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Rufus Williams

Accountant and Chicago Board of Education President Rufus Williams, Jr. was born on December 30, 1956 in Chicago, Illinois to Dicye Belle and Rufus Williams, Sr. Williams was raised in a household of six children in the North Lawndale and West Garfield Park communities on Chicago’s Westside. During his childhood, he attended Crown Elementary School and Dvorak Elementary School before graduating from Morton Upper Grade Center. In 1974, he graduated from Orr High School where he was a member of the school’s basketball team.

Without the finances to pay for a higher education, Williams postponed his plans of attending college to work at a fast food restaurant. He eventually earned enough money, received a scholarship and with the help of his parents, enrolled at Southern University in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. In 1978, he graduated magna cum laude with his B.S. degree in accounting in 1978. Williams was then hired as a certified public accountant for Arthur Anderson & Company. He worked there until 1988 when he became the corporate audit manager for the Baxter Healthcare Corporation. Williams later went on to work for Harpo Entertainment Group as a senior manager. There, he was instrumental in establishing the operational structure and financial management of Harpo Studios. Oprah Winfrey then encouraged him to follow his dreams of becoming an entrepreneur. In 2000, Williams founded Olympus LLC and began providing business management, contract negotiations and career development sources. His clients consisted of a variety of entertainers and athletes including veteran baseball player Gary Sheffield.

Williams was appointed to the Chicago Public School (CPS) Board in 2005 and served on the board of trustees of the CPS Teachers Pension and Retirement Fund before succeeding Michael Scott as the school board president in 2006. As president, Williams has helped to form the Charitable Fund for Inner-City Athletic Equipment, a fund that provides athletic shoes to CPS student athletes from low income families. In 2007, Williams launched Real Men Read which was designed to encourage a love of literacy in young boys, while encouraging long lasting school-community partnerships.

In addition to serving as president for the Better Boys Foundation, Williams has served as Vice Chairman and Treasurer of the Board of Trustees of Providence-St. Mel School and as the president of the Local School Council of Whitney M. Young Magnet High School.

Williams was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on February 22, 2008.

Accession Number

A2008.025

Sex

Male

Interview Date

2/22/2008

Last Name

Williams

Schools

Orr Academy High School

Crown Elementary Community Academy Fine Arts Center

Dvorak School of Excellence

Morton Upper Grade Center

Lane Technical College Prep High School

Southern University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

First Name

Rufus

Birth City, State, Country

Chicago

HM ID

WIL45

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Illinois

Favorite Vacation Destination

Bermuda

Favorite Quote

I Am The Master Of My Fate, I Am The Captain Of My Soul.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Illinois

Birth Date

12/30/1956

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Chicago

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Catfish

Short Description

Accountant, education chief executive, and financial chief executive Rufus Williams (1956 - ) was the president of the Chicago Board of Education. Williams founded his own company, Olympus LLC, which provides business management, contract negotiations and career development sources for its clients, after working as a certified public account at Arthur Anderson & Company and as senior manager at Harpo Studios.

Employment

Arthur Andersen

Baxter International

Harpo Studios Inc.

Olympus LLC

Favorite Color

Red

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Rufus Williams' interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Rufus Williams lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Rufus Williams talks about his maternal family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Rufus Williams talks about his maternal family's migration to the North

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Rufus Williams talks about his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Rufus Williams talks about his parents' migration to Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Rufus Williams considers how he resembles his parents

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Rufus Williams lists the neighborhoods where his family lived in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Rufus Williams recalls his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Rufus Williams describes the sights, sounds and smells of growing up in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Rufus Williams talks about gang activity on the West Side of Chicago, Illinois in the 1960s

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Rufus Williams talks about his activities with the Boys Brotherhood Republic growing up in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Rufus Williams remembers his experience at Anton Dvorak Elementary School in Chicago, Illinois and its principal, HistoryMaker Barbara A. Sizemore

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Rufus Williams recalls his influential teachers at Anton Dvorak Elementary School in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Rufus Williams remembers meeting Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. in 1966 and the emergence of the Black Panthers in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Rufus Williams remembers segregation in the 1950s and 1960s

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Rufus Williams talks about his experiences at Albert Grannis Lane Technical High School and Orr Academy High School during the 1970s in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Rufus Williams remembers the aftermath of the 1968 Chicago Riots on the West Side of Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Rufus Williams describes fashion styles in the 1960s and 1970s in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Rufus Williams describes his experience with religion while growing up

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Rufus Williams recalls the death of his oldest sister in 1977

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Rufus Williams describes his freshman year at Albert Grannis Lane Technical High School in Chicago, Illinois, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Rufus Williams describes his freshman year at Albert Grannis Lane Technical High School in Chicago, Illinois, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Rufus Williams remembers his hopes and dreams during his time at Orr Academy High School in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Rufus Williams recalls life lessons he learned in eighth grade at Morton Upper Grade Center in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Rufus Williams remembers playing on Orr Academy High School's basketball team in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Rufus Williams talks about the gang presence on the West Side of Chicago, Illinois during the 1960s

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Rufus Williams describes how his motivation to be successful protected him in his neighborhood

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Rufus Williams recalls selecting a college to attend

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Rufus Williams talks about his siblings' college education

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Rufus Williams remembers not being able to afford college

Tape: 3 Story: 12 - Rufus Williams recalls being robbed while working at Burger King

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Rufus Williams remembers an influential history teacher at Orr Academy High School

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Rufus Williams recalls being admitted into Southern University and Agricultural and Mechanical College in Baton Rouge, Louisiana

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Rufus Williams describes the impact of receiving an academic scholarship from the Better Boys Foundation

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Rufus Williams talks about choosing a career path in college

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Rufus Williams talks about playing basketball at Southern University and Agricultural and Mechanical College in Baton Rouge, Louisiana

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Rufus Williams remembers pledging Kappa Alpha Psi Fraternity at Southern University and Agricultural and Mechanical College in Baton Rouge, Louisiana

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Rufus Williams describes his social and academic experiences at Southern University and Agricultural and Mechanical College in Baton Rouge, Louisiana

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Rufus Williams shares advice that made him successful at Southern University and Agricultural and Mechanical College in Baton Rouge, Louisiana

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Rufus Williams describes the benefits of attending a historically black university

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Rufus Williams recalls joining Arthur Andersen and Co. in Chicago, Illinois right after his college graduation

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Rufus Williams describes being hired at Arthur Andersen and Co. in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Rufus Williams describes the training process at Arthur Andersen and Co. in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Rufus Williams recalls working toward a promotion at Arthur Andersen and Co. in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Rufus Williams describes trying to become a manager at Arthur Andersen and Co. in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Rufus Williams recalls two difficult assignments at Arthur Andersen and Co. in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Rufus Williams talks about his family life and work with the Better Boys Foundation during his time at Arthur Andersen and Co. in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Rufus Williams explains his decision to leave Arthur Andersen and Co. in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Rufus Williams explains his decision to work at Baxter Healthcare Corporation in Deerfield, Illinois

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Rufus Williams describes joining Harpo Studios, Inc. in Chicago, Illinois and moving to the Lincoln Park neighborhood

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Rufus Williams recalls his aspirations when he became vice controller at Harpo Studios Inc. in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Rufus Williams remembers working with Oprah Winfrey to help set up the Oprah Winfrey Foundation

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Rufus Williams remembers his introspective conversations with Oprah Winfrey while working at Harpo Studios Inc. in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Rufus Williams talks about his experience working at Harpo Studios, Inc. in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Rufus Williams explains his decision to remain at Harpo Studios Inc. in Chicago Illinois in 1991

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Rufus Williams explains why he decided to leave Harpo Studios Inc. in Chicago, Illinois in 2000

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Rufus Williams talks about the origin and evolution of his wealth management company, Olympus LLC, in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Rufus Williams describes negotiating Gary Sheffield's baseball contract

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Rufus Williams comments on the Detroit Tigers 2008 baseball team

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - Rufus Williams explains how he was appointed president of the Chicago Board of Education in 2006

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Rufus Williams reflects upon the importance of his role as president of the Chicago Board of Education in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Rufus Williams talks about former Chicago Board of Education presidents, HistoryMakers The Honorable Kenneth Smith, Sr. and Michael Scott, Sr.

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Rufus Williams considers the ways to improve the education of African American children

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Rufus Williams describes starting the Real Men Read mentoring and literacy program in Chicago Public Schools

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Rufus Williams remembers Bill Cosby's 2006 speech at Chicago Public Schools' Power of Parents conference

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Rufus Williams reflects upon his goals as president of the Chicago Board of Education

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Rufus Williams considers some of the challenges he faces as president of the Chicago Board of Education

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Rufus Williams recalls a conversation about education with HistoryMaker Barbara A. Sizemore

Tape: 7 Story: 9 - Rufus Williams considers how long he will serve as president of the Chicago Board of Education

Tape: 7 Story: 10 - Rufus Williams reflects upon his life

Tape: 7 Story: 11 - Rufus Williams reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 7 Story: 12 - Rufus Williams describes how he would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

6$7

DAStory

7$1

DATitle
Rufus Williams talks about the origin and evolution of his wealth management company, Olympus LLC, in Chicago, Illinois
Rufus Williams reflects upon the importance of his role as president of the Chicago Board of Education in Chicago, Illinois
Transcript
At that time, there was, there was a young lady who had been interning at Harpo [Studios Inc., Chicago, Illinois]. And I'd see her. She was clearly interning, clearly young, very attractive. I'd wave you know as we went through and I learned later that she had actually married this professional baseball player who she met at the basketball All Star game with another young lady who worked at Harpo who I knew very well because I had helped her get a job there because she had been a scholarship recipient of the Better Boys Foundation [(BBF), Chicago, Illinois] and they had become friends. And so she married--I learned that Deleon [Richards] had married Gary Sheffield and you know I thought that was, wow. In 2000, Gary had been involved in a lot of businesses and he was cap--just providing a lot of money for working capital for those businesses. And Deleon had talked to her friend. Her friend had told her you know what you should probably talk to [HistoryMaker] Rufus [Williams]. And she did and so we talked in that May. That was in '99 [1999]. We talked in May of '99 [1999], and then we talked again in October. Around Thanksgiving, Gary and Deleon came to Chicago [Illinois] because Deleon lived in North Chicago. And I met them for dinner. We hit it off. I flew down to St. Petersburg [Florida] where they lived right after Christmas and started helping Gary manage through these businesses. And, and really managing through them was kind of managing them away because I didn't think--as they were, he was putting in too much money. And I didn't think that they were really gonna be successful given what they were. So we started managing them away. And over that next six month period, I spent a lot of time working with Gary and a lot of time working with Harpo. And then came the conversation with Oprah [Winfrey] and just figured you know what, this is really what I was looking to do. I can't have a better client to start with. So, or this was about as good of a client to start with as you can have. And so I decided to leave and start my own business doing business management for athletes and entertainers.$$Okay, so what did you call your business?$$Olympus.$$Olympus?$$Olympus LLC [Chicago, Illinois]. It was right around, you know, that was right around the, right around the [2000 Summer] Olympics [Sydney, Australia]. And I think it was around the millennium [2000] and a lot of people were naming stuff Millennium. It was around the Olympics. I had gone down. I had actually gone down to the [1996 Summer] Olympics in Atlanta [Georgia] with my son [Bradford Williams]. We were two blocks away when the bomb went off. And it was just kind of in all of these things I decided you know in thinking about what my business was, I'm sure that was there and I thought about it and the people who I would work with and Mount Olympus [Greece] being the place where the gods alight from, it seemed like the right place to provide that stability. And so I named my company Olympus Incorporated and started, started providing that service to whoever I thought could use it focusing primarily on athletes and entertainers. Figuring that I--the work that I could do, it was really thinking about Oprah has a staff of people managing all these things for her. What about those people who come into the wealth and don't have the time or the capacity and have a staff working for them. This is the uniqueness of what I have because I probably, probably are not gonna encounter people who have as much money as she does. Probably have not, will not encounter people who have had as many options to do what a number of things that she does. So I will probably either not see anything I haven't seen before or certainly won't see anything I can't help figure out. And with that, I thought those were the uniqueness of my abilities and I started my business based on that. Over the years, things, things go as they go and as I would expect, I have an opportunity to show my full competency to my clients and particularly in Gary's case, it moves on beyond just managing his money to also negotiating his contracts. So it goes full circle. And that's what my business has become.$Okay. All right, now how has, how's it been being president of the [Chicago] Board of Education?$$There is no more important job that I can have. I am a product of Chicago Public Schools [CPS]. My son [Bradford Williams] is--my son left private school and picked Whitney [M.] Young [Magnet High School, Chicago, Illinois]. He didn't pick public schools. He picked Whitney Young of all the schools in the city and he could have gotten into all of them. So that was a very conscious decision. Watching him go through public school and my son decided that he wanted to go to Yale [University, New Haven, Connecticut]. And he decided to apply early. And he applied only to Yale and he got in. So he has been one of those that we continue to say--that I continue to say if this--we know the schools are good. We know that this is what they can do. And it is my push to try and get everybody not to go to Yale, but get everybody at a point that they can feel confident to go wherever they wanna go. I know that it works. I know that it worked for me. I know that it worked, it worked for him. It is one of the biggest challenges because there is so many things to do. And for me I am trying to change a lot of things and I know more than anything. I'm trying to change a culture. I'm trying to change a culture outside where we know that our children can be successful, that we know that parents are the key people that make that work. I'm trying to make sure that the right accountability and the right pressure is put in the right places. But I think more than anything else if we believe that we can get something done and we put forth the work to get it done, then we can get it done. I don't think we're putting forth the work to get it done. I don't think the people believe well enough that our children can be successful. And that is the culture that I'm trying to change. I'm trying to change it on the outside and I'm trying to change it on the inside. Our district is the third largest school system in the nation. I think that as we go the nation goes. When we show them we can do we can show the world that we can do. So it's a really big undertaking as we look to the future. And to me, you know I go out to schools as much as I can. I read to children. When I look in the eyes of a kindergarten kid, I was at a school today for their African American history month and as those children sat there and they looked up at me when they learned who I was in some awe, I know that that child is expecting me to do the best I can by him. And in some fifteen years or so, he will let me know one way or another whether or not I have. The mayor is responsible for our schools in Chicago [Illinois]. And under him is the board of education. And I'm the president of the board of education. He makes it painfully clear all the time that I am responsible for our schools and I take that responsibility very seriously. So as we try to move it and I try to move it with expecting excellence, I'm not accepting excuses, not accepting victimization. Recognizing that we don't have all the resources that we need, I expect everybody to do everything they can with the resources that we have. And we will work on the other hand to try to get more. But I think you know there were times and places and schools where there was nothing and people have gotten to a lot. We've got a lot of work to do and I fully believe that we can get it done.

Rachel Noel

Educator Rachel Louise Bassette Noel was born on January 15, 1918, in Hampton, Virginia. Both of her parents were college graduates and her father, Andrew William Ernest Bassette, Jr., was a lawyer. They believed in the importance of a higher education and stressed to her the significance of going to college. Noel earned her B.A. degree from Hampton Institute, later named Hampton University, and she received her M.A. degree in sociology from Fisk University.

Noel married Edmond F. Noel, a physician, in 1942 and the couple moved to Denver, Colorado. In 1965, she became the first African American to be elected to the Denver Board of Education. Having won this seat made her the first African American woman to hold public office in the State of Colorado. In 1968, Noel presented the Board of Education with the “Noel Resolution,” which required that the school district provide equal educational opportunities for every child in Denver. It also called for the superintendent to devise a plan that integrated the school system. After the resolution’s proposal was presented, she received numerous life-threatening phone calls; however, the resolution passed in February, 1970.

Appointed by former Governor Richard Lamm in 1976, Noel became the first African American to serve on the University of Colorado Board of Regents. In 1978, she won statewide election to a six-year term on the board and served a one-year term as chairperson of the board. She has been a professor at Metropolitan State College, as well as chairperson of the school’s African American Studies Department. She also served as a member of the Chancellor’s Advisory Committee for the Health Sciences at the University of Colorado, Boulder and Denver campuses and the Commissioner for the Denver Housing Authority.

Noel received numerous honors and awards including an Honorary Doctor of Public Service degree from the University of Denver; named one of Colorado’s Top 100 Citizens of the Century; the Martin Luther King, Jr. Humanitarian Award; and the naming in her honor of a public middle school in Denver, Rachel B. Noel Middle School. In 1981, the Rachel B. Noel Distinguished Professorship was created in her honor at Metropolitan State College. In 2004, the University of Colorado awarded her an Honorary Degree in Humane Letters. Noel passed away on February 4, 2008 at the age of ninety.

Rachel Noel was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on April 22, 2006.

Accession Number

A2006.083

Sex

Female

Interview Date

4/22/2006

Last Name

Noel

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Louise

Schools

Hampton University

Fisk University

Whittier School

First Name

Rachel

Birth City, State, Country

Hampton

HM ID

NOE01

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Virginia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Virginia Mountains

Favorite Quote

Heavenly Days.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Colorado

Birth Date

1/15/1918

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Denver

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Mashed Potatoes

Death Date

2/4/2008

Short Description

Education chief executive Rachel Noel (1918 - 2008 ) was the first African American woman elected public official in the State of Colorado, and the first African American to serve on the University of Colorado Board of Regents. As a member of the Denver Board of Education, she presented the “Noel Resolution,” which required that the school district provide equal education opportunities for every child in Denver.

Employment

Metropolitan State College of Denver

Denver Board of Education

University of Colorado Board of Regents

Southeast Settlement House

Favorite Color

Green

DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Rachel Noel's interview, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Rachel Noel lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Slating of Rachel Noel's interview, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Rachel Noel describes her mother's background, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Rachel Noel talks about her maternal great-grandmother

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Rachel Noel describes Wytheville, Virginia

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Rachel Noel describes her mother's background, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Rachel Noel describes how her parents met in Wytheville, Virginia

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Rachel Noel describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Rachel Noel describes her parents' choice to stay in Hampton, Virginia

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Rachel Noel describes her sisters

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Rachel Noel describes her paternal grandparents

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Rachel Noel describes her earliest childhood memories

Tape: 1 Story: 14 - Rachel Noel describes her early childhood education in Hampton, Virginia

Tape: 1 Story: 15 - Rachel Noel describes her family's attitude towards passing

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Rachel Noel describes others' perceptions of her skin tone

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Rachel Noel recalls attending the Whittier School in Hampton, Virginia

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Rachel Noel describes Hampton Institute in Hampton, Virginia

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Rachel Noel describes her neighborhood in Hampton, Virginia

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Rachel Noel describes her family's religious background

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Rachel Noel describes her time at Hampton Institute in Hampton, Virginia

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Rachel Noel recalls Dr. Charles S. Johnson's support at Fisk University

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Rachel Noel describes her husband, Edmond F. Noel

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Rachel Noel recalls her work and activities in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Rachel Noel recalls living with Charles S. Johnson's family at Fisk University

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Rachel Noel recalls moving with her husband to Denver, Colorado

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Rachel Noel describes her work with the Girl Scouts

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Rachel Noel talks about her children, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Rachel Noel recalls Metropolitan State College of Denver and Shorter Community A.M.E. Church

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Rachel Noel talks about Justina Ford

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Rachel Noel remembers her campaign for the Denver Board of Education

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Rachel Noel recalls her board motion to integrate the Denver Public Schools

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Rachel Noel reflects upon her contributions to the Denver Board of Education

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Rachel Noel describes support she received from African American ministers in Denver, Colorado

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Rachel Noel recalls her sense of safety while serving on the Denver Board of Education

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Rachel Noel recalls her being appointed to the University of Colorado Board of Regents

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Rachel Noel recalls teaching black studies at Metropolitan State College of Denver

Tape: 3 Story: 12 - Rachel Noel describes her parents' involvement in voter registration

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Rachel Noel reflects upon her social activism

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Rachel Noel reflects upon segregation in Denver Public Schools, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Rachel Noel talks about her children, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Rachel Noel describes her social contributions to Denver, Colorado

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Rachel Noel reflects upon the impact of her parents' social activism

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Rachel Noel reflects upon segregation in Denver Public Schools, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Rachel Noel describes her hopes for Denver's African American community

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Rachel Noel describes the support of her husband, Edmond F. Noel

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Rachel Noel reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Rachel Noel describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - Rachel Noel describes the importance of community support

Tape: 4 Story: 12 - Rachel Noel reflects upon her life

Tape: 4 Story: 13 - Rachel Noel describes the leadership of Denver's Rachel B. Noel Middle School

Tape: 4 Story: 14 - Rachel Noel talks about Kevin Patterson's work on the Denver Board of Education

Tape: 4 Story: 15 - Rachel Noel shares a message for future generations of children

Tape: 4 Story: 16 - Rachel Noel narrates her photographs

Angeles Echols

Angeles LaRose Patricia Echols was born January 11, 1957, in Memphis, Tennessee, to Will Eva Harmon Echols and J.D. Echols. Echols attended Georgia Elementary School, Hamilton Middle School, and graduated from Hamilton High School in 1975. A singer actress, model, and dancer, Echols, who performed in Erma Clayton’s An Evening of Soul review in Memphis, was awarded $5,000 by Willard Straight Hall to produce the show for Cornell University. Echols earned her B.A. degree in psychology from Cornell University in 1979, and also completed a one-year graduate program at Cornell in Arts and Sciences. At the time of her interview, Echols was preparing for a Ph.D. program in Education and Child Development and Human Development.

From 1980 to 1989, Echols worked in a variety of social service and educational programs that included the Harvard University Upward Bound Program; Alexander Berger Junior High School #139 in Bronx, New York; Holy Name Multipurpose Center, Memphis; and Hale House, New York City. During that time period, Echols also landed acting and modeling jobs. In 1987, Echols was cast in the off Broadway production of Staggerlee; in 1989, she moved to Los Angeles and was cast in the film She Knows Too Much, and became artistic program director of the Parks Arts Program in Pasadena, California. That same year, Echols began tutoring two children after school in her own apartment. As her program began to grow, Echols founded Educating Young Minds (EYM). From 1990 to 1994, Echols taught math and English at Trinity Lutheran School in Los Angeles, and film history at Chaffey College in Rancho Cucamonga. In 1994, Echols made EYM her full-time work; working cooperatively with the Los Angeles Unified School District, EYM eventually would provide an attractive learning environment for 350 inner city youth, from kindergarten through high school.

Echols has been the recipient of numerous honors. In 2003, Echols was selected as part of the President’s Council of Cornell Women. Echols received the 2003 PRISM Award in education from Minorities in Business magazine; KTLA’s “Unsung Heroes Award”; ACT 1’s Angel of Education Award; Crenshaw Christian Center’s Lifetime Achievement Award; Oscar Joel Bryant’s Community Humanitarian Award; the Jackie Robinson and United Way’s Community Service Awards. Other awards from Yvonne Braithwaite-Burke, the City of Los Angeles, the California State Assembly and the United States Senate speak to the community support of Echols and EYM. In 2005, Echols portrayed the title character in Sojourner, a play about 19th century black activist Sojourner Truth.

Accession Number

A2005.230

Sex

Female

Interview Date

10/4/2005 |and| 3/20/2006

Last Name

Echols

Maker Category
Organizations
Schools

Hamilton High School

Georgia Elementary School

Georgia Avenue Elementary

Hamilton Middle School

Cornell University

Speakers Bureau

Yes

Speakers Bureau Availability

Days

First Name

Angeles

Birth City, State, Country

Memphis

HM ID

ECH01

Speakers Bureau Preferred Audience

Youth, Teens, Single Parents, Women, Education, Violence, Gangs

Speakers Bureau Honorarium

Yes - Negotiable

Favorite Season

Winter

Speaker Bureau Notes

Availability Specifics: Also Fridays and Saturdays
Preferred Audience: Youth, Teens, Single Parents, Women, Education, Violence, Gangs

State

Tennessee

Favorite Vacation Destination

Late Night Service At Church

Favorite Quote

God Is Good All the Time.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

California

Birth Date

1/11/1957

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Los Angeles

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Greens (Collard), Cornbread

Short Description

Education chief executive Angeles Echols (1957 - ) founded Educating Young Minds, a tutoring program that collaborates with the Los Angeles Unified School District.

Employment

Educating Young Minds

Trinity Lutheran School

Chaffey College

Favorite Color

Red

Timing Pairs
0,0:612,2:1156,11:5530,70:19218,267:20226,276:23178,298:23506,303:24736,321:25638,333:27510,341:27842,346:28506,356:29253,366:29917,377:31577,408:31909,415:44630,525:48205,563:48645,572:48865,577:50790,625:51065,631:52330,661:52770,671:52990,676:56350,712:59344,737:59684,744:60160,749:62268,789:63288,805:63696,813:64852,849:65260,856:71988,948:73500,982:74796,998:79876,1040:80650,1051:80994,1056:81510,1067:82542,1089:82972,1096:83660,1109:85982,1189:86326,1194:90110,1243:90798,1252:99570,1324:99938,1329:101410,1347:110364,1440:110892,1448:111332,1454:112740,1482:113884,1506:115380,1527:115996,1538:119090,1549:120501,1570:120916,1576:122161,1602:126180,1658:128574,1686:130056,1706:135150,1746:135450,1752:135810,1759:143136,1876:144280,1897:144808,1904:146832,1935:147800,1948:148592,1958:149648,1972:151672,2001:158125,2054:162035,2113:168240,2214:172335,2236:175024,2253:177836,2304:178132,2309:180500,2405:181610,2423:182572,2438:183756,2461:185162,2486:186124,2520:188936,2575:191896,2646:192340,2654:203026,2734:203988,2753:204506,2762:211560,2857$0,0:225,9:525,14:1350,28:6975,150:7800,164:8400,173:9150,185:9450,190:11025,214:11700,228:16725,336:20475,399:20850,413:26620,431:27075,439:28505,468:28895,475:29545,496:31105,540:31495,547:32470,566:32860,573:33900,594:34290,601:37865,681:45106,728:45786,742:46534,758:52952,893:53390,900:53901,909:58500,1025:58938,1032:60179,1110:60544,1120:64851,1207:65216,1213:65873,1224:66165,1229:68209,1257:68720,1266:69377,1279:69669,1284:77408,1321:77870,1330:78200,1336:79858,1352:80515,1364:81245,1377:82924,1419:83362,1426:83800,1434:85420,1448:85864,1455:86308,1463:102212,1683:103912,1718:105068,1736:105340,1741:105748,1749:106020,1756:106428,1763:107108,1781:107380,1786:108060,1797:108332,1802:111828,1817:112632,1831:114508,1869:114910,1876:115312,1889:115580,1895:116049,1908:116585,1918:116987,1926:117858,1945:118327,1953:118863,1962:129530,2140:133044,2158:133448,2163:134380,2168
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Angeles Echols' interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Angeles Echols lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Angeles Echols describes her mother's family background, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Angeles Echols describes her mother's family background, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Angeles Echols describes her half-brother and her parents' separation

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Angeles Echols describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Angeles Echols describes her mother's strength and her paternal family

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Angeles Echols talks about reconnecting with her father

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Angeles Echols describes her likeness to her mother

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Angeles Echols describes her earliest childhood memories

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Angeles Echols describes Memphis' Morning View Baptist Church

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Angeles Echols talks about her name

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Angeles Echols describes the sights, sounds and smells of growing up

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Angeles Echols describes herself as a young girl

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Angeles Echols describes her schools in Memphis, Tennessee

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Angeles Echols describes herself as a student

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Angeles Echols recalls her drama activities in middle school and high school

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Angeles Echols recalls her decision to attend Cornell University

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Angeles Echols remembers HistoryMaker Erma Clanton's play, 'An Evening of Soul'

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Angeles Echols describes her undergraduate experience at Cornell University

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Angeles Echols describes her graduate studies in drama at Cornell University

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Angeles Echols describes her early acting, modeling and teaching jobs

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Angeles Echols recalls her decision to move to California

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Angeles Echols describes her initial experience in Los Angeles, California

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Angeles Echols remembers unsatisfactory acting roles in Los Angeles, California

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Angeles Echols recalls tutoring students in Los Angeles, California

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Angeles Echols describes founding her tutoring program, Educating Young Minds

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Angeles Echols describes the Educating Young Minds program

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Angeles Echols describes the recruitment process at Educating Young Minds

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Angeles Echols describes the success rate at Educating Young Minds

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Angeles Echols describes challenges for Educating Young Minds

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Angeles Echols describes Educating Young Minds' facility in Los Angeles, California

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Angeles Echols describes disciplinary measures at Educating Young Minds, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Angeles Echols describes disciplinary measures at Educating Young Minds, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Angeles Echols describes working with her students and staff at Educating Young Minds

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Angeles Echols recounts success stories at Educating Young Minds

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Angeles Echols reflects upon her commitment to Educating Young Minds

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Angeles Echols describes her vision for Educating Young Minds

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Angeles Echols describes her hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Angeles Echols describes the cultural dimensions of Educating Young Minds

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Angeles Echols shares her thoughts about parents and educators working together

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Angeles Echols reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Angeles Echols talks about her family

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Angeles Echols talks about expanding Educating Young Minds nationally

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Angeles Echols describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Angeles Echols narrates her photographs, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Angeles Echols narrates her photographs, pt. 2

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$3

DAStory

2$6

DATitle
Angeles Echols recalls her decision to move to California
Angeles Echols describes founding her tutoring program, Educating Young Minds
Transcript
I remember getting a role called 'Staggerlee,' directed and I believe written by Vernel Bagneris, I hope I'm not mispronouncing his name, but a wonderful director, a wonderful man. He gave me an opportunity to do 'Staggerlee'. I was one of the dancers. And it was quite an experience and it was that performance, that performance told me that there was something else I was missing, that there's gotta be more. This is not enough for me.$$What happened, why what happened?$$I was up for the understudy for the lead and I noticed I was rarely rehearsed and if anything ever happened to the lead, the show would close that night because I was not prepped and ready for that role. And that was frightening and intimidating to me. And also I felt unprofessional and unprofessional on my part and I felt maybe I should have been more aggressive in making certain that I practiced and prepared for that role, but I--it just didn't happen. I had a couple of rehearsals and that was that. And so I remembered the role that I did have I was dressed in this outfit and again I was--I looked like a snake and it reminded me of college [Cornell University, Ithaca, New York] and I was in this very skimpy outfit and I was dancing on the stage and crawling across the stage and I did that every night (laughter). And I said oh, this reminds me--and I started praying and I said, "Okay Lord, what am I gonna do? What am I supposed to do?" And again I would teach on the side. I would teach on the side and I just always found so much peace teaching. Whenever I taught, I never questioned it. There was never any doubt that that's what I was supposed to do. Performing oh, a doubt, med school, oh a doubt, teaching, never a doubt, not one time. Never looked back and regretted it.$$So what did you teach, were you a sub or did you have a--?$$During the--primarily during the summers. There were summer programs where they had summer programs for children, workshops for children. I remember at one school I was the director, I directed the 'West Side Story,' primarily Hispanic babies. I was the director for that. And I tutored the-tutored math and English in different places and then I would do one on one tutoring at homes for children. And I just loved it. I loved it. But I did not know at that time that it would lead to this [Educating Young Minds, Los Angeles, California]. There was no connection. None because I knew that I--well I said to myself once I was in New York [New York] I said okay I see what happened--regardless of what happened in graduate school and what happened in New York, I'm not getting the roles that I think I should be playing that I deserve. I need to go to California. I need to go to California and get into the situation, comedies and the drama pieces and I need--and get movies. That's what I need to do.$And then what happened, one thing led to another that led to another, that led to another and it told me this is what I was just supposed to do. One evening I was standing outside the door outside of the building outside of my office where I tutor and it was--I was the only teacher, I had about maybe what fifteen kids then. And this attorney, a Mr. Adrian Bocka [ph.] walked by. "What do you do here?" And I told him. And we started talking. Then I visited his office down the hall and he said, "This is what you need. You need the purple handbook. Get the purple handbook, study that purple handbook, write your articles of incorporation and your bylaws. You need to go nonprofit. Get you a name and go for it." An attorney. He said, "Once you have written it you give it to me and I'll review it and help you with it."$$So what year is this? This is same year or--?$$This is a little later so this is a couple of years down the line.$$This about 1990 or so?$$Yes around '90 [1990] or so um-hm.$$Okay.$$And we became incorporated [as Educating Young Minds, Los Angeles, California] and I did, I wrote the articles of incorporation, I studied that handbook, took it to him, and there was some other people who were instrumental and helpful in terms of getting that done quickly and professionally so that I would be taken seriously. And inside that building, we went from 300 square feet of space to 800 square feet of space to 1100 square feet of space to 2000 square feet of space to 4000 square feet of space over twelve, thirteen years. And it just grew and I would add one teacher, then two teachers, then three teachers and I learned the ropes. I met a lot of people and that's when a number of wonderful funders came into my life. Samuel Goldwyn [Jr.] has been supporting this program, and a wonderful man from who used to be the director of A Better Chance [ABC] here, Michael [W.] Anderson, he's no longer with them. Michael Anderson introduced me to Samuel Goldwyn of MGM [Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios Inc., Los Angeles, California], of the studios and it just grew from there. And I stopped acting. And I had stopped, I didn't look back.

Andre J. Hornsby

Andre Jose Hornsby was born on October 7, 1953, in New Orleans, Louisiana; his mother was a seamstress and his father was a carpenter and bricklayer. An early learner, Hornsby began attending school when he was just two and a half years old and was able to read at three. Hornsby's parents divorced during his early childhood and his mother moved the family to Gary, Indiana. In 1971, Hornsby earned his high school diploma from Bishop Noll Institute Catholic High School in Hammond, Indiana, where he was a star athlete excelling in football and track.

After high school, Hornsby attended Arizona Western Community College on a football scholarship, where he earned his A.A. degree in pre-medicine and education in 1973. Hornsby then went on to attend the University of Tulsa, earning his B.S. degree in education in 1975. Hornsby received his master’s degree in health and physical education from the University of Houston in 1976 and began his teaching career that same year. In 1982, Hornsby earned his doctorate of education from Texas Southern University.

From 1995 until 1998, Hornsby served as superintendent of the South Central District of the Houston Independent School District. In this position he founded a 21st Century Laboratory School with Texas Southern University and restructured more than 200 schools in the district. In 1998, Hornsby served as superintendent of the Yonkers, New York Public School system; during his tenure, standardized test scores improved and he increased the number of reading, math, and technology programs in the school system. From 2001 until 2003, Hornsby worked as president for the National Alliance of Black School Educators, a nonprofit organization devoted to furthering academic success for the nation’s children, particularly children of African descent. In 2003, Hornsby served as supervising superintendent of Executive Leadership Development, working with district superintendents, local school boards, and communities to implement an executive leadership development program in New York Public Schools. Later that year he was hired as the chief executive officer for Prince George’s County Public Schools in Maryland.

Hornsby has received numerous awards for his educational and civic accomplishments.

Accession Number

A2004.250

Sex

Male

Interview Date

12/7/2004

Last Name

Hornsby

Maker Category
Middle Name

J.

Schools

Martinez Kindergarten School

Bishop Noll Institute

Holy Rosary School

First Name

Andre

Birth City, State, Country

New Orleans

HM ID

HOR01

Favorite Season

All Seasons

State

Louisiana

Favorite Vacation Destination

South Africa

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

10/7/1953

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Beans (Red), Rice

Short Description

Education chief executive Andre J. Hornsby (1953 - ) served as superintendent of the South Central District of the Houston Independent School District; superintendent of the Yonkers, New York, Public School system; president for the National Alliance of Black School Educators; and supervising superintendent of Executive Leadership Development for the New York Public Schools.

Employment

Crawford Elementary School

Roberts Elementary School

Houston Independent School District

Yonkers Public School District

National Alliance for Black School Educators

New York City Public School System

Prince George's County Public School System

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:852,26:2130,59:4686,227:5183,237:5822,248:8591,313:9443,330:10366,345:11005,362:11431,369:21973,492:22358,498:23051,508:29830,599:30530,611:35628,701:36132,709:36564,719:36852,726:41480,818:43988,863:47940,954:52822,980:54670,990:55405,1007:59363,1053:60133,1064:63213,1149:66350,1157:67415,1191:70113,1284:71604,1309:73166,1355:73734,1365:75367,1398:80580,1443:81336,1456:81903,1465:82344,1473:82974,1493:83730,1510:94884,1640:95208,1645:97727,1673:98153,1680:101064,1747:102626,1782:130050,2186:130310,2191:130765,2199:139800,2374:140225,2380:141160,2393:142010,2405:142605,2416:144645,2492:148300,2562:154452,2614:154797,2620:163696,2792:165280,2834:166000,2847:167800,2869:168376,2878:173820,2946:174702,2962:175192,2968:177197,2980:179104,2998:180532,3037:192396,3174:193708,3207:195923,3231:202137,3312:207396,3399:208524,3427:209464,3440:211438,3476:218754,3602:220002,3618:220314,3623:221406,3644:221796,3650:223356,3688:224214,3701:224604,3707:229670,3766:232650,3806:242914,3947:244291,3976:244858,3984:246458,4000:247394,4014:247682,4019:248330,4077:248834,4085:251498,4178:251858,4184:253802,4240:254090,4245:255962,4306:260780,4344:261816,4366:263370,4394:263962,4403:267144,4486:267440,4491:267736,4496:271580,4523:272988,4549:273516,4556:275040,4567$0,0:585,46:3640,149:5720,180:6175,188:8775,274:9230,283:9750,292:13530,304:14230,319:16610,375:17590,392:18990,418:19340,424:19830,433:26978,512:27408,518:29644,566:30246,574:36580,639:37000,646:39660,707:40290,717:40990,743:42530,778:43650,803:44490,819:44770,824:45610,845:50653,895:50881,904:51622,923:51964,930:55322,964:55614,969:56563,986:57804,1017:58753,1035:59045,1040:62147,1058:64058,1075:66060,1095:66424,1100:66879,1106:67607,1118:67971,1123:68699,1140:69882,1154:70792,1165:73434,1194:78551,1258:78856,1264:79344,1273:79588,1278:80015,1287:82184,1309:82512,1314:82922,1320:83944,1329:84553,1337:85771,1354:86728,1366:87163,1374:87511,1379:89338,1414:90991,1431:92296,1454:96890,1489:97730,1504:98220,1513:99130,1533:99410,1538:101090,1581:101580,1591:103890,1637:104240,1643:106915,1655:108609,1676:109533,1700:109995,1708:110303,1713:111073,1724:112382,1750:113152,1765:120845,1835:122195,1856:122795,1865:123095,1872:123470,1878:124295,1892:126845,1939:127670,1955:128045,1961:130895,2022:131420,2031:133070,2065:134345,2101:137652,2113:141072,2179:144188,2258:144796,2268:145176,2276:145480,2281:145860,2287:146392,2295:146696,2328:151256,2385:156404,2418:157352,2435:159406,2475:160512,2492:164699,2555:167652,2573:168138,2580:171110,2615:171974,2626:172646,2634:173414,2653:176678,2706:191550,2916
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Andre J. Hornsby's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Andre J. Hornsby lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Andre J. Hornsby describes his mother and his childhood household

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Andre J. Hornsby describes his paternal family history

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Andre J. Hornsby talks about his parents

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Andre J. Hornsby talks about his grandmothers

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Andre J. Hornsby remembers attending Martinez Kindergarten School, New Orleans, Louisiana at a young age

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Andre J. Hornsby describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Andre J. Hornsby describes his childhood neighborhood in New Orleans, Louisiana

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Andre J. Hornsby describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Andre J. Hornsby talks about his brother

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Andre J. Hornsby recalls moving to Gary, Indiana

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Andre J. Hornsby remembers his early schooling in New Orleans, Louisiana

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Andre J. Hornsby remembers his experience at Holy Rosary School in Gary, Indiana

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Andre J. Hornsby recalls his childhood aspirations

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Andre J. Hornsby recalls observing racism as a child

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Andre J. Hornsby describes his childhood activities

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Andre J. Hornsby talks about his time at Bishop Noll Institute in Hammond, Indiana

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Andre J. Hornsby talks about the influence of the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Andre J. Hornsby talks about his athletic hopes while at Bishop Noll Institute in Hammond, Indiana

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Andre J. Hornsby describes a high school sports injury that derailed his college plans

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Andre J. Hornsby talks about gang activity during his youth in Gary, Indiana

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Andre J. Hornsby explains how he obtained an athletic scholarship at Arizona Western College in Yuma, Arizona

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Andre J. Hornsby talks about his experience at Arizona Western College in Yuma, Arizona

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Andre J. Hornsby describes his experience at the University of Tulsa in Tulsa, Oklahoma

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Andre J. Hornsby describes his activism at the University of Tulsa in Tulsa, Oklahoma

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Andre J. Hornsby talks about earning his master's degree from University of Houston in Houston, Texas

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Andre J. Hornsby talks about his early teaching experiences in Houston, Texas

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Andre J. Hornsby talks about his gymnastics school in Houston, Texas

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Andre J. Hornsby describes his desire to head a large urban school district

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Andre J. Hornsby describes the challenges of administration and teaching

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Andre J. Hornsby describes moving to the Yonkers Public School District in Yonkers, New York

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Andre J. Hornsby describes the conflict over his new implementation plan at Yonkers Independent School District in Yonkers, New York

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Andre J. Hornsby talks about his work for National Alliance of Black School Educators and New York City public schools

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Andre J. Hornsby describes his struggles after leaving Yonkers Public Schools in Yonkers, New York

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Andre J. Hornsby talks about becoming CEO of Prince George's County Public Schools in Prince George's County, Maryland

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Andre J. Hornsby describes his work as CEO for Prince George's County Public Schools in Prince George's County, Maryland

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Andre J. Hornsby talks about challenges and accomplishments at Prince George's County Public Schools in Prince George's County, Maryland

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Andre J. Hornsby talks about the reputation of Prince George's County Public Schools and the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Andre J. Hornsby responds to the Federal Bureau of Investigation's allegations against him

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Andre J. Hornsby reflects upon his life

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Andre J. Hornsby describes how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Andre J. Hornsby thanks important people in his life

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Andre J. Hornsby narrates his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$4

DAStory

6$5

DATitle
Andre J. Hornsby describes his activism at the University of Tulsa in Tulsa, Oklahoma
Andre J. Hornsby describes the conflict over his new implementation plan at Yonkers Independent School District in Yonkers, New York
Transcript
The incident with Stokely Carmichael [Kwame Ture] did that happen at (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) [University of] Tulsa [Tulsa, Oklahoma].$$Arizona Western [College, Yuma, Arizona] or Tulsa, okay.$$University of Tulsa.$$So tell us a little bit about that particular incident at the University of Tulsa.$$I, I guess some of my experiences in life, you know I talked about the other influences along the way, the, they, we didn't have a Black Student Union, we wanted one. It was only one black assistant professor, black female who was on the faculty at Tulsa at that time. And we were part of wanting the black expedience on our campus, and we wanted things for us, we were paying our fees like anybody else. We were a part of the program (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Do you remember what the black student population was at the University of Tulsa at that time?$$Maybe less than three hundred, maybe less than three hundred.$$Un-huh.$$Mostly athletes, most of us were athletes, very few student students on the campus but a few. Some of my colleagues that we started the ABC [Association of Black Collegians] and I can't tell you today African Black, I don't know, I don't even remember what the acronym stands for today but (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) But it was a organization for African Americans students.$$That is correct. And we wanted to bring in Stokely Carmichael as a speaker at the student union; we felt we had just as much right as anybody else. And that the university had a responsibility in making that happen, we wanted our student fees to go to bring Stokely to University of Tulsa. And naturally we were told that there weren't any monies available for that, the monies had already been committed to other speakers. We needed to follow the procedures, we should've done that a year in advance, you know the systematic way of saying no, but yet not saying no but yet saying no. So what we did was we found a way to raise our own money to and try to negotiate with Stokely to come and said you know, we can't pay an honorarium that kind of stuff, but we'll buy you a plane ticket. And you know we just want to hear you, and so we had our event with Stokely Carmichael, and since the university wasn't paying for it, they couldn't deny us the use of the space on the campus. So we had our first speaker, and that was him.$$And, and after that did you continue to have other speakers come in and then (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) The next year we brought in [HistoryMaker] Nikki Giovanni. Black poet. And we used our student activity money to pay for that, we followed their procedures we got it all in, we requested who we wanted to be the speaker and that was my second year. And that was my--I was there only there two years, that was also my junior and senior year.$$And do you think that was the beginning of like the activist coming out in you?$$I think I was always an activist. I think I was always one that would challenge a status quo; I was always one that was willing to ask the questions nobody else would ask. I was one who would stand up for what I believed in, I think my experiences in traveling as I did as a young child, I was exposed to so much. And it helped to make me, give me a stronger resolve as to who I was. I knew what it was to be a black in America, you know James Brown, 'Say it Loud, I'm Black and I'm Proud.' I was part of that whole movement that was the evolution, I was part of the Motown experience, Gary [Indiana] was heavy in Motown back then. And you know Detroit [Michigan] was where it was, you can't take a black community like Gary and it not be a major focus. I remember the Jacksons and I remember the first time I ever saw Michael [Jackson] perform. I think he was five and a half or six years old in the citywide talent show in Gary. Gary had a citywide talent show, that's where Diana Ross was introduced to the Jackson 5, and she learned the Jackson family, the lived on Jackson Street. One of classmates in high school [Bishop Noll Institute, Hammond, Indiana] lived on Jackson Street with the Jackson family, so I'd go over and visit him. They lived right there in the white house on the corner, right by Gary [Theodore] Roosevelt High School [Gary, Indiana], I mean so that was all a part of the social environment, you know what was happening. Naturally Michael was too young to be socially involved but his brothers were. You had Jermaine [Jackson] and Tito [Jackson] you know they were more my age group, so that was just part of the social experience.$[HistoryMaker] Dr. [Andre J.] Hornsby why was this plan, why was the NAACP [National Association for the Advancement of Colored People] at odds with your implementation approach?$$Because they had collaboratively developed this plan [Education Improvement Plan II (EIP II)] with the teachers union, with parents in the community and they felt that the plan that they had put together was the right plan. Based on the money that was available for the window of time that they knew this plan would exist. On the other hand, I, I believe something very different. I believe that knowing that the City of Yonkers [New York] was against the school system in the lawsuit, we were in opposite ends. I was in a dependent system, I depended on the city to give me revenue to run the school system; I was not independent. I felt because the city was against that, and they were actually co-plaintiff with the state, against the school system. That in fact that if for some reason they were able to stay the order that we would not get all that money. And I was correct, the $35 million we received that first year, I put that money in the new reading, math technology programs, throughout all the schools in the system. Trained our teachers up and implemented those programs with that new money. At the end of that first year, we already begin to see the backsliding occur. That summer the appeal, appellate court basically agreed with the state and the city and stayed the funding order, which meant we were not going to get all of that money that we were promised, that we would receive. Because of the investments we had made in the first year, I was able to convince the mayor [John Spencer] to give us some additional funding out of the city's budget, city's coffers. And we did a lot of, a lot of restructuring of our existing expenditures and our existing debt. Which allowed us to continue to implement those programs beginning year to lowered class size, all day four year old programs. All day five year old program, technology infused throughout the curriculum, pre-K [kindergarten] to twelve, new reading, new math programs, similar to what I'm doing now. And I began to replicate the same experiences I had had in the prior school system. Because I knew, I knew those methods work, it was no doubt in my mind that minority children could achieve beyond what anybody expect if I basically pushed the workforce to the wall. If I pushed them to their, their highest limit or beyond what they felt they could believe. My workforce was 88 percent white, my school district was 75 percent minority. Fifty some percent Hispanic [Latino], twenty some percent African American. High poverty, large free and reduced lunch population, very similar to what I left in Houston [Texas]. So the, the dy- dynamics, the basic make-up of the environment was very parallel to that which I had experienced before.

Mary Hatwood Futrell

Mary Alice Franklin Hatwood Futrell was born on May 24, 1940, in Altavista, Virginia; her mother was a domestic and factory worker and her father worked in construction. Futrell was raised in a single parent household and did not develop a relationship with her father until she was an adult. In 1958, Futrell earned her high school diploma from Dunbar High School in Lynchburg, Virginia, where she was a cheerleader, and a member of student government, Future Business Leaders of America and the National Honor Society.

In 1962, Futrell received her degree in business education from Virginia State University where she was a cheerleader and pledged Delta Sigma Theta Sorority. From 1962 until 1964, Futrell worked as a teacher at the segregated Parker Gray High School in Alexandria, Virginia. In 1965, Futrell helped integrate the teaching staff at George Washington High School, where she taught business until 1980; while there, she earned her master’s degree in secondary education from George Washington University in 1968.

In 1983, Futrell became the president of the National Education Association, becoming the fourth minority to serve in the position; she remained there until 1989. During her three terms as NEA president, Futrell helped the organization achieve leadership status in the areas of civil and human rights, especially women’s rights. As a result of her tireless efforts, the NEA created the Mary Futrell Award to honor individuals whose activities in women’s rights have made a significant impact on education and on the achievement of equal opportunities for women and girls.

In 1992, Futrell joined the faculty at George Washington University, while earning her Ph.D. in education policy studies; in 1995, she was promoted to dean of the Graduate School of Education and Human Development. Futrell also served as the director of the George Washington Institute for Curriculum Standards and Technology.

Futrell served as the president of the World Confederation of Organizations of the Teaching Profession; The Virginia Education Association; Education International; and ERAmerica. Futrell published articles in a number of scholarly journals, such as Education Record, Foreign Language Annals and Education Administration Quarterly. For her work in education policy and reform, Futrell has been awarded numerous honors and awards, including more than twenty honorary degrees.

Accession Number

A2004.189

Sex

Female

Interview Date

9/30/2004

Last Name

Futrell

Maker Category
Middle Name

Hatwood

Organizations
Schools

Dunbar High School

Virginia State University

George Washington University

Robert S. Payne Elementary School

First Name

Mary

Birth City, State, Country

Altavista

HM ID

FUT01

Favorite Season

Christmas

State

Virginia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Home

Favorite Quote

If I Am Not For Myself, Then Who Will Be For Me? But If I’m Only For Myself, Then What Am I? And If Not Now, When?

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

5/24/1940

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Catfish, Coleslaw, Salad, Vanilla Ice Cream, Coca-Cola

Short Description

Academic administrator and education chief executive Mary Hatwood Futrell (1940 - ) served three terms as president of the National Education Association before joining the faculty at George Washington University. Futrell was later promoted to dean of the Graduate School of Education and Human Development.

Employment

Parker Gray High School - Alexandria, Virginia

George Washington High School

National Education Association

George Washington University

Favorite Color

Navy Blue

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Mary Hatwood Futrell's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Mary Hatwood Futrell lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Mary Hatwood Futrell talks about her mother's childhood and youth

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Mary Hatwood Futrell describes her mother, Josephine Calloway Austin

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Mary Hatwood Futrell talks about her biological father and her two stepfathers

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Mary Hatwood Futrell describes her relationship with her biological father, Chester Minnis

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Mary Hatwood Futrell talks about her great-grandparents and how she takes after her great-grandmother

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Mary Hatwood Futrell describes her maternal family history

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Mary Hatwood Futrell describes her earliest childhood memories

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Mary Hatwood Futrell describes her memories of childhood on Spruce Street in Lynchburg, Virginia

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Mary Hatwood Futrell talks about why her mother held her to higher standards than her siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Mary Hatwood Futrell describes why her mother taught her to work at an early age

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Mary Hatwood Futrell talks about her siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Mary Hatwood Futrell describes growing up in the town of Lynchburg, Virginia

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Mary Hatwood Futrell describes the sights, sounds, and smells of her childhood in Lynchburg, Virginia

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Mary Hatwood Futrell talks about her experience at Payne Elementary School in Lynchburg, Virginia

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Mary Hatwood Futrell talks about her junior high school years

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Mary Hatwood Futrell describes her experience at Dunbar High School in Lynchburg, Virginia

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Mary Hatwood Futrell remembers the funds that enabled her to enroll at Virginia State University in Petersburg, Virginia

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Mary Hatwood Futrell remembers her advisor's challenge to take her studies seriously at Virginia State University in Petersburg, Virginia

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Mary Hatwood Futrell remembers being poor in college and her resolve to focus on her education

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Mary Hatwood Futrell talks about her religious upbringing and childhood Christmases

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Mary Hatwood Futrell talks about her early teaching career and the riots following desegregation at George Washington High School in Alexandria, Virginia

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Mary Hatwood Futrell talks about school desegregation in Alexandria, Virginia in the mid-1960s

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Mary Hatwood Futrell describes her reception by white teachers at George Washington High School in Alexandria, Virginia after the school was desegregated

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Mary Hatwood Futrell remembers her reputation as a teacher at George Washington High School in Alexandria, Virginia

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Mary Hatwood Futrell describes commuting during her graduate school years at George Washington University in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Mary Hatwood Futrell describes the 1968 civil unrest in Washington, D.C. after the assassination of Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Mary Hatwood Futrell describes the changes at George Washington High School in Alexandria, Virginia

Tape: 3 Story: 12 - Mary Hatwood Futrell talks about the effects of desegregation on African American educators

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Mary Hatwood Futrell describes cultural changes affecting the education of children

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Mary Hatwood Futrell talks about her tenure as President of the National Education Association

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Mary Hatwood Futrell talks about becoming dean of the Graduate School of Education and Human Development at George Washington University

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Mary Hatwood Futrell describes her accomplishments at George Washington University in Washington, D.C. and the school's history

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Mary Hatwood Futrell provides her personal assessment of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB)

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Mary Hatwood Futrell talks about transformations needed in the teaching profession

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Mary Hatwood Futrell reflects upon the formative experiences in her life

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Mary Hatwood Futrell talks about the importance of history

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Mary Hatwood Futrell shares her advice for aspiring educators

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Mary Hatwood Futrell talks about what she hopes to accomplish and what she regrets

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - Mary Hatwood Futrell describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 4 Story: 12 - Mary Hatwood Futrell reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 4 Story: 13 - Mary Hatwood Futrell talks about her family

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$3

DAStory

7$3

DATitle
Mary Hatwood Futrell describes her reception by white teachers at George Washington High School in Alexandria, Virginia after the school was desegregated
Mary Hatwood Futrell remembers being poor in college and her resolve to focus on her education
Transcript
How were you received by white students and white parents, as an African American teacher?$$Um, (laughter), you really want to go through all of this? Okay. Um, I didn't have a lot of contact with the white parents. The classes were pretty mixed, and I didn't have a lot of trouble with the students. But I had teachers who wouldn't speak to me, they wouldn't talk to me.$$White colleagues?$$Right, they wouldn't talk to me. And I remember saying to the assistant principal one time, she said, "How are you doing?" I said, "I'm doing fine." She said, "Any problems?" I said, "Well, some of the teachers and some of the people won't speak to me." And so she said, "Well, things will change." You know, this is like early in my first year. And a few months later she saw me again, and she was asking me, and I said, "Well, things are somewhat better, but there are still people who won't speak to me." And she looked at me and she said, "Well, this is a democracy, and they don't have to talk to you." And I said, "Okay, you're absolutely right." I said, "But I'm not going to give up, you know. I'm going to keep working until we get this right." I had people who challenged whether or not I was qualified to teach. And they would say things to me like, "Well, we assume that you know how to teach." And I remember I said to my department chair one time, I said, "Well, I believe we were certified by the same department in the State of Virginia. And so, if they certified you to teach and they certified me to teach, that means that both of us can teach the same subject." See, I told you I was a smart-mouth. The--eventually, you know, the teachers came around. I was the first black person to be president of the local association and, you know, so that shows you how things changed. Now, we went through a lot of sensitivity training in the system, but the sensitivity training did not occur until after all the violence occurred. And, because the teachers never received it, and that was one of the things we talked about. They had sensitivity training for the children because of the violence before they had sensitivity training for the teachers. But one of the things that brought us together as a team, black and white, was the violence in the school. We came together to protect the students and to try to save the school. And I can remember blacks and whites coming together and planning and organizing--how are we going to monitor the halls? How are we going to protect the cafeteria? How are we going to make sure kids are safe? And, and, it was interesting, because what was tearing the students apart was bringing us together. But no, I--$$As faculty and as a staff?$$Right, right. And, and, and, eventually, you know, things calmed down.$But--$$Can you tell us a little bit about when you got to Virginia State [University, Petersburg, Virginia], did it matter that you were poor? Did you feel like you were fitting in okay?$$Yeah.$$What were the--$$Well, it wasn't--well, you know, I guess my focus was on getting an education. And I knew I didn't have things like the other kids had. But let me give you an example. I had a coat that was so raggedy, I was holding it together with safety pins. And I remember we went to somebody's house and we hung our coats up. And when we got ready to get them and leave, they were giving the coats out, and I didn't want to acknowledge my coat. And finally somebody said, "Well, whose old raggedy coat is this?" And I had to acknowledge that it was mine. And I remember I walked home, and I cried all the way home. When I say home, I meant to the dorm. And, and, I was so hurt. And I also remember going to my home, and I saw three coats. I said, oh, my mother [Josephine Calloway Austin] bought me a new coat. But the coats weren't for me. The coats were for Mariann [Biscoff]. And I remember how crushed I was. And I said, "Why three coats?" And I don't think she meant to hurt me, but she wasn't thinking. The coats were for Mariann, and I'm thinking here I am wearing this coat and it's so raggedy. I've got the lining and everything and the hem all pinned up, and I'd sewn it up as much as I could. And again, it was going back to--her way of trying to make a difference with Mariann was to give her things, and to do things. She thought I was okay. And, and, and, it wasn't until we had this conversation that I told you about, that she realized, you know, how observant I was and how hurt I was. And, and, and, I remember the other girls, and how nice they were and, you know, their hair looked so nice, and their shoes and things. And, and, I think I had like one, maybe two pairs of shoes. I think I had a pair of flats and a pair of heels I could wear if I went to church or somewhere, and my homemade hand-me-downs, you know, and stuff like that. But I, I, and then there were other kids that were like that, too, you know. And I said my focus is on, my focus has to be on getting an education. You know, you've got a chance; don't blow it. And they were shipping kids out. I mean, Virginia State didn't mess around. You know, you flunked out, you were gone. And you could come back, but you didn't stay, you know. And I remember my professors talking to me, and my professors telling me, "It's not what you wear that's important, it's what you do." And, and, and, I had this teacher named Miss Munden, Ella Munden [ph.]. Miss Ella Munden was always lecturing to us about the importance of getting a good education, and the importance of reaching back and helping people in the community. "And you've got a chance that a lot of other kids don't have." She was always--and, you know, it's interesting how that stuff sticks. And so, you know, I was into a lot of stuff in college. But I did okay. I graduated and came up here [Washington, D.C.].

Michael Scott, Sr.

Cable industry executive and president of the Chicago Board of Education, Michael Scott, Sr. was born September 4, 1949, and raised on Chicago’s West Side. Following his graduation from Hales Franciscan High School, Scott attended Fordham University, where he earned a bachelor’s in urban planning. While still in high school, Scott also considered a career as a professional athlete, having drawn attention from coaches for the St. Louis Cardinals and the Pittsburgh Pirates, though an injury prevented him from following through with this.

After earning his B.A. from Fordham, Scott began working for the Pyramid West Development Corporation, where he served as vice-president and became highly involved in the North Lawndale community of Chicago. In this position, Scott was instrumental in the rehabilitation of 1,500 housing units, building a senior center and establishing the Community Bank of Lawndale. In 1978, Scott became director of community development of the Lawndale People’s Planning & Action Council, where he remained for four years. During that same time, he was elected to the Chicago Board of Education.

His involvement in the community was recognized by then-Chicago Mayor Harold Washington, and Scott was appointed deputy director and later director of the Department of Special Events. He also served as special assistant to the mayor in charge of communications. Following Washington’s untimely death, Scott remained active in city politics, and during Richard Daley’s first year in office, he was named chief cable administrator for the City of Chicago’s Office of Cable Communications.

Leaving the government, Scott remained in the cable industry, taking a position with AT&T Broadband and continuing on in his current position as vice-president of regulatory affairs for Comcast.

Scott would again return to public service in Chicago, serving as president of the Chicago Park District, and in 2001, he was named president of the Chicago Board of Education. During his tenure there, Scott worked to actively involve parents in the education process, and the Chicago Public Schools rapidly increased attendance, funding and overall rating nationwide as a school district.

Scott passed away in Chicago on November 16, 2009.

Accession Number

A2004.021

Sex

Male

Interview Date

3/12/2004 |and| 3/21/2006

Last Name

Scott

Maker Category
Middle Name

Wayne

Organizations
First Name

Michael

Birth City, State, Country

Chicago

HM ID

SCO02

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Illinois

Favorite Vacation Destination

Rome, Italy

Favorite Quote

Arguments Of Convenience Lack Integrity.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Illinois

Birth Date

9/4/1949

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Chicago

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Gumbo

Death Date

11/15/2009

Short Description

Education chief executive Michael Scott, Sr. (1949 - 2009 ) was president of the Chicago Park District, the Chicago Board of Education, and the chief cable administrator for the Chicago Office of Cable Communications. Scott was also a member of former Chicago Mayor Harold Washington's administration and an executive with Comcast.

Employment

Pyramid West Development Corporation

Lawndale People's Planning & Action Council

Chicago Board of Education

Chicago Mayor's Office of Special Events

City of Chicago

City of Chicago Office of Cable Communications

AT&T

Comcast

Favorite Color

Navy Blue

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Michael Scott interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Michael Scott's favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Michael Scott discusses his mother's background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Michael Scott discusses his father's background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Michael Scott speculates about the origin of his blue eyes

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Michael Scott describes the beginnings of his parents' life together

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Michael Scott discusses his two siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Michael Scott remembers growing up in a tight-knit Chicago community

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Michael Scott considers the various Chicago neighborhoods of his childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Michael Scott describes his personality as a young schoolboy

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Michael Scott discusses the gangs of Chicago's West Side

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Michael Scott discusses Chicago's history

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Michael Scott names the schools he attended

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Michael Scott talks about his religious affiliations

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Michael Scott recounts memories of growing up

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Michael Scott describes his affinity for sports in his youth

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Michael Scott describes his personality

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Michael Scott remembers his dreams of a professional sports career

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Michael Scott describes two prominent Chicago styles of dress

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Michael Scott discusses the influence of community figures and prominent politicians

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Michael Scott discusses the Daley family's political presence in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Michael Scott considers a career in law enforcement

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Michael Scott explains why he did not choose a career in law enforcement

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Michael Scott discusses his interest in Xavier University of Louisiana

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Michael Scott remembers his childhood summers in Louisiana

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Michael Scott discusses his experience at Xavier University of Louisana

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Michael Scott remembers life as a college student in New York City

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Michael Scott shares insights from his college years

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Michael Scott discusses life after college

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Michael Scott describes his employment with various Chicago community organizations

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Michael Scott remembers phases in Chicago's modern history

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$3

DAStory

1$1

DATitle
Michael Scott discusses the gangs of Chicago's West Side
Michael Scott explains why he did not choose a career in law enforcement
Transcript
We were talking about the gangs, you know, and you were telling the very vivid story about them coming through. And were you ever, you know, at that time, were you sort of fearful of them or were you told to stay--?$$Very, very fearful. You know, you could see when they would have meetings where they would congregate, but the athletes always got a pass. You know, and I, I was really good. And so, you know, if you, you played ball and, you know, people kind of knew that you did that, they kind of gave you a pass. And so, you know, unlike the stories that you hear about people standing in front of schools recruiting and that kind of thing, I never remember ever having experienced anything like that. You were either--I mean it was, it was tough though. I mean, the theaters you'd go to, and if you weren't part of the group, you could be thrown out of a balcony. I mean they were pretty brutal. But I, I never really experienced that.$$Did they have names?$$Yeah, the earliest I remember was the Clovers. They were located around the 16th [Street] and Springfield [Avenue] area [Chicago, Illinois]. As a matter of fact, the Clovers evolved into the Vice Lords. And when I was in college, essentially, the Vice Lords ran 16th Street, got a lot of money from the government, opened businesses, tried to be legitimate, with everybody walking up and down 16th Street in red berets. So that the Clovers, the Vice Lords, the Conservative Vice Lords, the Imperial Chaplains, those were the prominent ones in my day. I remember--I knew about the Black P-Stone Nation. As a matter of fact, during that same time we're talking about, there was an issue with me in high school. I was originally supposed to go to Tilden Tech [Edward Tilden Career Community High School, Chicago]. The year I was to go to Tilden Tech, it became a coed school, and the technical end of it went to [Robert] Lindblom [College Prep High School, Chicago, formerly Robert Lindblom Technical High School]. I didn't like Lindblom because I had friends at Tilden. I didn't like Lindblom because of all the South Side [of Chicago] stereotypes. I won't go into that, but--so I ended up going to St. Philip's [High School, Chicago]. What's--what I was trying to tell you?$$You were telling, I was talking about--you were talking about the gangs sort of, and then the Vice Lords and the--.$$But I was gonna tell you a specific thing, story, but I don't remember it now.$$Oh, gosh, okay. You were talking about one of the gangs, is it one of the gangs? Okay.$$I don't remember. Oh, I know. I was telling you--oh, yes, I, I remember now. I was--because I--before I actually went to St. Philip's, Hales Franciscan [High School, Chicago] had just opened. And I was really interested in Hales Franciscan because it was a school that was supposed to cater to young men. And I had started driving. And my mother [Dionne Jacqueline Deshab] went with me to Hales Franciscan. And I was gonna get an application. And so we parked in front, you know, in front of the school. And I got out of the car to go into Hales to get an application. And between my car and the front door, I came across six young men. And as I, we passed them, they asked me what club I was in. And I said, I--you know, "What are you talking about? I don't know anything about a club." And they started saying to me, "Take off your coat," you know, you know, and all the time, my mother was watching me. And my mother got out of her, the car, as these guys surrounded me. She took off her shoe and she, she charged after these guys, fearlessly, get away from my son. And then when they--they left me alone. But I mean high school was a--anytime you got out of your element, it was a, touchy situation. I remember after I got into St. Philip's, you know, there were two ways to go home. And very often we would walk from Kedzie [Avenue] and, and Jackson [Boulevard], down to Central Park [Avenue] to catch a Central Park bus to go to Douglas [Boulevard]. And I don't know whether that'll mean anything to you, but it will to West Siders. And as I was walking from Jackson and Kedzie to Jackson and Central Park with some of my classmates, we were, came upon a huge group of guys, you know, who were running, obviously, had been involved in something else. And they came across me, same kind of deal, you know, "What club are you in?" "I'm not in any club." "Take off your clothes." They started stripping me of my book bags and all that stuff, and they just started to beat me, just jumped up and down on me. And it was a very violent time. And fortunately, a police car came by and I got out of it pretty much unscathed. But, I mean the guys that were with me, they had enough sense to run. And that's kind of a sense of how fearless I was, I just--I wouldn't run.$Breathlessly this guy [police force medical examiner] came to me and he--they said, "No, you got a heart murmur." So I was stunned because that's [joining the police force] what I really wanted to do at the time. Here you are a twenty year old kid and you've got your life in front of you, this, this is your first big test for a job. And I failed. And so as we were walking out, and I began to ask people--of course, I was more comfortable asking African Americans, "Did you pass?" "No." "Did you pass?" "No." And of the three hundred people in the room, there had to be fifteen African Americans. And I think I must have talked to 85 percent of them and all of them said, "No." As it turned out--that they hadn't passed. As it turned out, one of the guys that was right next to me in the locker room was an African American guy, seemed in reasonable health. I said, "Did you pass?" He said, "No," he said, "No." He said, I said, "What happened?" He said, "Heart murmur." He said, well--and he said, you know, "I really don't understand that. I came home from the [United States] Army, and I get a physical every week. And I didn't have a heart murmur." And I said to myself, "Ah-ha." So I, I knew--I thought that it was bogus. So I went home and reported this to my mother [Dionne Jacqueline Deshab]. She, in turn, called the congressman's--the alderman's office, [Alderman] George Collins [24th Ward, Chicago, Illinois]. George Collins said, "You know, don't worry about it." I went back to school, three weeks later. I get a call from my mother, "They want you to come back to town, and they, the organization's gonna pay for it." So they paid for my trip from New York. I came back to town, and then Walter Shumpert, this is one of the [Chicago, Illinois] aldermen I missed, Walter Shumpert who was then a, driver for either Alderman or Congressman Collins, picked me up from my house, took me right back to the same office and told me to stand here. He went away. A few minutes later the same guy with the, little white beard, the white hair and the smock came out. And they were down the hall, and he pointed at me and Walter Shumpert shook his head knowingly. And he came back to me. The guy went away. We waited there for a couple minutes. He came back, and he had a card in his hand. He said, he showed it to me, "Is the card you filled out? Are you Michael Scott?" And I said, "Yes." He tore the card up and said, he said, "Fill this out." I filled it out again, and he said, "Passed." And so I passed the exam to become a policeman, the preliminary exam. And then after college [at Fordham University, New York, New York], I had the, the other interviews and background checks and that kind of thing. And as it turned out, when I got ready to go onto the force a year later. I had graduated and started working, I wanted to make--the starting police salary at the time was $9,100 a year. I had a job making $10,000 a year so I refused to go.$$And what was that job that you were--what job was it at $10,000 a year?$$Well, I had started--when I came home from school, I started working at LP--first I worked at a youth center, and then I started working at LPPAC [Lawndale People's Planning and Action Council]. And they paid me $10,000 a year.

Marshall Grigsby

Educational adviser Marshall Grigsby was born in Charlotte, North Carolina, on August 18, 1946. After earning his B.A. in political science from Morehouse College in 1968, Grigsby relocated to Chicago, where he pursued a master's of theology and doctorate in ministry from the University of Chicago, completing his program in 1972.

Grigsby began his career after earning his master's in 1970, working as the executive director of the Black Legislative Clearing House, which provided educational and research services to the nation's black legislators. After completing his Ph.D., Grigsby moved to Ohio, where he became the associate director of the Association of Theological Schools of the United States and Canada. In that capacity, he worked with the schools to address the concerns of the minority students of the programs. In 1975, Grigsby was named assistant dean and an associate professor at the Divinity School at Howard University, where he remained for the next ten years. Continuing on in the academic world, Grigsby was named president of Benedict College in 1985, and in 1993 he was appointed to the positions of executive vice president, provost and CEO of Hampton University. After serving only a year at Hampton, Grigsby was summoned to Capitol Hill, where he served as the senior higher education specialist for Democratic members of Congress and as special adviser to Congressman William Clay. Grigsby left in 2001 to form his own company, Grigsby and Associates, an educational policy development consulting firm.

In addition to his consulting work, Grigsby serves on the Board of Trustees of USA Funds, which provides guaranteed loans of more than $10 billion a year to students across the country. He is also a managing consultant with the Council for Opportunity in Education and is the senior scholar with the Claiborne Pell Institute for the Study of Opportunity in Education. Grigsby was one of five college presidents in 1991 to receive the Knight Foundation Presidential Leadership Award. Grigsby and his wife, Harriet, live in Maryland.

Accession Number

A2003.155

Sex

Male

Interview Date

7/15/2003

Last Name

Grigsby

Marital Status

Married

Organizations
Schools

Phoenix Union Bioscience High School

Phoenix College

First Name

Marshall

Birth City, State, Country

Charlotte

HM ID

GRI03

Favorite Season

Spring

State

North Carolina

Favorite Vacation Destination

Caribbean

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

8/18/1946

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Gumbo

Short Description

Academic administrator, theologian, education chief executive, and education policy consultant Marshall Grigsby (1946 - ) founded Marshall Grigsby and Associates, an educational policy consulting firm. He also served as the former associate dean and associate professor at Howard University Divinity School, president of Benedict College, executive vice president, provost and CEO of Hampton University, and the senior higher education specialist for Democratic members of Congress.

Employment

Black Legislative Clearinghouse

Association of Theological Schools in the United States and Canada

Howard University School of Divinity

Benedict College

Hampton University

United States Congress

Grigsby & Associates

Favorite Color

Green

Timing Pairs
0,0:7198,118:7684,125:17323,265:17971,275:18457,282:51104,724:51452,729:52670,842:56150,888:76160,1080:77600,1101:92907,1290:93362,1296:96729,1350:97184,1356:104522,1446:106982,1482:109770,1525:114116,1596:117500,1616:121470,1664:158535,2209:158883,2214:159318,2220:161667,2249:166539,2332:167061,2339:171498,2414:179630,2451:180380,2462:181805,2489:185630,2575:186305,2589:187505,2615:187955,2622:192238,2663:192910,2689:194638,2694:197038,2725:197710,2733:198862,2750:201454,2784:202606,2801:214736,2895:215960,2925:217112,2945:217400,2950:217832,2958:224467,3034:230194,3149:230526,3154:233763,3212:246950,3342$0,0:5638,91:16330,269:38435,509:39030,517:40050,532:40475,538:52142,676:55086,711:55546,717:59134,761:59594,767:62262,802:62998,811:76819,918:77386,926:79897,974:82084,1010:87835,1092:91885,1157:103166,1278:103574,1285:104050,1293:104798,1307:107518,1376:113502,1504:113774,1509:131052,1728:136980,1773
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Marshall Grigsby's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Marshall Grigsby lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Marshall Grigsby describes his maternal family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Marshall Grigsby describes his paternal family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Marshall Grigsby shares the story of his parents' marriage

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Marshall Grigsby describes the personality and occupation of his father, HistoryMaker Jefferson Eugene Grigsby

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Marshall Grigsby describes Phoenix, Arizona in the 1940s

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Marshall Grigsby describes segregation in Phoenix, Arizona

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Marshall Grigsby talks about Carver High School, the former all-black school in Phoenix, Arizona

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Marshall Grigsby describes his love of school and reading as a youth

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Marshall Grigsby talks about his favorite elementary school teachers

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Marshall Grigsby describes his experiences attending Phoenix Union High School in Phoenix, Arizona

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Marshall Grigsby describes his and his parents' involvement in the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Marshall Grigsby talks about leaving the NAACP Youth Council to organize a chapter of CORE

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Marshall Grigsby talks about Elijah Muhammad's home in Phoenix, Arizona

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Marshall Grigsby describes traveling from Phoenix, Arizona to Atlanta, Georgia by train to enroll at Morehouse College

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Marshall Grigsby talks about his limited involvement in the Civil Rights Movement as a student at Morehouse College

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Marshall Grigsby talks about Dr. Benjamin E. Mays

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Marshall Grigsby talks about important figures associated with Morehouse College

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Marshall Grigsby remembers the assassination of Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Marshall Grigsby describes enrolling at the University of Chicago Divinity School

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Marshall Grigsby comments on the concept of "higher law"

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Marshall Grigsby talks about studying under Charles Long at the University of Chicago Divinity School in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Marshall Grigsby describes why he chose to be ordained as a Unitarian Universalist minister

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Marshall Grigsby talks about his civic involvement in Chicago during the early 1970s

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Marshall Grigsby describes his experiences working for the Association of Theological Schools in the United States and Canada, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Marshall Grigsby describes his experiences working for the Association of Theological Schools in the United States and Canada, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Marshall Grigsby talks about Howard Thurman

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Marshall Grigsby talks about theological debates

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Marshall Grigsby talks about the Mega Church Movement

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Marshall Grigsby comments on the black church

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Marshall Grigsby describes his experiences teaching at the Howard University School of Divinity

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Marshall Grigsby describes his experiences serving as President of Benedict College, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Marshall Grigsby describes his experiences serving as President of Benedict College, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Marshall Grigsby describes leaving Benedict College

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Marshall Grigsby talks about reforming higher education policy in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Marshall Grigsby shares his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Marshall Grigsby talks about his future plans

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Marshall Grigsby talks about his legacy and how he would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$4

DAStory

8$5

DATitle
Marshall Grigsby talks about Dr. Benjamin E. Mays
Marshall Grigsby describes his experiences serving as President of Benedict College, pt. 2
Transcript
Well what was life like on the campus, did you get the chance to know Dr. Mays?$$Oh yeah, yeah. We--and knew him and worked with him literally up until the time he died. We, as I said, he was my Advisor so I had to report--he and his wife Sadie Mays. And then a number of people that took me under their wing, he's one. Never will forget when Martin King was coming back from Oslo, having won the Nobel Peace Prize, I had to ride with Dr. Mays in his car to the airport, cause we went to the airport to meet Dr. King and his family. Dr. Mays couldn't drive a lick, and he wouldn't get on the expressway, and he drove all the way from campus to the airport with one foot on the brake and on the accelerator. And it was like that all the way out there.$$But he--I've interviewed, at least two people, James Compton [HM] being one of them that was a chauffeur for Dr. Mays. They were students, and their job was to drive him around, so there may be a good reason for that.$$Well, yeah, sure, absolutely. And in those days, and to some extent now, you know College Presidents were driven around. When I was a President I basically insisted on driving myself, but I didn't want the trappings of all of that and everything else. But he, we became friends over the years in a way that I never realized. One of the things, he would always come to every year to Howard University [Washington, D.C.] and speak in the Chapel. And while I was at Howard, I spent 11 years at Howard; several times I would pick him up from the airport and take him to the campus. But whenever I encountered him, I always gave him the respect of telling him my name. Cause I didn't expect him to remember who I was, I mean the man travelled in incessantly and was constantly involved. I remember the last time I spoke with him; I had picked him up from the airport. He had a plane ticket in his pocket, cause he was going someplace else, and I walked up to him and he said Grigsby, if you tell me your name again, I'm gonna scream (laughing) it was funny. But later on, I discovered something about him, and this was after he had died, he and a good friend of his, Sam Nabrit, and Sam was the first black recipient of a PhD from Brown University. He got a PhD in Chemistry and he was, [President Dwight D.] Eisenhower appointed him to the Atomic Energy Commission. I mean, he's involved in all kinds of stuff; Sam was also the President of the Southern Fellowship Foundation which was the organization that underwrote my graduate education, so he supported me through the years. Sam, he also ended up being the Chairman of the Search Committee for the Presidency of Benedict College and he is the one that basically engineered to get me elected President at the college. And told me a few years after that, said that he and Mays were traveling on a plane going somewhere, and he said that keep your eye on Grigsby and that if the right situation opens up, make sure he gets in it. And so you never know what kind of impression you're making on people, and you never know who's looking over your shoulder and who's making opportunities available that happened long before you even got on the scene. But he was a--and also there was and is a black good ol boy network too that looks out for folks. That was an interesting experience that I had with him.$As I said, I saw my mission as helping to strengthen the infrastructure of the institution which is what we did through the academic programs and were able to be recognized in a number of arenas as having a top notch quality programs. As again, I mentioned the Honors Program became one of the leading of its kind, certainly throughout the state and in throughout the Southeast and became a model for a number of other Institutions. We created an Environmental Science Program, the first of its kind in the state. Looking at the whole notion of helping minority youngsters get into the whole minority--in the whole Environmental Field and used in ways to address what, has emerge over the years. As another issue that is Environmental Racism, where much of toxic waste dump activity takes place in minority communities, that those become the expendable areas, and so that was another arena that we worked on. Our Teacher Education Program, now everybody recognizes the importance of identifying top notch teachers, well we had a program that was completely moribund, demoralized and the like. When I left there, it was at the top of its game. It was creating things that have since become kind of routine, such as we created something called the After Program, The Armed Forces Teacher Education for Retirees. We have Fort Jackson sitting right there, an awful lot of people retired from the Military out of Fort Jackson, tremendous resource. All they needed was--and many of them wanted to get into education, so we created a whole program and had a unit out at Fort Jackson where we created a cadre of black males, teachers for Elementary and Secondary schools. So doing a series of things like that, you know, good that we were able to accomplish much of that.

Kent B. Amos

Born May 21, 1944, Kent Amos was raised in northwest Washington, D.C., where he was a track star at Calvin Coolidge High School before graduating and serving the U.S. Army in Vietnam. After his tour of duty, Amos graduated from Delaware State University and was hired by Xerox Corporation.

At Xerox, Amos became one of the company's most successful salespersons and was instrumental in increasing the number of African Americans in its sales force. Amos was promoted many times, becoming the youngest corporate director in Xerox history. Although Amos and his family relocated to several cities across the United States, they were able to return to Washington, D.C., where Amos and his wife first became involved in caring for at-risk children, offering shelter, financial support, and a nurturing environment to local youth. Amos felt compelled to do even more, and in the 1980s he left corporate America to devote himself full-time to helping families take care of their children. In 1991, Amos founded the Urban Family Institute (UFI), a nonprofit organization dedicated to creating urban neighborhoods where every family has the resources they need to ensure that children grow up with the close guidance, discipline, and nurturing, of caring adults.

In 1994, Amos also founded Kids House, a program designed to provide a safe, academically supportive after school program. Four years later, recognizing the unique opportunity of charter schools, Amos founded the Community Academy Public Charter School, where he served as principal and CEO. The Community Academy grew to become recognized as one of the leading charter schools in Washington, D.C., functioning as a national model.

Amos was featured on many local and national radio and television programs, including The Oprah Winfrey Show, and in newspapers, magazines, and books. Amos also frequently spoke on the issue of child-related public policy and received numerous citations, awards, and honors, for his community service. In 2002, Amos was ordained a deacon, serving the congregation of Washington's Shiloh Baptist Church; he also served as the chairman of the Shiloh Community Development Corporation.

Amos and his wife, Carmen, remained close to their extended family in Washington, D.C.

Accession Number

A2003.126

Sex

Male

Archival Photo 1
Interview Date

6/9/2003

Last Name

Amos

Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

B.

Organizations
Schools

Calvin Coolidge Senior High School

Speakers Bureau

Yes

Archival Photo 2
Speakers Bureau Availability

Depends on Schedule

First Name

Kent

Birth City, State, Country

Washington

HM ID

AMO02

Speakers Bureau Preferred Audience

Adults, Education Community

Speakers Bureau Honorarium

Yes - $1,000 - $5,000

Favorite Season

Christmas

Speaker Bureau Notes

Preferred Audience: Adults, Education Community

Amy Billingsley, Roscoe Dellums referred

State

District of Columbia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Cayman Islands

Favorite Quote

In whom to much is given, much is required.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

5/21/1944

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Pie, Ice Cream

Short Description

Corporate executive, education chief executive, and elementary school principal Kent B. Amos (1944 - ) is the founder of Community Academy Public Charter School and the Urban Family Institute. Before leaving the corporate realm to focus on his work supporting children and families, Amos worked for the Xerox Corporation.

Employment

Xerox Corporation

Urban Family Institute

Kid's House

Community Academy Public Charter School

Shiloh Baptist Church

Favorite Color

Brown

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Kent Amos interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Kent Amos's favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Kent Amos shares his paternal family history

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Kent Amos shares his maternal family history

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Kent Amos discusses his father

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Kent Amos discusses his mother

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Kent Amos remembers the streetcars of Washington, D.C.

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Kent Amos describes childhood movie theaters

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Kent Amos describes his childhood neighborhood

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Kent Amos describes segregated sports

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Kent Amos describes his segregated educational experience

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Kent Amos discusses his religion

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Kent Amos describes his integrated educational experience

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Kent Amos as a student

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Kent Amos discusses his extracurricular activities

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Kent Amos discusses popular childhood dances and music

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Kent Amos remembers the emergence of television

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Kent Amos reflects on cultural and social changes

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Kent Amos discusses growing up in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Kent Amos reflects on his career aspirations

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Kent Amos drops out of college

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Kent Amos describes the riots after the assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Kent Amos reflects on his experience as a soldier in the Vietnam War

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Kent Amos discusses the benefits of the military experience

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Kent Amos describes the race relations in the United States Armed Forces

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Kent Amos graduates from college

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Kent Amos returns to Vietnam

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Kent Amos begins his career at the Xerox Corporation

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Kent Amos organizes black employees at Xerox

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Kent Amos discusses the formation of the National Black Employees Association at Xerox

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Kent Amos and Xerox black employees meet with senior management members

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Kent Amos becomes a vice president of Xerox Corporation

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Kent Amos gets married

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Kent Amos receives the NAACP Image Award

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Kent Amos discusses the dangers of public schools

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Kent Amos meets his son's public school friends

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Kent Amos "adopts" eighty-seven children

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Kent Amos discusses his reason for success

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Kent Amos discusses the importance of values

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Kent Amos reflects on his parents and mentors

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Kent Amos reflects on the tragedies of his adopted children

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Kent Amos discusses the need for social change

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Kent Amos discusses social dysfunction

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Kent Amos discusses the power of collective organizing

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Kent Amos discusses the value philosophy of his school

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Kent Amos reflects on popular culture influences

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Kent Amos discusses the value of diversity

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Kent Amos shares his hopes and concerns for the black community

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Kent Amos discusses his legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Photo - Kent Amos's paternal great-grandmother Davis, ca. mid-1800s

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Photo - Kent Amos's grandmother Virginia Davis Amos and his great-grandfather, ca. 1930s

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Photo - Kent Amos's grandfather Ernest Amos, aunt Alezea Amos and grandmother Virginia Davis Amos, ca. 1950s

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Photo - Kent Amos with U.S. Chairman of the Democratic Party, Ron Brown, Washington, D.C., ca. 1990s

Tape: 5 Story: 11 - Photo - Kent Amos with U.S. Congresswoman Eleanor Holmes Norton, Washington, D.C.

Tape: 5 Story: 12 - Photo - Kent Amos at his residence in Washington, D.C., ca. 1980s

Tape: 5 Story: 13 - Photo - Kent Amos with wife, Carmen Amos, Washington, D.C.

Tape: 5 Story: 14 - Photo - Kent Amos's wife Carmen Amos, his parents and his adopted children, ca. 1990s

Tape: 5 Story: 15 - Photo - Kent Amos dressed as a clown at Halloween, Washington, D.C.

Tape: 5 Story: 16 - Photo - Kent Amos's grandparents, Ernest Amos and Virginia Davis Amos, Washington, D.C., ca. 1940s

Tape: 5 Story: 17 - Photo - Kent Amos as a child with his older brother, Benjamin F. Amos, Jr., ca. 1948-1949

Tape: 5 Story: 18 - Photo - Kent Amos at the Million Man March, Washington, D.C., October 16, 1995

Tape: 5 Story: 19 - Photo - Kent Amos as an infant with older brother, Benjamin F. Amos, Jr., ca. 1944-1945

Tape: 5 Story: 20 - Photo - Kent Amos in front of his U.S. Air Force barracks, ca. 1964

Tape: 5 Story: 21 - Photo - Kent Amos at home in his Junior ROTC Captain's uniform, Washington, D.C., ca. 1960s

Tape: 5 Story: 22 - Photo - Kent Amos learning to skydive

Tape: 5 Story: 23 - Photo - Kent Amos and wife, Carmen Amos, Washington, D.C., ca. 1983

Tape: 5 Story: 24 - Photo - Kent Amos with his family and others at graduation party, Washington, D.C.

Tape: 5 Story: 25 - Photo - Kent Amos as a child in front of Gage Elementary School, Washington, D.C., ca. 1950-51

Tape: 5 Story: 26 - Photo - Kent Amos as a speaker for commencement ceremonies at the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts, Washington, D.C., 1986-87

Tape: 5 Story: 27 - Photo - Kent Amos with his wife, Carmen Amos

Tape: 5 Story: 28 - Photo - Kent Amos with his daughters and their friends on prom night, Washington, D.C.

Tape: 5 Story: 29 - Photo - Kent Amos as a child and dressed as ring bearer for a neighbor's wedding, ca. 1949

Tape: 5 Story: 30 - Photo - Kent Amos' class portrait from Calvin Coolidge Senior High School, Washington, D.C., 1962

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Photo - Kent Amos performing the high jump at Calvin Coolidge Senior High School, Washington, D.C., 1959

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Photo - Kent Amos's aunt, Helene Brooke Amos with her friends, Washington, D.C., late 1920s

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Photo - Kent Amos and one of his adopted sons, Washington, D.C.

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Photo - Kent Amos as member of the President's Commission on Model State Drug Laws, Washington, D.C., 1993

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Photo - Kent Amos ca. 1974

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Photo - Kent Amos with Rosa Parks, Elaine Steele and an unidentified woman at Community Academy Public Charter School, Washington, D.C., 1998

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Photo - Kent Amos with U.S. President Ronald Reagan and the Deputy Superintendent of Schools, Washington, D.C., ca. 1981-1989

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Photo - Tony Epson, Kent Amos and Wendell Butler with Rosa Parks at Community Academy Public Charter School, Washington, D.C., 1998

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Photo - Kent Amos speaking before the U.S. Congress, Washington, D.C., ca. mid-1990s

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - Photo - Kent Amos and wife, Carmen Amos on a cruise with the Omega Psi Phi fraternity, Washington, D.C., June, 2003

Tape: 6 Story: 11 - Photo - Kent Amos interviewing gospel singer CeCe Winans at the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., 2000

Tape: 6 Story: 12 - Photo - Kent Amos with George Stephanopoulos and an unidentified woman at the Washington National Cathedral, Washington, D.C., ca. 1992-1996

Tape: 6 Story: 13 - Photo - Kent Amos with talk show host, Phil Donahue, Chicago, Illinois, ca. 1988

Tape: 6 Story: 14 - Photo - Kent Amos with talk show host, Oprah Winfrey, Chicago, Illinois, ca. 1988

Tape: 6 Story: 15 - Photo - Kent Amos at his home in Washington, D.C., ca. 1980s

Tape: 6 Story: 16 - Photo - Kent Amos with 'Sweet' Alice Harris and a Frederick Douglass impersonator at the Hall of Fame for Caring Americans, Washington, D.C., 1991

Tape: 6 Story: 17 - Photo - Kent Amos with Virginia Governor Douglas Wilder, Washington, D.C., ca. 1989-1994

Tape: 6 Story: 18 - Photo - Kent Amos with Nation of Islam Minister Louis Farrakhan, Washington, D.C., ca. 1980s

Tape: 6 Story: 19 - Photo - Kent Amos with Vernon Jordan at a function at the Xerox Corporation, ca. 1990s

Tape: 6 Story: 20 - Photo - Kent Amos with Johnny Ford, Mayor of Tuskegee, Alabama, at the National Conference of Black Mayors

Tape: 6 Story: 21 - Photo - Kent Amos's brother Benjamin F. Amos, Jr. and his sister-in-law, Brenda on their wedding day, 1962

Tape: 6 Story: 22 - Photo - Kent Amos's graduation portrait from Delaware State College, Dover, Delaware, 1970

Tape: 6 Story: 23 - Photo - Kent Amos with U.S. President Bill Clinton in the White House Oval Office, Washington, D.C., ca. 1993-2001

Tape: 6 Story: 24 - Photo - Kent Amos with U.S. President Bill Clinton and others in the White House Cabinet Room, Washington, D.C., ca. 1993-2001

Tape: 6 Story: 25 - Photo - Kent Amos with Rosa Parks, Dorothy Height, and his family, Washington, D.C., 1998

Tape: 6 Story: 26 - Photos - Two views of U.S. President Bill Clinton meeting with Kent Amos and his wife Carmen Amos, Paris, France, 2000

Tape: 6 Story: 27 - Photo - Kent Amos, actor Omar Sharif and Carmen Amos, Paris, France, 2000

Tape: 6 Story: 28 - Photo - Kent Amos's parents, Benjamin F. Amos, Sr. and Gladys Capp Amos, ca. early 1980s

Tape: 6 Story: 29 - Photo - Kent Amos and his family celebrating his parents' fiftieth wedding anniversary, Washington, D.C., October, 1987

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$4

DAStory

5$2

DATitle
Kent Amos discusses the formation of the National Black Employees Association at Xerox
Kent Amos "adopts" eighty-seven children
Transcript
Then I get summoned to Rochester [New York] to say, "Okay, now we're going to make this specialist a manager." And when I get up there, they start--I get a visit by the, the President of [Xerox Corporation's] U.S. Operations, a man by the name of David Kearns. And he asked me to come to his office. And, of course, he's the President of U.S. Operations and I'm a, a lowly trainee. I said, "Okay. Of course, I'm going to go." Training to be Manager. So I go to his office. And he asks me the question. He says, "Kent, I may as well be candid. We don't want this national meeting that you've planned and can you call it off." And I'm sitting there. I didn't know what he was talking about. I said, "What national meeting?" He said, "It's our understanding"--he's there with the President of--the Vice President of Personnel, Doug Reid, the two of them now in his office. Now, I'm on the twenty-ninth floor of the tallest building in Rochester. And again, I'm training to be a manager. I'm on my third year in the company. This man's President of U.S. Operations, so he's the biggest thing that I know in the company. And he says, "We want you to call the meeting off." I said, "Tell why you want me to do that?" First of all, I didn't know what he was talking about. He says, "There's some concerns that senior management has." I said, "Well, I can't do that." He says, "Why not?" I said, "Because I didn't call the meeting," which is true. First of all, I didn't know what it was about. So therefore, I know I didn't call it (laughter). So he says, he says, "Who can?" So I said, "Well, lets assume we call this meeting off. What's in it for us, the black employees?" "Well we'd be wiling to do a number of things to help our, our mutual interest in seeing to it that black employees can, can rise." I said, "Okay, that's fair." I said, "But I still can't call it off." And he says, "Who can?" I said, "The council." Now, you got to realize I'm making this up as we go (laughter) 'cause I don't know what this guy's talking about. I said, "The council." And he says, "Okay, who's on the council?" Well, since there was no council, I couldn't give him any names. I said to him, "Well, I think--I got to talk to"--(phone ringing) So I said, I said "The council," I said, "I'll have to talk to my colleagues on the council before I give out their names because, obviously, it could potentially affect their careers and I wouldn't want to be the one put in that position." Again, there was no council, so therefore, there were no names. So he says, "Okay, that's fair. Would you talk to them, tell them that I want to talk to them and could you arrange a meeting?" I said, that's fair. I'll see what I can do." So I go back to the hotel that night, and I call my friend Barry [Rand] up. And I say, "Barry, I met with David Kearns today." Of course, he's all excited. "What? yeah?" And he said, "What about?" I said, "Because he wants to call off the national meeting in Chicago [Illinois]." Now, again, this is my best friend. He got me the job originally. First question he says, "You didn't tell me you called a meeting in Chicago." I said, "I didn't, man." He said, "What are you talking about?" I said, "I don't know what he's talking about. Yes, but he wants to talk to the council." Of course, his first question is, "What council? Who is the council?" I said, "I'm making this up, man." So that night he knew a guy he had gone to basic sales training school with, and from Chicago. We called him, Bill Sykes. And Bill Sykes said, "Okay, I'll, I'm in to be a part of the council." He's a rep (unclear) Midwest. I knew a guy in, in New York [New York] who I'd been in a meeting with, Art Crawford. And he said, "Okay." I called him, and he said, "I'm in." He knew a guy in L. A. [Los Angeles, California], a guy by the name of Gene Ruffin. He said, "Okay, I'm in." So now we had Barry in Mid- Atlantic and I was in the Mid-Atlantic. And we both wanted to be on the council. So Barry became the representative from the region and I was the President (laughter) since I'm the man in contact, right? So, so now, I'm the President of the now new council. And the Barry's the mid-Atlantic region, even though Barry was a sales manager and I was just training to be one. Gene Ruffin in the West; Art Crawford in the Northeast; Bill Sykes in, in Chicago, and we knew--Bill and Art both knew the guy in Rochester, CARI [Concerned Association of Rochester, Inc.], Bill Hamilton. So we got hold of Bill, but nobody knew anybody in the South. We just called the Affirmative Action Manager up and said, "Hey, man, this is what we're doing. You want to be a part?" He, he, he joined, Kerney Laday. So we banded together, the six of us. There were five regions and Rochester and became this council.$My sensibilities, my training, my God force, all those things say, no [not to turn away his son's troubled teenaged friends]. So instead, I hired them. I'm a vice president, in those days, of a Fortune 50 company [Xerox Corporation], if I can't give, you know, a bunch a kids a summer job, who can? Now, admittedly I had nothing I could do with them. So I gave them to the [basketball] coach [at Calvin Coolidge Senior High School, Frank Williams]. I said, "I will pay them to be on your basketball team." So they probably violated any chance of being (laughter) for college and whatever, but the truth is that was their job, right? So they went to, to go there to be with the coach. In the meantime, I also paid a teacher at the school, through Xerox, to be their tutor. And I surround them with another set of kids and we had this summer program. And Howard [Brown]--what's Howard's last name? Interestingly enough, from that very early experience, Howard, the, the teacher guy, now runs all extracurricular training for all the high schools in the city [Washington, D.C.], actually all the schools in the city. And he started working under us, twenty some years ago. But anyway, Howard Brown. So anyway, so now these kids are going through training, working for the coach. But at the end of my work day, I'd pick them up and would bring them home. And not surprising, these kids had the same hopes and visions and desires and capacities as my own child. And we said by the end of the summer, "Since you're going to be our friends--our son's friends, you're going to be our sons too. And we will house you, cloth you, feed you, educate you, give you everything that we have to offer to allow you to have the same opportunity for a life's outcome as our own child." And in order to save Wesley [son], we had to save Darryl, Milton and T-Bone. And then we surrounded them with another set of boys. So by the Fall of 1982, we had taken in nine teenaged boys every single day, eating. And we had a regimen, learning and training and--and over the next eleven years, from 1982 to 1993, we took in some eighty-seven children.$$Now, when you say take in, do you mean that all these kids lived here--$$No. No.$$--or what?$$The deal was house, cloth, feed, educate. What we call "affectionate adoption." For those who needed housing because they had a bad living circumstance, they'd either live here or we would pay somebody to house them, and we did that. Those who had a decent place to live went on home. But they just came here every day where the family operated as a unit under the same set of expectations with the same enforcement mechanisms, if you will--namely me. But I had dozens of kids go off to college, dozens have graduated from college. Darryl, that first big boy who has a masters degree today. In fact, day before yesterday, we were together, he and his wife and he has two children. So we're still family. Last night I was on the phone with Milton who was the second of those three boys. He's got his masters degree and he and his wife just had their first child after eight years of marriage. Darryl has three. Milton has one. So those are grandchildren, if you will, of mine--of ours. And T-Bone is in jail. And his last job when he wasn't in jail was for me, he worked for me in the school as a custodian. And his daughter was in the school. And, unfortunately, the drugs and--he has never been able to shake that, but that's another whole story. But we've seen, you know, any number of our kids go on to college and, and be successful and get degrees and go with their lives. But we've also had the tragedies that go with that era and that, that ilk of children, if you will. Five were, were murdered. Five boys murdered--three shot, one stabbed and one hung.$$Out of the eighty-seven?$$Yeah, and then one committed suicide. He shot himself. And, and that's when the life thing changed again. When, when you start burying children to the tragedies of, of violence at home. And again, we, we know now that I've served in Vietnam. I understand that. But not here with your own children. So I left Xerox on a crusade to save children, and that's where I am today. I'm in that journey. I left Xerox fourteen years--fifteen years ago now, started a non-profit organization called The Urban Family Institute with the idea that, that we as learned, capable adults can create a different paradigm to save children. And that's the journey I'm on.

Barbara Bowman

Early education expert and advocate Barbara Bowman was born on October 30, 1928 in Chicago, Illinois. She earned her B.A. from Sarah Lawrence in 1950 and went on to receive her M.A. from the University of Chicago in 1952.

For many years, Bowman taught at both the preschool and elementary levels, but in 1966 she acted as one of the three founders of the Erikson Institute For Advanced Study in Child Development, where she pioneered the teaching of early childhood education and administration. She has become a sought after expert and she tirelessly pursues higher quality and more extensive training for early education practitioners. Taking her expertise abroad, she has consulted with universities in China and Iran. In addition, she has directed training programs for Head Start teachers, teachers in inner-city schools, caregivers of at-risk infants and for a Child Development Associate's program on Native American Reservations.

Bowman continues to act as the President of the Erikson Institute and of the National Association for the Education of Young Children. She has served on the boards of the Great Books Foundation, the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards, Roosevelt University and the Family Resource Coalition. She is the Chair of the Committee of Early Childhood Pedagogy for the National Research Council, for which she served as a member of their Committee on the Prevention of Reading Difficulties in Young Children. She and her husband, Dr. James Bowman, are the parents of one daughter, Valerie Jarrett and the grandparents of Laura Jarrett.

Accession Number

A2002.068

Sex

Female

Interview Date

5/20/2002

Last Name

Bowman

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Organizations
First Name

Barbara

Birth City, State, Country

Chicago

HM ID

BOW02

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Illinois

Favorite Vacation Destination

Middle East

Favorite Quote

So Far, So Good.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Illinois

Birth Date

10/30/1928

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Chicago

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Lamb Roast

Short Description

Education chief executive Barbara Bowman (1928 - ) is the Director of Chicago's Erikson Institute.

Employment

Erikson Institute for Advanced Study in Child Development

Favorite Color

Yellow

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Barbara Bowman's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Barbara Bowman lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Barbara Bowman talks about her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Barbara Bowman describes her mother, Dorothy Jennings Taylor

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Barbara Bowman talks about her father, Robert Rochon Taylor, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Barbara Bowman talks about her father, Robert Taylor, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Barbara Bowman talks about her paternal grandfather, Robert Robinson Taylor

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Barbara Taylor describes her earliest memories of the Rosenwald Apartments in Chicago

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Barbara Bowman talks about her father's, Robert Rochon Taylor, development of the Rosenwald Apartments with Julius Rosenwald

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Barbara Bowman describes her father, Robert Rochon Taylor

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Barbara Bowman talks about developing a sense of community involvement

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Barbara Bowman talks about family members who "passed" as white in the past

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Barbara Bowman describes growing up with her sister, HistoryMaker Lauranita Dugas

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Barbara Bowman describes the sights, smells, and sounds of growing up

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Barbara Bowman describes herself as a child

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Barbara Bowman talks about Mrs. Oneida Cockrell, her nursery school teacher at the Rosenwald Apartments

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Barbara Bowman describes Mrs. Oneida Cockrell's significance to her career

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Barbara Bowman talks about her and her mother's shared artistic ability

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Barbara Bowman talks about the people who influenced her in the black community in Chicago

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Barbara Bowman describes the changing neighborhood at the Rosenwald Apartments in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Barbara Bowman talks about her father's position as the first African American chairman of the Chicago Housing Authority in 1939

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Barbara Bowman describes her experience attending boarding school at Northfield Mount Hermon Preparatory School in Massachusetts

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Barbara Bowman describes her experience at Sarah Lawrence College from 1947 to 1950

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Barbara Bowman talks about meeting her husband, HistoryMaker Dr. James Bowman

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Barbara Bowman describes graduate school at the University of Chicago

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Barbara Bowman talks about the development of early childhood education

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Barbara Bowman talks about moving to Iran with her husband, Dr. James Bowman

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Barbara Bowman describes her experiences as an American woman living in Iran in the 1950s

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Barbara Bowman talks about starting her family while living in Iran

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Barbara Bowman reflects on her experience as a black woman living in the Middle East

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Barbara Bowman talks about the culture in Iran and Nigeria

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Barbara Bowman describes how her world travels shaped her and her family

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Barbara Bowman talks about how Chicago, Illinois had changed by 1962

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Barbara Bowman talks about the Head Start Program in 1965 and African American attitudes about early childhood education

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Barbara Bowman talks about the purpose of Head Start and the importance of language development for children

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Barbara Bowman talks about the co-founding of the Chicago School for Early Childhood Education, now the Erikson Institute, in 1966

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Barbara Bowman talks about the vision of the Erikson Institute in its early years

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Barbara Bowman describes developing the curriculum of the Erikson Institute and how it changed over the years

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Barbara Bowman describes the growth and development of the Erikson Institute in the 1960s and 1970s

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Barbara Bowman describes the Early Childcare Education community in the 1960s

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Barbara Bowman talks about how early childhood education has changed since co-founding the Erikson Institute

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Barbara Bowman talks about conducting early childhood educational research studies

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Barbara Bowman describes the Erikson Institute's theory on early childhood education and the interface between culture and development

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Barbara Bowman talks about building and developing the Erikson Institution

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Barbara Bowman talks about her presidency of the Erikson Institute from 1994 to 2001

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Barbara Bowman talks about fundraising and developing the Board of Directors during her presidency of Erikson Institute

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Barbara Bowman describes implementing technology into early childhood education

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Barbara Bowman reflects on the changing African American community

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Barbara Bowman talks about the black community's changing sense of identity

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Barbara Bowman talks about her hopes and concerns for the black community

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Barbara Bowman reflects on her father's legacy

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Barbara Bowman talks about how she wants to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

1$2

DAStory

7$6

DATitle
Barbara Bowman talks about her paternal grandfather, Robert Robinson Taylor
Barbara Bowman talks about Mrs. Oneida Cockrell, her nursery school teacher at the Rosenwald Apartments
Transcript
One thing, just to go back a generation, can you talk a little bit about your grandfather, you know, your father's father--you know-$$My father's father?$$Yeah.$$My grandfather [Robert Robinson Taylor] was born in Tuskegee [Alabama]--in Wilmington, North Carolina. And the story may be a little apocryphal, but it goes something like a Boston [Massachusetts], a lady from Boston recognized the talent of he and his brother and sent them to Boston to Boys Latin [Boys Latin Academy]. However he got there, we're not quite sure, but he did go to Boys Latin, he and his brother both went to Boys Latin [Academy, Massachusetts]. And then my grandfather went on to MIT [Massachusetts Institute of Technology] and was the first African American to get a degree from MIT in architecture. Needless to say, there weren't lots of opportunities for practice. And so he and--by that time, had married my grandmother. He was living in Cleveland [Ohio], married my grandmother. And they went to North Africa and lived for two or three years. And he did architecture there. They finally came back to Cleveland [Ohio] where he knew Booker T. Washington who said he was getting ready to build this academy [Tuskegee Normal School for Teachers, 1881] down there in Tuskegee [Alabama], and wouldn't he come down and design it for him. And when he got down there, he discovered, not only did he have to design it, he had to teach the boys how to make the bricks for it (laughter) because there were no--they didn't have the money to buy the bricks. So he got very much involved in teaching these kids how to perform the manual skills necessary to build these buildings. And after the buildings were built, he stayed on for about fifteen, twenty years as vice president [1925] and was very much interested in the educational component of the--then it was just a school [Tuskegee Normal School for Teachers]. It wasn't a university. He retired in about 1938, something like that, '36' [1936] [1945] to, back to Wilmington [North Carolina]. And that was a point at which--I went down to Tuskegee [Alabama] maybe once or twice, but I knew him as an eight or nine year old. Every summer, we would start going to Wilmington [North Carolina] to spend the summer with him and my step-grandmother in--they had a house on the beach. And my father's sisters and brothers would all come with their children. And we stayed in his beach house, piles of children and absolute--you know, you never saw your parents from one day's end to the next. It was wonderful, running wild in the, down at the beach. And I, my memory is my grandfather sitting on the hill watching his grandchildren off the pier. We would crab and swim and do all kinds of things, had a wonderful time. And granddaddy [Robert Robinson Taylor] used to come to Chicago [Illinois] maybe twice a year. And he'd stay two or three days, a week maybe. But he was, you know, it was adult kinds of things. They had dinner parties and whatnot that we weren't included in. So my memories of him are really most intimate from the beach. And we would go up and he'd tell us stories and he was a completely hands-off grandfather. He never interfered with anything that we did. He might have told somebody else to do it (laughter), but he certainly never told us to do anything. Good, good grandfather.$$Now, besides Tuskegee, what--were their other major developments? You hear a lot about his, you know, your family and the building of Tuskegee [University, Alabama], which is one of our major institutions. But were there other major developments after that, after Tuskegee?$$No, he retired from Tuskegee [University] [1935]. He spent most of his professional life in Tuskegee. And I--he must have had businesses on the side because he was able to retire and not work for another twenty years. So he must have had some way of earning money, and whether he--I don't know that he did very much work once he went back to Wilmington [North Carolina]. But he probably had some kind of business ventures. He was certainly quite comfortably off.$Now, let me just have the schools again. You went to Mrs. [Oneida] Cockrell's-$$Nursery school.$$--nursery school.$$Then I went to Lewis Chaplin Grammar School which was at 62nd and about Normal [Chicago, Illinois], and then I went to Parker High School [Chicago, Illinois].$$Before you went to Northfield [Mount Hermon Prep School, Massachusetts]?$$Before I went to Northfield--not Francis [W.] Parker [High School], [Chicago] Parker [High School] here [South Side, Chicago].$$Okay, and then you went to Northfield?$$And then I went to Northfield [Mount Hermon Prep School].$$Cockrell is C-O-$$--C-K-R-E-L-L.$$Okay.$$There's a, you know, there's a public school now named after Mrs. Cockrell. She was a very important influence and--(simultaneous)-$$Can you talk about her?$$Yeah, she was wonderful. Actually, I think, to a large extent, she was the reason why I got an early childhood education. I did have wonderful memories of Mrs. Cockrell's Nursery School, and, of course, it was a part of my life. And we always saw the children in the nursery school going around. During the morning, they would go out and play in the, in the yard. So I never knew a time that I didn't know about the nursery school. But I didn't have much contact with it, except when the younger siblings of my friends might have gone there. And then I was getting ready to get married when I was in college, and I had taken child study, and I was so interested in these little kids. But not, certainly wasn't gonna devote my life to them. And I was trying to think of well, you know, how can I get a job because Jim [Bowman] was finishing his residency, and we didn't, we weren't gonna have a lot of money. I needed to have a job. And so I thought, well, I'll take the course and get a teaching certificate. So, quickly doubled up in my senior year and took education and got my New York State teaching certificate and came to Chicago [Illinois] to get a job, and went down to the Board of Education and said, you know, "I'd really like to get a job teaching kindergarten." And they suggested that I go visit a kindergarten. So I went to visit--I don't even remember where it was. But the woman told me she had fifty children in the morning and fifty children in the afternoon. And the, she had a piano in her classroom, and she had a mirror mounted on the piano so that she could watch the children while she was playing the piano. Well, I knew I have to watch my fingers when I play the piano (laughter). I was never going to make that. So I went back to school. I was feeling very discouraged. And my advisor said, well, why don't you go to graduate school? I said, we don't have any money. She said, you can get a job teaching in a nursery school. I know that they have one there [University of Chicago], and they just--they have graduate students who work there. So I was, called Mrs. [Oneida] Cockrell. And I said to her, do you think that's a good idea? And she said, "Absolutely". This was, they had just invited her to come and teach in the summer session. It was the first time they'd had a black teacher. And she thought it was a wonderful idea, and she would call and tell them that she thought I should be the person they hired, and, indeed, they did hire me. And I didn't know a lot about teaching nursery school. So I went to call on Mrs. Cockrell again during the summer, and she said, "Well, we start after they start. Why don't you come and work for me for a couple of weeks, and you can learn a little bit about how to be a nursery school teacher." So, indeed, that was what I did. And I got my, cut my eyeteeth at Mrs. Cockrell's Nursery School. And she came and she helped me establish order and all the things that I didn't know a thing about how to do. And so when I went to the University of Chicago, at least I didn't feel quite as, well, skill-less as I had thought I would be, and had a wonderful experience there and eventually became a head teacher, and discovered I loved working with young children.