, Inc. Through Dimensions International, Wright began providing leading-edge technology to the government and private sector in the fields of systems engineering, information technology, and airspace management. A core subsidiary of Dimensions International is Flight Explorer, the leading provider of web-based global flight tracking information. Under Wright’s leadership, Dimensions International grew to a multimillion dollar defense contractor, listed amongst Black Enterprise’s 100.

Wright was chairman of the National Museum of African American History and Culture, and of the Sub-Saharan Advisory Committee of the Export-Import Bank of the United States. Since 1999, he has been a director of Aflac, Inc. He has received many awards and recognitions, including the 2001 Ernst & Young Entrepreneur of the Year Award in Technology Services; the Man of the Year of the National Federation of Black Women Business Owners; the 2007 Boy Scouts of America Distinguished Citizen Award; the NAACP Achievement Award; and the Push Excellence Award.

Accession Number

A2008.077

Sex

Male

Interview Date

5/1/2008

Last Name

Wright

Middle Name

Lee

Schools

Spencer High School

Fifth Avenue School

The Ohio State University

First Name

Robert

Birth City, State, Country

Columbus

HM ID

WRI04

Favorite Season

Summer

Sponsor

Richard Holmes

State

Georgia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Rome, Italy

Favorite Quote

What Is, Is.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Virginia

Interview Description
Birth Date

3/17/1937

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Alexandria

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Pudding (Banana)

Short Description

Technology chief executive, civil rights activist, and city council member Robert Wright (1937 - ) was the founder and chairman emeritus of Dimensions International, Inc., a leading information technology and airspace management solutions provider. Wright participated in the Selma to Montgomery March, and worked in the Reagan administration after serving four terms in the Columbus, Georgia, city council.

Employment

Self-Employed

Columbus Council

U.S. Small Business Administration

Dimensions International, Inc.

Main Sponsor
Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:1512,69:1932,80:31230,577:36270,670:36750,684:37710,699:38110,709:38430,714:46520,781:50345,810:64589,1028:67901,1099:88444,1221:91800,1238:92892,1248:103124,1375:107410,1413:107950,1420:108580,1429:117570,1507:120460,1568:121055,1576:130130,1668:131490,1689:132085,1697:143305,1947:146730,1961$0,0:14509,274:68578,990:68930,995:71130,1030:90991,1250:101786,1367:102474,1377:103850,1400:106000,1427:108064,1455:123650,1570:126700,1589:127610,1600:142534,1875:150834,1941:151758,1955:156240,1996:161314,2088:163034,2119:172330,2157:182956,2220:184441,2247:210386,2595:211025,2611:211593,2620:236540,2885:241140,3082
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Robert Wright's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Robert Wright lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Robert Wright describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Robert Wright describes his mother's community in Columbus, Georgia

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Robert Wright describes his mother's education

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Robert Wright describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Robert Wright describes his parents' personalities, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Robert Wright describes his parents' personalities, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Robert Wright describes his father's career in Columbus, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Robert Wright describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Robert Wright describes the influence of Fort Benning on Columbus, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Robert Wright describes his neighborhood in Columbus, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Robert Wright describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Robert Wright recalls serving on a presidential commission with Hank Aaron

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Robert Wright describes his early activities in Columbus, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Robert Wright describes his early academic interests

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Robert Wright remembers the Fifth Avenue School in Columbus, Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Robert Wright remembers William H. Spencer High School in Columbus, Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Robert Wright recalls his favorite music from his youth

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Robert Wright recalls his early experiences of watching television

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Robert Wright remembers racial discrimination in Columbus, Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Robert Wright recalls his decision to attend The Ohio State University in Columbus, Ohio

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Robert Wright remembers his studies at The Ohio State University

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Robert Wright recalls his community at The Ohio State University, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Robert Wright recalls his community at The Ohio State University, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Robert Wright recalls returning to Columbus, Georgia after college

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Robert Wright recalls his optometry practice in Columbus, Georgia

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Robert Wright describes his civil rights and political activities

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Robert Wright recalls joining the Republican Party in Columbus, Georgia

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Robert Wright recalls his work with Republican politicians in the South

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Robert Wright remembers serving on the U.S. Small Business Administration

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Robert Wright describes the growth of the U.S. Small Business Administration

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Robert Wright describes his achievements at the U.S. Small Business Administration

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Robert Wright remembers founding Dimensions International, Inc.

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Robert Wright describes his career at Dimensions International, Inc.

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Robert Wright describes his achievements in business

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Robert Wright describes his philanthropy

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Robert Wright describes his hopes for the African American community

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Robert Wright reflects upon his life

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Robert Wright reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Robert Wright reflects upon his family

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Robert Wright describes how he would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

5$5

DAStory

1$2

DATitle
Robert Wright describes his achievements at the U.S. Small Business Administration
Robert Wright remembers founding Dimensions International, Inc.
Transcript
Now you were at the SBA [U.S. Small Business Administration] for two years. We were mentioning off-screen Sonicraft [Sonicraft, Inc., Chicago, Illinois] as being one of the--in Chicago [Illinois] as being one of the minority-owned businesses that you helped fund, you know. And quite a few businesses got big contracts, you know.$$Oh, yeah, yeah, quite a few businesses got huge contracts and, you know, I was instrumental in trying to get some of those contracts. The idea being if you get the contract, you can hire the people, you can bring the expertise, you can grow a business, you can make that business competitive so that when you can't bid for these or get these kind of contracts, you have a, a good foundation in which to grow your business on a competitive basis. That was the whole idea. We provide management, technical assistance. In some instances, we provided equipment to firms, so it was a great opportunity in my opinion for minority businesses to really get a step up.$$So the rewarding of contracts based largely on the management capacity of the business and what it's able to--$$Yeah, to a great extent and expertise to be able to handle the work. You, now, we wouldn't give a contract to make a, a highly technical electronic gadget to a guy who's a barber. That's not his expertise. Not taking anything away from that profession, but it's just not his expertise. But--so, the people that got contracts should've had some type of background that would lend itself to the contract that they were getting, either by having worked for someone else, having the degrees in that, or having a business that had grown up in that industry. Which is interesting because ultimately what I did in my business [Dimensions International, Inc.] is totally different from what I was trained to do (laughter).$$Right. It was--I was listening to you talk, I say, well, now. So, but, now, now you were, you were at SBA for two years.$$I was.$Now, what happened that you decided to--was it--and I guess I'm, you know--now, I'm thinking as I'm hearing you tell this story, so you're awarding these million dollar contracts to people and you see what it takes to get these contracts, and you're working on a government salary. You're thinking, well, heck, if I can get on the other side of this--is that what you thought?$$No, that was not my driver when I started Dimensions [Dimensions International, Inc.]. As a matter of fact, when I left the government I did not start Dimensions right away. I had no intentions for going into the government contracting business. I became a consultant to try to continue to help other firms get government business, try to help other firms get through the maze of the SBA [U.S. Small Business Administration] machinery so to speak. So I had, no, no, no--so I wasn't motivated by, oh, that's the way they're doing it, let me get out and do it to. But, I started a consulting business and at some point in time I got--I had several clients but unfortunately they all didn't pay me and that created--that was--presented problems for me. I'm going out helping a guy get a contract and, you know, and I'm need to be paid or help to do some marketing, or open a door and, or whatever. And, so I decided, well, maybe I need to look at this a different way. So, it was at least two years after I left the government before I really started, you know, taking a look at the government in terms of an opportunity for myself.$$Okay, so by 1984, I guess, then that you--so, well, really you started Dimensions International in '85 [1985] but I guess you started planning, you know (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Around '85 [1985] is when I really began to change the concept 'cause I started out as Bob Wright and Associates as a consulting firm. But then I began to--took on a new name with a different focus around '85 [1985].$$Okay.$$And that's when I formed Dimensions International, and eventually incorporated as Dimensions International.$$Okay, now what did Dimensions do, basically?$$To start off I was just--I was in management consulting, doing studies, surveys, you know, things like that. And then one day, a firm that had outgrown the 8(a) Program [8(a) Business Development Program], the Shelton Market [ph.] was about to--then I eventually went into the 8(a) Program myself. I'm trying to get my story straight. And I went in as a management consulting firm. Eventually, this firm that was running computers for the [U.S.] Department of Agriculture had outgrown their ability to get this particular computer contract. And they asked me would I become the prime on that contract, they had the expertise and they would become a subcontractor to me. Well, that's a win-win for everybody. It's a win-win for their company because they're able to keep part of the business. It's a win for me because I'm able to get into a business I'm not in already with someone who's in it to provide the expertise. You see what I mean? And so, I was able to get into that contract--

Myrtle Davis

Pharmacist and veteran city council member Myrtle Reid Davis was born on October 9, 1931 to Emmalee Reid, a teacher, and Carl Reid, a postal worker. Davis was raised in Rock Hill, South Carolina where she attended Emmett School Elementary and High School. After graduating from high school in 1949, Reid went on to attend Xavier University in New Orleans, Louisiana where she pursued her B.S. degree in pharmacy.

In 1953, Davis was hired at the Queens City Pharmacy in Charlotte, North Carolina. In 1956, she moved to Atlanta, Georgia where she was hired by the Triangle Prescription Shop. That following year, she was married to activist and local physician, Dr. Albert M. Davis.

Throughout the 1960s, Davis served on the boards of numerous Atlanta based organizations including the League of Women Voters of Fulton County, where she served as president. She also served on the board of directors for the Gate City Day Nursery Association, and in 1970, she was elected to serve on the board of directors for the Atlanta Urban League. In 1979, Davis was hired by Leadership Atlanta where she worked as co-executive director for ten years.

In 1981, Davis ran for public office and was elected as a member of the Atlanta City Council. During her tenure on the Atlanta City Council, Davis served as chair of the Human Resources Committee, the Water and Pollution Committee and the Community Development Committee. Davis also served for five years as chair of the Finance Committee. Then, in 1994, after Maynard Jackson decided to leave his post as mayor, she became a candidate for mayor of the City of Atlanta. She later became the coordinator for the 1996 Atlanta Expo, and in 1998, Davis retired from city government as water utility manager for the City of Atlanta.

Davis’ other affiliations include the Kiwanis Club of Atlanta, the National Board of Girl Scouts, the United Way of Metropolitan Atlanta, the Task Force for the Homeless and the City of Atlanta’s Board of Ethics.

Davis lives in Atlanta, Georgia with her two daughters, Judge Stephanie C. Davis and Stacey Davis Stewart. Stephanie is a judge in the Magistrate Court of Fulton County, and Stacey is the senior vice president of Fannie Mae.

Davis was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on February 28, 2008.

Accession Number

A2008.037

Sex

Female

Interview Date

2/28/2008

Last Name

Davis

Schools

Emmett Scott School

Xavier University of Louisiana

First Name

Myrtle

Birth City, State, Country

Rock Hill

HM ID

DAV22

Favorite Season

Fall

Sponsor

Walgreens

State

South Carolina

Favorite Vacation Destination

Anywhere

Favorite Quote

Treat Others As You Would Want Them To Treat You.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Interview Description
Birth Date

10/9/1931

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Atlanta

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Gumbo

Short Description

Pharmacist and city council member Myrtle Davis (1931 - ) was a city councilwoman for the City of Atlanta, Georiga. She also ran for mayor of the city in 1993. Davis served as the coordinator for the 1996 Atlanta Expo, and in 1998, she retired from city government as the City of Atlanta's Water Utility Manager.

Employment

LaBranche’s Drug Store

Queen City Pharmacy

Triangle Prescription Shop

Atlanta Department of Watershed Management

Main Sponsor
Main Sponsor URL
Favorite Color

Brown

Timing Pairs
0,0:1008,18:8424,159:21280,291:25960,423:30370,470:33990,476:35110,506:35950,525:36510,534:43040,594:43586,603:44210,615:44834,624:47884,646:49204,672:49644,678:50436,747:50964,755:51492,762:81842,1173:82364,1182:87512,1247:91022,1315:96556,1391:96921,1397:97359,1405:98890,1412:101808,1444:105546,1470:109370,1481:111779,1523:117314,1590:121810,1645:124160,1671:128860,1724:129180,1729:131660,1766:134700,1824:135020,1844:135340,1849:139740,1950:144224,2047:145268,2068:146080,2086:146312,2091:151770,2154:152430,2173:153090,2216:163760,2332:164392,2342:164945,2350:166841,2382:168737,2414:175610,2536:176114,2548:176786,2561:179232,2584:180216,2597:189720,2746:201395,2895:201720,2901:205750,2982:206075,2989:206335,2994:206725,3002:207245,3011:209442,3021:211374,3053:211962,3062:215584,3092:221588,3233:224324,3288:227580,3298$0,0:1950,49:2730,61:4212,83:7254,133:11622,237:21372,431:31430,482:32150,492:39590,633:44124,662:45429,683:47430,704:52302,765:67440,1005:80266,1136:92320,1287:92896,1294:97792,1362:98368,1370:98752,1375:99136,1380:119973,1600:122976,1659:135183,1820:141790,1879:155808,2014:156568,2070:158620,2102:164396,2198:166524,2250:178588,2354:187430,2526:190811,2622:217205,2918:218055,2929:218650,2937:223848,2998:225192,3015:231408,3123:239694,3183:255816,3421:259388,3524:260604,3549:270201,3631:276596,3745:279957,3783:280443,3790:281415,3813:282954,3840:283764,3855:285384,3883:286194,3903:286761,3911:287895,3934:293430,3999
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Myrtle Davis' interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Myrtle Davis lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Myrtle Davis describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Myrtle Davis describes her mother's education

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Myrtle Davis describes her parents' occupations

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Myrtle Davis talks about her mother's childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Myrtle Davis describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Myrtle Davis talks about her parents' relationship

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Myrtle Davis describes her community in Rock Hill, South Carolina, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Myrtle Davis describes her community in Rock Hill, South Carolina, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Myrtle Davis describes her earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Myrtle Davis remembers segregation in Rock Hill, South Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Myrtle Davis recalls segregation in Rock Hill, North Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Myrtle Davis recalls her early education

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Myrtle Davis talks about her college education

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Myrtle Davis describes her mentors during high school

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Myrtle Davis describes the sights, sounds and smells of her childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Myrtle Davis recalls her extracurricular activities

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Myrtle Davis describes her early personality

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Myrtle Davis recalls her childhood aspirations

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Myrtle Davis talks about her Catholic faith

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Myrtle Davis recalls her social life during high school

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Myrtle Davis recalls her preparation for college

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Myrtle Davis talks about her childhood pastimes

Tape: 2 Story: 13 - Myrtle Davis remembers the start of World War II

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Myrtle Davis recalls the entertainment of her youth

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Myrtle Davis remembers her arrival at Xavier University of Louisiana in New Orleans, Louisiana

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Myrtle Davis recalls her experiences at Xavier University of Louisiana

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Myrtle Davis remembers the leadership of Xavier University of Louisiana

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Myrtle Davis describes her activities at Xavier University of Louisiana

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Myrtle Davis recalls her classes at Xavier University of Louisiana

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Myrtle Davis remembers her professors at Xavier University of Louisiana

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Myrtle Davis recalls her internship at LaBranche's Drug Store in New Orleans, Louisiana

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Myrtle Davis talks about Mardi Gras

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Myrtle Davis recalls her graduation from Xavier University of Louisiana

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Myrtle Davis describes her first impressions of Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 12 - Myrtle Davis recalls how she met her husband

Tape: 3 Story: 13 - Myrtle Davis remembers Auburn Avenue in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Myrtle Davis remembers the community on Auburn Avenue during the 1950s

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Myrtle Davis describes her husband's civil rights activism in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Myrtle Davis talks about her children

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Myrtle Davis recalls her mother's civil rights activism in Rock Hill, South Carolina

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Myrtle Davis talks about the Civil Rights Movement in Rock Hill, South Carolina

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Myrtle Davis describes segregation in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Myrtle Davis remembers the Peyton Wall in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Myrtle Davis describes the Collier Heights neighborhood of Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Myrtle Davis remembers the events of the 1960s

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Myrtle Davis recalls joining the League of Women Voters of Atlanta-Fulton County

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Myrtle Davis recalls her experiences of discrimination in the medical field

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Myrtle Davis describes the integration of the medical industry in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Myrtle Davis describes her role at the Gate City Day Nursery Association

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Myrtle Davis talks about her work for the Girl Scouts of the United States of America

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Myrtle Davis remembers her involvement with her daughters

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Myrtle Davis describes her role in the Leadership Atlanta program

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Myrtle Davis remembers her older daughter's car accident and rehabilitation

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Myrtle Davis recalls her younger daughter's college application process

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Myrtle Davis remembers her campaign for Atlanta City Council

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Myrtle Davis reflects upon her time on the Atlanta City Council

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Myrtle Davis recalls her campaign for the mayoralty of Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Myrtle Davis reflects upon the mayoral leadership of Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Myrtle Davis remembers the support for her mayoral campaign

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Myrtle Davis recalls her role at the City of Atlanta Department of Watershed Management

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Myrtle Davis talks about her family

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Myrtle Davis describes her civic involvement

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Myrtle Davis reflects upon her life

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Myrtle Davis describes her concerns for the African American community

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Myrtle Davis shares a message to future generations

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - Myrtle Davis reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 6 Story: 11 - Myrtle Davis narrates her photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$4

DAStory

9$2

DATitle
Myrtle Davis talks about her Catholic faith
Myrtle Davis describes her husband's civil rights activism in Atlanta, Georgia
Transcript
Now, you talked a little bit about church and your parents [Emmalee Williams Reid and Carl Reid] being Presbyterian, what church did your family attend?$$They were Presbyterians; both were very active in the church. And let me tell you how the whole intrusion of the whole--how Catholicism started in my life. My father got sick and went to St. Philip's Hospital [Rock Hill, South Carolina] and was--which was a Catholic hospital. And, of course, he had daily visits from, from the Chaplin there at the hospital who was a Catholic priest. And this Catholic priest was telling him about his plans to build a new Catholic church in the colored section of town which was Saint Mary's [Saint Mary Catholic Church, Rock Hill, South Carolina]. And that he needed someone to, to be an organist and asked him if he knew anybody. So my father said, "Well, my, my, my daughter Myrtle [HistoryMaker Myrtle Davis] plays. Maybe she would play for you." So he asked me if I wanted to do it and I said, "Well, sure, I'll do it." But, what my father used to do, we used to go to the 9:30 Mass and I would play and he would be outside waiting for me to take me to the Presbyterian church. Well, as time went on, and we did that for a long period of time where every Sunday morning he would take me to play at the Catholic church and then we would go to the Presbyterian church. Then it got to the point where I really liked the Mass and the Catholic church. And, they were a little bit disappointed I guess that I did not wanna continue in the Catholic church, but certainly they said it was my decision to make. My, my father said, "You're already female and you're already colored, why do you wanna add another thing to your, your life, another misery to your life to become Catholic as well?" But I hadn't looked at it like that. But there at that time, of course, in Rock Hill, South Carolina there were very few Catholics. There was one Catholic church, Saint Anne's [Saint Anne Catholic Church, Rock Hill, South Carolina] and, of course, St. Mary's was developed when I was in, in high school [Emmett Scott School, Rock Hill, South Carolina]. But, that was the whole motivation for my changing in, in religion from one to the other.$$How old were you?$$Well, I was actually, when I became interested in it, I was probably was fourteen, fifteen years old. When I actually was baptized or taken into Catholic church, it was my freshman year in college [Xavier University of Louisiana, New Orleans, Louisiana].$$Okay. What was the name of the Presbyterian church?$$It was Hermon Presbyterian Church [Rock Hill, South Carolina].$$Okay, and the Catholic church again?$$St. Mary's.$$St. Mary's.$$Uh-huh.$$And so, you went through the religious instructions to be confirmed and first communion and (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) That's right, that's right. Actually, what happened was I had taken instructions at St. Mary's before I went to college, and I didn't finish. Well, when I came back my freshman year, was when I had my--when I was taken into the church. My confirmation took place in New Orleans [Louisiana] because I was a sophomore in college and it was occurring at the St. Louis Cathedral in, in New Orleans and they had a confirmation class. And that's where I was confirmed.$Now let's talk more about your husband. You get married and he's a very prominent physician, tell me about your husband and--'cause he's involved in a lot of different organizations and things here in Atlanta [Georgia] so tell me about some of his doings here in Atlanta (simultaneous)?$$(Simultaneous) Well, well he was, and particularly leading into the Civil Rights Movement. My husband was truly an activist. And I think if anybody had--if he'd had his, his--he made his own decisions about what he wanted to be I think he would have--first of all, he would have been a foot, football, football or basketball coach. He loved sports. But, in addition to that, he was truly a social activist. He became involved in, in causes and he was very active during, during the student movement [Atlanta Student Movement]. Supported the students entirely. He helped them get out of jail, he got out and picketed with them and so he was, he was that kind of person. I can remember one night in particular when he and [HistoryMaker] Dr. Clinton Warner and someone else went down to the old Heart of Atlanta Motel [Atlanta, Georgia], and they took bags and in the bags they had just packed towels, you know. They were gonna check into the Heart of Atlanta Motel because it was one of the places that, you know, just refused to open up. So they went down and, of course, they were arrested. So he did have--he had that streak of rebellion in him. I mean, he, he--there was, there was this need to, to make things better and he was gonna be a part of it. I mean, he--there was hardly a time that he ever sacrificed being out of his office but when something came up that he had to attend to that had a civil rights' nature to it, I mean, he was involved in that. There was a group of men who met on a regular basis to strategize and to support the students. And some of those people included Jesse Hill and--I'm trying to think of some of the early leaders in there but they were a lot of people on the Atlanta University [Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta, Georgia] campus, professors on the--many doctors, folks who, whose certainly livelihood did not depend on, on jobs. I mean, they--there jobs were not threatened as a result of the actions that they took. But Albert [Davis' husband, Albert Miles Davis] continued to be active, he also became president of the Atlanta chapter of the NAACP [National Association for the Advancement of Colored People] and served in that capacity. In fact, I think he was serving as president of the NAACP when, when Martin Luther King [Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.] was assassinated. I mean, with it came a lot of--well, lot of things to respond to at the time, I mean, other than the student unrest and meeting with the downtown business people about opening up businesses. And he and Sam Williams [Samuel Woodrow Williams], who was--Sam Williams was a pastor of Friendship Baptist Church [Atlanta, Georgia], were very instrumental in meeting with the Atlanta school board to help integrate the schools. So he was very much involved in all of the integration efforts going on at that time.$$Now, after you marry, you no longer work at the--as a pharmacist?$$I worked for a while, I worked until possibly I was carrying Stephanie [HistoryMaker Stephanie Davis] and I stopped after a while during my pregnancy.$$I'm sorry, I meant to ask you about your husband. You mentioned the Guardsmen [National Association of Guardsmen].$$Um-hm.$$What group was that?$$It, it's a social organization that still exists. But they started a, a chapter here in Atlanta and there were about thirty guys who got together and established an Atlanta chapter. And what it was, it was truly a social club but they had entertainment at the various cities where each chapter was located. It still goes on this way about four times a year. And, of course, the Atlanta parties were the parties that, that people liked to go to 'cause it was a, really a good time.$$

The Honorable Frank Brown

Omaha, Nebraska’s, District Two City Councilman, Frank Dee Brown was born on August 18, 1953, in Omaha, Nebraska, to Lyda Montgomery and Warren Hugh Brown. Brown grew up around his father’s lounge on North Omaha’s 24th Street. His family lineage includes black fur trappers, Scotch Irish and Mexican. His uncle, nicknamed “Little Frank” Dee Brown, was a successful businessman and actor. He appeared in the movie, Bedlam with Boris Karloff and in the Wizard of Oz. Brown’s uncle was the first husband of actress/activist Ruby Dee and a friend of Sidney Poitier and Harry Belafonte. Brown, who enjoyed CYO basketball, attended St. Benedict’s Elementary School and graduated from Holy Name High School in 1971. He attended Virginia Union University from 1971 to 1972 and graduated from the University of Omaha in 1975 with a B.A. degree in communications.

Brown’s career began as a researcher for Omaha’s KAFB-AM Radio’s Walt Kavanaugh Show, the top rated radio show in the Midwest in 1975. Next, he was an investigative reporter for KMTV-TV and KETV-TV. As a journalist, Brown investigated the Iowa School for the Deaf, a hotel collapse, the John Joubert murder case and the United Airlines’ crash in Sioux City, Iowa in 1989. In 1995, Brown became director of the Jimmy Wilson, Jr. Foundation which was named for a fallen police officer. Brown gained a reputation in the community which led to his candidacy as an Omaha city councilman in 1997, when the seated black councilwoman from the second district, Brenda Council, unsuccessfully ran for mayor.

Brown is an advocate for jobs, gun control and better housing. He was an avid supporter of a new sports stadium, library renovation and a new jazz complex on 24th Street. Always a defender of and advocate for the impoverished African North Omaha community, Brown is also the Executive Director of Housing In Omaha, Inc., a nonprofit in Omaha, Nebraska.

Accession Number

A2007.283

Sex

Male

Interview Date

10/7/2007

Last Name

Brown

Maker Category
Organizations
Schools

Holy Name High School

St. Benedict the Moor School

University of Nebraska-Omaha

Virginia Union University

First Name

Frank

Birth City, State, Country

Omaha

HM ID

BRO48

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Nebraska

Favorite Vacation Destination

Atlanta, Georgia

Favorite Quote

Get It Done.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Nebraska

Interview Description
Birth Date

8/18/1953

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Omaha

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Lobster

Short Description

City council member and city government official The Honorable Frank Brown (1953 - ) was the executive director of Housing In Omaha, Inc., a nonprofit, affiliate corporation of the Omaha Housing Authority in Omaha, Nebraska.

Employment

Housing In Omaha, Inc.

Omaha City Council

KFAB Radio

KMTV-TV

KETV-TV

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:1001,23:1309,28:3080,40:6083,122:6622,128:6930,133:14708,235:16065,277:29128,446:29674,458:30844,478:33496,520:37474,596:38410,624:39502,650:39970,657:40282,662:40594,667:50034,764:54246,831:60229,928:60685,937:61027,945:61768,962:65724,1004:66608,1019:66880,1024:74080,1150:77370,1240:77720,1246:79470,1288:79750,1293:80800,1314:81850,1331:83530,1367:83810,1372:89850,1427:98884,1551:101400,1607:105136,1654:105528,1662:105920,1671:107040,1709:112633,1783:112917,1788:118266,1857:118914,1866:120372,1894:126160,1961$0,0:5082,110:5621,118:10016,160:10308,165:11914,197:16311,265:16950,276:22062,453:23908,507:24405,516:24831,523:26109,548:29588,596:30227,606:31008,621:36446,656:37994,675:42656,728:43124,735:51140,875:57300,1004:58100,1016:62980,1121:63460,1128:64740,1157:65140,1163:80112,1347:80976,1366:81624,1382:82920,1406:83424,1414:84720,1434:85008,1439:85368,1445:86592,1467:90080,1478:93304,1542:97834,1583:99509,1623:100246,1635:102792,1689:103395,1700:104802,1728:105070,1733:105405,1742:116720,1858:123662,1971:124201,1979:127326,1990:128874,2015:129476,2023:130422,2046:130852,2052:134330,2082:134970,2091:135770,2104:136330,2117:144638,2221:147366,2283:149102,2317:155688,2397:159249,2433:163436,2508:168340,2559:168765,2565:171655,2606:175625,2632:184096,2708:184642,2719:185370,2779:187392,2807:187722,2813:191286,2871:192078,2906:198552,3044:198944,3052:199784,3076:200176,3084:200736,3103:206280,3184:207380,3191
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of The Honorable Frank Brown's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - The Honorable Frank Brown lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - The Honorable Frank Brown describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - The Honorable Frank Brown describes his mother

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - The Honorable Frank Brown describes his father's background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - The Honorable Frank Brown remembers segregation in Omaha, Nebraska

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - The Honorable Frank Brown remembers his uncle, Frank Dee Brown, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - The Honorable Frank Brown remembers his uncle, Frank Dee Brown, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - The Honorable Frank Brown talks about his paternal uncle's photography collection

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - The Honorable Frank Brown describes his paternal uncle's political views

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - The Honorable Frank Brown describes his likeness to his father

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - The Honorable Frank Brown recalls his earliest childhood memories

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - The Honorable Frank Brown describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - The Honorable Frank Brown reflects upon his childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - The Honorable Frank Brown remembers his involvement in sports

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - The Honorable Frank Brown remembers his high school prom

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - The Honorable Frank Brown recalls the academic tracking at Holy Name High School in Omaha, Nebraska

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - The Honorable Frank Brown remembers his exclusion from extracurricular activities

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - The Honorable Frank Brown recalls his decision to attend Virginia Union University in Richmond, Virginia

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - The Honorable Frank Brown recalls his arrival at Virginia Union University

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - The Honorable Frank Brown talks about the gang violence in Richmond, Virginia

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - The Honorable Frank Brown remembers his studies at Virginia Union University in Richmond, Virginia

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - The Honorable Frank Brown recalls his experiences at the University of Nebraska-Omaha

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - The Honorable Frank Brown remembers joining KFAB Radio in Omaha, Nebraska

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - The Honorable Frank Brown describes his early investigative reporting

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - The Honorable Frank Brown recalls his coverage of the abuse at schools for the deaf

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - The Honorable Frank Brown recalls his investigative reporting for KETV-TV and KMTV-TV

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - The Honorable Frank Brown talks about covering tragic news stories

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - The Honorable Frank Brown recalls his campaign for the Omaha City Council

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - The Honorable Frank Brown talks about the North Omaha Freeway

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - The Honorable Frank Brown talks about the political districts in Omaha, Nebraska

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - The Honorable Frank Brown describes District 2 of Omaha, Nebraska

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - The Honorable Frank Brown talks about the employment opportunities in District 2 of Omaha, Nebraska

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - The Honorable Frank Brown describes his early experiences on the Omaha City Council

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - The Honorable Frank Brown describes his accomplishments as an Omaha City Council member

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - The Honorable Frank Brown recalls his work for the Omaha Housing Authority

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - The Honorable Frank Brown describes his work with Housing In Omaha, Inc.

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - The Honorable Frank Brown describes his advice to aspiring legislators

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - The Honorable Frank Brown describes his hopes for the black community of Omaha, Nebraska

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - The Honorable Frank Brown reflects upon his career

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - The Honorable Frank Brown talks about the social problems in Omaha, Nebraska

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - The Honorable Frank Brown reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - The Honorable Frank Brown reflects upon his service to District 2 in Omaha, Nebraska

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - The Honorable Frank Brown describes how he would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$4

DAStory

5$8

DATitle
The Honorable Frank Brown describes his early experiences on the Omaha City Council
The Honorable Frank Brown describes his work with Housing In Omaha, Inc.
Transcript
Now, did you have very much cooperation from the mayor of the city? I mean--$$The first one [Hal Daub], no, but, but--my first four years it was a real learning experience. He taught me how to fight this even when we're at odds. He taught me, "You gotta read everything," I knew that going in, but he said--. But we didn't get along at all, but it, it taught me how to, how to read, read--but read between the lines, he taught me how to read between the lines and made me a better politician and, and a--really a, a fighting politician, I was a fighter before, but there's--it's different in politics. And you've gotta stand up and you've gotta really work your project and build allegiances. That's, that's, that's huge and tremendous, and so I did that my first year. When I got on, I knew that I was gonna have a problem because I knew--and there was this mistrust of me being a reporter--a former reporter. So I got together with my colleagues and I said, "We all can be city pre- be council presidents and vice presidents." And there was animosity, I knew, on the previous council [Omaha City Council], and five of the people were--got reelected, and there was myself and a new guy. So I went to all of them and I said, "You three guys will not--," three of the five, "you will never become council president, never become a council vice president, it will always be these others." But I found a way in the law that if we would just vote for each other and then resign after our first year, all of us could be council presidents, vice president--. And that, that built a great relationship because we did that. We got criticized for it because it's two years you have to serve, but we'd all resign after our first year and let someone else be council president and vice president, and it wasn't illegal. So we did that, and so, if we had projects that we wanted to do in our district, the mayor would say no, but we had the votes to override.$The biggest fight I had--you could--the government said--or the judge said you could only put so much in each council district; you've gotta spread it out. We went into what's called the Keystone area [Omaha, Nebraska] at 87th [Street] and Boyd [Street]. And the Sisters of Mercy [Sisters of Mercy West Midwest Community, Omaha, Nebraska], they've got a developing arm and they were our developers at the time. They went into this neighborhood and I told the board, "Don't do it." Because I had covered stories, racial stories, in the area, in that Keystone area. They have very few African Americans living in that district, you could probably--it's probably under ten families. And I knew it was gonna be a fight to put public housing in that neighborhood. They fought us for two years, the board was--the board--and this is what I was telling the board. The board said, "You know, we're gonna--we've been sued, let's give up." I said, "No, if we give up here in Omaha, Nebraska and can't put housing for minorities--." 'Cause that's what we were being accused of by, by the all-white neighborhood, they were saying that, "You're just gonna put black people in here." And I was receiving letters saying that they were just gonna date my, my, my girlfriend--or my kids, rape 'em, there'll be shootings, there'll be murders, and it was just awful, it was just--. It was extremely one of the--I thought that I'd been--gone back forty years in time, it was that bad. Just the hatred. And here we are, trying to put public housing right in the heart of the neighborhood. First, it was sixty homes, but that was unrealistic because of the acreage, and I told 'em that, the, the Sisters of Mercy. "You can't do that, it's just too condensed." We finally narrowed it down to thirty-six homes, beautiful homes, and they still fought us, took us to court, and we won. We beat 'em in court, it was against the law to discriminate--you know the housing law- fair housing laws. And during the course of the lawsuit that the neighbors had filed against us, I had them run an economic study of the area, and an area of income. Most of all the residents could qualify to move into public housing from that Keystone area; that's what it showed. So they were two che- paychecks away from being in public housing most of 'em, but yet they didn't want that in their district. There's even one lady who applied whose parents were against moving us in, their daughter wanted to move in--into Keystone, and it's just--the development now is beautiful. They still watch us. It's, it's a year old, but no problems at all. Not one problem. And then I was asked later--I was asked this past--a year ago, to become the director [of Housing In Omaha, Inc., Omaha, Nebraska]. The director left, and is now a state senator, and they, they asked me--the board asked me if I would run for--not run, but put my application, I did, now I'm waiting for a callback from HUD [U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development] to see if they'll grant me waivers because you can't be an elected official and run a housing authority. So, I'm in limbo there, but I'd love to do that just to help people.

The Honorable Anthony W. Hall, Jr.

Attorney Anthony William Hall, Jr. was born on September 16, 1944 in Houston, Texas to Quintanna Wilson Hall Alliniece and Anthony William Hall, Sr. Hall received his B.A. degree from Howard University in 1967, and served in the military from 1967 to 1971. While in the military, Hall attained the rank of captain and received the Purple Heart as well as three Bronze Stars. After his military service, Hall worked for the Harris County Commissions Office in 1971 and served as a State Representative from 1972 until 1979, when he was first elected to the Houston City Council. Upon his appointment, Hall was the third African American, after Judson W. Robinson, Jr. and Ernest McGowen, to be elected to the city council in Houston.

Hall obtained his J.D. degree from the Thurgood Marshall School of Law at Texas Southern University in 1982.
In 1990, he became the first African American chairman of the Houston Metropolitan Transit Authority, an agency which was created as a response to the public’s desire to have an efficient and reliable transportation system that would replace the existing malfunctioning busing system. During this time, Hall also became one of only three African Americans among the 50 partners in the Houston law firm, Jackson Walker, LLP. The firm, which has offices in Austin, Dallas, Fort Worth, Houston, San Angelo and San Antonio, represents clients in litigation for intellectual property, health care, labor and employment, technology, bankruptcy and numerous other fields. Hall served as the City Attorney for the City of Houston from 1998 until 2004, when he became the Chief Administrative Officer for the city. Hall’s key responsibilities included implementing some of the Administration’s significant priorities, participating in the budget process, and overseeing the Houston community’s safety issues.

Hall is also the Chairman of the Boulé Foundation and is involved with Sigma Pi Phi Fraternity, serving as the past national president of the organization, and is currently on the board of trustees. He has devoted many years of his life to public service and has been given several awards for outstanding civic work. These awards include the Fifth Ward Enrichment Program’s Heart of Houston, the Black Achiever Award from the YMCA, the George “Mickey” Leland Community Service Award from the Barbara Jordan—Mickey Leland School of Public Affairs at Texas Southern University in 2006, and the National Forum for Black Public Administrators Marks of Excellence Award for Public Service Leadership in 2009. After years of public service, Hall returned to private practice law in the city of Houston in 2010.

Anthony Hall was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on August 9, 2007.

Accession Number

A2007.229

Sex

Male

Interview Date

8/9/2007 |and| 5/6/2014

Last Name

Hall

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

W.

Schools

Texas Southern University

Marshall Education Center

Miller Intermediate

Jack Yates High School

Howard University

First Name

Anthony

Birth City, State, Country

Houston

HM ID

HAL11

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Texas

Favorite Vacation Destination

Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts; Barbados

Favorite Quote

Simply Achieve.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Texas

Birth Date

9/16/1944

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Houston

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Gumbo (Seafood)

Short Description

City attorney and city council member The Honorable Anthony W. Hall, Jr. (1944 - ) was the third African American man to be elected to the city council in Houston, Texas. He was the first black and minority chairman of Houston's Metropolitan Transit Authority, served as city attorney from 1998 to 2004 and was the chief administrative officer for the city.

Employment

Law Office of Anthony W. Hall, Jr.

City of Houston

Jackson & Walker

Williamson, Gardner, Hall & Wiesenthal

Favorite Color

Beige

Timing Pairs
0,0:616,8:2904,27:8448,160:13024,275:15048,304:19800,377:26418,438:46950,726:49398,775:51560,794:53175,816:53685,824:54195,831:57670,852:70562,1084:100140,1500:109260,1677:122756,1915:123212,1922:123516,1927:134147,2092:163506,2626:163902,2634:164232,2640:167400,2692$0,0:9630,146:35540,482:47698,664:49441,690:68460,972:77512,1095:81266,1125:81626,1131:82850,1148:83282,1155:86450,1258:92426,1362:98906,1488:110812,1577:111468,1588:117290,1698:123700,1732:128110,1819:148666,2102:149061,2108:151194,2150:151747,2158:153248,2184:170571,2447:172133,2473:174760,2525:180126,2548:182885,2592:183145,2597:186265,2654:186590,2660:186850,2665:191120,2769:194458,2791:195720,2813
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of The Honorable Anthony W. Hall, Jr.'s interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - The Honorable Anthony W. Hall, Jr. lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - The Honorable Anthony W. Hall, Jr. describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - The Honorable Anthony W. Hall, Jr. talks about his mother's early education

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - The Honorable Anthony W. Hall, Jr. describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - The Honorable Anthony W. Hall, Jr. recalls how his parents met and their personalities

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - The Honorable Anthony W. Hall, Jr. describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - The Honorable Anthony W. Hall, Jr. remembers his community in Houston, Texas

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - The Honorable Anthony W. Hall, Jr. recalls the ward boundaries in Houston, Texas

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - The Honorable Anthony W. Hall, Jr. describes the sights, sounds and smells of Houston, Texas

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - The Honorable Anthony W. Hall, Jr. recalls the segregated education system in Houston, Texas

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - The Honorable Anthony W. Hall, Jr. recalls his extracurricular activities

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - The Honorable Anthony W. Hall, Jr. describes his grade school experiences

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - The Honorable Anthony W. Hall, Jr. recalls his college selection process

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - The Honorable Anthony W. Hall, Jr. remembers his high school community

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - The Honorable Anthony W. Hall, Jr. describes Howard University in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - The Honorable Anthony W. Hall, Jr. talks about the Reserve Officers' Training Corps

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - The Honorable Anthony W. Hall, Jr. recalls majoring in economics at Howard University

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - The Honorable Anthony W. Hall, Jr. talks about his involvement in the Civil Rights Movement at Howard University

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - The Honorable Anthony W. Hall, Jr. recalls joining the U.S. Army

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - The Honorable Anthony W. Hall, Jr. remembers being wounded in the Vietnam War

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - The Honorable Anthony W. Hall, Jr. recalls the start of his political career

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - The Honorable Anthony W. Hall, Jr. talks about the end of the Vietnam War

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - The Honorable Anthony W. Hall, Jr. recalls serving in the Texas Legislature

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - The Honorable Anthony W. Hall, Jr. explains his decision to attend law school

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - The Honorable Anthony W. Hall, Jr. talks about African Americans' role in politics

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - The Honorable Anthony W. Hall, Jr. recalls the progressive movement in Houston's politics

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - The Honorable Anthony W. Hall, Jr. remembers serving on the Houston City Council

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - The Honorable Anthony W. Hall, Jr. talks about chairing the Metropolitan Transit Authority of Harris County

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - The Honorable Anthony W. Hall, Jr. recalls Republican politicians in Texas

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - The Honorable Anthony W. Hall, Jr. talks about mayoral races in Houston, Texas

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - The Honorable Anthony W. Hall, Jr. recalls serving as Houston's city attorney

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - The Honorable Anthony W. Hall, Jr. describes his career in management

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - The Honorable Anthony W. Hall, Jr. recalls his role as chief administrative officer of Houston, Texas

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - The Honorable Anthony W. Hall, Jr. talks about his plans for the future

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - The Honorable Anthony W. Hall, Jr. describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - The Honorable Anthony W. Hall, Jr. reflects upon his life

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - The Honorable Anthony W. Hall, Jr. describes his membership in Sigma Pi Phi Fraternity

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - The Honorable Anthony W. Hall, Jr. talks about his family

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - The Honorable Anthony W. Hall, Jr. reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Slating of The Honorable Anthony W. Hall, Jr.'s interview, session 2

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - The Honorable Anthony W. Hall, Jr. lists his favorites, session 2

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - The Honorable Anthony W. Hall, Jr. describes his stepfather

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - The Honorable Anthony W. Hall, Jr. remembers his relationship with his stepfather

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - The Honorable Anthony W. Hall, Jr. describes his stepfather's family background

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - The Honorable Anthony W. Hall, Jr. describes his mother's family history

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - The Honorable Anthony W. Hall, Jr. recalls his maternal grandparents

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - The Honorable Anthony W. Hall, Jr. describes his maternal family in Cedar Lake, Texas

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - The Honorable Anthony W. Hall, Jr. describes his mother's education in Houston, Texas

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - The Honorable Anthony W. Hall, Jr. remembers the values of his maternal family

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - The Honorable Anthony W. Hall, Jr. describes his father's family background

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - The Honorable Anthony W. Hall, Jr. recalls his father's military career

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - The Honorable Anthony W. Hall, Jr. describes his father's law enforcement career

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - The Honorable Anthony W. Hall, Jr. recalls the history of Houston's police organizations

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - The Honorable Anthony W. Hall, Jr. talks about his childhood personality

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - The Honorable Anthony W. Hall, Jr. remembers living in Angleton, Texas with his mother

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - The Honorable Anthony W. Hall, Jr. recalls his childhood in Brazoria County, Texas

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - The Honorable Anthony W. Hall, Jr. describes the sights, sounds and smells of Brazoria County, Texas

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - The Honorable Anthony W. Hall, Jr. talks about his family farm

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - The Honorable Anthony W. Hall, Jr. recalls institutions in his Houston community

Tape: 8 Story: 6 - The Honorable Anthony W. Hall, Jr. remembers black professionals in Houston, Texas

Tape: 8 Story: 7 - The Honorable Anthony W. Hall, Jr. talks about the Sweatt v. Painter case

Tape: 9 Story: 1 - The Honorable Anthony W. Hall, Jr. remembers Charles Hamilton Houston

Tape: 9 Story: 2 - The Honorable Anthony W. Hall, Jr. talks about his education in Houston, Texas

Tape: 9 Story: 3 - The Honorable Anthony W. Hall, Jr. describes his aspirations for a career in science

Tape: 9 Story: 4 - The Honorable Anthony W. Hall, Jr. talks about black professionals in Houston, Texas

Tape: 9 Story: 5 - The Honorable Anthony W. Hall, Jr. recalls African American politicians in the 1960s

Tape: 9 Story: 6 - The Honorable Anthony W. Hall, Jr. describes Jesse H. Jones

Tape: 9 Story: 7 - The Honorable Anthony W. Hall, Jr. recalls the contributions of Jesse H. Jones

Tape: 10 Story: 1 - The Honorable Anthony W. Hall, Jr. describes his high school activities

Tape: 10 Story: 2 - The Honorable Anthony W. Hall, Jr. recalls Greater Zion Baptist Church

Tape: 10 Story: 3 - The Honorable Anthony W. Hall, Jr. talks about his extracurricular activities in adolescence

Tape: 10 Story: 4 - The Honorable Anthony W. Hall, Jr. remembers Howard University in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 10 Story: 5 - The Honorable Anthony W. Hall, Jr. talks about being the chief administrative officer of Houston

Tape: 10 Story: 6 - The Honorable Anthony W. Hall, Jr. recalls his accomplishments in Houston city government

Tape: 10 Story: 7 - The Honorable Anthony W. Hall, Jr. talks about his charitable work

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$5

DAStory

4$1

DATitle
The Honorable Anthony W. Hall, Jr. talks about chairing the Metropolitan Transit Authority of Harris County
The Honorable Anthony W. Hall, Jr. recalls his role as chief administrative officer of Houston, Texas
Transcript
Tell us about becoming the chairman of the Metropolitan Transit Authority [Metropolitan Transit Authority of Harris County]. This is 1990, right?$$Yes. I was leaving city council [Houston City Council], and, and Kathy Whitmire [Kathryn J. Whitmire] asked me if I would--we were in the middle of--as we continue 'til this day to be debating--the middle of very intense debate about development of the rail system in Houston [Texas]. We have a very unique challenge, in that Houston is almost seven hundred square miles geographically, and has a lower population density than traditional East Coast cities and some West Coast cities, and has made public transportation a continuing challenge for us, but we recognize in 2007 that we, based on the growth projections for the next twenty years, which we will double, that we cannot build highways large enough to accommodate that kind of growth. There would be nothing but highways that we've got to find alternative means to move people around, to move goods around in this community. We have long had a monumental community battle about the institution of rail, and there is a whole debating story in history behind that. I am a big advocate for rail. We ought to have it, we've got to have it if we are to prosper, and if we are to, to help our citizens not spend two, three hours a day in their cars, on the freeways trying to get [to] work, home, and that kind of thing. And that debate sort of crescendoed in 1990. She asked me if I would share the authority because we had a big battle between local developers primarily, and their supporters in [U.S.] Congress. Unfortunately, Tom DeLay was on the transportation committee. He was a senior person, and he prohibited us from getting federal assistance for rail in Houston, as a member of the local delegation, while at the same time approving it for other communities. Seems sort of weird today, but that's what happened. Fortunately, we have had the voters, for now the third time, approved rail and we, I hope, are on our way to beginning to have the first expansion of the first seven mile system that Lee Brown [HistoryMaker Lee P. Brown] built, and I might say was built entirely with local money, and Lee Brown, while mayor, had the first seven miles, so the rail system that you see in the center of downtown that runs out to the Astrodome [NRG Astrodome, Houston, Texas]--a little bit better than seven miles, we have now approved a significant expansion of that now out and through the communities that is supposed to be accomplished over the next fifteen years or so, so--$$Okay.$$But those were the issues; those issues really continue to be debated until this day.$Let me ask you, what haven't I asked you about this job that you can tell me and how do you see this as a fit for you? I guess that's--$$Well, I think this job has been kind of natural. I served as city attorney for six years and I have had--I served in the legislature [Texas Legislature], served on city council [Houston City Council], so I think I come more uniquely qualified than anybody that's ever had it before. I happen to be the first black there that has this job but administration of a city government is something that almost everything I have done in the past has prepared me to do, so I find it exciting. We're doing a lot of new and different things. I have grown and learned in the job because I have been forced to deal with issues that I hadn't spent much time in before, particularly related to finance, and financial-related issues like pension and healthcare benefits and the intricacies of that, that I had never been particularly involved in before, I have had to become, quote, expert in. So, it's been exciting. It's been a good thing.$$Is there any particular project that, that you really would like to complete before your (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Yes. One of the principal initiatives of the White [Bill White] administration is the reclamation of inner--some inner city neighborhoods that have been for--now forty years, fifty years--more or less written off. They were written off because the average tax delinquency of the houses in the community is about nine, ten years tax delinquent, many of them unoccupied, many of them need to be torn down; no, no economic activity in the neighborhoods, obviously, nobody moving in. We have an initiative that we call Houston HOPE that it started out with six neighborhoods--inner city neighborhoods disbursed around the city that meet this criterion I just described. It is our plan and hope, by the end of this administration, to have built five thousand assisted affordable housing units in those neighborhoods, to have completely rebuilt the infrastructure in those neighborhoods. And by affordable, we don't mean poverty housing; we're talking about housing that in the main would be marketed for $130-140,000, but we are offering as much as $30,000 in down payment assistance, we're offering land assemblage concessions to the community development corporations to build those houses. I believe when we finish, and I think we will succeed, that that will be the impetus, because we can see it happening already, to private housing development in those neighborhoods, so that we will be the best example in America of how you reclaim inner cities in an inner city community with inner city communities like Houston [Texas]. That is called Houston HOPE, and I believe that we will show the nation how to do that.

Calvin Coolidge Goode

City council member Calvin Coolidge Goode served eleven consecutive terms (1972 to 1994), a total of twenty-two years, as a representative to the Phoenix, Arizona City Council. Born in rural Depew, Oklahoma in 1927, Goode’s family moved to Arizona when he was ten months old. His family settled in a homestead near Gila Bend, Arizona, where they worked in agricultural fields picking cotton. Goode graduated from Carver High School in 1945, the only school in Arizona built exclusively for African American students. He then obtained his B.A. and M.A. degrees from Arizona State University.

In 1949, Goode returned to Carver High School as an accountant, and later ran a tax accounting business, Calvin Goode & Associates. Goode worked for the Phoenix Union High School District from 1949 to 1979. He was elected as an at large representative to the Arizona City Council in 1972. This victory made Goode the second African American to ever serve on the Phoenix City Council. During his tenure, Goode ably advocated for jobs and job training in the community, improved programs for youth and developed a program to ensure that women and minority-owned small businesses would receive a proportionate share of city business. In 1984, Goode successfully advocated for a district form of city government.

As a Phoenix city councilman, Goode helped broker a compromise that led to a Phoenix ordinance that prohibited workplace discrimination against gays, lesbians and minorities. He was also instrumental in getting the Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. holiday observed in the City of Phoenix, paving the way for the holiday to be observed statewide. Goode also championed a range of programs, from Head Start to downtown renewal projects. To commemorate his years of service to the city, a Phoenix municipal building was named in Goode’s honor.

Now retired, Goode continues to be involved in his community. He served on the Phoenix Elementary School Board for six years. Goode has been involved with Tanner Properties, which manages 393 apartments for seniors and disabled persons for twenty years. Goode remains active with the local Neighborhood Improvement Association, the Booker T. Washington Child Development Center, and the George Washington Carver Museum and Cultural Center as well as other non-profit and governmental programs.

Calvin Goode was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on July 12, 2007.

Accession Number

A2007.205

Sex

Male

Interview Date

7/12/2007

Last Name

Goode

Maker Category
Occupation
Schools

Prescott High School

George Washington Carver High School

Phoenix College

Arizona State University

First Name

Calvin

Birth City, State, Country

Depew

HM ID

GOO06

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Oklahoma

Favorite Vacation Destination

Arizona

Favorite Quote

God Is Good.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Arizona

Birth Date

1/27/1927

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Phoenix

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Sweet Potato Pie, Collard Greens, Beef

Short Description

City council member Calvin Coolidge Goode (1927 - ) was the second African American to ever be on the Phoenix, Arizona City Council. Goode served for a total of eleven terms, a record twenty-two years.

Employment

Phoenix Union High School District

Carver High School

Calvin Goode & Associates

Arizona City Council

Favorite Color

Blue, Brown

Timing Pairs
0,0:6715,160:10112,255:19120,378:19540,384:23572,478:23908,483:30975,588:40800,854:70365,1145:75260,1233:75705,1238:80333,1317:80689,1322:81401,1335:83982,1375:97677,1573:107388,1830:108036,1839:111600,1921:135013,2188:135458,2194:158657,2559:158989,2564:159404,2570:159819,2576:160151,2585:166519,2658:173740,2666:188005,2843:192764,2912:193134,2918:203552,3032:213050,3166$0,0:6078,144:8086,163:14971,250:24210,433:37670,641:47410,784:59772,984:60076,989:62760,1026:63673,1044:65748,1088:77660,1242:78140,1248:83030,1360:88430,1417:104150,1588
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Calvin Coolidge Goode's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Calvin Coolidge Goode lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Calvin Coolidge Goode describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Calvin Coolidge Goode describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Calvin Coolidge Goode remembers his paternal grandparents

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Calvin Coolidge Goode describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Calvin Coolidge Goode lists his siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Calvin Coolidge Goode remembers his community in Gila Bend, Arizona

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Calvin Coolidge Goode describes the sights and smells of his childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Calvin Coolidge Goode recalls the one-room school in Gila Bend, Arizona

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Calvin Coolidge Goode describes his early aspirations

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Calvin Coolidge Goode recalls his plans to attend high school

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Calvin Coolidge Goode remembers segregation in Gila Bend, Arizona

Tape: 1 Story: 14 - Calvin Coolidge Goode remembers moving with his family to Prescott, Arizona

Tape: 1 Story: 15 - Calvin Coolidge Goode recalls being diagnosed with a heart condition

Tape: 1 Story: 16 - Calvin Coolidge Goode remembers George Washington Carver High School in Phoenix, Arizona

Tape: 1 Story: 17 - Calvin Coolidge Goode recalls his undergraduate education

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Calvin Coolidge Goode remembers Arizona State College in Tempe, Arizona

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Calvin Coolidge Goode recalls his work at George Washington Carver High School in Phoenix, Arizona

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Calvin Coolidge Goode recalls the start of school integration in Arizona

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Calvin Coolidge Goode remembers meeting his wife

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Calvin Coolidge Goode describes his role on the school boards of Phoenix, Arizona

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Calvin Coolidge Goode recalls his family's role in school integration in Phoenix, Arizona

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Calvin Coolidge Goode lists his children

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Calvin Coolidge Goode remembers his election to the Phoenix City Council

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Calvin Coolidge Goode describes the response to his election to the Phoenix City Council

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Calvin Coolidge Goode describes his first campaign for the Phoenix City Council

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Calvin Coolidge Goode remembers his experiences on election night in 1972

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Calvin Coolidge Goode remembers securing funds for infrastructure improvements in Phoenix, Arizona

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Calvin Coolidge Goode reflects upon his role on the Phoenix City Council

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Calvin Coolidge Goode recalls his achievements on the Phoenix City Council

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Calvin Coolidge Goode remembers working as an educator and city councilmember

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Calvin Coolidge Goode recalls advocating for a district system of governance

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Calvin Coolidge Goode remembers the establishment of Martin Luther King Jr. Day

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Calvin Coolidge Goode recalls his vice mayoralty of Phoenix, Arizona

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Calvin Coolidge Goode describes his involvement with Head Start

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Calvin Coolidge Goode talks about his approach to local politics

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Calvin Coolidge Goode describes his advocacy for affordable housing

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Calvin Coolidge Goode talks about his opposition to discrimination

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Calvin Coolidge Goode recalls his campaign for mayor of Phoenix, Arizona

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Calvin Coolidge Goode remembers the naming of the Calvin C. Goode Municipal Building in Phoenix, Arizona

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Calvin Coolidge Goode talks about his neighborhood in Phoenix, Arizona

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Calvin Coolidge Goode describes his children

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Calvin Coolidge Goode recalls the creation of the George Washington Carver Museum and Cultural Center in Phoenix, Arizona

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Calvin Coolidge Goode describes his community involvement

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Calvin Coolidge Goode reflects upon his influences

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - Calvin Coolidge Goode describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 4 Story: 12 - Calvin Coolidge Goode describes how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 4 Story: 13 - Calvin Coolidge Goode reflects upon his life

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Calvin Coolidge Goode shares his advice for young people

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Calvin Coolidge Goode remembers his political opponent, James Outlaw

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Calvin Coolidge Goode narrates his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$3

DAStory

8$4

DATitle
Calvin Coolidge Goode remembers his election to the Phoenix City Council
Calvin Coolidge Goode reflects upon his role on the Phoenix City Council
Transcript
So, as we say now in 1970, you're, you're a full grown man, three children and a wife [Georgie Stroud Goode], and you've been working on the school board for a while now. Are your aspirations changing (simultaneous)?$$(Simultaneous) No, I, I went on the school board later on.$$Okay.$$Go back, go 'head. I was working on my master's at that time and got my master's degree in three years, going summer and night and, and I as I look back, I don't know how I did it and at the same time had a full-time job with Phoenix--Phoenix Union [Phoenix Union High School District] and--$$In what year did you earn your master's degree?$$Seventy-two [1972].$$So, it's the early '70s [1970s] between '70 [1970] and '72 [1972], is there anything that's changing in Calvin Goode [HistoryMaker Calvin Coolidge Goode] that makes you maybe wanna do something else with your life now?$$Well, certainly, in sixty--'69 [1969] we have what we call the Charter Government Committee and there was a thought that at one time all of the council members lived in one area and were all white male. So they wanted to--and I do believe in diversity representation of all groups, so they came to me in '69 [1969] and said, "Mr. Goode, we'd like you to run for city council [Phoenix City Council]." Dr. Morrison Warren had run and they'd elect four years and at that time they were saying two two year terms was sufficient. Now I think it was designed, designed to keep a weak council, because it takes a while to learn the ropes so to speak. So, I said, no, I was chairman of the LEAP commission, which is out of the poverty program. And I said, I've accepted the chairmanship of the LEAP commission, Leadership Education for the Advancement of Phoenix [Leveraging Educational Assistance Partnership], and I don't feel like accepting something and then stepping down. So they ran another African American, Carl Stewart [ph.], who was for- and Carl Stewart got defeated by, by Ed Cork [ph.]. And then they came back to me later on and, and said in '71 [1971], "Mr. Goode, okay, two years up we want you to run."$$Who were some of these people Mr. Goode, who were these people that were asking you to do this?$$These were what we call the, the charter group. They came in with the thought of cleaning up Phoenix [Arizona] and so on (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) Were there any names in particular that, that was really adamant about you doing this?$$Well, the Mayor Driggs [John Driggs] is the one who came and asked me about running. But Rosenzweig [Harry Rosenzweig, Sr.] and some other folks were the controlling end for the number of people. So I say, okay. I said--they gave me some funds and also made me a part of the slate. There's a lady by the name of Margaret Hance, she was on the slate as councilperson and Calvin Goode. So there were folks who said, "Mr. Goode, you can't win because you're shy and they said the black population is about 5 percent," and I said, "Well, I believe I can win." So we put together a campaign and their campaign and we won. And I went on the council in '72 [1972] and stayed there for twenty-two years, eleven elections, two year terms.$It's been said that you were called to--I did some research you were called the conscience of the council [Phoenix City Council]. Do you think that you and your, your presence there really made people--the other council members really say, hey, you know what, we need to do the right thing? Do you think that if you had not been there that Phoenix [Arizona] would not be in the condition it is in now?$$Without a doubt. You know, after three months on that council, I went down to a council meeting my stomach felt kind of upset and I said to them, "Excuse me, I'll be back." So I went on down where we were meeting, went on down to the restroom and I felt woozy. And I said to myself, Calvin [HistoryMaker Calvin Coolidge Goode], you better sit down before you fall out. I sat down and the next thing I knew there was a--one of the staff who came down, Glenwood Wilson came down, was bathing my face. I'd passed out. The ambulance came and Georgia [Georgie Stroud Goode] had come down that day, and he said, "They're putting you--your husband in the ambulance to take him to the hospital." And so she got in the ambulance with me and went on over to the hospital, and they said bleeding ulcers. And I got up from there and I said, never again am I gonna let these folks--I was internalizing. I saw things that ought not to be, and I always thought that, you know, you ought to be fair and you ought to be able to look at all of the concerns of the people in the city. So got up from there and, and I never had that again. I learnt--had to learn how to handle that situation.

Reverend Jerry A. Moore, Jr.

Religious leader Jerry Alexander Moore, Jr. was born on June 12, 1918, in Minden, Louisiana, to Mae Dee Moore and Jerry Alexander Moore, Sr. Moore graduated from high school at Webster Parrish Training School in 1936 before receiving his B.A. degree from Morehouse College in 1940. Moore then received his B.D. degree from Howard University in 1943, the same year the NAACP sponsored student sit-ins on Howard University’s campus.

In 1946, Moore became the pastor of the Nineteenth Street Baptist Church in Washington, D.C. In 1957, Moore earned his M.A. degree from Howard University, and one year later became the University’s Baptist chaplain. In 1969, Moore temporarily left the ministry to become a city council member in Washington, D.C., where he served until 1984. During Moore’s term, he served as “Member-At-Large” for the council seat alongside District of Columbia Commissioner Walter E. Washington, Vice Chairman Sterling Tucker and Chairman Gilbert Hahn, Jr.

Moore co-founded the Conference of Minority Transportation Officials (COMTO) in 1971. This organization was created to provide a forum for senior level minority professionals in the transportation industry. After Moore left the Washington, D.C. City Council in 1984, he became the chaplain for the D.C. Detention Facility, an inmate detention center that offers programs in HIV/AIDS prevention, education and intervention services, individual and group counseling services, religious services, among other life skills development and religious skills.

In 1985, Moore became the executive secretary for the Home Mission Board at the National Baptist Convention (NBC) until 1997. During his time at NBC, he was nominated to be the United States Ambassador to Lesotho, a position previously held by Robert M. Smalley. In 1994, Moore ended his fifty year tenure as pastor of the Nineteenth Street Baptist Church.

Moore received numerous civic awards throughout his career including the Minority Transportation Officials’ Award, the Washington Area Contractors Award, the Capital City Rep Club Lincoln Award, and the NAACP service award.

Moore passed away on December 19, 2017 at age 99.

Accession Number

A2007.171

Sex

Male

Interview Date

4/27/2007

Last Name

Moore

Middle Name

A.

Schools

Webster Parrish Training School

Howard University School of Divinity

Morehouse College

Dillard University

La Salle University

First Name

Jerry

Birth City, State, Country

Minden

HM ID

MOO12

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Louisiana

Favorite Vacation Destination

A City

Favorite Quote

Trust In The Lord With All Your Heart And Lean Not On Your Own Understanding; In All Your Ways Submit To Him, And He Will Make Your Paths Straight.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Interview Description
Birth Date

6/12/1918

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Cabbage

Death Date

12/19/2017

Short Description

Association chief executive, city council member, and pastor Reverend Jerry A. Moore, Jr. (1918 - 2017 ) was the former pastor of the Nineteenth Street Baptist Church in Washington, D.C., and a former city council member for the City of Washington, D.C.

Employment

Nineteenth Street Baptist Church

Howard University School of Divinity

D.C. City Council

Council of the District of Columbia

Washington Baptist Seminary

Baptist World Alliance

Favorite Color

None

Timing Pairs
0,0:249,14:2905,61:8440,95:11672,130:12680,142:28080,286:28850,297:30530,330:31370,342:58168,564:59104,576:73987,753:75301,784:90094,923:100500,1058:125135,1429:138618,1572:139098,1578:140930,1633$0,0:2162,70:12180,202:13710,269:33120,535:50389,755:57584,888:62372,957:64424,1132:85676,1357:87880,1369:90770,1385
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Reverend Jerry A. Moore, Jr.'s interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Reverend Jerry A. Moore, Jr. lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Reverend Jerry A. Moore, Jr. describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Reverend Jerry A. Moore, Jr. describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Reverend Jerry A. Moore, Jr. describes his parents' personalities

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Reverend Jerry A. Moore, Jr. recalls his father's position as a school supervisor

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Reverend Jerry A. Moore, Jr. remembers his grandparents

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Reverend Jerry A. Moore, Jr. recalls his father's influence in the community

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Reverend Jerry A. Moore, Jr. describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Reverend Jerry A. Moore, Jr. recalls his early education

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Reverend Jerry A. Moore, Jr. lists his siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Reverend Jerry A. Moore, Jr. recalls segregation in Minden, Louisiana

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Reverend Jerry A. Moore, Jr. recalls the discrimination in Minden, Louisiana

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Reverend Jerry A. Moore, Jr. describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Reverend Jerry A. Moore, Jr. recalls the influences on his education

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Reverend Jerry A. Moore, Jr. describes his early personality

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Reverend Jerry A. Moore, Jr. recalls his church activities

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Reverend Jerry A. Moore, Jr. recalls his childhood friends

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Reverend Jerry A. Moore, Jr. remembers a tornado in Minden, Louisiana

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Reverend Jerry A. Moore, Jr. recalls learning about black history

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Reverend Jerry A. Moore, Jr. remembers his extracurricular activities

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Reverend Jerry A. Moore, Jr. describes Dillard University in New Orleans, Louisiana

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Reverend Jerry A. Moore, Jr. recalls his decision to attend Morehouse College in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Reverend Jerry A. Moore, Jr. describes his studies at Morehouse College in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Reverend Jerry A. Moore, Jr. recalls his professors at Morehouse College

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Reverend Jerry A. Moore, Jr. remembers Charles Dubois Hubert

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Reverend Jerry A. Moore, Jr. recalls his decision not to attend the Julliard School of Music

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Reverend Jerry A. Moore, Jr. remembers Benjamin Mays' guidance

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Reverend Jerry A. Moore, Jr. recalls his musical activities at Morehouse College

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Reverend Jerry A. Moore, Jr. remembers the Howard University School of Divinity in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Reverend Jerry A. Moore, Jr. talks about color bias at Howard University in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Reverend Jerry A. Moore, Jr. recalls his mentors at the Howard University School of Divinity

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Reverend Jerry A. Moore, Jr. recalls his employment while at Howard University

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Reverend Jerry A. Moore, Jr. recalls becoming a student minister

Tape: 3 Story: 12 - Reverend Jerry A. Moore, Jr. remembers attending chapel as a college student

Tape: 3 Story: 13 - Reverend Jerry A. Moore, Jr. recalls his activities at Howard University

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Reverend Jerry A. Moore, Jr. recalls World War II

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Reverend Jerry A. Moore, Jr. recalls working for the United Service Organizations

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Reverend Jerry A. Moore, Jr. describes his decision to return to Washington, D.C.

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Reverend Jerry A. Moore, Jr. recalls meeting his wife

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Reverend Jerry A. Moore, Jr. remembers Walter Henderson Brooks

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Reverend Jerry A. Moore, Jr. recalls the programs at the Nineteenth Street Baptist Church in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Reverend Jerry A. Moore, Jr. describes the gentrification of Washington, D.C.

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Reverend Jerry A. Moore, Jr. recalls the congregation of Nineteenth Street Baptist Church

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Reverend Jerry A. Moore, Jr. talks about his family

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Reverend Jerry A. Moore, Jr. remembers the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - Reverend Jerry A. Moore, Jr. describes the black community in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Jerry A. Moore, Jr. recalls segregation in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Jerry A. Moore, Jr. recalls serving as Howard University's Baptist chaplain

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Jerry A. Moore, Jr. recalls the March on Washington

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Jerry A. Moore, Jr. describes his early voting initiatives

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Jerry A. Moore, Jr. remembers teaching at Washington Baptist Seminary in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Jerry A. Moore, Jr. recalls Walter E. Washington's appointment as mayor-commissioner of Washington, D.C.

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Jerry A. Moore, Jr. recalls the assassination of Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Jerry A. Moore, Jr. recalls the start of integration in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Jerry A. Moore, Jr. recalls his decision to join the Republican Party

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Jerry A. Moore, Jr. recalls serving on the Washington, D.C. city council

Tape: 5 Story: 11 - Jerry A. Moore, Jr. describes the role of non-voting representatives in the U.S. Congress

Tape: 5 Story: 12 - Jerry A. Moore, Jr. recalls founding the Conference of Minority Transportation Officials, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 13 - Jerry A. Moore, Jr. recalls founding the Conference of Minority Transportation Officials, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Reverend Jerry A. Moore, Jr. describes the District of Columbia Home Rule Act

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Reverend Jerry A. Moore, Jr. talks about the representatives of Washington, D.C.

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Reverend Jerry A. Moore, Jr. recalls his appointment to the Washington, D.C. city council

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Reverend Jerry A. Moore, Jr. recalls moving the Nineteenth Street Baptist Church

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Reverend Jerry A. Moore, Jr. describes his work with the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Reverend Jerry A. Moore, Jr. recalls his position at the National Baptist Convention, USA, Inc.

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Reverend Jerry A. Moore, Jr. recalls his nomination as an ambassador to Lesotho, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Reverend Jerry A. Moore, Jr. recalls his nomination as an ambassador to Lesotho, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Reverend Jerry A. Moore, Jr. remembers retiring from the Nineteenth Street Baptist Church.

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - Reverend Jerry A. Moore, Jr. describes his philosophy of life

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Reverend Jerry A. Moore, Jr. recalls his Ph.D. degree from La Salle University in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Reverend Jerry A. Moore, Jr. describes his life after retirement

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Reverend Jerry A. Moore, Jr. talks about the District of Columbia House Voting Rights Act of 2007

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Reverend Jerry A. Moore, Jr. talks about the Baptist World Alliance

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Reverend Jerry A. Moore, Jr. reflects upon his life

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Reverend Jerry A. Moore, Jr. reflects upon his career

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Reverend Jerry A. Moore, Jr. describes his plans for the future

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Reverend Jerry A. More, Jr. describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 7 Story: 9 - Reverend Jerry A. More, Jr. describes how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 7 Story: 10 - Reverend Jerry A. More, Jr. shares a message to future generations

Tape: 7 Story: 11 - Reverend Jerry A. More, Jr. reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 7 Story: 12 - Reverend Jerry A. Moore, Jr. narrates his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

5$3

DAStory

10$5

DATitle
Jerry A. Moore, Jr. recalls serving on the Washington, D.C. city council
Reverend Jerry A. Moore, Jr. remembers Benjamin Mays' guidance
Transcript
Explain to me what, you were a member-at-large, explain what that entailed.$$Under the charter that [U.S.] Congress issued to the District of Columbia [Washington, D.C.], I might say, the charter giving the District limited home rule, two seats were reserved for minority parties. The Republican Party is a minority party in the District of Columbia. So, I ran to be a councilman-at-large. That's what it means. All over the city instead of a ward. By that time, I conceived politically. I had established enough identity and performed enough service in the District of Columbia, be known by a good percentage of the people everywhere. And, so, I ran on that platform that I wanted to be a council member-at-large. And, I won.$$Did you get much backlash from, since this is a Democratic city basically, from black who were Democrats?$$I got wonderful cooperation. Many of them changed their party to vote for me. That is in the primary. And, then they switched back so they could vote in their party in the final.$$What was some of the committees that you worked on as a council member?$$I was assigned to the committee on public works [Committee on Public Works and Transportation]. That's--and, I reminded there for the entire period of my council-matic activity. Public works included all the streets, all the alleys in the District of Columbia. It included the air, the water, the garbage, sewerage, everything that affects the environment I had that under by charge. Now, I was appointed. Centered also included transportation, I was appointed to the Metro board [Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority].$So, when you came (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) No--you see, I was living in the president's house, Dr. Hubert [Charles Dubois Hubert] was acting president. He lived in the acting president's house which was on campus [of Morehouse College, Atlanta, Georgia]. The president [Samuel Howard Archer] had died [sic. resigned], and that house was vacant. And, they put me in there as a scholarship to watch the house and I lived there. The board of trustees called a new president, Dr. Benjamin Elijah Mays [Benjamin Mays]. And, he came to look at the house and I happened to be in the house when he came in there. And, he asked me, "What was I going to do?" When he ascertained that I was a college graduate. And, I told him that, I was not sure. That I thought the Lord had called me to preach and I wanted to go to a seminary. I didn't know one to go to and I was just sitting there trying to figure it out. And, he said, "What if I offer you a scholarship to come to school of religion at Howard University [Howard University School of Divinity, Washington, D.C.]?" I didn't even know there was a school of religion. That was the only and the best offer I had. So, I took him up on it. These rest is history.$$How long after you graduated did you, did it take you to get to Howard? Was that right away when you, after you met--?$$That was that fall.$$That fall, okay.

The Honorable Marvin S. Arrington, Sr.

Marvin S. Arrington, Sr. was born February 10, 1941 in Atlanta, Georgia to George Robert and Maggie Andrews Arrington. After graduating from Henry McNeal Turner High School in 1959, he entered Clark Atlanta University on a football scholarship and earned his B.A. degree in 1963. After a year at Howard University School of Law, Arrington transferred to Emory University School of Law and earned his J.D. degree in 1967.

In 1969, he and Maynard Jackson were elected to the Atlanta Board of Aldermen, a precursor to Atlanta’s City Council. Four years later, Jackson would defeat incumbent Mayor Sam Massell and become the first African American to be elected mayor of a large southern city. In 1980, Arrington would be elected president of the City Council and would serve in that capacity until he stepped down in 1997 to unsuccessfully run for mayor of Atlanta.

During his service on the City Council, Arrington introduced legislation to support federal prohibitions against housing discrimination and he ensured aggressive enforcement of state and federal housing laws designated to stabilize transitional neighborhoods. Arrington spearheaded Atlanta’s efforts to include minority-owned banks as equal partners with other participating banks. He worked with Georgia Senator Leroy Johnson to pave the way for Atlanta to host the return of Muhammed Ali to the ring after his four-year ban from boxing for draft avoidance. Arrington appointed the first woman to chair the city council’s powerful finance committee and he championed the retention and proper funding of Zoo Atlanta. He initiated measures to require that all city council and standing committee meetings be recorded and kept on file by the city clerk. Arrington used the buildup for the 1996 Atlanta Olympics to convert run down public housing projects to upgraded housing. He coordinated the funding for erection of the statute of Hank Aaron, which stands at the entrance of Turner Field.

A senior partner in the Arrington and Hollowell law firm, he was appointed, in 2002, as a Fulton County Superior Court Judge by then - governor, Roy Barnes.

Arrington serves on the board of trustees of Clark Atlanta University and Emory University Law School and he has been awarded an honorary doctorate from Clark Atlanta University. He is a member of the National Bar Association; American Bar Association; State Bar of Georgia; Lawyers Club, Gate City Bar Association Hall of Fame and Kiwanis International. A member of Big Bethel African Methodist Episcopalian Church, Arrington is the father of two adult children who are also lawyers.

Arrington was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on March 18, 2006.

Accession Number

A2006.041

Sex

Male

Interview Date

3/18/2006 |and| 2/25/2008

Last Name

Arrington

Maker Category
Middle Name

S.

Organizations
Schools

Henry McNeal Turner High School

A.F. Herndon Elementary School

Clark Atlanta University

Emory University School of Law

First Name

Marvin

Birth City, State, Country

Atlanta

HM ID

ARR01

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Georgia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Anywhere

Favorite Quote

The Best Day Of My Life.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Interview Description
Birth Date

2/10/1941

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Atlanta

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Seafood, Steak, Gumbo

Short Description

Superior court judge and city council member The Honorable Marvin S. Arrington, Sr. (1941 - ) is a senior partner in the Arrington and Hollowell Law Firm, and a judge in the Fulton County Superior Court.

Employment

Arrington and Rubin

Board of Aldermen, Atlanta City Council

Kleiner, Herman, DeVille and Simmons

Emory University School of Law

Favorite Color

Brown

Timing Pairs
0,0:1330,19:1986,80:2396,91:3052,100:4118,118:5184,157:16020,314:17448,375:20955,451:38054,633:52781,782:55336,813:55606,819:56686,846:57496,864:61866,927:62254,932:64490,964$0,0:1552,47:2813,62:8320,147:24680,351:25005,357:39850,543:48950,657:51522,669:56005,723:76600,1041:93076,1246:106626,1392:108146,1413:111648,1461:113690,1476:114090,1563:122849,1661:125350,1702:128650,1727:150144,2208:151596,2241:153506,2247:154850,2262:164980,2334
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of The Honorable Marvin S. Arrington, Sr.'s interview, session 1

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - The Honorable Marvin S. Arrington, Sr. lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - The Honorable Marvin S. Arrington, Sr. recalls his mother's background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - The Honorable Marvin S. Arrington, Sr. describes his maternal grandparents

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - The Honorable Marvin S. Arrington, Sr. describes the origin of his family name

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - The Honorable Marvin S. Arrington, Sr. describes his mother

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - The Honorable Marvin S. Arrington, Sr. describes his father's side of the family

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - The Honorable Marvin S. Arrington, Sr. describes his maternal family reunions

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - The Honorable Marvin S. Arrington, Sr. recalls police brutality in the South

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - The Honorable Marvin S. Arrington, Sr. describes his earliest childhood memories

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - The Honorable Marvin S. Arrington, Sr. recalls black athletes from H.M. Turner High School

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - The Honorable Marvin S. Arrington, Sr. recalls his time at H.M. Turner High School

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - The Honorable Marvin S. Arrington, Sr. describes the importance of education for his family

Tape: 1 Story: 14 - The Honorable Marvin S. Arrington, Sr. reflects upon his childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - The Honorable Marvin S. Arrington, Sr. describes his childhood holidays

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - The Honorable Marvin S. Arrington, Sr. recalls learning how to cook

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - The Honorable Marvin S. Arrington, Sr. describes his siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - The Honorable Marvin S. Arrington, Sr. recalls the Atlanta neighborhoods where he grew up

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - The Honorable Marvin S. Arrington, Sr. recalls his H.M. Turner High School teammates

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - The Honorable Marvin S. Arrington, Sr. recalls instances of discrimination in Atlanta

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - The Honorable Marvin S. Arrington, Sr. recalls his teachers and classmates at Henry McNeal Turner High School

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - The Honorable Marvin S. Arrington, Sr. talks about Henry McNeal Turner and Vernon Johns

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - The Honorable Marvin S. Arrington, Sr. describes his childhood personality

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - The Honorable Marvin S. Arrington, Sr. recalls his decision to attend law school

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - The Honorable Marvin S. Arrington, Sr. describes the impact of the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - The Honorable Marvin S. Arrington, Sr. recalls Atlanta's civil rights leaders

Tape: 2 Story: 13 - The Honorable Marvin S. Arrington, Sr. describes his attitude towards church

Tape: 2 Story: 14 - The Honorable Marvin S. Arrington, Sr. remembers notable African American athletes

Tape: 2 Story: 15 - The Honorable Marvin S. Arrington, Sr. recalls his Henry McNeal Turner High School classmates

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - The Honorable Marvin S. Arrington, Sr. recalls the first anniversary of the March on Washington

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - The Honorable Marvin S. Arrington, Sr. recalls transferring to Emory University School of Law

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - The Honorable Marvin S. Arrington, Sr. recalls his experience as a black student at Emory University

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - The Honorable Marvin S. Arrington, Sr. describes Atlanta's 1960s music scene

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - The Honorable Marvin S. Arrington, Sr. recalls Atlanta's Auburn Avenue

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - The Honorable Marvin S. Arrington, Sr. recalls Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr. and student leaders

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - The Honorable Marvin S. Arrington, Sr. recalls Atlanta's civil rights leadership

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - The Honorable Marvin S. Arrington, Sr. describes the decline of Atlanta's Auburn Avenue

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - The Honorable Marvin S. Arrington, Sr. talks about Atlanta's Butler Street YMCA

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - The Honorable Marvin S. Arrington, Sr. recalls John Fitzgerald Kennedy and Lyndon Baines Johnson

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - The Honorable Marvin S. Arrington, Sr. remembers Malcolm X and Adam Clayton Powell, Jr.

Tape: 3 Story: 12 - The Honorable Marvin S. Arrington, Sr. recalls the deaths of civil rights leaders

Tape: 3 Story: 13 - The Honorable Marvin S. Arrington, Sr. reflects upon civil rights legislation

Tape: 3 Story: 14 - The Honorable Marvin S. Arrington, Sr. recalls joining the staff of Kleiner, Herman, Deville and Simmons

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - The Honorable Marvin S. Arrington, Sr. recalls personalities from Howard University School of Law

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - The Honorable Marvin S. Arrington, Sr. remembers the support of Ben Brown

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - The Honorable Marvin S. Arrington, Sr. talks about Charles Hamilton Houston

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - The Honorable Marvin S. Arrington, Sr. recalls his work for the War on Poverty

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - The Honorable Marvin S. Arrington, Sr. describes his law partner, S. Richard Rubin

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - The Honorable Marvin S. Arrington, Sr. recalls Senator Leroy R. Johnson's lessons

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - The Honorable Marvin S. Arrington, Sr. recalls running for Atlanta's Board of Aldermen

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - The Honorable Marvin S. Arrington, Sr. recalls his suit against the State Bar of Georgia

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - The Honorable Marvin S. Arrington, Sr. describes his legislative proposals

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - The Honorable Marvin S. Arrington, Sr. recalls the Board of Aldermen's racial composition

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - The Honorable Marvin S. Arrington, Sr. recalls co-sponsoring boxing legislation

Tape: 4 Story: 12 - The Honorable Marvin S. Arrington, Sr. recalls the significance of Maynard Jackson's election

Tape: 4 Story: 13 - The Honorable Marvin S. Arrington, Sr. reflects upon Georgia's African American leadership

Tape: 4 Story: 14 - The Honorable Marvin S. Arrington, Sr. reflects upon the country's black leadership

Tape: 4 Story: 15 - The Honorable Marvin S. Arrington, Sr. remembers Benjamin Mays and Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr.

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$2

DAStory

8$10

DATitle
The Honorable Marvin S. Arrington, Sr. recalls his suit against the State Bar of Georgia
The Honorable Marvin S. Arrington, Sr. recalls his decision to attend law school
Transcript
Was it before your election [to the Board of Aldermen, Atlanta City Council] or after your election that you sued the Georgia bar [State Bar of Georgia]?$$I sued them in 1970 along with the ACLU [American Civil Liberties Union].$$And for what purpose was that?$$All the blacks who had applied and some was gradate from Harvard [Harvard Law School, Cambridge, Massachusetts], Yale [Yale Law School, New Haven, Connecticut], the best law schools in the country. And all the black applicants were--did not pass the bar exam. I upset about it, I was appalled. I just did not believe that could happen. And we sued 'em and--under the Title VII, you know, the voters right act [Voting Rights Act of 1965] it did apply. But the next time the bar exam was given, the numbers increased substantially. And it was the right thing to do because as the late Vernon Johns always said, if you see a good fight, get in it. And it was a good fight for the right thing, yeah.$Do you recall what--whether you had dreams and aspirations as early as high school [Henry McNeal Turner High School, Atlanta, Georgia]?$$I used to watch (laughter) 'Amos 'n' Andy,' and Calhoun [Algonquin J. Calhoun] was a lawyer. And it's something about that role that impacted me, speaking for others. And I had a buddy of mine who was a superior court judge out in Sacramento, California, had this distinguished picture on his wall when you walk in his house. And I said, "Jimmy [ph.], who is that?" He says, "Man, that's Calhoun." He said I've wrote and got on the Internet, Google, and found it, but that was the only black lawyer I knew anything about. And then when the Civil Rights Movement came about in the early '60s [1960s] and I was a young student at Clark Atlanta University [Clark College; Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta, Georgia] and got a chance to see, from my perspective, the greatest civil rights student and demonstrator was a boy by the name of Lonnie King [Lonnie C. King, Jr.]. It wasn't much better than that. Danny Mitchell [Daniel B. Mitchell], Ben Brown, [HistoryMaker] Marian Wright Edelman, Carolyn Long Banks, Annie Ruth Borders, so many others who literally put their life--their lives on the line so that we to--could succeed. And then I got a chance to see one of the finest lawyers in America's history, Donald L. Hollowell, who had graduated from Lane College in Jackson, Tennessee. English major, articulate, bright. And I would cut class--classes to go down and sit in the courtroom just to see Mr. Hollowell take care of his business. And that's when I knew that I wanted to go to law school.$$Amen. And that was right here in Atlanta [Georgia] that you were able to do that (simultaneous)?$$(Simultaneous) Yes, at AU Center [Atlanta University Center Consortium, Atlanta, Georgia]. But it all started at North Carolina A and T [Agricultural and Technical College of North Carolina; North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, Greensboro, North Carolina], sitting down at the Woolworth [F. W. Woolworth Company] counter, lunch counter trying to get some food. And it spread it throughout the South, where our students basically said we're not going to be denied our basic constitutional rights, you know. And I wanted to go on and do well. Do it to do good.

Anita J. Ponder

Anita J. Ponder is president of the Macon City Council and director of education at the Tubman African American Museum in Macon, Georgia, the largest museum of its kind in the Southeast. Prior to serving on the city council, Ponder served as judge of the Municipal Court in her hometown of Fort Valley, Georgia. Ponder was born April 16, 1961, the oldest of three children of Clifford and Margie Ponder of Fort Valley, Georgia.

Ponder received her B.S. degree in journalism/communications from Florida A&M University in Tallahassee, Florida, and her J.D. degree from South Texas College of Law in Houston, Texas. She served as editor of the Law Review during her second year of law school. Ponder formed a lucrative partnership with a fellow classmate and practiced criminal and personal injury law immediately following law school. She resigned from the firm and returned to her hometown to fulfill her life long ambition to work in the public sector. Ponder became judge of the Municipal Court in Fort Valley, a position that she held for four and a half years. She volunteered at the Tubman African American Museum in Macon, Georgia, while it was in its infancy. She helped the museum to expand its exhibits nationally and internationally, and became director of its educational programs.

Ponder was appointed to the Macon City Council in 1998. In her role as president of the council, she has aided in the revitalization of the city through the neighborhood redevelopment plan. She continues to play a major role in the construction of the multi-million dollar facility that will house the Tubman Museum. Annually, in December, Ponder and friends host the Holiday Feast for All that feeds community members during the holiday season. Ponder is the editor of a recently published book: Standing on Their Shoulders: A Celebration of the Wisdom of African American Women by Dr. Catherine Meeks. She raises Arabian horses, collects antique cars, and organizes antique car shows.

Ponder serves on the boards of the Macon State College Foundation, Macon Chamber of Commerce, Georgia Coalition of Black Women, and Newtown Macon. She is a member of Delta Sigma Theta Sorority and Rotary International.

Accession Number

A2006.002

Sex

Female

Interview Date

1/19/2006

Last Name

Ponder

Schools

Peach County High School

Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University

Houston College of Law

Fort Valley Middle School

Hunt Elementary School

First Name

Anita

Birth City, State, Country

Fort Valley

HM ID

PON01

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Georgia

Favorite Vacation Destination

San Francisco, California

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Interview Description
Birth Date

4/16/1961

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Macon

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Steak

Short Description

Museum executive and city council member Anita J. Ponder (1961 - ) was the president of the Macon City Council and director of education at the Tubman African American Museum in Macon, Georgia.

Employment

Ponder and Jordan

City of Fort Valley, Georgia

City Of Macon, Georgia

Tubman Museum

Favorite Color

Black

Timing Pairs
0,0:1098,26:2318,110:2745,119:3599,147:3904,153:7476,202:13840,325:19094,489:24348,589:33520,652:34080,661:34400,666:37200,776:39680,840:42640,883:42960,889:43280,894:43760,901:44400,910:61479,1190:61834,1196:65526,1251:65810,1258:66946,1306:67301,1312:67656,1318:77383,1491:77809,1499:79868,1544:80294,1551:80578,1556:80862,1561:81146,1566:90635,1643:93404,1703:93972,1709:95179,1731:96031,1747:96883,1765:97806,1782:99084,1814:108740,2029:115188,2044:118230,2090:119244,2105:119712,2112:120024,2117:122052,2172:125250,2258:125640,2265:130632,2353:130944,2358:131724,2375:133830,2456:143062,2521:149526,2688:150998,2728:151830,2745:153622,2800:154454,2824:162676,2931:162972,2938:168966,3048:171334,3082:182479,3227:183699,3276:185830,3308$0,0:4550,134:5082,142:11770,253:12150,259:12606,266:13366,279:13746,285:14202,293:14506,298:15266,310:16254,327:18154,371:18686,380:19978,406:20586,415:23550,479:32116,636:32906,651:33459,659:35987,705:44124,862:44835,875:58613,1008:59051,1018:59343,1023:61241,1055:61606,1061:72702,1287:73067,1293:73578,1302:81818,1426:87038,1484:88430,1509:88778,1514:93880,1581:94384,1588:95056,1597:95560,1604:97744,1629:104212,1743:105304,1770:115408,1983:122508,2130:123076,2140:128046,2238:138399,2338:140600,2383:142730,2431:143298,2442:143582,2447:143866,2452:144363,2471:145073,2505:145641,2514:150895,2595:151321,2602:154587,2661:162056,2722:164216,2764:166232,2801:167528,2839:167816,2844:168104,2849:168680,2873:175664,3024:177320,3058:178904,3099:181280,3133:188702,3211:189198,3220:191182,3274:191802,3301:196190,3373
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Anita J. Ponder's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Anita J. Ponder lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Anita J. Ponder describes her maternal family's farm

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Anita J. Ponder describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Anita J. Ponder describes her mother's childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Anita J. Ponder remembers her paternal grandmother

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Anita J. Ponder remembers her paternal great-aunt's cake business

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Anita J. Ponder describes her paternal grandmother's neighborhood

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Anita J. Ponder recalls her maternal grandmother's farm

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Anita J. Ponder describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Anita J. Ponder describes her family's tobacco farm

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Anita J. Ponder describes her maternal family's businesses

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Anita J. Ponder describes her family's social standing in Lakeland, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Anita J. Ponder remembers the death of her cousin

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Anita J. Ponder describes how her cousin's death impacted her career

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Anita J. Ponder describes her grandparents' racial background

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Anita J. Ponder describes her father

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Anita J. Ponder describes her paternal great-grandmother

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Anita J. Ponder recalls spending time with her paternal grandmother

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Anita J. Ponder describes how her parents met

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Anita J. Ponder describes her earliest childhood memory

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Anita J. Ponder remembers playing and learning at Fort Valley State College

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Anita J. Ponder describes her family life

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Anita J. Ponder lists her siblings

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Anita J. Ponder recalls her childhood neighborhood in Fort Valley, Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Anita J. Ponder recalls playing games with her friends in Fort Valley, Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Anita J. Ponder remembers playing baseball in Fort Valley, Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Anita J. Ponder describes the Ponderosa neighborhood in Fort Valley, Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Anita J. Ponder remembers learning the history of racism in the United States

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Anita J. Ponder recalls influential teachers in the Peach County school system

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Anita J. Ponder describes her childhood personality

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Anita J. Ponder describes her childhood ambition

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Anita J. Ponder remembers attending Trinity Baptist Church

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Anita J. Ponder describes her childhood friendships

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Anita J. Ponder recalls playing tennis and basketball

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Anita J. Ponder remembers travelling to play tennis

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Anita J. Ponder describes her high school tennis and basketball coach

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Anita J. Ponder describes her childhood influences

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Anita J. Ponder describes attending Peach County High School in Fort Valley, Georgia

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Anita J. Ponder remembers playing the drums

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Anita J. Ponder recalls the 1975 tornado in Fort Valley, Georgia

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Anita J. Ponder describes the effect of basketball on her career

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Anita J. Ponder describes tourist attractions in Peach County, Georgia

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Anita J. Ponder recalls deciding to attend Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Anita J. Ponder describes attending South Texas College of Law in Houston, Texas

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Anita J. Ponder describes her journalism major

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Anita J. Ponder remembers encountering racism at South Texas College of Law in Houston, Texas

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Anita J. Ponder remembers her early career as a criminal defense lawyer

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Anita J. Ponder recalls her experiences on the South Texas Law Review

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Anita J. Ponder describes her partnership at Ponder and Jordan

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Anita J. Ponder remembers deciding to leave Houston, Texas

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Anita J. Ponder remembers volunteering at the Tubman African American Museum

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Anita J. Ponder recalls being a judge in Fort Valley, Georgia

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Anita J. Ponder remembers resigning as judge and running for the Macon City Council

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Anita J. Ponder describes her housing initiatives on the Macon City Council

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Anita J. Ponder describes revitalizing a neighborhood in Macon, Georgia

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Anita J. Ponder describes her work as president of Macon City Council

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Anita J. Ponder describes the museum district in Macon, Georgia

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Anita J. Ponder describes the musical history of Macon, Georgia

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Anita J. Ponder describes serving on boards as Macon City Council president

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Anita J. Ponder describes the Tubman African American Museum in Macon, Georgia

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Anita J. Ponder describes exhibits and fundraising at the Tubman Museum in Macon, Georgia

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Anita J. Ponder describes the work of Richard Keil

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Anita J. Ponder talks about the significance of history

Tape: 7 Story: 9 - Anita J. Ponder reflects upon her life

Tape: 7 Story: 10 - Anita J. Ponder gives advice to aspiring young professionals

Tape: 7 Story: 11 - Anita J. Ponder describes her hopes for the African American community

Tape: 7 Story: 12 - Anita J. Ponder describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 7 Story: 13 - Anita J. Ponder reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Anita J. Ponder narrates her photographs, pt. 1

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Anita J. Ponder narrates her photographs, pt. 2

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Anita J. Ponder narrates her photographs, pt. 3

DASession

1$1

DATape

6$7

DAStory

1$7

DATitle
Anita J. Ponder recalls her experiences on the South Texas Law Review
Anita J. Ponder describes the work of Richard Keil
Transcript
Now while you were in law school [South Texas College of Law Houston, Houston, Texas], are there any memories that you have that you would like to share with us?$$You know, actually, law school is what people visualize it to be, and I mean it's pretty much all I did. I mean, you know, they have--it was the, a period in my life, unlike college [Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University, Tallahassee, Florida], where I really didn't have a life other than, you know, other than law school. And then, for some reason, it, it--something within me looking at, you know, the makeup of that school, wanted to really excel. And, you know, you know, college, high school [Peach County High School, Fort Valley, Georgia], and all that kind of stuff--I didn't really try, you know. It, you know, it just all worked out grade-wise. In law school, because I had this feeling of, you know, some people thinking that we were inferior (laughter), whether they thought it or not, I felt that, that's what they thought. It was important to me to, to, you know, to, to try to excel in law school. And so, it, you know, law school is hard. And so, it, it took a lot, especially, you know, your first year to--it, it took a lot of work and study to--to do that. Made it on law review [South Texas Law Review], first black ever to--you know. Law review in law school is a huge deal, regardless of what school it is. That's why even when you see your TV shows, you know, that still goes on your resume, that: was on law review, you know. I didn't really know what that meant, but I knew they thought it was a big deal. And it came to being that writing was important because, you know, Law Review was all about writing. And so, you know, you know, things, you know, turn out the way they did. And I had put such a focus on writing, and that kind, and that kind of thing. It was good enough to get on, on law review, and later became one of the editors--$$Okay.$$--of, of law review, which was historic in of it, you know, in of itself. And I think at least in that arena, you know, I had professors who really just look- they looked at the body of work, for the body of work and, you know, what you could do. And they, you know, didn't, didn't really see race I felt, you know--I was beginning to feel anyway. And then, I kind of got an easiness to know that, okay, just because I know that's what he feels--that particular professor, 'cause I noticed that he feel- he feels that I'm inferior. I shouldn't blame the school for that, you know. And so, it kind of helped me getting accepted. The law review kind of helped me get back balance--that, you know, all people are not--you know I came to law school, thinking all people are not a certain kind of way--look at them individually. I got there for a minute, and started grouping everybody together, like we so often do, got accepted on law review, and that was kind of like a crosswords, crossroads for me, in that it, it reminded me that, okay, don't let me get this one mixed up with this one, and that one mixed with that one, you know. And so, in terms of that whole thing, got back on, you know, back on track. And, you know, finished, and started making my first paycheck 'cause you remember, I've been in school all my life by that time.$Tell us something about how the museum [Tubman African American Museum; Tubman Museum, Macon, Georgia] got started?$$Well, it, it was founded back in 1981 by a white Catholic priest by the name of Richard Keil who had been, you know, real active in the Civil Rights Movement and other places, like Alabama and Mississippi, and some of your other southern states. And he became a priest here at one of the Catholic churches. And as he looked around Macon [Georgia], he saw, you know, while there were, the Museum of Arts and Sciences [Macon, Georgia], and a lot of things going on in Macon, there was no real place to hear or tell the stories of, of African Americans. And so, he decided--I want to put together this--at that time, he called it a cultural center, and had a hard time getting the support, and the loans to get a building to do so. And so, you know, he had just, you know, a few willing friends to, to join him in starting the center. Finally, he found a warehouse that you know, he could afford to just outright buy, and, and, and the funny thing is it's a warehouse where the inventory at one time was guarded by dogs. I mean, you know, so you had--I mean, it took a lot to get it up to what it needed to be. He purchased it, you know, had a vision to get it to a place that was even, you know, made for people--it took from '81 [1981] to almost '85 [1985] for them to turn it into the--even the center that they wanted. And, you know, you've gone from there, from, you know, three to five thousand visitors to sixty-five thousand visitors and, you know, a thirty thousand dollar budget to a $1.5 million budget. And so, you know, his vision is alive and well; and and, and he's the kind of leader that he founded the museum, knew it wasn't his expertise, and say, you know, this is something that I just wanted, you know--no ownership in it, no whatever, and turned it over to the, you know, the people. And it's governed by a board and, you know, and the staff of the museum. He has no--other than being an active participant in the programs that come, and come in to visit us, and bringing us little notes and candies, and all that kind of stuff. That's all he does. You know, he knew, you know, for it to grow, he needed to let it go. And then--and he did. Yeah.$$Okay. And what did you say one of his current projects is, and how that he has the African American museum up and running?$$Right, right now, he's been working real close with the Hispanic community. The Hispanic community is just like it is all over the country--has really, the population is really growing in, in Macon and Bibb County [Georgia]. And as a result of the, you know, the ability--the lack of ability to communicate, you know, the focus, Spanish speaking, and that kind of thing, he sees where there's a real need to, to make sure that they're not taking advantage of, and that kind of thing. And so, he's formed a group that he's really turned over to the Hispanic community, but just helped them get it started where, you know they have resources to--you know, all the kinds of things that helped them make sure that, you know, they're not getting taking advantage of in their housing, and language barriers, and making sure they can get to school, and that they're needing that, that kind of thing. And so, that's kind of been one of his focuses now.

The Honorable David S. Cunningham, Jr.

California politician and consultant, David Surmier Cunningham, Jr., was born June 24, 1935, in Chicago, Illinois, to Eula Mae Lawson Cunningham and C.M.E. Rev. David S. Cunningham, Sr. At age eight, Cunningham accompanied his parents to Decatur, Illinois, where he attended E.A. Gastman Elementary School and enjoyed musical instruction at Millikin University. In 1952, Cunningham graduated from Sumner High School in St. Louis, Missouri, as a Danforth Award winner. Cunningham earned his A.A. degree in 1954 from Stowe Teachers College, while serving in the United States Naval Air Reserve. Joining the United States Air Force in 1954, Cunningham served as a cartographer, interacting with the U-2 until 1960. Cunningham attended the historic 1960 Democratic National Convention in Los Angeles, California, before enrolling at the University of California at Riverside. Cunningham graduated with a B.A. degree in economics and political science in 1962. In 1963, Cunningham, on a public affairs internship from the Coro Foundation, served as administrative aide to California assemblyman, Charles Warren. In 1973, Cunningham received his M.A. degree in urban studies from Occidental College.

In 1964, Cunningham, moved to Lagos, Nigeria where he became the West Africa regional manager for the DuKane Corporation. In 1967, Cunningham joined the Hughes Aircraft Company as manager of community relations; there, he co-managed the Hughes Active Citizenship Program. Cunningham then went on to found Cunningham, Short, Berryman & Associates in 1968, where he provided management consultation to government and small businesses.

In 1973, Cunningham took Mayor Tom Bradley’s place on the Los Angeles City Council, representing the Tenth District. As a councilman, Cunningham authored legislation creating the Mayor’s Office of Small Business Assistance. Cunningham also pioneered the use of government grants to restore public buildings; created a system of community senior citizens centers; and served as chairman of the Grants, Housing, and Community Development Committee. Cunningham served as state chairman of the California Delegation to the Democratic National Committee in 1976. In 1986, Cunningham joined Cranston/Prescott Investment Bankers as senior vice president of public finance. Cunningham served as senior vice president of Community Housing Equity Corporation from 1988 to 1991, while forming Dave Cunningham and Associates, a public affairs consultant firm. Cunningham serves on a number of boards and received both the Southern California Fair Housing and Alex Haley Heritage Awards in 1984.

Cunningham passed away on November 16, 2017 at age 82.

Accession Number

A2005.231

Sex

Male

Interview Date

10/5/2005

Last Name

Cunningham

Maker Category
Middle Name

S.

Occupation
Organizations
Schools

Charles H. Sumner High School

E.A. Gastman Elementary School

University of California, Riverside

Occidental College

East Side School

First Name

David

Birth City, State, Country

Chicago

HM ID

CUN01

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Illinois

Favorite Vacation Destination

None

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

California

Interview Description
Birth Date

6/24/1935

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Los Angeles

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Peanut Butter

Death Date

11/16/2017

Short Description

City council member The Honorable David S. Cunningham, Jr. (1935 - 2017 ) represented the Tenth District as a Los Angeles City Councilman, as well as serving as state chairman of the California Delegation to the Democratic National Committee in 1976. Later in his career, Cunningham formed Dave Cunningham and Associates, a public affairs consultant firm.

Employment

Los Angeles City Council

Dukane Corporation

David Cunningham and Associates

Cunningham, Short, Berryman and Associates

Hughes Aircraft Corp.

Favorite Color

Purple

Timing Pairs
0,0:480,8:780,14:1680,47:3507,62:7047,115:10988,151:11404,159:11820,164:12756,176:13484,185:17070,206:20418,266:21028,282:21821,298:22309,307:24982,327:25766,335:27780,344:29964,382:30552,390:34400,427:34760,432:37630,440:38734,452:40298,472:42414,497:44162,531:46278,561:53233,641:61495,797:61819,802:62467,813:67250,831:67710,836:77037,952:77730,969:78038,974:78885,996:79578,1016:82134,1032:88974,1116:89469,1122:95260,1194:101650,1301:112010,1366:117438,1502:118450,1519:128570,1667:134271,1710:135887,1744:145452,1850:145914,1857:146376,1865:146992,1874:147993,1890:154313,1961:185420,2225:187340,2343:188300,2352:188780,2358:190604,2386:200760,2580:206540,2724:220648,2841:226758,2932:233435,2977:251270,3255:253480,3287:253990,3294:260930,3353$0,0:241,11:2474,33:2936,40:18900,204:19540,229:20180,238:26340,350:31460,468:35763,476:42286,617:42950,627:49530,708:50609,725:50941,730:51688,741:52020,746:54344,767:54925,776:56668,797:57913,821:58743,834:68182,935:69064,958:83172,1138:90522,1222:92308,1251:92778,1257:99221,1342:99858,1351:101496,1384:103953,1424:104499,1433:105045,1443:105591,1451:106319,1462:112218,1512:113008,1524:119565,1694:128030,1783:128576,1792:130580,1819:133572,1869:139112,1966:139630,1974:152384,2152:160147,2261:178114,2572:178402,2577:193120,2835:197874,2888:198254,2894:206330,3022:206786,3029:212136,3110:213462,3131:220950,3281:238134,3537:238504,3544:239096,3555:239836,3569:242160,3578:244464,3626:245832,3656:246336,3665:248352,3701:254256,3843:254760,3856:261162,3905:261510,3913:261800,3922:262902,3944:263424,3959:270544,4085:271888,4103:272368,4110:273616,4131:284618,4259:288752,4335:291120,4341:291822,4350:292758,4366:294552,4396:295020,4403:296112,4430:297906,4464:303697,4524:304264,4534:305776,4579:307540,4604:307918,4611:308611,4623:310010,4628
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of The Honorable David S. Cunningham, Jr.'s interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - The Honorable David S. Cunningham, Jr. lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - The Honorable David S. Cunningham, Jr. describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - The Honorable David S. Cunningham, Jr. recalls a childhood trip to Dallas, Texas

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - The Honorable David S. Cunningham, Jr. describes his mother's move to Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - The Honorable David S. Cunningham, Jr. describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - The Honorable David S. Cunningham, Jr. describes how his parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - The Honorable David S. Cunningham, Jr. describes his mother's personality and how he resembles her

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - The Honorable David S. Cunningham, Jr. describes his father's ministry

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - The Honorable David S. Cunningham, Jr. remembers his grade school

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - The Honorable David S. Cunningham, Jr. remembers the sights and sounds of his childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - The Honorable David S. Cunningham, Jr. recalls his childhood activities

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - The Honorable David S. Cunningham, Jr. remembers his friendships in grade school

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - The Honorable David S. Cunningham, Jr. recalls segregated schools in St. Louis, Missouri

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - The Honorable David S. Cunningham, Jr. remembers seeing Jackie Robinson play in St. Louis

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - The Honorable David S. Cunningham, Jr. remembers his sports heroes

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - The Honorable David S. Cunningham, Jr. describes his high school jobs

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - The Honorable David S. Cunningham, Jr. remembers playing basketball in college

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - The Honorable David S. Cunningham, Jr. describes joining the U.S. Air Force

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - The Honorable David S. Cunningham, Jr. describes his time in college and in the U.S. Air Force

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - The Honorable David S. Cunningham, Jr. remembers a U.S. Air Force mission in China

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - The Honorable David S. Cunningham, Jr. recalls discrimination in the U.S. Air Force

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - The Honorable David S. Cunningham, Jr. remembers his time at the University of California, Riverside

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - The Honorable David S. Cunningham, Jr. describes working in politics in Riverside and Los Angeles

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - The Honorable David S. Cunningham, Jr. describes working in West Africa

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - The Honorable David S. Cunningham, Jr. describes living in West Africa

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - The Honorable David S. Cunningham, Jr. remembers living in Nigeria

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - The Honorable David S. Cunningham, Jr. recalls living in Liberia and Ghana

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - The Honorable David S. Cunningham, Jr. remembers Nigeria's 1966 coup

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - The Honorable David S. Cunningham, Jr. describe his life in Lagos, Nigeria

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - The Honorable David S. Cunningham, Jr. describe his political work with Hughes Aircraft Company

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - The Honorable David S. Cunningham, Jr. remembers running for Los Angeles City Council

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - The Honorable David S. Cunningham, Jr. describes his approach to political issues

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - The Honorable David S. Cunningham, Jr. remembers working with Los Angeles Police Chief Edward M. Davis

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - The Honorable David S. Cunningham, Jr. describes Mayor Tom Bradley

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - The Honorable David S. Cunningham, Jr. remembers working with Mayor Tom Bradley

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - The Honorable David S. Cunningham, Jr. recalls his time on the Los Angeles City Council

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - The Honorable David S. Cunningham, Jr. describes his consulting firm

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - The Honorable David S. Cunningham, Jr. describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - The Honorable David S. Cunningham, Jr. reflects upon his life

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - The Honorable David S. Cunningham, Jr. describes his children

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - The Honorable David S. Cunningham, Jr. reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - The Honorable David S. Cunningham, Jr. narrates his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$5

DAStory

3$1

DATitle
The Honorable David S. Cunningham, Jr. recalls living in Liberia and Ghana
The Honorable David S. Cunningham, Jr. remembers working with Los Angeles Police Chief Edward M. Davis
Transcript
I had a great deal of success in selling their equipment. Of course, the first--one of the things I learned after about eight or nine months was that most of that part of the world is committed to British products. Now you know, that's another cultural thing, you know. Although people want the American lifestyle there are certain products that they find acceptable if it has a British label on it. And one of the ways we were able to increase my success was that we were able to negotiate a franchise or at least a licensing agreement with the British so that Dukane's [Dukane Corporation] equipment could be on the British list. And that way you know when governments got ready to buy it, they felt comfortable because you know, here's a British--it's a British sanctioned product. So we were able to do that which led to some success. I--Liberia I found to be a very interesting place. As you know Liberia is going through a lot of turmoil right now. It's just come through some and still going through some. But what used to blow my mind was on the, on the ocean [Atlantic Ocean] front was this eight story palace built for the president. I mean Tubman [William Tubman] had one heck of a palacious place.$$An eight story--?$$Eight story, I mean it stood out. They also had, they had a beautiful Masonic temple there made out of black onyx, yes sir. Right next to it was the hotel I used to stay in, the Ducor Palace [Ducor Palace Hotel, Monrovia, Liberia]. It was up a hill. And the people you know, people were fairly easy to get to know because many of them had American background. But--and I put the language lab that was in the University of Liberia [Monrovia, Liberia] and I asked my brother [Ronald Cunningham] a few months ago, next time he went to Liberia would he see if the equipment was still there. But he says it's pretty hard to identify anything in the country anymore because it has really just deteriorated you know, very difficult. I think--I remember, I was in, I was in Ghana at--I was staying at the main hotel in Ghana. Of course since then they've changed. They now have what's called the Black Star. And they had Vegas style gambling across town at what they used to call at that time the Black Star Hotel [Bolgatanga, Ghana]. And I went over there one night, they had this, they had the all peoples' third world convention. You know people came from all over the third world. And lot of folks were in there gambling and I used like to play the roulette wheel. And so one night I wound up next, I wound--this night I wound up next to this big mountain of a guy, he was wearing his Kente cloth with his robe you know, one shoulder out. And being an observant, I noticed that he would put down a chip and if he was any--no matter where his chip was, they would pay. You know they would, they would pay, you know. They'd call out the number but then they, he would tap and they would pay him. So three times I put my chip next to him and got paid. The guy came over and tapped me on the shoulder and he says, "We're not paying you next time. Matter of fact we want you to leave (laughter). You, you can't do what he does." Turned out this gentleman was the secretary of housing for Ghana. So in those days they let secretaries pretty much have the run of what they needed, you know (laughter).$I knew the police when I--I knew police were probably following elected officials around. I--when I first went on I had--see, I went on a special election so I was the new boy on the block. And I'd see Davis [Edward M. Davis], chief of police out all the time. He said, "We need to get together." Well you know I was meeting all department heads because the City of Los Angeles [California] is a very interesting city at that time. The mayor, we had a weak mayor system, strong council [Los Angeles City Council]. The council was actually the administrative body in the City of Los Angeles. Departments had to report to city councilmen. Now of course Tom Bradley was shrewd and strong enough and had enough of us who were allies who were able to give him the power he needed to accomplish what he wanted to do in terms of his mission and his, his issue and his program. But--so I was meeting with all the department heads and they would come to the office. Well Davis kept saying, "We got to meet. We got to meet." I said okay. So I had inherited the secretary who used to work for the police department so I told her, "Call Chief Davis, make an appointment for him to come over and meet." And so I get this schedule one day and she--it shows that I'm supposed to go over to Parker Center [Los Angeles, California] and meet the chief of police. I told her, oh no. The first meeting with all department heads will be, will meet with me here in my office. You know after all I do know the idea of command and control, right, having been a management consultant and then had run, had been manager in private business.$$And that's important those kind of dynamics make a lot of--$$That dynamic is extremely important. And so I told her and I so I said, "You call Davis back and tell him that I can't make that appointment. He has to come over here. The first appointment will be here in my office." So she gets--calls me back and says, "Well, Chief says he can't get here. He says he's just too busy and he doesn't see how he could adjust his calendar to do that." I said, "Get him on the line." I said, "Chief I highly respect how busy you are." I said, "And that's just fine." I said, "And I can understand if you can't get here to meet with me and for us to sit down and to talk about your department." I said, "I'll tell you what, we don't have to rush. If it's three or four budgets from now that's okay." He said, "Hold on just a minute. Hold on just a minute. Let me see if I can get a hold of my secretary and clear my calendar." So he came back and he said, "I think I can clear my calendar." I said, "Well hold on, let your girl talk with mine 'cause I don't know what my calendar looks like." So anyway, we got it--he came over. I put the chair there in front of my desk and I said, "Sit down Chief." So, told him who I was. I said, "Before we begin this meeting I just want to set some ground rules." I said, "I think it's important for you to understand that I've heard that police officers do follow elected officials." I said, "I'm going to assume that you're following me for--to protect me because so far as I'm concerned, I don't have anything to hide. But if you want to provide me with that protection surreptitiously, that's just fine. You have my permission." I said, "Secondly, at this point in my life I'm single." I said, "I certainly enjoy the pleasure of women," and I said, "so I'm not going to any motel or anything. You know where I live. If you peep in my window to take a picture, I only have one request, before you release those photos I need to see a copy of the negative so I can tell you which ones show me in my best light because if you're going to release anything on me, I want to look good in it." "Oh no, no, no, no, no. We--," I said, "Okay, now we can sit down and you tell me about your department." But you have to make it clear to people that you--when you're in that position that you understand what your function and your role is. And he and I never had a problem 'cause he understood very clearly if we did have a problem, it would be reflected in my approach to the budget. And one of the things that's extremely important, if you have budgetary--if you have a budgetary responsibility, you'd be surprised what you could do with some of these hardcore bureaucrats and particularly when it comes to public service, people who are in public service and who are in law enforcement. Once you understand what you have in terms of budgetary control, we can change some of the attitudes that some of these, some police departments have.