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Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick

Physician and college president Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick was born on June 17, 1971, in Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago. After graduating from high school at the age of fourteen, he took pre-college courses at St. Mary’s College in Port of Spain. Frederick enrolled in Howard University in 1988, at the age of sixteen. In 1994, he earned his dual B.S. degree and M.D. degree from Howard University and went on to complete his residency in general surgery at Howard University Hospital.

In 2000, Frederick was appointed as a clinical instructor in surgery at the Baylor College of Medicine in the Ben Taub General Hospital in Houston, Texas. He fulfilled his post-doctoral research and surgical oncological fellowships at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston in 2003. That same year, Frederick was named an assistant professor in the department of surgery of the University of Connecticut Health Center, where he became director of surgical oncology and associate director of the Neag Comprehensive Cancer Center in 2005. In 2006, he returned to Howard University as the associate professor in the department of surgery at Howard University Hospital. In 2012, he was named provost of Howard University and became president of Howard University in 2014.

Frederick has authored numerous research publications and editorials, as well as served as a member of a number of professional and scientific societies. These organizations include the American Association for Cancer Research, the American Society of Clinical Oncology, and the National Medical Association. He has also been a member of the Society of Black Academic Surgeons, the Society of Surgical Oncology, and served as president of the board of the Texas Gulf Sickle Cell Association from 2002 to 2003.

Frederick’s work has won multiple awards and honors, including recognition from the U.S. Congress for his contributions in addressing health disparities among African Americans and historically underrepresented groups in 2014. He was named by the Washington Post as a “Super Doctor” in 2011, was in Ebony Magazine’s 2010 ‘Power 100’ list, and was on Black Enterprise Magazine’s list of America’s Best Physicians.

Wayne A.I. Frederick was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on January 30, 2017.

Accession Number

A2017.012

Sex

Male

Interview Date

1/30/2017

Last Name

Frederick

Middle Name

A. I.

Organizations
Schools

Diego Martin Government Primary School

St. Mary's College

Howard University College of Medicine

Howard University School of Business

First Name

Wayne

Birth City, State, Country

Port of Spain

HM ID

FRE09

Favorite Season

Summer

Favorite Vacation Destination

Montego Bay, Jamaica

Favorite Quote

Man's Greatest Imperfection Is His Passive Acceptance Of His Imperfection.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

6/17/1971

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

Trinidad & Tobago

Favorite Food

Doubles

Short Description

Physician and college president Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick (1971 - ) served as the provost of Howard University from 2012 to 2014, and then became Howard University’s seventeenth president.

Employment

Howard University Hospital

University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center

University of Connecticut Health Center

Howard University Cancer Center

Howard University College of Medicine

Howard University

Favorite Color

Blue

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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick talks about his mother's education

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick describes his mother's community in Trinidad

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick talks about his father's death

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick talks about how his parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick describes his parents' personalities

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick lists his siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick talks about sickle cell anemia

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick describes the research on sickle cell anemia

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick recalls his diagnosis with sickle cell anemia

Tape: 1 Story: 14 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick recalls his treatment for sickle cell anemia

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick talks about the culture of Trinidad

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick recalls his early education

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick remembers his early influences

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick talks about his love of reading

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick talks about his interest in soccer

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick describes his musical interests

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick talks about Eric Williams

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick talks about the history of St. Mary's College in Port of Spain, Trinidad

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick describes his education at St. Mary's College

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick remembers applying to Howard University

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick remembers moving to Washington, D.C.

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick recalls his first impressions of Howard University

Tape: 2 Story: 13 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick describes his influences at Howard University

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick recalls entering the Howard University College of Medicine

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick talks about his assimilation to the African American community, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick talks about his assimilation to the African American community, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick talks about Dr. LaSalle D. Leffall, Jr.

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Dr. Wayne A.I. Frederick remembers Clive Callender

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Dr. Wayne A.I. Frederick recalls Dr. LaSalle DLeffall, Jr.'s position in the American College of Surgeons

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Dr. Wayne A.I. Frederick recalls his focus during medical school

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Dr. Wayne A.I. Frederick recalls his fellowship at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, Texas

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Dr. Wayne A.I. Frederick describes the impact of his sickle cell anemia on his career

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Dr. Wayne A.I. Frederick talks about working as a surgeon and university president

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Dr. Wayne A.I. Frederick describes the challenges of surgery

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick describes his experiences at University of Connecticut Health Center

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick recalls his decision to return to Howard University Hospital

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick describes his role as deputy director of the Howard University Cancer Center

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick talks about the future of cancer treatment

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick talks about the influence of positive thinking on recovery

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick describes his administrative duties at Howard University Hospital

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick recalls obtaining an M.B.A. degree

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick talks about the culture of Howard University

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick describes the administrative challenges at Howard University

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick talks about his challenges as president of Howard University

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick recalls his administrative positions at the Howard University College of Medicine

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick recalls the resignation of Howard University President Sidney A. Ribeau

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Dr. Wayne A.I. Frederick describes his initiatives at Howard University

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Dr. Wayne A.I. Frederick talks about the Graduation and Retention Access to Continued Excellence program

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Dr. Wayne A.I. Frederick describes his mention in the Congressional Record

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Dr. Wayne A.I. Frederick shares his plans for the future of Howard University

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Dr. Wayne A.I. Frederick describes alumni engagement at Howard University

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Dr. Wayne A.I. Frederick describes the federal support for Howard University

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Dr. Wayne A.I. Frederick talks about the importance of historically black universities

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Dr. Wayne A.I. Frederick reflects upon his life and legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 11 - Dr. Wayne A.I. Frederick describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 5 Story: 12 - Dr. Wayne A.I. Frederick talks about STEM education

Tape: 5 Story: 13 - Dr. Wayne A.I. Frederick reflects upon the legacy of Howard University

Tape: 5 Story: 14 - Dr. Wayne A.I. Frederick reflects upon his family

Tape: 5 Story: 15 - Dr. Wayne A.I. Frederick describes how he would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

1$3

DAStory

10$5

DATitle
Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick describes his earliest childhood memory
Dr. Wayne A.I. Frederick remembers Clive Callender
Transcript
Now, do you have an earliest childhood memory?$$Me, yeah, I do. You know, at the age of three I remember lis-overhearing my [maternal] grandmother [Christine Roach (ph.)] talking to some neighbors about my having sickle cell [sickle cell anemia]. And I, I didn't quite understand what it was, et cetera. I was riding on a tricycle. At the time I remember stopping her to ask her to explain to me what it was, and she attempted to do so. I rode off and came back and said to her I was gonna become a doctor to find a cure for sickle cell. She, she repeats that story a lot, and that's, but, and that's probably my earliest childhood memory.$$That seems like an indication of focus (laughter), purpose.$$Yeah, from a pretty early age. She, you know, my grandmother and I were very close. She was a huge motivating factor in terms of she never made me feel that I would not be able to accomplish the things that I set, set out to do. And so, you know, and that, anytime I would repeat that, you know, she would just encourage me and act as if of course that's gonna happen. And so it was a, a strong motivator growing up.$The other person who has been a huge influence on not just my career but my life as well, is [HistoryMaker] Clive Callender. And I think, I, I think I have been attracted to both of these men because of what happened with my father [Alix Frederick] so early in life. I think I've always been attracted to strong men who lead with a certain level of integrity and have embraced not just the surgeon in me or the career aspects of what I do, but they've been concerned about my personal life. And Dr. Callender is an example of that. He, he became the chair of surgery [at Howard University College of Medicine, Washington, D.C.] after Dr. Leffall [HistoryMaker Dr. LaSalle D. Leffall, Jr.] became the president of the American College of Surgeons. When I was graduating from the surgical program, he gave me the Chairman's Award [Chairman's Award of Excellence] as the chief of--as the best chief that graduated that year. It was a very humbling honor at that time, 'cause I remember sitting in those seats as a junior resident watching, you know, who the chief resident of the year was every year and thinking to myself, wow, you know, I, I--it's not something I could even think I could aspire to be. What was critical about his involvement is that when I went to MD Anderson [University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas], he tried to get me to come back here. I had just met my wife [Simone Frederick], and I couldn't take any chance. They took forever to make me an offer. And I was so apprehensive about the whole thing that I took a job at the University of Connecticut [University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, Connecticut] because they were taking so long. And I remember him calling me in April to then make me an offer. I had to move in July. I had already accepted MD Anderson's offer--I mean UConn's offer. And I remember telling him that I wasn't gonna come, that I would go to UConn, and he was so devastated he stopped talking to me (laughter). It was--$$Who, Dr. Callender, right, the--$$Yeah--$$--Dr. Callender?$$--that, this is Dr. Callender. And you know, obviously I went to University of Connecticut, and two years later I found myself back at Howard [Howard University Hospital, Washington, D.C.]. He got to recruit me again and sealed the deal. And I remember when I came back here, one day I walked into his office and I said you know, "A lot of things are going well, and I'm pretty happy. But I do have this aspect of my life around my spirituality that concerns me." And I, and I remember telling him it's not a church thing. I, I was an altar boy growing up in, when I was in high school [St. Mary's College, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago]. So from the ages of ten to sixteen I was an altar boy. I went to all Catholic high school. I was an Anglican. And so it wasn't so much that aspect, but I felt like it was a deeper personal journey that I needed. And so you know--$$You were a practicing, practicing Anglican?$$Yeah, I was practicing. I, I, I wouldn't say--$$So did you, you go to--$$I wouldn't say--$$--church as a--$$--very active. I did, but not, not very often. I wouldn't say very often at all. And he came to me one day, and his solution was every morning, I will send you a text with a piece of scripture in it, and you know, it'll just be random. And you can take a look at it. And, and so we have done that for as long as I can remember. Every single morning he does it, up to this morning. And I send back a note that, that simply says, "Thank you." And that has been very helpful because that has spurred other conversations with us, you know, about questions that I might have about decisions I need to make, personal and career wise in particular. And so I'm very appreciative for that. And I, I've kept all of the, the texts interestingly enough. But that's the type of mentor that he has been to me as well.

Ronald A. Crutcher

Academic administrator and cellist Ronald A. Crutcher was born on February 27, 1947 in Cincinnati, Ohio to Andrew and Burdella Crutcher. Crutcher graduated from Woodward High School in 1965, and went on to attend Miami University of Ohio, where he received his B.M. degree in 1969. He earned his M.M.A. degree from the Yale School of Music in 1972. Crutcher received a Fulbright Fellowship in 1972 to study in West Germany until 1977. In 1979, he became the first cellist to receive a D.M.A. degree from the Yale University School of Music.

Crutcher debuted at Carnegie Hall in 1985. He also performed around the world with a number of groups, including the Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra, the Springfield Symphony Orchestra, the Greensboro Symphony Orchestra, the Klemperer Trio, and the Chanticleer String Quartet. In addition to his music career, Crutcher worked as an educator and school administrator. Crutcher was head of the string program at Wittenberg University School of Music from 1977 to 1979. He was then hired as an assistant professor of Music at The University of North Carolina at Greensboro, and was promoted to coordinator of the string area of their School of Music in 1984. In 1989, Crutcher became the associate vice chancellor for academic affairs. In 1990, he joined the Conservatory at The Cleveland Institute of Music as a vice president for academic affairs and dean. He became the director of the Butler School of Music at the University of Texas – Austin in 1994. In 1999, Crutcher was hired as the provost and executive vice president for academic affairs at his alma mater, Miami University of Ohio. In 2004, he was hired as president and professor of music at Wheaton College. In 2016, Crutcher became the first African American president of the University of Richmond.

Crutcher co-founded Liberal Education and America’s Promise (LEAP) within the Association of American Colleges and Universities, where he also served on the board. He also served on numerous community and corporate boards including the board of the American Council on Education, The Fulbright Association, and multiple boards for symphonies and music associations. Crutcher has received various awards and honors for his work in higher education and music including honorary doctorates from Muhlenberg College, Colgate University, and Wheaton College. Crutcher has also received the Presidential Medal of Honor from the University of Cordoba in Spain, The Cultural Excellence Award from The Cleveland Music School Settlement, and a Certificate of Merit from the Yale School of Music Alumni Association.

Crutcher and his wife, Betty Neal Crutcher, have one daughter, Sara.

Ronald A. Crutcher was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on December 6, 2016.

Accession Number

A2016.099

Sex

Male

Interview Date

12/6/2016

Last Name

Crutcher

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Andrew

Schools

Miami University

Yale University

University of Bonn

Frankfurt State Academy

Woodward Career Technical High School

First Name

Ronald

Birth City, State, Country

Cincinnati

HM ID

CRU03

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Ohio

Favorite Vacation Destination

Marthas Vineyard

Favorite Quote

I've been terrified all of my life but thats never stopped me.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Virginia

Birth Date

2/27/1947

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Richmond

Country

United States

Favorite Food

All food

Short Description

Academic administrator and cellist Ronald A. Crutcher (1947 – ) was the first cellist to receive a D.M.A. degree from the Yale University School of Music. He also served as president of Wheaton College before becoming the first African American president of the University of Richmond.

Employment

University of Richmond

Wheaton College (MA)

Miami University of Ohio

University of Texas at Austin

The Cleveland Inst. of Music

University of North Carolina, Greensboro

The University of North Carolina at Greensboro

Wittenberg University (Germany)

The Bonn School of Music (Germany)

Favorite Color

Blue

Wayne Riley

Dr. Wayne Joseph Riley, President and CEO of Meharry Medical College was born on May 3, 1959 in New Orleans, Louisiana to Jacqueline Cerf Riley and Dr. Emile Edward Riley. His late father, who grew up with Andrew Young, Dr. Walter Young and Ellis Marsalis spoke of his days at Meharry Medical College. Raised in San Francisco, Buffalo and New Orleans, Riley attended San Gabriel School, Arch Angel Elementary School and St. Francis Cabrini Elementary School. In 1977, Riley graduated from Brother Martin High School in New Orleans as the top student and a member of the National Honor Society. He also was an active member of Youth for (Ernest “Dutch”) Morial for mayor. At Yale University, Riley, an officer in the Black Student Alliance, marched in Washington against South African apartheid in 1979. He graduated in 1981 with his B.S. degree in medical anthropology.

Riley was hired by Mayor Dutch Morial as part of the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA). By 1986, Riley, at age 26, was elevated to deputy mayor of New Orleans, while taking pre-med courses at Xavier University. In 1991, Riley enrolled in Morehouse School of Medicine. There, under the leadership of Dr. Hugh Glouster and Dr. Louis Sullivan, he served twice as class president and earned his M.D. degree in 1993. Riley completed his residency training in internal medicine at Baylor College of Medicine in 1996. He also holds a M.P.H. degree in Health Systems Management from the Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, and was awarded an M.B.A. from Rice University’s Jesse H. Jones School of Management in 2002.

Riley was named vice president and vice dean for health affairs and governmental relations for Baylor College of Medicine. There, Riley was instrumental in the development of Baylor’s Community Economic Development program, the M.D./J.D. joint degree program with the University of Houston Law Center and serves on the faculty of the Rice’s Jones Graduate School of Management. He was the first African American corporate officer in Baylor’s one hundred plus year history. In 2004, Riley was named host of Baylor’s TV Healthline, which is distributed to more than 80 television markets. In 2005, Riley was elected to the American College of Physicians’ Board of Governors as Governor-elect for the Texas Southern region of the ACP (American College of Physicians). In 2006, Riley was named the tenth President and CEO of Meharry Medical College, his father’s alma mater and the nation’s largest private, historically black institution dedicated to educating healthcare professionals. As president, he manages an alliance with Vanderbilt University Medical Center and the funding of Nashville General Hospital. Riley, the recipient of many honors, received the 2006, National Association for Equal Opportunity in Higher Education Distinguished Alumnus Award.

Riley is married to Dr. Charlene M. Dewey, and they have two children.

Riley was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on March 16, 2007.

Accession Number

A2007.092

Sex

Male

Interview Date

3/16/2007

Last Name

Riley

Maker Category
Occupation
Organizations
Schools

Brother Martin High School

St. Gabriel the Archangel School

Yale University

St. Frances Cabrini Xavier School

Morehouse School of Medicine

Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine

First Name

Wayne

Birth City, State, Country

New Orleans

HM ID

RIL01

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Louisiana

Favorite Vacation Destination

U.S. Virgin Islands

Favorite Quote

One Should Always Try To Live Their Life And Try To Avoid Saying I Wish I Woulda, Shoulda.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Tennessee

Birth Date

5/3/1959

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Nashville

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Mexican Food

Short Description

College president Wayne Riley (1959 - ) was the president and CEO of Meharry Medical College.

Employment

New Orleans City Hall

Baylor College of Medicine

Meharry Medical College

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Wayne Riley's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Wayne Riley lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Wayne Riley describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Wayne Riley describes his mother's upbringing

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Wayne Riley describes his paternal grandparents

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Wayne Riley describes his father's education

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Wayne Riley talks about his father's athletic career

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Wayne Riley describes his father's experience at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Wayne Riley describes his father's medical education

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Wayne Riley talks about his parents' marriage

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Wayne Riley talks about color discrimination in New Orleans, Louisiana

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Wayne Riley lists his siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Wayne Riley describes the community of New Orleans, Louisiana

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Wayne Riley describes how he takes after his parents

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Wayne Riley describes his earliest childhood memories, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Wayne Riley remembers his family's return to New Orleans, Louisiana

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Wayne Riley remembers his childhood in New Orleans, Louisiana

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Wayne Riley remembers Mardi Gras festivals in New Orleans, Louisiana

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Wayne Riley remembers his early activities

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Wayne Riley describes his early musical interests

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Wayne Riley remembers the music community of New Orleans, Louisiana

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Wayne Riley recalls his early interest in science and medicine

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Wayne Riley remembers Brother Martin High School in New Orleans, Louisiana

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Wayne Riley recalls his decision to attend Yale University

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Wayne Riley remembers Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Wayne Riley recalls joining the staff of New Orleans Mayor Ernest Morial

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Wayne Riley recalls his work for Ernest Morial's reelection campaign

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Wayne Riley recalls becoming Ernest Morial's public liaison assistant

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Wayne Riley remembers meeting African American civil rights leaders

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Wayne Riley recalls serving as the deputy mayor of New Orleans, Louisiana

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Wayne Riley reflects upon his time in Ernest Morial's administration

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Wayne Riley remembers the death of Ernest Morial

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Wayne Riley remembers Morehouse School of Medicine in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Wayne Riley describes the founding of Morehouse School of Medicine

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Wayne Riley recalls his career at Baylor College of Medicine in Houston, Texas

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Wayne Riley reflects upon his appointment to the senior staff of Baylor College of Medicine

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Wayne Riley recalls his work for Baylor College of Medicine in Houston, Texas

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Wayne Riley talks about his marriage

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Wayne Riley remembers the forewarning of Hurricane Katrina

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Wayne Riley talks about the flood control system in New Orleans, Louisiana

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Wayne Riley recalls the impact of Hurricane Katrina on his family

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Wayne Riley describes the impact of Hurricane Katrina on the City of New Orleans

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Wayne Riley recalls the presidential search at Meharry Medical College

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Wayne Riley recalls his decision to interview for the Meharry Medical College presidency

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Wayne Riley recalls his presidential appointment at Meharry Medical College

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Wayne Riley describes the history of Meharry Medical College in Nashville, Tennessee

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Wayne Riley talks about the mission of Meharry Medical College

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Wayne Riley talks about his presidency of Meharry Medical College

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Wayne Riley describes his hopes for Meharry Medical College

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Wayne Riley describes the research conducted at Meharry Medical College

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Wayne Riley describes the funding and accreditation of Meharry Medical College

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Wayne Riley describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Wayne Riley reflects upon his life

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Wayne Riley reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - Wayne Riley talks about his family

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Wayne Riley narrates his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$5

DAStory

1$9

DATitle
Wayne Riley remembers meeting African American civil rights leaders
Wayne Riley recalls his presidential appointment at Meharry Medical College
Transcript
(Simultaneous) Yeah, I was just recounting some of the people I met as I traveled around the country with Mayor Morial [Ernest Morial], you know, just a number of, of the civil rights giants and, and, and major black lawyers in the country. Vernon Jordan [HistoryMaker Vernon E. Jordan, Jr.]--I met Vernon Jordan with Dutch, met, of course, all the other big city mayors: Maynard Jackson, [HistoryMaker] Andrew Young, of course who, who was a fellow New Orleanian, and it was just a--it was, it was, it was a fascinating time in my life where I, I got to rub shoulders with people that I had read about or who had worked with people I read about, you know. For example, you know, one of my heroes is Thurgood Marshall, and I even keep a picture of Thurgood Marshall in my office here at Meharry [Meharry Medical College, Nashville, Tennessee], but Thurgood was a fascinating character, and Dutch had worked for A.P. Tureaud who was a major civil rights lawyer in Louisiana and who, who Thurgood worked on many of the Louisiana desegregation cases, and Dutch was a young lawyer (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Is that the father of the Tureaud that you were in--$$Right, no, their cousin--$$--cousin--$$--they were related, right. But A.P. Tureaud was sort of the dean of civil rights lawyers in New Orleans [Louisiana] that Dutch worked for, that was Dutch's mentor. And, you know, Dutch used to tell us these stories about when Thurgood would come to town to argue cases and, and, you know, they--people who worked with Thurgood still think he was the hardest working, smartest lawyer that they had ever worked with, and Thurgood was a--those folks who know Marshall and (unclear) read two books--I read [HistoryMaker] Juan Williams' book on him ['Thurgood Marshall: American Revolutionary'] and then I read another biography. Marshall was a interesting, colorful guy, he was the type of guy who could stay up all night playing cards and drinking bourbon, and then he would go into court the next day and just argue flawlessly, and he--Thurgood loved a good time. Those people who know Thurgood knew that he loved a good time, liked his, his bourbon and liked to play poker and he gambled and, you know, he cussed and he--you know--but he was a very colorful character. But, but Dutch would always tell these stories about how, how just a supremely well-prepared lawyer Thurgood always was. And so that's why the law thing really kind of came back at me because I was around Dutch all the time, he'd been judge, and the first black graduate of the law center [Louisiana State University Law School; Paul M. Hebert Law Center, Baton Rouge, Louisiana], and so again, I was struggling with the law and medicine thing, and then when I started traveling with him, meeting all these famous folks and intersecting, I then kind of wavered a little bit in, in medicine.$I had my interview on Au- August 18, 2006, the reason why I remember the date, it happened to be my parents' [Jacqueline Cerf Riley and Emile Riley, Jr.] anniversary, and it would have been my parents' forty-ninth anniversary had my dad still been living, so it was a special day for my mother--very emotional day for her, and so I was in Atlanta [Georgia] meeting with the search committee, and we had a good two and a half hour conversation and I gave them my candid assessment of, of what I thought I could bring to the job if, if they wanted, but also a candid assessment of, of, of Meharry's [Meharry Medical College, Nashville, Tennessee] situation from my due diligence--that I had done a lot of work to see where Meharry was from a financial point of view, from a programmatic point of view, education point of view, and so forth. So, I thought it was a good two-hour conversation and I, I made it very clear to 'em that if, if you're looking for a president who's just gonna come to Nashville [Tennessee] and, you know, look nice and go to cocktail parties, I'm not it, I'm not gonna leave a great job in a great city to go into a job where I can't make it. If I feel that I can't make a difference, and I won't be given the support to make a difference to build programs and to advance the institution, then I don't--you know, I wouldn't do myself a favor--I wouldn't be doing myself a favor, nor would I be doing good for the institution. So, we had a very good two-hour conversation, and this was August 18, and then on September 28, my wife [Charlene M. Dewey] and I were in Colorado--first vacation we had taken alone in two years, we were at The Broadmoor resort [Colorado Springs, Colorado], and I got the call at six a.m., I guess they forgot that Colorado was earlier time zone, but they, they awakened me with the news that I was a finalist, that we had gone from eight down to two, and that my wife and I would be invited to come to Nashville for an official visit, and we did on October--I think 26 and 27, we had a two-day visit, as a couple, to Nashville and to Meharry, and, and then my announcement was announced on November 3, my appointment as president designate was November 3, 2006.

Dr. Lloyd C. Elam

Founder of Meharry Medical College’s Psychiatry Department and retired college president Dr. Lloyd C. Elam was born on October 27, 1928 in Little Rock, Arkansas. His parents, Ruth Davis Elam and Harry Penoy Elam met in church in Little Rock. Elam attended Stephens School and graduated from Paul Laurence Dunbar High School in 1944 at age fifteen. He went to junior college in Little Rock before moving to Harvey, Illinois. There, Elam worked for the Maremont Automobile Plant and commuted to Chicago to attend classes at Roosevelt University where he graduated with his B.S. degree in zoology in 1950. After a stint in the United States Army, Elam earned his M.D. degree from the University of Washington School of Medicine in 1957. From 1957 to 1958, Elam completed an internship at the University of Illinois Hospital in Chicago, and from 1958 to 1961, he served as a resident in psychiatry at the University of Chicago Hospital.

Elam joined Chicago’s Billings Hospital as staff psychiatrist and instructor of psychiatry in 1961. From 1961 to 1963, he served as assistant professor and chairman of the Psychiatry Department of Meharry Medical College in Nashville, Tennessee. Becoming a full professor in 1963, Elam was appointed interim dean of the college in 1966. In 1968, he was selected president of Meharry Medical College and supervised the school’s growth in that capacity until 1981. From 1981 to 1982, Elam was college chancellor. He served as Distinguished Service Professor of Psychiatry from 1982 to 1995 when he retired to serve as a volunteer faculty member. Elam served as a fellow at the Center for Advanced Study in Behavioral Sciences at Stanford, California in 1982. He was made Professor Emeritus of the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences in 1996 and Chairman Emeritus in 1997. Elam is a member of the Tennessee Psychiatric Association, Tennessee Medical Association, American Medical Association, National Medical Association, American Psychiatric Association, American College of Psychiatrists, Black Psychiatrists of America, R.F. Boyd Medical Society and the American College of Forensic Examiners.

In 1973, Elam was presented an honorary Doctor of Laws from Harvard University. His other awards include honorary degrees from Meharry Medical College and St. Lawrence University; the 1988 National Board of Medical Examiners Distinguished Service Award; induction into the Alpha Omega Alpha Honor Society; the 1972 Nashville Club Man of the Year Award; the 1976 Human Relations Award from the National Conference of Christians and Jews and the 1988 Eleanor Roosevelt Key, Roosevelt University’s highest alumni award. Meharry Medical College established the Lloyd C. Elam Mental Health Center in his honor and that building now bares his name.

Elam and his wife, Clara Elam, R.N., have two daughters: Dr. Gloria Elam-Norris of Chicago and Dr. Laurie Elam-Evans of Atlanta. Elam passed away on October 4, 2008.

Elam was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on March 14, 2007.

Accession Number

A2007.089

Sex

Male

Interview Date

3/14/2007

Last Name

Elam

Middle Name

Charles

Schools

Paul Laurence Dunbar High School

University of Washington

Stephens Elementary School

Roosevelt University

University of Chicago

First Name

Lloyd

Birth City, State, Country

Little Rock

HM ID

ELA02

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Arkansas

Favorite Vacation Destination

Hawaii

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Tennessee

Birth Date

10/27/1928

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Nashville

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Peas (Black-Eyed)

Death Date

10/4/2008

Short Description

College president, psychiatrist, and psychiatry professor Dr. Lloyd C. Elam (1928 - 2008 ) founded Meharry Medical College’s Psychiatry Department, and served as the college's president until 1981.

Employment

Meharry Medical College

Dupont Corporation

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Dr. Lloyd C. Elam's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam describes his mother's community in Arkadelphia, Arkansas

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam describes his father's education and occupation

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam describes how his parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam describes his likeness to his parents

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam describes his father's lumber business

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam talks about race relations in Little Rock, Arkansas

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam describes his paternal grandfather's career as a stagecoach racer

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam describes his earliest childhood memories

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam describes his household

Tape: 1 Story: 14 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam recalls his refusal to eat meat

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam describes his childhood diet

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam recalls his transportation to school

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam remembers his family's road trips to Arkadelphia, Arkansas

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam recalls his experiences as a migrant farmworker

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam recalls attending Stephens Elementary School in Little Rock, Arkansas

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam describes his family's daily prayers

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam recalls selling newspapers

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam remembers his teacher, Leroy Christopher

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam remembers an influential teacher

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam recalls his community's emphasis on education

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam recalls his early interest in medicine and psychology

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam remembers his early understanding of mental health

Tape: 2 Story: 13 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam recalls the popular ideas about mental illness during his youth

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam recalls the beliefs about mental illness in rural Arkansas

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam recalls his decision to attend Roosevelt College in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam remembers his high school graduation

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam describes his experiences at Roosevelt College

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam remembers serving in the U.S. Army's Medical Service Corps

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam recalls the University of Washington School of Medicine in Seattle, Washington

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam remembers meeting his wife

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam recalls race relations at the University of Washington School of Medicine

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam describes the findings of his medical study of stress

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam recalls the psychiatry program at the University of Chicago

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam recalls his influential professors

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam talks about the treatments for mental illness

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam describes the perceptions of psychiatry in the African American community

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam recalls founding the Department of Psychiatry at Meharry Medical College

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam describes the changes in the cost of psychiatric care

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam recalls establishing a day hospital in Nashville, Tennessee

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam recalls his presidency of Meharry Medical College in Nashville, Tennessee

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam describes his challenges as the president of Meharry Medical College

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam describes Meharry Medical College's contributions to Nashville, Tennessee

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam talks about his community health concerns

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam describes the increase in African Americans seeking psychiatric care

Tape: 4 Story: 12 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam talks about his retirement

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam talks about the underrepresentation of African Americans in the medical field

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam reflects upon the psychological effects of the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam reflects upon his life

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam talks about his involvement at the First Baptist Church in Nashville, Tenneesee

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam describes his civic activities

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam describes how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Dr. Lloyd C. Elam narrates his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$4

DAStory

11$7

DATitle
Dr. Lloyd C. Elam recalls his early interest in medicine and psychology
Dr. Lloyd C. Elam recalls his presidency of Meharry Medical College in Nashville, Tennessee
Transcript
Now how was high school [Paul Laurence Dunbar High School; Dunbar Magnet Middle School, Little Rock, Arkansas]? Were you active in clubs in high school or student government or sports or anything like that?$$I went to all the football games but most of the people in my--most of the guys in my class were active and I was not. I enjoyed studying (laughter). As a matter of fact, the way I got interested in medicine I was thirteen and kind of browsing in the library one day and saw a little book and the title of it was 'Physique and Personality' [ph.] and I said, oh, that sounds interesting. I read it, it was fascinating and it went on to show how whatever kind of physique you has, you have determines what kinds of adjustment possibilities are open to you. If you're a little athletic boy and somebody does something on the playground, you might hit him or push him or something and he stops doing it. And so you figure that works and so you become that kind of an outgoing person. If you are a little thin, scrawny guy and you try that, the guy will hit you back and say that, that won't work. So you decide to go to the library, (laughter) read books and so that determines your--another little boy on the playground tries pushing, gets hit, tries studying, reading, he's not smart so that doesn't work. So he becomes the jokester and so the little fat boy becomes a jokester. And so it was fascinating the way he wrote the book but it has some motivational kind of lesson. And his students really tried to, to do a scientific study of all of this but they went too far. But as you know, your physical does affect your personality. But that's how I got interested in psychology and then found out, if you're gonna do research in psychology, you should go on and be a psychiatrist so you can do all kinds of research. And that's how I got interested in that.$$Okay, so at age thirteen you were aware of what a psychologist was and--$$Yeah (simultaneous).$$--(simultaneous) in terms of that--$$Yeah.$$--because of that study?$$Yeah.$Now, just about the time that I got all of that going the--there was progress in civil rights and desegregation of schools. And people had the idea that all of the black schools were gonna merge into the others and you wouldn't need them so we had that kind of crisis. And that's when I moved into administration and bunch of us met every Saturday night for a year struggling with what, what would be an appropriate approach to this problem. It was a problem for us.$$The funding began to dry up or--for the black institutions?$$No, probably, I don't know but you know, black institutions have always had funding problems so I don't know if it was drying up or not. I was--this is before I was in administration. But the question is, why do you need two whatever kinds of institutions, you know, and so what we decided after that year of, of talking about the problem is that, sure enough, you did need historically black institutions [HBCUs]. If, if Meharry [Meharry Medical College, Nashville, Tennessee] stopped it's existence, then number of black persons going into medicine would drastically decrease and so that we did, indeed, need to continue this institution. And that's when I went into administration and decided that, if we were going to, we needed to be a niche institution. And we should address those illnesses and problems that were unique to the population that we served. And, in order to do this, we had to do a number of things. One, was to build a campus and that's what a good number of years of my administration was involved. But the other was to establish a Ph.D. program, research programs, and so on. And we did that. And it's--and they are going very well in addition to medicine and dentistry.$$How long did it take to establish those?$$I, let's see, I became president in '68 [1968] so we started building campus in '69 [1969] and we started the research in, in graduate studies in about '75 [1975] somewhere in there, middle '70s [1970s]. And then it became a school of graduate studies and research in about '76 [1976]. So--excuse me, let me see, '76 [1976], yep, that's right in '76 [1976]. And now we will graduate a significant percentage of black Ph.D.'s. in the biomedical sciences and of course we still have the medical program.

Gloria Scott

Gloria Dean Randle Scott was the eleventh president of Bennett College located in Greensboro, North Carolina. She was the second female chief administrator at Bennett College. Scott was born on April 14, 1938 in Houston, Texas to Juanita and Freeman Randle. She attended Blackshear Elementary School and Jack Yates Secondary School where she graduated from in 1955. A scholarship fund afforded Scott the opportunity to attend Indiana University. She received her B.A. degree and M.A. degree in zoology in 1959 and 1960, respectively, and her Ph.D. in higher education in 1965.

In 1961, Scott’s career began as a research associate in genetics and embryology at Indiana University Institution for Psychiatric Research. During this time, she worked as a biology instructor at Marion College until 1965, making her the first African American instructor at a predominately white college in Indianapolis, Indiana at the time. Scott held the positions as Dean of Students and Deputy Director of Upward Bound at Knoxville College in 1965 and as the Special Assistant to the President and Educational Research Planning Director at North Carolina A&T University in 1967. During her ten year tenure, Scott continued to make history by becoming the first African American National President of the Girl Scouts in 1975. She then served as the Institutional Research Planning Director at Texas Southern University for a year before becoming Vice President at Clark College in Atlanta in 1977.

After ten years at Clark College, Scott became the President of Bennett College in 1987, thus fulfilling her life’s mission to educate African American women.

Scott is the recipient of three honorary doctorate degrees. She has been featured in several publications such as Who’s Who Among American Women, Famous Texas Women and Essence magazine.

Scott is married to Dr. Will B. Scott, a professor of sociology.

Scott was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on February 8, 2007.

Accession Number

A2007.055

Sex

Female

Interview Date

2/8/2007

Last Name

Scott

Maker Category
Middle Name

Dean Randle

Occupation
Schools

Blackshear Elementary School

Jack Yates High School

Indiana University

Speakers Bureau

Yes

Speakers Bureau Availability

Any

First Name

Gloria

Birth City, State, Country

Houston

HM ID

SCO05

Speakers Bureau Preferred Audience

Any. Especially teens.

Speakers Bureau Honorarium

Yes - 0 - $500

Favorite Season

Spring

Speaker Bureau Notes

Preferred Audience: Any. Especially teens.
Special Interest: Women's groups, education, girl scouts, defense groups, religious groups, and social action groups,.

State

Texas

Favorite Vacation Destination

Anywhere Near Water

Favorite Quote

We Must Do And Not Just Be.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Texas

Birth Date

4/14/1938

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Corpus Christi

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Fish, Peach Cobbler

Short Description

College president Gloria Scott (1938 - ) was the president of Benedict College and was the first African American national president of the Girl Scouts of America.

Employment

Indiana University Institute for Psychiatric Research

Marian College

Knoxville College

North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University

Texas Southern University

Clark College

Bennett College

Girl Scouts USA

Favorite Color

Red

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Gloria Scott's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Gloria Scott lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Gloria Scott describes her maternal grandparents, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Gloria Scott describes her maternal grandparents, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Gloria Scott describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Gloria Scott describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Gloria Scott talks about her older siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Gloria Scott talks about her brother

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Gloria Scott describes her younger sister

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Gloria Scott describes her youngest sister, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Gloria Scott describes her youngest sister, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Gloria Scott recalls attending kindergarten at the Fourth Missionary Baptist Church in Houston, Texas

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Gloria Scott remembers enrolling at Blackshear Elementary School in Houston, Texas

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Gloria Scott talks about her father's career

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Gloria Scott describes her father's interests

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Gloria Scott describes her neighborhood in Houston, Texas

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Gloria Scott describes the sights, sounds and smells of her childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Gloria Scott remembers the Greater Rose Hill Missionary Baptist Church in Houston, Texas

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Gloria Scott remembers her baptism

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Gloria Scott recalls her experiences of color discrimination

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Gloria Scott remembers Blackshear Elementary School in Houston, Texas, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Gloria Scott remembers Blackshear Elementary School in Houston, Texas, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Gloria Scott describes her early work experiences

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Gloria Scott remembers her paper route

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Gloria Scott remembers her experiences as a Girl Scout

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Gloria Scott describes her aspiration to become a doctor

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Gloria Scott describes Jack Yates Senior High School in Houston, Texas

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Gloria Scott remembers attending the prom at Jack Yates Senior High School

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Gloria Scott remembers Bernie Harper

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Gloria Scott recalls her decision to attend Indiana University in Bloomington, Indiana

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Gloria Scott remembers William S. Holland

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Gloria Scott recalls her arrival at Indiana University

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Gloria Scott describes her studies at Indiana University

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Gloria Scott recalls meeting her husband

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Gloria Scott describes her husband

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Gloria Scott remembers the delay of her marriage license

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Gloria Scott recalls her early career in Indianapolis, Indiana

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Gloria Scott recalls being hired as a dean at Knoxville College in Knoxville, Tennessee

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Gloria Scott recalls her civil rights activism with Delta Sigma Theta Sorority

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Gloria Scott describes Stokely Carmichael's visit to Knoxville College

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Gloria Scott recalls the Civil Rights Movement in Greensboro, North Carolina

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Gloria Scott recalls the assassination of Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Gloria Scott talks about school desegregation

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Gloria Scott recalls the accreditation of North Carolina Agricultural and Technical College

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Gloria Scott recalls working at Texas Southern University in Houston, Texas

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Gloria Scott recalls her vice presidency of Clark College in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Gloria Scott recalls her presidency of Bennett College in Greensboro, North Carolina

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Gloria Scott talks about Johnnetta B. Cole and Niara Sudarkasa

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Gloria Scott talks about the accreditation of historically black colleges

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Gloria Scott describes her work with the Girl Scouts

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Gloria Scott remembers promoting diversity in Girl Scouting

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Gloria Scott describes her presidency of the Girl Scouts of the United States of America

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Gloria Scott recalls leading the National Urban League's education committee

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Gloria Scott describes her work with the United Negro College Fund

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Gloria Scott recalls her conflict with the United Negro College Fund

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Gloria Scott talks about the United Negro College Fund

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Gloria Scott describes her community involvement, pt. 1

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Gloria Scott describes her community involvement, pt. 2

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Gloria Scott talks about her presidency of Bennett College in Greensboro, North Carolina

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Gloria Scott describes her hopes and concerns for the African American community, pt. 1

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Gloria Scott describes her hopes and concerns for the African American community, pt. 2

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Gloria Scott describes her hopes and concerns for the African American community, pt. 3

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Gloria Scott reflects upon her life

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Gloria Scott describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - Gloria Scott recalls the St. John Missionary Baptist Church in Houston, Texas

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - Gloria Scott narrates her photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$6

DAStory

8$5

DATitle
Gloria Scott remembers the Greater Rose Hill Missionary Baptist Church in Houston, Texas
Gloria Scott describes her work with the Girl Scouts
Transcript
So now we're in elementary school [Blackshear Elementary School, Houston, Texas].$$Okay. Um-hm.$$What type of student were you?$$Um-hm.$$Well I should say what type of child were you? We know you were a good student.$$Um-hm. Well, I really was a child, I guess that you would probably call square, because, and then again, the early adults to whom I was exposed, starting I guess with kindergarten and my parents [Juanita Bell Randle and Freeman Randle] and the people around us, all were about having you do right and I attributed a lot of my development as the person to my church. I said, I was for a while, I was the only person in my house who went to church. This is before my sister [Greta Randle] and brother [Billy Randle] came back and before the other children were born, I was staying alone with my parents. And Rose Hill [Greater Rose Hill Missionary Baptist Church, Houston, Texas] was right across the street and as later life, I would describe that I was a high energy child, I used up a lot of peoples energies, I mean I was like a sponge and I was attracted to the church and I, I said it many days, the church probably helped keep me out of a lot of trouble, because I would, I would go over--this is the truth and this sounds weird to people when they say, when I say this. I think on Monday night may- maybe they had prayer meeting, I would go over and sit in the back of the church for prayer meeting. On Tuesday night, they had something else, I would go over. On Wednesday night they had Christian benevolence meeting. Now, I learned probably as a very young girl what a benevolence fund was, how people in the church would put their money together so that when people needed loans and things, benevolence and I, 'cause I asked, what the word was, I, I was inquisitive like that. If there was something I didn't really know, I'd ask. And Mr. Milligan [ph.], the husband of the ma- of the woman I was telling who'd take--I would go home with them on Sundays he worked for the post office, he was the person in charge of that, then I'd go to choir rehearsal and then Sunday school teacher, teachers' meeting on Friday night, I would go over and sit and listen. So, the church, a lot of that and then the people there would take us on field trips and we always had six weeks of summer bible school, you know, it isn't like now days, it's two days or whatever? We would have six weeks and it was great for the children, because we had nothing else really to do. And so that kind of helped to shape me to be the kind of person that I was and to really learn. And when I was seven, we were practicing for the Easter play. We had Easter, churches, you know, used to have Easter programs on Easter Sunday, and we were doing the, going to reenact the crucifixion and so we were practicing on Friday evening, Good Friday before Sunday and this, the girls were playing Mary Magdalene and all the others and the boy had the cross on his shoulder and, you know, the--the various things and so we were going down the aisle and so the girls were crying and we were, and so our, our director said, "Okay, you all can stop, that was good, we're all ready for Sunday." And so I remember sitting down and I was crying, I sat in the chair and I was crying, and so she came over she said, "Gloria [HistoryMaker Gloria Scott], you can stop crying now. It's all over, it's good. You all are doing good," and I said to her, "Did they really kill him just because he was doing good?" And she said, in later years, again as an adult, she said, that you can't imagine, "I said, 'What, what--if, I said, yes?'" And I said, "Well, if that's the truth, I want to be like him and I want to be a Christian, so I want to be baptized Sunday." They always baptize on Easter Sunday, and she told us later, she said, "I said, 'Oh girl, unh-uh, your mama, no you can't just decide you wanna be baptized. No you--I have to go and ask.'" I said, "Well, will you go and ask my mother?" She said, "I have to go and ask your mother." Well, we lived right across the street. So we went over to my house and again at this time my mother was not in church, nobody in my family was in church so she told my mother that I had said that I wanted to be baptized. So my mother said, "Girl, you don't know what you're talking about," and I said, "I do, I wanna be like Jesus." And she said, "Oh, you don't know what you're talking about," and I said, "I do, yes I do, I do want to be like Jesus, I want to do good; I want to do the right things." So eventually she relinquished and so she had to get a dress, get a white dress for me for Sunday to be baptized. So I was baptized on Sund- Easter Sunday morning, and nobody in my family was there.$Now, s- stepping out of the academic arena--$$Um-hm.$$--we need to talk a little bit about your involvement with the Girl Scouts [Girl Scouts of the United States of America].$$All right, sure. I was a girl, Girl Scout here in Houston [Texas] in San Jacinto Girl Scout Council and I think a little bit earlier I told you about that, about going to Oklahoma and all that. So, when I went away to college [Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana] I was not involved and at my job at Knoxville [Knoxville College, Knoxville, Tennessee] as dean of students, at that time that was in 1965, a Dr. Jeanne L. Noble who was on the board of Girl Scouts, national board, who was one of my mentors, she had been president of Delta Sigma Theta [Delta Sigma Theta Sorority] when I was the second vice president and they had gotten Girl Scouting to try out a new program, called Campus Gold, to try to look at young women who had gone, who'd graduated and had gone to college who were Girl Scouts and to see could we not get them as volunteers to learn to be troop leaders and so forth. And so, she called up and ha- had the Girl Scouts ask me if I would have a Campus Gold group on Knoxville's campus and we did. So we created that Girl Scout group and we sponsored three troops for girls, Brownies, Juniors and ca- two, two Brownies and a Junior troop in the low income neighborhood right around Knoxville College. And it was a fantastic thing for the college girls as well as the students so. And in Girl Scouting once you start doing something as a volunteer, they keep, you know they keep rolling over and so, the next thing I knew I was asked to serve on a regional committee and that to help select kids for international opportunities, and I said I would do that because also, I wanted to always try to make sure that things are equal and the girls, black girls had a acqu- equal access to those. So I served on that group and then we moved to North Carolina to Greensboro at A&T [Agricultural and Technical College of North Carolina; North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University], and while I, when I went there, Girl Scouting was just undergoing kind of a realignment like it's doing right now nationally, and council coverage and a new council had been created and I was asked to serve on a committee to help set up the personnel policies and all for that council and to help them recruit the first executive director. So I did and I did another volunteer job.

Prince Jackson, Jr.

Prince Albert Jackson, Jr., was born on March 17, 1925, in Savannah, Georgia, to Julia and Prince Albert, Sr. Jackson graduated with honors from Beach-Cuyler High School in 1942 and joined the United States Naval Reserve. Jackson received his B.A. degree in mathematics from Savannah State University in 1949, and his M.A. degree from Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences from the New York University Graduate School of Arts and Sciences in 1950. Jackson later received his Ph.D. in philosophy with distinction from Boston College. While studying at Boston College, Jackson was named one of the school’s first six Distinguished Alumni.

In 1971, Jackson became the seventh President of Savannah State College. During his tenure as president, Jackson established the third Naval Reserve Officer Training Corp (NROTC) at a university; he also established the University’s radio station, WHCJ-FM, which was the fifth station established on an African American college campus. The observation of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Day was the result of Jackson’s initiative along with the increase in faculty and teachers holding doctorates. In 1978, Jackson stepped down as President of Savannah State University, but continued to serve as a member of the faculty until 1999 when he retired.

Jackson was the recipient of thirty-five academic awards and honors, and a member of twenty-nine professional and scholastic organizations. Jackson was also a lifetime member of the NAACP, where he served as President of the Savannah branch in 2003. Jackson authored over fourteen research and scholarly articles. After retiring in 1999, Jackson continued his active involvement in various community projects including being an advocate for the mentally challenged and the NAACP Voter Empowerment Project.

Jackson was married to the former Marilyn Striggles of Sylvania, Georgia; the couple had five children.

Accession Number

A2007.028

Sex

Male

Interview Date

1/24/2007

Last Name

Jackson

Maker Category
Middle Name

Albert

Occupation
Schools

Alfred E. Beach High School

Savannah State University

Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences

Boston College

St. Benedict the Moor Catholic School

First Name

Prince

Birth City, State, Country

Savannah

HM ID

JAC22

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Georgia

Favorite Vacation Destination

None

Favorite Quote

If You Want Your Prayers Answered, Get Up Off Your Knees And Hustle.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Birth Date

3/17/1925

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Savannah

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Beans (Lima)

Death Date

9/21/2010

Short Description

College president Prince Jackson, Jr. (1925 - 2010 ) was the seventh president of Savannah State College.

Employment

Savannah State College

Favorite Color

Green

Timing Pairs
0,0:3818,55:4399,71:6225,165:10292,287:25440,434:26565,546:45087,850:45549,857:48552,906:55097,1053:55713,1070:56329,1078:56714,1084:68184,1251:73008,1378:75528,1434:75816,1439:76464,1454:77184,1465:80856,1534:83304,1571:88128,1670:94225,1692:94699,1732:103152,1928:103468,1933:103863,1939:105443,1990:111573,2031:113598,2068:117891,2211:136226,2492:138596,2537:142467,2621:144205,2652:144995,2718:145706,2731:162285,3007:170880,3101$0,0:1800,26:2160,32:6048,123:7488,145:8352,162:9432,187:14616,279:15624,398:15984,404:43068,715:59850,1050:77282,1317:80766,1386:82441,1428:86796,1523:87131,1535:90012,1604:92223,1714:110545,2012:113598,2096:114166,2106:120002,2119:129662,2297:134282,2419:148072,2647:148756,2659:167720,2967:172335,3118:195390,3542:195918,3550:196886,3564:205492,3623:261070,4393
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Prince Jackson, Jr.'s interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Prince Jackson, Jr. lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Prince Jackson, Jr. describes his father's background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Prince Jackson, Jr. describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Prince Jackson, Sr. lists his siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Prince Jackson, Jr. describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Prince Jackson, Jr. recalls his upbringing in Savannah, Georgia

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Prince Jackson, Jr. describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Prince Jackson, Jr. recalls St. Patrick's Day celebrations in Savannah, Georgia

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Prince Jackson, Jr. describes his childhood community in Savannah, Georgia

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Prince Jackson, Jr. recalls his Catholic schooling in Savannah, Georgia

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Prince Jackson, Jr. remembers St. Benedict the Moor Catholic School

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Prince Jackson, Jr. recalls graduating from Beach-Cuyler High School in Savannah, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Prince Jackson, Jr. recalls his experience in the U.S. Navy

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Prince Jackson, Jr. recalls when his mother saved the money he earned from the U.S. Navy

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Prince Jackson, Jr. recalls his U.S. Navy training

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Prince Jackson, Jr. recalls graduating from Savannah's Georgia State College

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Prince Jackson, Jr. describes his education at Georgia State College in Savannah, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Prince Jackson, Jr. recalls being hired to teach at Georgia State College

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Prince Jackson, Jr. recalls his activities at Georgia State College

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Prince Jackson, Jr. remembers the Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences in New York City

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Prince Jackson, Jr. describes his early teaching career

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Prince Jackson, Jr. recalls being fired due to his NAACP involvement

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Prince Jackson, Jr. recalls serving as the athletic director of Savannah's St. Pius X High School

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Prince Jackson, Jr. recalls applying to Boston College's Ph.D. degree program

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Prince Jackson, Jr. describes his decision to return to Savannah State College's faculty

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Prince Jackson, Jr. recalls the impact of the Civil Rights Movement on Savannah State College

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Prince Jackson, Jr. talks about his family members

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Prince Jackson, Jr. recalls hiring faculty at Savannah State College

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Prince Jackson, Jr. recalls founding Savannah State College's WHCJ Radio

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Prince Jackson, Jr. recalls establishing a Naval Reserve Officers' Training Corps program

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Prince Jackson, Jr. recalls the desegregation of Savannah-Chatham County Public Schools, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Prince Jackson, Jr. recalls the desegregation of Savannah-Chatham County Public Schools, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Prince Jackson, Jr. describes the impact of integration on Savannah State College

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Prince Jackson, Jr. recalls the construction of the Asa H. Gordon Library

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Prince Jackson, Jr. remembers his NAACP involvement in Savannah, Georgia

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Prince Jackson, Jr. recalls his work with Shirley James at Savannah State College

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Prince Jackson, Jr. remembers Professor Hanes Walton, Jr.

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Prince Jackson, Jr. recalls how he allocated funds at Savannah State College

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Prince Jackson, Jr. remembers returning to the faculty of Savannah State College

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Prince Jackson, Jr. describes his organizational activities in Savannah, Georgia

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Prince Jackson, Jr. describes his involvement in the Roman Catholic Diocese of Savannah

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Prince Jackson, Jr. talks about his children and grandchildren

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Prince Jackson, Jr. recalls integrating the Knights of Columbus in Savannah, Georgia

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Prince Jackson, Jr. talks about the African American Catholic leadership

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Prince Jackson, Jr. reflects upon his life

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Prince Jackson, Jr. talks about destinations he plans to visit

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Prince Jackson, Jr. describes his hopes for African American youth

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Prince Jackson, Jr. describes how he would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$3

DAStory

1$8

DATitle
Prince Jackson, Jr. recalls being fired due to his NAACP involvement
Prince Jackson, Jr. recalls founding Savannah State College's WHCJ Radio
Transcript
All right, so we were talking about the fact that you, because of your NAACP [National Association for the Advancement of Colored People] activities, you were fired from William James High School [William James Middle School, Statesboro, Georgia].$$Yes, uh-huh.$$Okay, and you called--$$President Payne [William K. Payne].$$--President Payne.$$Yeah, uh-huh.$$Okay, so, so tell me what happens?$$Yeah, I'll tell you. Just let me step back a minute and tell you--$$Okay.$$--why I was fired.$$Okay.$$I invited Ralph Mark Gilbert. There, there's a museum down the street that's named for him, Ralph Mark Gilbert Civil Rights Museum [Savannah, Georgia], right down the street there that's named for him.$$Ralph Mar-?$$Ralph Mark Gilbert.$$Okay.$$He was probably the greatest NAACP worker in Georgia. And had invited him up to speak to my class. I was senior class advisor. And he told me ahead of time, he said you, you know, the way I speak, you might get into trouble. I told well, then let it be, so be it (laughter). And he came up, and he talked about the [U.S.] Supreme Court decision [Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 1954] and for African American families to start getting ready because their children were going to go to those white schools, and he pa- particularly said Statesboro High School [Statesboro, Georgia] and all that. Well, the superintendent was also at that commencement. And I could look at him and tell that he didn't appreciate what Ralph Mark Gilbert was saying. And he thanked me as one of the NAACP workers and that sort of thing that I had invited him, him up there, and so they fired me. It was just--it, it, it wasn't no big deal. As a matter of fact, Denise [Denise Gines], the letter that the superintendent used to fire me, I used it several times when I was president at Savannah State College [Savannah State University, Savannah, Georgia] 'cause it was just so smooth. I had just never seen a letter written quite that (laughter), quite that way. They'd simply reorganized the school, and they organized me out of position. So, after I got fired, I, I called and, and, and put in my application to President Payne. And I, I told him that, that, you know, that I'd left Statesboro [Georgia] under mysterious conditions. I was fired. It's the way he knew it. He said, "Well, Mr. Jackson [HistoryMaker Prince Jackson, Jr.]," said, "I know," said, "this news gets out," and said, "Well, I'm, I'm proud of you." And I'd, I'd been in his office all that morning talking to him. And about one o'clock that day when I got home, C.V. Troup, Cornelius V. Troup, who was president of Fort Valley State College [Fort Valley State University, Fort Valley, Georgia], had also learned that I had been fired, and he called me at home. And see, he wanted me to come to Fort Valley State to join his, his mathematics department too, but I'd already committed to Savannah State. So that's how I ended up at Savannah State rather than at Fort Valley State. And I became an instructor of mathematics and alumni secretary at Savannah State when that happened.$And then I found out that Clark College [Clark Atlanta University] in Atlanta [Georgia] beca- Clark College in Atlanta was setting up a, a radio station on their campus. Then I did some research, and I found out that Clark College was, had been only the fourth African American school [HBCU] that had its own radio station. And so I came back, and I talked to the chancellor about setting up our radio station. And he said, "Well, you don't have the money, and we can't give you the money for that." He said, "You can set it up, if you can find the money." Well, providence is a funny thing. I was on a program at B.C. [Benedictine Military School, Savannah, Georgia] to receive, they call it the Benedictine Gold Medal of Excellence. The bishop was going to receive--one of the bishop of Diocese of Savannah [Roman Catholic Diocese of Savannah] was also receiving one. And then there was another white gentleman who owned Savannah Marina [Thunderbolt Marina Inc., Savannah, Georgia], whose name was William Honey [William E. Honey]. He was also receiving--there were three of us who were gonna receive the Benedictine Gold Medal of Excellence. I sat next to him, Denise [Denise Gines], and you're gonna laugh when I tell you this. I found out he was a Lutheran. And I said to myself, now when a Catholic school is giving a Lutheran the highest honor, there can only be one reason for it. He must have given them a whole lot of money or had done something good for them 'cause, you know, Martin Luther was the thing that, that split us.$$Right.$$And so I talked to him, and I told him about this radio station that I wanted and all, and I just couldn't get the money, and that I was trying to get the money. He didn't say a word, he didn't, he didn't, he didn't. He just told me, he wished me luck and that sort of thing. This was on a Saturday night. And so the three of us, the bishop of the Diocese of Savannah, myself, and Mr. Hon- Honey, we all got Medal of Excellence. And we went to the receptions, and people pat us on the back and all of that. Well, when I went to my office on that Monday, about 10:30 that morning, somebody told me that somebody was riding up in front of the building in a raggedy 1967 Lincoln Continental. And they were getting ready to give him a ticket 'cause he was in a yellow line area. And I went down there, and I saw it was Mr. Honey. And I told the chief, my chief of police, if he put a ticket on that car, I would fire him on the spot (laughter). Well, I rushed back to my office 'cause I didn't want Mr. Honey to see me. Mr. Honey came in, and he gave my secretary an envelope. He said, "Give this to Dr. Jackson [HistoryMaker Prince Jackson, Jr.]," and he left out. He didn't wait. He say, "Give this to Dr. Jackson for me," and he left out. And so she brought the envelope into me, and I opened the envelope, and it was $10,000. It was--I told him I was gonna need about $10,000 startup money. That man had written over the weekend a check for $10,000. He brought it to me. He--when I got to the front to thank him, he had already gone off in that raggedy 1967 (laughter) Lincoln, this man with all this money. Then later on, he (unclear) came back when I did finally get him to come back. He came back to me and offered to build--we had a creek behind the college [Savannah State College; Savannah State University, Savannah, Georgia]. He wanted to build a dock. He wanted to--he was gonna chain his dredges in there to dredge out the, the creek and all that so that we could start a marine biology program and all that. But, so I built that radio station. At first I had called--asked for the call letters WSSC, but that was already taken. And then I said I have to honor this man somewhere. They didn't--at that time the State of Georgia would not let you name anything for anybody living. So I went to the telephone book, and I looked at the telephone book, and I found all the last names in there that had the most. And it was WHC and J, and so I named our radio station WHCJ [WHCJ Radio, Savannah, Georgia] but mostly the H because of Honey. I had to get him in there somewhere. And the reason why it's named WHCJ because those call letters had the most entry in the Savannah [Georgia] phone directory. And so we named it WHCJ, and so we became the fifth radio station on an African American campus.

Rena Bancroft

Rena Ercelle Merritt Bancroft was born on September 14, 1931 in Clinton, North Carolina to Sadie B. Herring and William Edward Merritt. Her maternal grandfather was named George Washington Herring. When slavery ended, he founded the Sampson County Normal and Industrial School, one of the first college preparatory high schools for African Americans. Bancroft grew up in Clinton, North Carolina. In 1948, Bancroft took the College Entrance Examination Board test, earning the highest score in the State of North Carolina. As a result of her score, Bancroft earned a Pepsi-Cola scholarship, which funded her undergraduate studies. After attending Howard University for two years, she transferred to Syracuse University, from where she earned her B.A. and M.A. degrees in home economics and education.

In 1952, Bancroft began her teaching career in Watertown, New York. She taught morning and evening classes in home economics. Bancroft stayed in Watertown for two years, then she moved in with her aunt, Rena Hawkins, and taught in Syracuse, New York. In 1956, Bancroft decided to move to the West Coast, where she joined the Oakland Public School System. She taught at Havenscourt Junior High School for four years followed by Montera Middle School, where she stayed for another three years. In the evenings and during the summer, Bancroft taught sewing at Oakland High School. For the McCall Pattern Company, Bancroft conducted sewing and other home economic demonstrations at schools in San Francisco and San Jose. Bancroft went on to become the first African American female principal for the San Mateo Union High School District. In 1986, Bancroft became president of the San Francisco Community College Centers. Also that year, she earned her Ph.D. in education from the University of California – Berkeley. Bancroft remained president of the centers until 1991, when she began directing the centers' evening division and adult program. When she retired, Bancroft worked as a consultant for the State of California, evaluating school programs.

Bancroft was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on April 7, 2006.

Accession Number

A2006.070

Sex

Female

Interview Date

4/7/2006

Last Name

Bancroft

Maker Category
Occupation
Schools

Syracuse University

First Name

Rena

Birth City, State, Country

Clinton

HM ID

BAN04

Favorite Season

Spring

State

North Carolina

Favorite Vacation Destination

South Africa

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

California

Birth Date

9/14/1931

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Bay Area/San Francisco

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Strawberries

Short Description

College president Rena Bancroft (1931 - ) was the first African American female principal in the San Mateo Union High School District. She also served as president of the San Francisco Community College Centers.

Employment

San Mateo Union High School District

San Francisco Community College Centers

Favorite Color

Red

Timing Pairs
0,0:3440,201:4400,216:10036,286:10376,292:12892,358:14184,388:15408,410:15748,417:16496,430:22360,485:22920,499:28692,596:29140,605:29588,614:31892,671:34260,732:34708,740:35732,771:36052,777:39384,792:40242,806:42222,853:49218,999:49614,1006:50142,1015:50604,1024:54300,1101:55950,1134:65238,1294:68126,1351:68582,1358:69722,1375:70102,1381:71242,1406:71698,1413:72154,1420:73142,1436:75422,1496:75878,1503:82180,1541:86277,1572:86722,1578:90458,1616:98020,1734:98860,1769:100120,1794:100960,1815:108857,1909:109490,1914$0,0:1064,35:5092,203:11090,274:16406,346:22725,471:24997,523:30119,569:30534,575:31032,583:35348,656:43814,795:55180,951:55716,960:58530,1026:66940,1138:70060,1207:78232,1329:97806,1513:98214,1518:98622,1523:104334,1655:106068,1680:114690,1764:120165,1858:120690,1866:121515,1879:122715,1898:131664,2020:132044,2026:146636,2396:147092,2403:147396,2408:159108,2564:171884,2831:176984,2941:191436,3118:192156,3133:192588,3140:192876,3145:193164,3150:193452,3178:209890,3406
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Rena Bancroft's interview, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Slating of Rena Bancroft's interview, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Rena Bancroft lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Rena Bancroft talks about her maternal grandfather

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Rena Bancroft talks about her mother's romantic relationships

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Rena Bancroft describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Rena Bancroft talks about her ancestry in North Carolina

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Rena Bancroft recalls her relationship with Burl Toler, Sr.

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Rena Bancroft remembers Melvia Woolfolk Toler's illness

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Rena Bancroft describes her earliest childhood memories

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Rena Bancroft remembers her sister's work as a children's librarian

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Rena Bancroft talks about her affinity for pigs

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Rena Bancroft recalls her early family life

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Rena Bancroft remembers singing with her family

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Rena Bancroft describes her community in Clinton, North Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Rena Bancroft recalls her early education in Clinton, North Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Rena Bancroft remembers serving as a high school principal

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Rena Bancroft remembers her sister's education

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Rena Bancroft recalls transferring to Garland High School in Garland, North Carolina

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Rena Bancroft remembers earning a full scholarship from Pepsi-Cola

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Rena Bancroft remembers her mentor, Paul F. Lawrence

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Rena Bancroft remembers her high school principal, W.M. McLean

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Rena Bancroft talks about her childhood friend, Cassandra McLean Clay

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Rena Bancroft describes her family's religious background

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Rena Bancroft remembers her relationship with her parents

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Rena Bancroft recalls her mother's second marriage

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Rena Bancroft remembers Howard University in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Rena Bancroft remembers moving to Syracuse, New York

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Rena Bancroft recalls living with Rena Hawkins in Syracuse, New York

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Rena Bancroft remembers her early teaching career in Upstate New York

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Rena Bancroft remembers her career in the Oakland Unified School District

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Rena Bancroft remembers her brief marriage to Richard Bancroft

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Rena Bancroft recalls her work with the McCall Corporation

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Rena Bancroft recalls her early career in the San Mateo Union High School District

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Rena Bancroft recalls teaching at Hillsdale High School in San Mateo, California

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Rena Bancroft remembers meeting with a spiritualist in Vallejo, California, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Rena Bancroft remembers meeting with a spiritualist in Vallejo, California, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Rena Bancroft recalls her challenges as a school administrator

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Rena Bancroft talks about attending church services in San Francisco, California

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Rena Bancroft recalls applying for the presidency of the San Francisco Community College Centers

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Rena Bancroft describes her presidency of the San Francisco Community College Centers

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Rena Bancroft recalls the San Francisco Community College Centers' courses

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Rena Bancroft reflects upon her life, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Rena Bancroft reflects upon her life, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Rena Bancroft describes her house in North Carolina

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Rena Bancroft reflects upon her values

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Rena Bancroft describes her organizational activities

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Rena Bancroft describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Rena Bancroft remembers being late to a meeting in Portland, Oregon

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Rena Bancroft narrates her photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$5

DAStory

10$6

DATitle
Rena Bancroft recalls teaching at Hillsdale High School in San Mateo, California
Rena Bancroft describes her presidency of the San Francisco Community College Centers
Transcript
Well you (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) That, that's right (laughter).$$--that's what you were supposed if you teach cooking, you have to move around (laughter).$$Anyhow, when he called me in for my evaluation, he said, "Did you read this?" And I said, "Yes." He said, "What do you think about it?" And I said, "I think it's funny, Mr. Alley [ph.]." I said, "The day that I lost my enthusiasm is the day that I need to stop teaching. And if the only complaint she has is that my children move around in the classroom, that's what I want them to do." I run a three ring circus. I had some kids who would be cooking. I had some kids who would be sewing because we only had seven sewing machines in the room and then I'd have another group and we'd either be doing child development or decorating or something that kept them in their seats at the table and we could work in groups and I ran three like I said I ran three ring circus and the kids had a marvelous time and I did too. And I had people knocking down the doors to get in my classes so that the other--the department chair got angry because her classes fell off and everybody wanted to be in Mrs. Bancroft's [HistoryMaker Rena Bancroft] class. So anyway I stayed there [Hillsdale High School, San Mateo, California] for four years and I had a good time and by the end she and I had become friends but that first year (laughter) we had a supply closet between our two rooms. We had what they call all-purpose rooms, there were sewing machines and tables so the kids could work in and the kitchens. She would actually go in that supply closet and take the flour out, the little canisters of flour into the kitchen so I wouldn't use all the flour. And we all had a budget you know, it was just, just simple stuff. Anyway it turned out to be all right and last time I saw her she wanted to hug and kiss and I just you know long ago and far away.$(Simultaneous) So how was it being president of the, of the colle- (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Division [San Francisco Community College Centers]?$$--did you enjoy it?$$Yes. I had a lot of trouble with the chancellor, Hilary Hsu. He had a bachelor's degree and I was just about finish with my doctorate. He had lived in the United States from the time he came here to go to college but I guess they have their classifications and there's a difference between the Mandarins and the Cantonese--$$Right, right.$$--and he's Mandarin. He was very snotty. He had a great deal of trouble dealing with me. I threatened him. I didn't mean to but he, he watched me like a hawk. And he made problems for me and I always solved them. And I never said anything to him that was unhappy or nasty until one day he called me in about something silly and I was working on some reports that I had to get in. And I told him I said, "You're keeping me from doing my work. You want those reports this afternoon you need to let me go back to my office." Burl [HistoryMaker Burl Toler, Sr.] was there. He called Burl in too. And he started and started and started, finally I stood up and I said, "I'm not staying here to have you just rant like this. If you have a reason to have me here, fine, but your papers will be on the desk by four o'clock, and I'm going back to finish." And I walked on out. And I finished the papers and I took them back over there at four o'clock and when we got a new chancellor, I don't know what happened with him and the board [San Francisco Community College Board], but the board released him and--$$Oh my.$$--demoted him to teaching in the business department at the downtown center. And when the new chancellor came, I was demoted from whatever I was head--as president of the centers division and I was made the dean of the evening division and when I had to sign students who were coming in to take evening classes, the fo- former chancellor who'd been so mean to me hid in the corner until everybody had gone and then he came over for me to sign his payroll. So I see him once in a while but I stayed seven years there and that was it.$$Oh wow.$$Stayed 'til I was sixty-two (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) So what kind of things did you do? Really? What kinds of things did you teach, did you do there?$$I was an administrator. I had the responsibility for seeing that they kept the budgets straight, that their students performed well, that they kept the ADA [Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990] up because we were the cash cow for the district [San Francisco Community College District]. We got less money per student because we were non-credit but we had over sixty thousand students whereas city college [City College of San Francisco, San Francisco, California] only has something like twenty-three or twenty-four thousand so they got--their teachers got paid more than mine did, but we had three times as many students or maybe four times as many students, more than that anyway, we did all right, but my job was to keep my money because when I got there, he took 60 percent of the budget that came from the revenue created by that division and gave it to his own office for the gener- the district office running and then the rest of it went to the credit side.$$Oh my Lord.$$So we had to have a little agreement about that. I got it upped a little bit.

Beverly Daniel Tatum

Educator and clinical psychologist Beverly Christine Daniel Tatum was born on September 27, 1954, in Tallahassee, Florida, to parents Catherine Faith Maxwell and Robert A. Daniel. After completing high school, Tatum received her B.A. degree in psychology from Wesleyan University in 1975. She went on to receive her M.A. degree in clinical psychology from the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, in 1976 and later returned there to receive her Ph.D. in clinical psychology in 1984. In 2000, Tatum received her M.A. degree in religious studies from Hartford Seminary in Hartford, Connecticut.

Tatum began her career in higher education in 1980 as a lecturer in the Department of Black Studies at the University of California at Santa Barbara. During her teaching career, she held professorships in psychology at Westfield State College and Mount Holyoke College. During her tenure at Mount Holyoke College, she was promoted to chair of the Department of Psychology and Education. In 1998, Tatum was appointed as dean of the college and vice president for student affairs. By 2002, she was appointed acting president of Mount Holyoke College before assuming the presidency at Spelman College.

Along with distinguishing herself as a notable educator, Tatum has enjoyed a celebrated career as a clinical psychologist. She worked in independent practice from 1988 to 1998 focusing on individual and group counseling. She specialized in consultation and training related to diversity and multicultural organizational development. Tatum has also written two widely acclaimed books, Assimilation Blues: Black Families in White Communities: Who Succeeds and Why? and ”Why Are All the Black Kids Sitting Together in the Cafeteria?” And Other Conversations About Race, which was named 1998 Multicultural Book of the Year by the National Association of Multicultural Education.

In addition to serving as president of Spelman College, Tatum serves as a member on many boards, including the Board of the Association of American Colleges and Universities in Washington, D.C., and the Woodruff Arts Center Board in Atlanta, Georgia. She is also active in many professional organizations such as the American Psychological Association, American Educational Research Association and the American Association of University Women among others.

Tatum is married to Dr. Travis Tatum and is the mother of two sons, Travis Jonathan and David.

Accession Number

A2006.039

Sex

Female

Interview Date

3/17/2006

Last Name

Tatum

Maker Category
Middle Name

Daniel

Schools

Burnell Laboratory School

Bridgewater Middle School

Bridgewater-Raynham Regional High School

Wesleyan University

University of Michigan

First Name

Beverly

Birth City, State, Country

Tallahassee

HM ID

TAT01

Favorite Season

Fall, Spring

State

Florida

Favorite Vacation Destination

Oceans

Favorite Quote

Breathe Deeply.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Birth Date

9/27/1954

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Atlanta

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Tofu

Short Description

College president and psychology professor Beverly Daniel Tatum (1954 - ) was chair of the Department of Psychology and Education and, later, acting president at Mount Holyoke College, before becoming the president of Spelman College. She has also enjoyed a celebrated career as a clinical psychologist and author.

Employment

University of California Santa Barbara

Westfield State College

Mount Holyoke College

Spelman College

Favorite Color

Pomegranate Red

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Beverly Daniel Tatum's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Beverly Daniel Tatum lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Beverly Daniel Tatum describes her mother

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Beverly Daniel Tatum remembers visiting Danville, Virginia

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Beverly Daniel Tatum describes her father's side of the family, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Beverly Daniel Tatum describes her father's side of the family, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Beverly Daniel Tatum describes her paternal grandparents

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Beverly Daniel Tatum describes the book 'Twenty Families of Color In Massachusetts'

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Beverly Daniel Tatum describes her parents, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Beverly Daniel Tatum describes her parents, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Beverly Daniel Tatum describes her mother's side of the family, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Beverly Daniel Tatum describes her mother's side of the family, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Beverly Daniel Tatum describes her father's side of the family, pt. 3

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Beverly Daniel Tatum describes her earliest childhood memories

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Beverly Daniel Tatum describes her earliest childhood memories and her siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Beverly Daniel Tatum remembers her family's move to Bridgewater, Massachusetts

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Beverly Daniel Tatum recalls growing up in Florida, Pennsylvania and Louisiana

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Beverly Daniel Tatum describes growing up in Bridgewater, Massachusetts

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Beverly Daniel Tatum describes the sights, sounds and smells of growing up

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Beverly Daniel Tatum remembers her neighbors in Bridgewater, Massachusetts, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Beverly Daniel Tatum remembers Bridgewater, Massachusetts

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Beverly Daniel Tatum remembers her neighbors in Bridgewater, Massachusetts, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Beverly Daniel Tatum recalls Bridgewater's Burnell Laboratory School, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Beverly Daniel Tatum recalls Bridgewater's Burnell Laboratory School, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Beverly Daniel Tatum remembers her elementary and junior high school teachers

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Beverly Daniel Tatum describes holidays and her church in Bridgewater, Massachusetts

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Beverly Daniel Tatum remembers her time at Bridgewater Middle School

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Beverly Daniel Tatum recalls her Cape Verdean neighbors

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Beverly Daniel Tatum describes her childhood personality and her time in high school

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Beverly Daniel Tatum recalls Bridgewater-Raynham Regional High School

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Beverly Daniel Tatum remembers choosing Wesleyan University in Middletown, Connecticut

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Beverly Daniel Tatum describes applying to college and her interest in psychology

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Beverly Daniel Tatum recalls choosing Wesleyan University in Middletown, Connecticut

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Beverly Daniel Tatum remembers her instructors at Wesleyan University

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Beverly Daniel Tatum remembers her time at Wesleyan University in Middletown, Connecticut

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Beverly Daniel Tatum recalls developing her sense of black pride in college

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Beverly Daniel Tatum describes her work between college and graduate school

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Beverly Daniel Tatum describes the development of her racial identity, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Beverly Daniel Tatum describes the development of her racial identity, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Beverly Daniel Tatum describes her older brother, Eric Daniel, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Beverly Daniel Tatum describes her older brother, Eric Daniel, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Beverly Daniel Tatum remembers attending the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Beverly Daniel Tatum describes her dissertation advisor, Eric Berman

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Beverly Daniel Tatum remembers completing her dissertation

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Beverly Daniel Tatum describes her research about black families

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Beverly Daniel Tatum recalls teaching a course on racism

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Beverly Daniel Tatum reflects upon her experiences with racism, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Beverly Daniel Tatum reflects upon her experiences with racism, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Beverly Daniel Tatum describes her move from California to Massachusetts

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Beverly Daniel Tatum remembers her career at Westfield State College

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Beverly Daniel Tatum describes her career trajectory in Massachusetts

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Beverly Daniel Tatum recalls joining the Mount Holyoke College faculty

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Beverly Daniel Tatum describes her book 'Why Are All the Black Kids Sitting Together in the Cafeteria?'

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Beverly Daniel Tatum talks about her research on racial identity, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Beverly Daniel Tatum talks about her research on racial identity, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Beverly Daniel Tatum describes her career at Mount Holyoke College

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$5

DAStory

10$7

DATitle
Beverly Daniel Tatum describes the development of her racial identity, pt. 2
Beverly Daniel Tatum recalls teaching a course on racism
Transcript
But when I was at Wesleyan [Wesleyan University, Middletown, Connecticut], I became a resident advisor in the residence halls, and in my--on my residence hall, I had two black girls who also had grown up in predominantly white communities and one of them did it the way I did it in the sense that she came to Wesleyan and she really became part of the black community, and another one didn't. She seemed to be uncomfortable, not able to make that transition, and hung out mostly with other white students and I wondered at the time what made the difference. What made the difference for me, what made the difference between these two girls, and that was really my research question when I went off to graduate school. It was like, what makes the difference? And, I studied that question when I did my doctoral dissertation, and I tried to answer the question in my book, 'Assimilation Blues' ['Assimilation Blues: Black Families in a White Community,' Beverly Daniel Tatum], and in the book I described three kinds of families. I discovered, as part of my research, that there were three kinds of families that I described. One was families that were what I would call race conscious. These were black families living in white communities that, even though they were in a white community, they really worked hard to try to make sure that their kids developed a strong sense of black identity. And maybe they did that by visiting their relatives other places, or sending the kids to a black church, or, you know, maybe joining Jack and Jill [Jack and Jill of America, Inc.], or you know, they did things (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Just immersing themselves in some kind of black environment--$$Trying to find some way to maintain that kind of ongoing connection for their children. And then there were some families that said it was important but didn't really do it, that they were kind of neutral. And then there were families that didn't think it was important, didn't really talk about it, didn't, you know, kind of avoided the whole topic of race, and I called them race-avoidant. If I had to characterize my family, I would call my parents [Catherine Maxwell Daniel and Robert A. Daniel] race neutral.$$Okay.$$You know, they didn't talk a lot about race, they really talked, they talked--or when they did, it was in the spirit of judging people by the content of their character, not by the color of their skin. They were really humanitarians in the sense of I can honestly say I never heard my parents make negative comments about white people or anybody, you know. They were very much guided by the golden rule: treat people the way you want to be treated. That was a clear principle in my household, so I would not give my parents credit for my own desire to establish--to connect with black people because it wasn't necessarily something that they talked a lot about. They didn't say you should do this or you should not do that and, in fact, when I went off to college with my Angela [HistoryMaker Angela Davis] and came home, I went off to college, came home, you know, looking like Angela Davis and talking about power to the people (laughter), you know, my mother thought I had really become kind of anti-white, and she and I had a long conversation about this in my summer after my first year of college, when I said to her, you know, "It's possible to be pro-black without being anti-white," you know. It's not necessarily both--you know, you don't have--I still had white friends, I still saw my high school friends, but clearly my focus had shifted.$So, I got invited to teach a course in the black studies department. The first course I was invited to teach was a course called--was really about black children and education. It was called Education and the Black Child. So, I taught that course and it went pretty well, and then I was asked to teach another one, and the second course I was asked to teach was called Group Exploration of Racism, and I had not ever taught a course like that before, but I, as a psychologist, had facilitated groups, you know, assertiveness training groups, all kinds of groups. And I had done all this reading about coping patterns and responses to racism on the parts of black families and so, anyway, to make a long story short, I thought I could do it and so I, and I needed the money (laughter) so I was offered the opportunity and I took it and I wasn't, I was twenty-five years old, I mean I was still young. Maybe I was twenty-six. I got married when I was twenty-four, going on twenty-four, so maybe I was twenty-six at this time, but I was a new professor and even though I wasn't very experienced, I had a very powerful teaching experience, because at the end of the semester, teaching this course, Group Exploration of Racism, my students said, "This course was the best course we've taken at this university. Everybody should take this course. It should be required." And I just felt like, wow, this is really powerful, and what was it that was making the course such a powerful learning experience? And, what I concluded was it was really about giving young people the permission to talk about a topic that had been a taboo up to that point for them. I mean, it was a very uncommon thing to be able to come together in a racially mixed class and talk about race. Most people hadn't had that experience before.$$Now were there as many whites as there were blacks, or were there--$$Oh, there were more whites, it was mostly white, so it wasn't evenly divided. The University of California at Santa Barbara [University of California, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California] was the least diverse of the University of California campuses at the time that I was there, and that's probably still true. The black student population was about two percent, the Chicano student population was maybe five percent, the Asian population was a little higher perhaps, but it was still largely white campus.$$Well, a lot of times black students will shy away from classes on racism, but in that particular instance, you still had black representation (simultaneous)--?$$(Simultaneous) Yes, I did. I did. So, you know, if their class had maybe thirty students in it, maybe five of the students were black, and that's not a huge number but it is certainly, you know maybe 20 percent of the students would be black, and that, for most of the white students, was a new experience, being in a class with 20 percent of the students being of color, because most of the time, maybe there'd just be one or two. And, but anyway it was a very powerful teaching experience, and as the result of it, I made a personal decision that I wanted to always teach a course on racism. I thought it was an important social duty that I should engage in.

Harold Pates

Educator and cultural activist Harold Pates was born October 31, 1931, in Macon, Mississippi. His great aunt, raised in slavery, lost two fingers to her master for attempting to read. Pates’ parents, Amanda Beasley Pates and Squire Pates were graduates of Bolivar Training School in Mound Bayou, Mississsippi. Migrating to Chicago, Illinois, Pates attended Forestville Elementary School and DuSable High School graduating in 1948. Taught music by DuSable’s Captain Walter Dyett, Pates played with Eddie Harris, Richard Davis, John Gilmore, Jimmy Ellis and other future greats. Pates graduated from Wilson Junior College in 1952 and DePaul University with his B.A. degree in English in 1954. He earned his M.A. degree from DePaul in 1956 and received his PhD degree from the University of Chicago in 1976.

Pates taught at Fuller Elementary School and Forestville Elementary School, and was assistant principal of DuSable Upper Grade Center from 1964 to 1968. He served as a counselor at DuSable Upper Grade Center and High School and as a guidance counselor for the Hyde Park Evening School. As teacher and administrator, Pates joined Lawrence Landry, Lu and Jorja Palmer, Rev. C.T. Vivian, Lorenzo Martin, Bobby E. Wright, and others in agitating for African American concerns in the Chicago Public Schools. In 1968, he joined Loop College where he became director of the Admissions Department. Pates also taught at Loyola University, George Williams College, Northeastern Illinois University, and Concordia College. He also helped plan the first Upward Bound Program. Appointed dean of career programs at Malcolm X College in 1981, Pates moved on to Kennedy-King College as a dean in 1983. In 1986, Pates was named president of Kennedy-King College, serving until 1997. At Kennedy-King, he provided access for cultural and civic organizations and events at an unprecedented level.

Active in efforts to generate an African version of the history and culture of Africa and to infuse the black experience into the educational system, Pates was a founder of the Chicago Communiversity and the Association of African Educators with Anderson Thompson in the late 1960s. He was a founding member of the Kemetic Institute, the Association of Black Psychologists, the National Association of Black School Educators, the Black United Front, the Chicago Task Force for Black Political Empowerment, the Association for the Study of Classical African Civilizations, and the Harold Washington Institute. Recipient of numerous awards, ranging from the Chancellors Award for outstanding Leadership to the Muntu Dance Theatre’s Alyo Award, Pates currently serves on the board of the Black United Fund of Illinois and the advisory board of the Jacob H. Carruthers Center for Inner City Studies of Northeastern Illinois University. He is founding director of the All African World Virtual University. Fit, playing full court basketball into his 70s, Pates, now retired, enjoys golf and playing jazz on the cornet.

A widower, Pates has a grown daughter and son.

Accession Number

A2005.263

Sex

Male

Interview Date

12/12/2005 |and| 7/10/2006

Last Name

Pates

Maker Category
Schools

Du Sable Leadership Academy

University of Chicago

DePaul University

Kennedy–King College

Forrestville Elementary School

Speakers Bureau

Yes

First Name

Harold

Birth City, State, Country

Macon

HM ID

PAT04

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Mississippi

Favorite Vacation Destination

Palm Springs, California

Favorite Quote

Ain't Nobody Right But God.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Illinois

Birth Date

10/31/1931

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Chicago

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Pie (Sweet Potato)

Short Description

Cultural activist, college president, and teacher Harold Pates (1931 - ) is the former president of Kennedy-King College in Chicago. He has worked with numerous organizations dedicated to infusing the African American experience into the educational system, and is founding director of the All African World Virtual University.

Employment

Fuller Elementary School

Wisconsin Steel Mill

Forestville Elementary School

DuSable High School

Loop College

Malcolm X College

Kennedy-King College

Favorite Color

Black

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Harold Pates' interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Harold Pates lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Harold Pates describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Harold Pates describes his mother's family history in the A.M.E. church

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Harold Pates recalls working conditions in his maternal family's community in the South

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Harold Pates recalls traveling to Mississippi as a boy

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Harold Pates explains why his parents sent him south for the summers

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Harold Pates describes his mother's personality, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Harold Pates describes his mother's personality, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Harold Pates describes his father's family background

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Harold Pates relates his paternal family's stories from the era of slavery

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Harold Pates recalls spending summers in Macon, Mississippi as a boy

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Harold Pates describes confrontations with whites in Mississippi, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Harold Pates recalls confrontations with whites in Mississippi, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Harold Pates describes his father's community in Mound Bayou, Mississippi

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Harold Pates recalls his father's move from Mississippi to Chicago

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Harold Pates recalls his father's work for the post office

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Harold Pates describes his siblings

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Harold Pates describes his sister's career as an opera singer

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Harold Pates describes his earliest childhood memory, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Harold Pates describes his earliest childhood memory, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Harold Pates describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Harold Pates remembers learning to drive at the age of twelve

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Harold Pates recalls Chicago's Bronzeville neighborhood during his childhood

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Harold Pates recalls performers who lived in and visited Chicago's Bronzeville neighborhood

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Harold Pates recalls his activities as a child in Chicago's Bronzeville neighborhood

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Harold Pates describes being a paperboy in Chicago's white neighborhoods

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Harold Pates recalls running policy as a child in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Harold Pates describes influential figures in Chicago's Bronzeville neighborhood

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Harold Pates recalls famous musicians from Chicago's Bronzeville neighborhood

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Harold Pates describes the geography of his childhood neighborhood on Chicago's South Side

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Harold Pates describes his father's civil rights activism

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Harold Pates talks about systemic racial oppression

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Harold Pates recalls segregation in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Harold Pates describes racial tension in Chicago's South Side neighborhoods

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Harold Pates recalls Chicago's political machine in Bronzeville

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Harold Pates recalls institutions in Chicago's Bronzeville neighborhood

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Harold Pates describes businesses in Chicago's Bronzeville neighborhood

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Harold Pates recalls a teacher at Chicago's Forrestville Elementary School

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Harold Pates describes his grade school experiences in Chicago

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Harold Pates describes his extracurricular activities during grade school

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Harold Pates recalls his childhood neighbor William Cousins, Jr.

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Harold Pates describes his favorite activities at Chicago's DuSable High School

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Harold Pates describes politically radical community groups in Chicago

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Harold Pates recalls hearing W.E.B. Du Bois and Paul Robeson speak, pt. 1

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Harold Pates recalls hearing W.E.B. Du Bois and Paul Robeson speak, pt. 2

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Harold Pates describes the social atmosphere of Chicago's DuSable High School

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Harold Pates recalls musicians who studied at Chicago's DuSable High School

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Harold Pates remembers working as a musician as a teenager

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Harold Pates recalls graduating from Chicago's DuSable High School

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Harold Pates describes working for Wisconsin Steel, pt. 1

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Harold Pates describes working for Wisconsin Steel, pt. 2

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - Harold Pates describes his initial setbacks at Chicago's Wilson Junior College

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - Harold Pates reflects on his father's support for his education

Tape: 8 Story: 6 - Harold Pates describes his experiences at Chicago's DePaul University

Tape: 8 Story: 7 - Harold Pates explains how his DePaul University degree helped him to find a job

Tape: 9 Story: 1 - Harold Pates describes his academic pursuits at DePaul University

Tape: 9 Story: 2 - Harold Pates recalls befriending Italian Americans at DePaul University

Tape: 9 Story: 3 - Harold Pates describes his impressions of DePaul University

Tape: 9 Story: 4 - Harold Pates describes his own and his brother's careers during the 1950s

Tape: 9 Story: 5 - Harold Pates recalls his first position as a teacher in Chicago

Tape: 9 Story: 6 - Harold Pates describes teaching at an all-girls school

Tape: 9 Story: 7 - Harold Pates describes the lessons he learned early in his teaching career

Tape: 10 Story: 1 - Harold Pates recalls his fellow teachers at Chicago's Fuller Elementary School

Tape: 10 Story: 2 - Harold Pates recalls his concern over expulsions at Fuller Elementary School

Tape: 10 Story: 3 - Harold Pates describes discrimination against black teachers in Chicago Public Schools

Tape: 10 Story: 4 - Harold Pates recalls students from Chicago's Forrestville Elementary School

Tape: 10 Story: 5 - Harold Pates recalls how he enjoyed teaching at Forrestville Elementary School

Tape: 10 Story: 6 - Harold Pates recalls his decision to leave Forrestville Elementary School

Tape: 11 Story: 1 - Harold Pates describes his disagreements with the principal of Forrestville Elementary School

Tape: 11 Story: 2 - Harold Pates recalls becoming a teacher at Chicago's DuSable Upper Grade Center

Tape: 11 Story: 3 - Harold Pates recalls tension between the students and teachers at DuSable Upper Grade Center

Tape: 11 Story: 4 - Harold Pates describes a violent incident with a student at DuSable Upper Grade Center

Tape: 11 Story: 5 - Harold Pates recalls the overcrowding of Chicago's black schools

Tape: 11 Story: 6 - Harold Pates explains how the Willis Wagons controversy mobilized black leadership

Tape: 12 Story: 1 - Slating of Harold Pates' interview, session 2

Tape: 12 Story: 2 - Harold Pates recalls racial discrimination in Chicago's trade schools

Tape: 12 Story: 3 - Harold Pates recalls biases in the hiring of principals in Chicago Public Schools

Tape: 12 Story: 4 - Harold Pates describes working for Galeta Kaar at DuSable Upper Grade Center

Tape: 12 Story: 5 - Harold Pates talks about Reverend Dr. C.T. Vivian

Tape: 12 Story: 6 - Harold Pates recalls joining Loyola University Chicago's Upward Bound program

Tape: 12 Story: 7 - Harold Pates describes his career ambitions during the late 1960s

Tape: 12 Story: 8 - Harold Pates recalls Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.'s assassination

Tape: 13 Story: 1 - Harold Pates describes tensions around integration in Chicago during the 1950s and 1960s

Tape: 13 Story: 2 - Harold Pates describes the reaction of Chicago's black community to Dr. King's death

Tape: 13 Story: 3 - Harold Pates recalls incidents that led to the Selma to Montgomery marches

Tape: 13 Story: 4 - Harold Pates recalls his experience in the 1965 Selma to Montgomery march

Tape: 13 Story: 5 - Harold Pates recalls becoming director of admissions at Chicago's Loop College

Tape: 13 Story: 6 - Harold Pates remembers black organizations in Chicago in the late 1960s

Tape: 14 Story: 1 - Harold Pates describes the influence of the University of Chicago in Chicago's Woodlawn neighborhood

Tape: 14 Story: 2 - Harold Pates recalls the rise of the Blackstone Rangers

Tape: 14 Story: 3 - Harold Pates recalls mediating between gangs in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 14 Story: 4 - Harold Pates recalls the growth of African American studies programs

Tape: 14 Story: 5 - Harold Pates recalls his involvement in the National Association for College Admission Counseling

Tape: 14 Story: 6 - Harold Pates recalls the founding of Chicago's Communiversity

Tape: 14 Story: 7 - Harold Pates recalls the rise of the Black Power movement in the late 1960s

Tape: 15 Story: 1 - Harold Pates reflects on the importance of black institutions

Tape: 15 Story: 2 - Harold Pates talks about the educational philosophy of Chicago's Communiversity

Tape: 15 Story: 3 - Harold Pates describes problems with the Eurocentric version of history

Tape: 15 Story: 4 - Harold Pates describes the structure of Chicago's Communiversity

Tape: 15 Story: 5 - Harold Pates recalls a quarrel with Sol Tax at the University of Chicago

Tape: 15 Story: 6 - Harold Pates reflects upon the mission of the Communiversity

Tape: 16 Story: 1 - Harold Pates describes his administrative tenure at Chicago's Loop College

Tape: 16 Story: 2 - Harold Pates recalls fellow faculty members at Chicago's Loop College

Tape: 16 Story: 3 - Harold Pates recalls becoming a dean of Chicago's Malcolm X College

Tape: 16 Story: 4 - Harold Pates recalls being appointed president of Chicago's Kennedy-King College

Tape: 16 Story: 5 - Harold Pates describes the politics of Kennedy-King College

Tape: 16 Story: 6 - Harold Pates recalls a negative news story about Kennedy-King College

Tape: 16 Story: 7 - Harold Pates recalls community engagement at Kennedy-King College

Tape: 17 Story: 1 - Harold Pates describes his policies as Kennedy-King College president

Tape: 17 Story: 2 - Harold Pates describes programs he introduced at Kennedy-King College

Tape: 17 Story: 3 - Harold Pates talks about plans for a new facility for Kennedy-King College

Tape: 17 Story: 4 - Harold Pates describes life after his retirement from Kennedy-King College

Tape: 17 Story: 5 - Harold Pates talks about a controversy at Kennedy-King College

Tape: 17 Story: 6 - Harold Pates reflects upon his life

Tape: 18 Story: 1 - Harold Pates describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community, pt. 1

Tape: 18 Story: 2 - Harold Pates describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community, pt. 2

Tape: 18 Story: 3 - Harold Pates considers contemporary leaders in the African American community

Tape: 18 Story: 4 - Harold Pates reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 18 Story: 5 - Harold Pates reflects upon his family life

Tape: 18 Story: 6 - Harold Pates talks about the importance of rejecting materialism

Tape: 18 Story: 7 - Harold Pates reflects upon the role of music in his life

Tape: 19 Story: 1 - Harold Pates describes how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 19 Story: 2 - Harold Pates narrates his photographs

DASession

1$2

DATape

4$16

DAStory

5$4

DATitle
Harold Pates describes being a paperboy in Chicago's white neighborhoods
Harold Pates recalls being appointed president of Chicago's Kennedy-King College
Transcript
I remember the first time I ever got afraid of a policeman. I told you I was twelve years old, I was tall. I started delivering papers in the white neighborhood; the paper branch was in the alley between Cottage Grove [Avenue] and Drexel [Avenue]. We would, I would go from 46th [Street] and Evans [Avenue], down 47th Street into this alley. There was a drugstore on the corner of 47th and Cottage Grove, it was called Orenstein's [ph.], there was also a newspaper stand right in front of it. One day I had my paper bag, 4:30 in the morning, I'm going to the paper branch. I walk down 47th Street, a white woman was coming in front of me, she saw me and ran across to the south side of 47th Street. It was a policeman standing at the newsstand, and this is one of these pivotal experiences too. I saw this lady, I knew that this lady was afraid of me, it was very clear, she went across the street and walked to the newsstand. There was a policeman at the newsstand, and I saw her doing like this, the policeman took out after me running. And I saw that, I started to run but I didn't because you know how white policemen dealt with black people at that time was no myth. I mean it was very real, I started to run but I didn't, I continued to walk, and I tried to act like I didn't know that he was coming behind me. He came up to me, right when I got in front of the Vee show, he pulled his gun out, put it up to my head and he said, "What are you doing over here?" He said, "Turn around," where my back would be to him, he put the gun up against my head, and he said, "What are you doing over here?" And I went to turn around to talk to him; he said, "If you turn around, I'll blow your head off." So I just stood there, but I said, "You see this paper bag, I'm about to go to the paper branch," but it occurred to me I can't see this man's face. If he killed me nobody will know who he is, but I wouldn't have been able to tell it anyway, you know. So I'm standing there and he's--then he cocked the gun and I thought, Crowe [Larry Crowe], I really thought I was gone then, as a young boy you know. So finally I said, "See the paper bag, see the paper bag, I'm going right back here, the paper branch is right here." So then he, I guess he took the latch off the gun and then he turned around and went on away. And there was a florist shop and when I got back in the paper branch, I thought about that because I never told any of the fellows. See back at that time, there was only one white boy working in the branch, his name was Tommy North, N-O-R-T-H, and he lived in the white community. All the rest of us who delivered papers in the white community were black. My brother [Henry Pates] delivered the papers over in five hotels which are now, which have--many of them have been replaced by 50th on the Lake [50th on the Lake Motel, Chicago, Illinois]. There was also an [U.S.] Army barracks over there that was called the [U.S.] Fifth Army, now that's important. Because in the '60s [1960s], the Fifth Army came out in the '60s [1960s] after Martin Luther King [Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.] was killed and posted a .50 caliber machine gun right there on--this is what I saw with my eyes. Right there on Stony Island [Avenue] and 63rd Street, I guess they decided they were gonna shoot down 63rd Street. Because young people were setting 63rd Street on fire, you understand? And they didn't know what to do, so the Army--I came out that night to see, but I was, you know. This is not when I was young; this is when Martin Luther King got killed.$My presidency, I think I became president either in '86 [1986] or '87 [1987], I don't remember the exact date. And that was a very interesting experience, the presidency of Kennedy-King [Kennedy-King College, Chicago, Illinois] because my orientation for the presidency was to make sure that the pres- that the school reflected of the community and its values. And that it took the community to a higher level with respect to the offerings and with respect to, to--it operating as a resource for community development.$$Before I get, I just want to ask you did you, were you surprised when you became, when you were appointed, I mean did, you went after the job I'm sure. But, but were you, I mean how, how was the lay of the land? I mean were you assured of (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Well--$$--of being, of becoming the president at that time? Did you have, was it a done deal or what?$$Well you know no, it wasn't a done deal. It was very interesting because you see there was, within the college, the faculty council had decided on another person. I'm coming in out of the community with a community support, but also with the, with the support of the student government, who was both a part of the school and a part of the community at the same time. Well, my coming into the presidency, when the selection committee, it just so happens that members of the selection committee, the president of the selection committee--now this just so happens, the president, the chairman of the selection committee was a fellow named Mayo [ph.]; I can't remember his first name, simply because we were in third grade together in elementary school [Forrestville Elementary School, Chicago, Illinois], and when he discovered that they were searching and that they were looking at me as the president, he came to see me. He said, "[HistoryMaker] Harold Pates," he said, "do you realize that, do you realize how far we go back?" And I begin to talk, I said, "Look, I remember when we were in elementary school." We started talking about--. He says, "With your credentials," because everybody knew me in the City of Chicago [Illinois], you know, "you got to be the president over here." He says, "You got to be the president." Well, I don't know what went on in the selection committee, but the student government chairman came out one day and told me while I was in the counseling office he says, "Now Dr. Pates are you ready to be president?" I said, "Oh?" He said, "Are you ready?" I said, "Of course," and that's the way that happened.

Rafael Cortada

Rafael Leon Cortada, Ph.D, was born on February 12, 1934, in New York City. His mother was a seamstress and his father was a postal worker. He attended Public Schools 99 and 39 until his family moved and enrolled him in a Catholic school. In 1951, Cortada received his high school diploma from St. Francis Xavier Military School in New York.

Shortly after earning his bachelor’s of arts degree in philosophy from Fordham University in 1955, he was drafted into the army and stationed in Korea. In 1958, he received his master’s degree in secondary education from Columbia University. He went on to further his education earning his Ph.D from Fordham in Latin American and modern European history in 1967.

Cortada taught high school history from 1957-1964 at New Rochelle High School in New York while working on his Ph.D. From 1964 to 1966, he taught Latin American history at the University of Dayton in Ohio. He then went on to work as a Foreign Service officer in the State Department from 1966 to 1969. From 1969 until 1974, Cortada taught at a number of colleges including Federal City College in Washington, D.C., Smith College in Massachusetts, Howard University, Medgar Evers College and Hostos Community College, both in New York.

In 1974, Cortada wrote and published his first and only book, Black Studies, An Urban Comparative Curriculum, and received his first job as a college president. From 1974 to 1977, Cortada served as president of Metropolitan Community College in Minneapolis, Minnesota. He then moved back East and accepted the presidency at Community College of Baltimore, where he served from 1977-1982. From 1982 until 1987, he served as president of El Camino College in Torrance, California. In 1987, he was appointed president of the University of the District of Columbia and served in that post until 1990, when he was named president of Wayne County Community College in Detroit, Michigan. From 1994-1999, Cortada was president of Central Ohio Technical College in Newark, Ohio. From 1999 until his retirement in 2001, Cortada taught history education at Ohio State University at Newark.

Cortada passed away on April 11, 2017 at age 83.

Accession Number

A2004.079

Sex

Male

Interview Date

6/15/2004

Last Name

Cortada

Maker Category
Middle Name

L.

Occupation
Organizations
Schools

P.S. 99, Dimitrious Myers School

P.S. 39

St. Anthony School

St. Francis Xavier High School

Fordham University

Columbia University

Harvard University

St. Francis Xavier Military School

Xavier High School

First Name

Rafael

Birth City, State, Country

New York

HM ID

COR02

Favorite Season

Spring

State

New York

Favorite Vacation Destination

Hilton Head, South Carolina

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

2/12/1934

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Beans, Rice

Death Date

4/11/2017

Short Description

College president Rafael Cortada (1934 - 2017 ) has served as president of several community colleges, including the Metropolitan Community College in Minneapolis, Community College of Baltimore, El Camino College, University of the District of Columbia, and Wayne County Community College.

Employment

New Rochelle High School (New York)

City University of New York, Bronx Community College

University of Dayton

Department of State

Howard University

Federal City College

Smith College, Northampton, MA

City University of New York, Medgar Evers College

City University of New York, Hostos Community College

Metropolitan Community College, Minneapolis

Community College of Baltimore

Pepperdine University, Los Angeles

El Camino College

University of the District of Columbia

American Association of State Colleges and Universities, D.C.

Wayne County Community College, Detroit

Ohio State University, Newark

Central Ohio Technical College

Ohio State University

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Rafael Cortada interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Rafael Cortada's favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Rafael Cortada recalls his mother's background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Rafael Cortada describes his father's background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Rafael Cortada remembers his grandparents

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Rafael Cortada shares memories from his family life

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Rafael Cortada remembers his childhood environs, Bronx, New York

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Rafael Cortada recounts his early school life

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Rafael Cortada recounts his high school years

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Rafael Cortada describes his college pursuits, part 1

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Rafael Cortada describes his college pursuits, part 2

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Rafael Cortada recounts his time in the U.S. military

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Rafael Cortada discusses his pursuit of graduate studies in education, Columbia University

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Rafael Cortada evaluates his early career in secondary education

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Rafael Cortada describes his experiences teaching at the college-level

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Rafael Cortada details his employment with the U.S. State Department

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Rafael Cortada discusses his career teaching black studies, 1960s

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Rafael Cortada recounts his presidency at Metropolitan Community College, Minneapolis, Minnesota

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Rafael Cortada discusses his book, 'Black Studies: An Urban and Comparative Curriculum'

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Rafael Cortada recalls his posts at two community colleges

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Rafael Cortada reflects on his post at the University of the District of Columbia, Washington, D.C.

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Rafael Cortada shares thoughts on today's students

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Rafael Cortada reflects on the state of historically black colleges and universities

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Rafael Cortada discusses the significance of history

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Rafael Cortada reflects on the course of his career

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Rafael Cortada evaluates the costs of higher education

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Rafael Cortada evaluates affirmative action in higher education

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Rafael Cortada expresses his hopes for the African American community

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Rafael Cortada reflects on challenges in his career

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Rafael Cortada considers the impact of minorities in higher education

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Rafael Cortada discusses African American/Hispanic relations

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Rafael Cortada discusses his political involvement in Detroit, Michigan

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Rafael Cortada reviews his collegiate appointments in Ohio

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Rafael Cortada reflects on his experiences in the classroom

DASession

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DATape

1$2

DAStory

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DATitle
Rafael Cortada remembers his childhood environs, Bronx, New York
Rafael Cortada discusses his career teaching black studies, 1960s
Transcript
What can you tell us about--do you remember the name of the street that you lived on and can you describe your block and what your community was like?$$Oh, I remember all the streets. Prospect Avenue is a very large boulevard in the Bronx. And it was a large, oh, maybe seventy-five to a hundred apartment buildings with a large courtyard in the middle. And there was an elevator, and basically, we had three family members living in three different apartments, one on the first floor, one on the third, we were on the fifth. And I had keys to all the different apartments. So I was really a latchkey kid. My grandmother [Clara Hernendez Bernier] lived on the third floor with one of my aunts. And basically, I moved through the apartments. One aunt was in show business, so she was in and out of town. The aunt on the first floor had two sons, my cousins. And they were fun guys.$$And what was the community like? What was--?$$The community, as I look back now, I realize--I had no sense of poverty at that point, but it was hard-working poor people.$$And do you remember like any particular stores and that kind of thing?$$I remember the 845 Club which I was told never to go near, don't even walk by it. In the days before drugs, a raunchy bar was about the worst you had in the community. Otherwise, you had all of the normal retail stores (dog barking).$$We were talking about your block in your community.$$Yes.$$Well, let me ask you this, Dr. Cortada, tell me what sights, sounds and smells remind you of growing up?$$Prospect Avenue is a large urban boulevard, but it ended in Crotona Park. And I grew up with a Great Dane, Duchess. So we had a Great Dane in this apartment. But Duchess was my constant companion, and we would walk about eight blocks up to Crotona Park, and it was there that I'd meet other boys. And we'd play ball. And Duchess would normally sit on the bench or by the bench and at some point in the game, it would become irresistible to her to get into the game, and she'd run and get the ball, slobber all over it (laughter). But basically, I grew up accompanied by that dog, and through Prospect Avenue, again, you had all the retail stores. So you had Victor's at the corner, a grocery store, or a bodega as it became. It was very multicultural. You had basically black American, West Indians and the beginnings of a Hispanic community. And you still had the Irish and some Italians in the area. So it was very, very bicultural and very mixed.$$And what sights, sounds and smells remind you--any smells in particular?$$The smells from the grocery stores, the Italian sausage, the unique smell that you get from some of the Spanish food, the rice, the beans that they would sell in big barrels and so on.$$What about sounds?$$Traffic, very urban, very accustomed to that. In fact, too quiet kind of makes me uncomfortable.$Were you missing teaching at all?$$Well, I was doing some teaching. I taught at Howard University in Caribbean Studies while I was in the State Department. And I enjoyed that course very much. And in 1968, they were opening a new school in Washington, D.C. called Federal City College. So just as a lark, I floated an application to Federal City College and lo and behold I was hired. I became a charter member of the faculty.$$And were you excited about the opportunity of teaching full time again?$$Very excited, very excited about teaching in Washington, D.C., very excited about teaching an adult, minority population, and very excited also about a school that had aspirations to provide a quality education. A lot of idealism was involved at that point.$$And what was it like teaching students in the late '60s [1960s] in Washington, D.C.?$$You're very conflicted. You find the Civil Rights Movements had created a lot of unreasonable, unrealistic expectations in terms of black power and where education could take you. It also created quite a conflict about what education should be. Many people felt that education should really consist of total immersion in one's own blackness. And having seen what I had seen in the army and in the State Department, I believed people had to be immersed in an effort to be competent. So there was quite a bit of conflict involved. I supported black studies on the one hand, but I was also considered a conservative because I believed language skills, computational skills, multilingual skills to be extremely important, and language skills beyond Swahili. So we had bitter, bloody faculty battles about why a black person should study Arabic, Chinese or Russian, when Swahili is really what we should be doing.$$And when did you start becoming involved in, or start developing an interest in black studies?$$At that time. In my dissertation studies which was on the government of Spain under Joseph Bonaparte from 1808 to 1814, I ran into a couple of things. Number one, touched upon the Haitian revolution. Number two, the Spanish empirical holdings and the Spanish empire. And once you begin doing that, you begin running into the slave trade, which really colored these Spanish colonies. And you begin running into the multi-racial societies that the Spaniards are building. In fact, that's where I first encountered my last name in historical context. But I began looking into Spain, but I also began looking into this much broader picture. And to a degree, I think I was looking also at my own ethnicity as I looked at the Caribbean.$$And tell me a little bit about how receptive your colleagues were, students were to learning about black studies.$$At Federal City College, very, very accepting. The students--I can't say enough good things about them. That first class was able, exceptional. They were very serious, and they were willing to tackle tough jobs. And the more demanding you were, the better they performed. And in moving off into new discipline, which was quite controversial, and controversial within the faculty, students were willing to go in a new direction.$$And how do you think students back then benefited from learning about black studies?$$Well, I think they were the first generation which had--which had something that the generation now doesn't. I find today's students are losing a sense of who we are, how we got here and what came before. Those students really were looking at American history from a non-judgmental, but a factual point of view. And when you come right down to it, I taught America about America, as a tremendous experiment in which all these different people are trying to perfect this thing. And, yeah, things were very bad in the '60s [1960s], but look at where we started a hundred years earlier. So you have to look at black studies from that point of view. To a degree, I began teaching American History from the point of, you're looking at different ethnic groups. So I integrated black studies into my American History class, but I also began looking at how the Irish got here, how the Italians got here, Jews got here. It's a very interesting mosaic, and you're not focused on presidential elections, but you're really looking at America from the streets. And I began struggling with developing courses from that point of view.$$And how do you think white students would have benefited from having the same type of infusion into their American history and history courses?$$They found their grandparents in there too. You know, when we--when I taught, for example, about the draft riots in which Irish immigrants attacked blacks in New York City. The people who attacked those blacks were the grandparents, great grandparents of some of the kids sitting in class. And you can't be judgmental about it. You know, you don't hold these kids liable but why were these people rioting? Well, they'd just came out of starvation in Ireland, and here they are being sent off to fight a war over Africans that they didn't own. You know, the onus of fighting that war fell on Irish immigrants, who really had nothing against anybody when they got here. They wanted a job. So, no, I found students to be very receptive. One of the problems that I ran into, though, was with colleagues, because it's non-traditional.$$How did you overcome it?$$Probably never did. I just did it my way (laughter).