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Jeffalyn Johnson

Professor and public administrator Jeffalyn Johnson was born on September 7, 1928 in Los Angeles, California to Jefferson Brown and Beatrice Parsons Truwell. She graduated from Pasadena Junior College in Pasadena, California in 1945, and received her A.A. and B.A. degrees from the University of California, Los Angeles in 1947 and 1949, respectively; two M.A. degrees in political science and psychology from California State College in Los Angeles, California in 1962, and her Ph.D. degree from the University of Southern California in Los Angeles, California in 1972.

In 1968, Johnson began teaching at Pasadena Community College in Pasadena, California, where she taught political science, history, public administration, psychology and urban community development. In the same year, she was appointed vice president of Mason-Crete, an architectural planning and commercial construction firm, where she was responsible for project management systems and personnel. After receiving her Ph.D. degree, Johnson was appointed senior faculty member at the Federal Executive Institute in Charlottesville, Virginia where she trained federal, state and local government officials in public administration and personnel management. In 1976, Johnson was hired as a policy analyst and planner for the Presidential campaign of Jimmy Carter and Walter Mondale. That same year, Johnson became acting associate director of the Federal Executive Institute, where she planned and coordinated the senior executive development program and continued to serve as a senior faculty member. In 1977, Johnson became founder and CEO of Jeffalyn Johnson and Associates, Inc., a management consulting firm in northern Virginia. In 1985, Johnson and her husband, Channing Johnson, founded East West Management Systems in order to develop, own and operate a series of restaurant franchises.

Johnson also provided private consulting work for a number of companies including General Motors, Westinghouse Corporation and General Electric. Her public consulting work consisted of numerous federal agencies and for the Agency for International Development. Johnson has also held various teaching appointments at the University of Southern California, the University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Claremont Colleges Graduate School, and Occidental College.

Johnson served as a member of the National Commission on the Observance of International Women’s Year, the Angel City Links chapter of The Links, Inc., and was the national conference chair for the American Society of Public Administration.

Jeffalyn Johnson was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on July 21, 2017.

Accession Number

A2017.115

Sex

Female

Interview Date

07/21/2017

Last Name

Johnson

Maker Category
Organizations
Schools

University of Southern California

California State University, Los Angeles

University of California, Los Angeles

First Name

Jeffalyn

Birth City, State, Country

Los Angeles

HM ID

JOH52

Favorite Season

Spring

State

California

Favorite Vacation Destination

On the sand by the sea.

Favorite Quote

This too shall pass.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

California

Birth Date

9/7/1928

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Los Angeles

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Vegetables

Short Description

Professor and public administrator Jeffalyn Johnson (1928 - ) was associate director and senior faculty member at the Federal Executive Institute. She also served as a policy analyst for the Carter-Mondale campaign and was chair of the American Society of Public Administration.

Favorite Color

Blue

Betye Saar

Visual artist Betye Saar was born on July 20, 1926 in Los Angeles, California to Jefferson Maze Brown and Beatrice Lillian Parson. After the passing of her father in 1931, Saar and her family moved to Pasadena, California to live with her great-aunt, Hattie Parson Keys. Saar earned her B.A. degree in design, with a minor in sociology, from the University of California, Los Angeles in 1949. She later took graduate level classes in design at multiple institutions in California, but changed her artistic focus after taking a printmaking class.

After graduating from the University of California, Saar briefly worked as a social worker until she met jewelry artist Curtis Tann. She began making assemblages in 1967. After being inspired by the Watts Riots, an exhibit by Joseph Cornell, and the assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., Saar began making politically themed artwork. Her first and most well-known piece, was The Liberation of Aunt Jemima. Throughout her artistic career, Saar’s artwork has been displayed at prominent art museums. In 1975, she held her first solo show at the Whitney Museum of Art in New York and was the first African American woman to have her art on display there. The following year, Saar participated in her first commercial gallery show at the Monique Knowlton Gallery in New York.

Saar has won many awards for her artwork throughout her career. She received two National Endowment for the Arts Awards, in 1974 and 1984. Saar also received the J. Paul Getty Fund for the Visual Arts Fellowship, the Artist Award from the Studio Museum in Harlem in 1990, as well as the Distinguished Artist Award from Fresno Art Museum in 1993, and the Flintridge Foundation Visual Artists Award. In 1994, Saar represented the U.S. at the 22nd Biennial of Sao Paulo in Brazil. In 2005, the University of Michigan Museum of Art organized the traveling exhibition Betye Saar: Extending the Frozen Moment which examined her incorporation of photographic fragments in her work. In 2008, she was recognized for her career in art and community activism and was awarded the Lifetime Achievement Award in Fine Arts from the Congressional Black Caucus.

Saar has three daughters: Lezley, Alison, and Tracey.

Betye Saar was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on July 19, 2017.

Accession Number

A2017.116

Sex

Female

Interview Date

07/20/2017

Last Name

Saar

Maker Category
Occupation
Organizations
First Name

Betye

Birth City, State, Country

Los Angeles

HM ID

SAA01

Favorite Season

Sunshine, Rain, Wind

State

California

Favorite Vacation Destination

Bali

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

California

Birth Date

7/30/1926

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Los Angeles

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Thai, Chinese, Mexican

Short Description

Visual artist Betye Saar (1926 - ) was the first African American woman to have an exhibition at the Whitney Museum of Art in New York.

Favorite Color

Grayish Blue

Michael Lomax

Nonprofit executive Michael Lomax was born on October 2, 1947, in Los Angeles, California to parents Hallie Alemena Davis and Lucius W. Lomax, Jr. He moved to Tuskegee, Alabama in 1961, where he attended Tuskegee Institute High School. He earned his B.A. degree in English from Morehouse College in Atlanta, Georgia, in 1968, his M.A. degree in English literature from Columbia University in New York in 1972, and his Ph.D. degree in African American studies from Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia in 1984.

After graduation, Lomax began teaching English at Morehouse College. In 1974, he was hired as the director of research and special assistant to the mayor of Atlanta. While in this position, Lomax helped establish the City of Atlanta’s Office of Cultural Affairs, where he served as director. In 1978, Lomax was elected to the Fulton County Board of Commissioners. Two years later, he became the first African American to be elected as board chairman, a position he held for twelve years. In 1981, Lomax began working as a professor of English at Spelman College in Atlanta. He served as the president of The National Faculty in Atlanta from 1994 to 1997. From 1997 to 2004, he served as president and professor of English and African world studies at Dillard University in New Orleans, Louisiana. Lomax then began serving as the president and chief executive officer of the United Negro College Fund in Washington, D.C.

Lomax has served on the board for Teach for America and the KIPP Foundation, as well as the Carter Center, the High Museum of Art in Atlanta, and the Studio Museum of Harlem. He was a member of the founding Council of the Smithsonian Institution’s National Museum of African American History and Culture. He also founded the National Black Arts Festival in 1978. Lomax served on the President’s Board of Advisors on Historically Black Colleges and Universities under President George W. Bush. He has received several awards as well, including the Emory Medal and several honorary degrees.

Lomax and his wife, Cheryl, have two daughters, Michele and Rachel.

Michael Lomax was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on January 31, 2017.

Accession Number

A2017.013

Sex

Male

Interview Date

01/31/2017

Last Name

Lomax

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

L.

Occupation
Schools

Morehouse College

Columbia University

Emory University

Tuskegee Institute High School

Los Angeles High School

Arlington Heights Elementary School

First Name

Michael

Birth City, State, Country

Los Angeles

HM ID

LOM01

Favorite Season

Spring

State

California

Favorite Vacation Destination

Mexico

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

10/2/1947

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

United States

Favorite Food

None

Short Description

Nonprofit executive Michael Lomax (1947- ) was the first African American chairman of the Fulton County Board of Commissioners, served as president of Dillard University from 1997 to 2004, and became president of the United Negro College Fund in 2004.

Employment

United Negro College Fund

Dillard University

National Faculty

Wilson Financial

Fulton Board County Commissioner

Spelman College

City of Atlanta

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Michael Lomax's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Michael Lomax lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Michael Lomax describes his mother's family background, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Michael Lomax describes his mother's family background, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Michael Lomax talks about his mother's education

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Michael Lomax describes his paternal grandfather's background

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Michael Lomax talks about his paternal grandmother's family background, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Michael Lomax describes his paternal grandmother's family background, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Michael Lomax talks about his family's migration out of the South

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Michael Lomax talks about his paternal grandfather's financial success

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Michael Lomax reflects upon the richness of his family history

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Michael Lomax describes the Dunbar Cocktail Lounge and Grill on Central Avenue in Los Angeles, California

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Michael Lomax talks about his parents' courtship

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Michael Lomax talks about his mother's manuscripts

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Michael Lomax describes his parents' personalities and interests

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Michael Lomax talks about his mother's coverage of the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Michael Lomax describes his paternal grandparents' personalities

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Michael Lomax remembers his early exposure to African American celebrities

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Michael Lomax talks about his parents' association with leftists in Los Angeles, California

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Michael Lomax lists his siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Michael Lomax describes his earliest childhood memories

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Michael Lomax describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Michael Lomax describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Michael Lomax describes his neighborhood in Los Angeles, California

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Michael Lomax remembers his parents' divorce

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Michael Lomax remembers moving to Tuskegee, Alabama

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Michael Lomax describes his community in Tuskegee, Alabama

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Michael Lomax talks about his inheritance

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Michael Lomax describes his mother's decision to cover the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Michael Lomax remembers the Watts riots of 1965

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Michael Lomax talks about the influence of his paternal grandmother

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Michael Lomax remembers his early interest in reading

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Michael Lomax recalls his admission to Morehouse College in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Michael Lomax remembers Morehouse College President Benjamin Mays

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Michael Lomax recalls his reputation at Morehouse College in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Michael Lomax remembers the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Michael Lomax recalls the funeral service for Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Michael Lomax recalls his graduation from Morehouse College

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Michael Lomax remembers taking classes at Atlanta University and Spelman College

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Michael Lomax describes his theater involvement during college

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Michael Lomax remembers his English literature courses at Morehouse College

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Michael Lomax recalls becoming an English instructor at Morehouse College

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Michael Lomax talks about his wife, Pearl Cleage's family background

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Michael Lomax remembers moving with Pearl Cleage to Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Michael Lomax talks about the Black Power movement

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Michael Lomax remembers the Black Arts Movement in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Michael Lomax talks about his dissertation

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Michael Lomax recalls the start of his political career in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Michael Lomax recalls his election to the Fulton County Board of Commissioners

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Michael Lomax talks about the Atlanta Cyclorama and Civil War Museum

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Michael Lomax describes his work on the Fulton County Board of Commissioners

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Michael Lomax talks about the administration of Mayor Maynard Jackson

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Michael Lomax describes his time in the Office of Cultural Affairs in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Michael Lomax describes the opportunities for black artists in Atlanta, Georgia, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Michael Lomax describes the opportunities for black artists in Atlanta, Georgia, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Michael Lomax talks about the expansion of the William B. Hartsfield Atlanta International Airport

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Michael Lomax remembers his decision to leave politics

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Michael Lomax talks about the City of Atlanta's bid for the 1996 Summer Olympics

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Michael Lomax recalls his decision to pursue a college presidency

DASession

1$1

DATape

5$6

DAStory

3$8

DATitle
Michael Lomax remembers the Black Arts Movement in Atlanta, Georgia
Michael Lomax recalls his decision to pursue a college presidency
Transcript
The war [Vietnam War] ends and the decision is gonna be, are we gonna stay in Atlanta [Georgia]. I got to go back to grad- I can go back to graduate school and I get admitted to Dartmouth [Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire], so there's a possibility of going there but we go up and visit Dartmouth in the middle of the winter, so, no. I got admitted to Berkeley [University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California]; didn't wanna go there. Could go back to Columbia [Columbia University, New York, New York] but we made the decision to stay in Atlanta and I went to Emory [Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia] to get my Ph.D. And Pearl [HistoryMaker Pearl Cleage] took a job working for something called the Southern Education Program [Atlanta, Georgia], which placed black teachers at small black colleges [HBCUs]. And we're in the middle of the Black Arts Movement and, you know, neighborhood art centers are developing and cool artists are there and, you know, you're--there's a black bookstore and you're reading black poetry and the, IBW is, you know, Institute of the Black World [Atlanta, Georgia] is having, you know, Mrs. Du Bois do--I remember, I remember one evening, this was the, you know, a classic evening, an IBW event. Shirley Graham Du Bois is there and Coretta Scott King, in African garb, recites poetry. I mean, it's just, there's things that you wouldn't believe. And these, and, you know, these, these were people who were still--in the case of Mrs. King, you know, beautiful, vibrant widow, still traumatized, but beginning the work to build not just The King Center [Martin Luther King, Jr. Center for Nonviolent Social Change, Atlanta, Georgia] but to create a King holiday [Martin Luther King Jr. Day]. And, you know, there's, there's a lot going on (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) Yeah you would think--I think people assume that people of the past were ideologically separated, even if they were they still functioned together.$$No, I mean, it, it was interesting because, you know, you had the Institute for the Black World [sic.], which was, you know, on the left of the black historical movement, you know, and, you know, they were--create the black university and all that, study black history, study bla- you know, a new, a new, newly emergent ideologically driven black, black view of the black past; but also very respectful of the forbearers and that's why, you know, you would have a C.L.R. James coming, you know, you'd go--speak to the Institute of the Black World. But, you know, there, Bobby, what was Bobby's last name? Gosh, my brain isn't working but who was the historian for the, the Garvey movement, the West Indian guy.$$Yeah, Bobby Hill [Robert A. Hill].$$Bobby Hill. So, Bobby is there, young Bobby Hill, you know, and all this stuff about Garvey [Marcus Garvey] and then, you know, people are writing, doing new writing on Du Bois [W.E.B. Du Bois] and, and, of course, Shirley Graham Du Bois is there. And, and so this is, this is the emergence of, you know, the legitimate study of African American past, African American history. And the reason--one of the reasons why I went to Emory was Emory was, and they had something called the Institute for the Liberal Arts [Graduate Institute of the Liberal Arts; Institute for the Liberal Arts] and they were prepared to allow me to create a, my own personal field of study which would allow me to study the Harlem Renaissance.$Your political life ended, ends in what, 19--?$$My political life ends in 1993--$$Okay.$$--when I run for mayor and lose to Bill Campbell, and--yeah, 1993.$$Okay.$$I'm dead meat. At, by 1993 at the age of, what forty-seven or something like that, I am history; I'm dead meat. No one will ever know me again. I have, as I said flown too close to the sun and my wings have been melted and I fall on my behind. And, yeah, the question is in '93 [1993] will I have any kind of a career ever again.$$Well, I, you know, I, we see, you know, that there have been many times in the history of this country where people look like they're done with something and then they bounce back. But something happened I guess, in, in that period that convinced you, you needed to do something else--or you wanted to do something else.$$Yeah.$$Yeah.$$So, I had, so I did a couple of things. I said, well, maybe I should go into business. And I had tried this, my hand at buying a funeral home [Amistad Corporation, Atlanta, Georgia] and operating that--that was, I lived to talk about it, I succeeded, but I didn't wanna do that. I didn't wanna be a businessperson. I ran a small nonprofit. But I did decide--so here's what I did decide. I, I, I said I wanna commit my life to social change and to changing opportunity for my own community; and I think that I'm probably best suited to do that not as a politician but as an educator. But I don't wanna do it in the classroom, I don't want--I wanna find a bigger venue in which to do that, and that's when I decided that I would, I would find a way to become a college president. Now, I had a Ph.D. and but I had really not had a--I kept teaching from '70 [1970] up, up until about '88 [1988] I was still teaching at Spelman [Spelman College, Atlanta, Georgia]. But I really, people thought of me, I, he's the chairman of the Fulton County commission [Fulton County Board of Commissioners], people always called me Mr. Chairman, Mr. Chairman--not Dr. Lomax [HistoryMaker Michael Lomax]. And I remember that Morehouse [Morehouse College, Atlanta, Georgia], I said, boy, you know, I really would love to be president of Morehouse. And I remember--I, I, I did get an interview with the search committee. And I remember that one of the members of the search committee, who was at that time the CEO of Coca-Cola [The Coca-Cola Company], looking at me and saying, "Michael, why are you here? You're not an academic; you're a politician." And I realized that I had, in the minds of most people, I was a politician; I wasn't an academic. And so, I had to decide to do two things: I had to reinvent myself, and I probably had to leave town. And that was when I made the decision that I would find a transitional job and that was in a nonprofit called the National Faculty, and it was a small nonprofit in Atlanta [Georgia]. But the reason why it seemed like the right one to do is I was on the board of it and the guy who had been president of the non- had been named the president of American University in Washington, D.C. So I said if it was good enough for Ben Ladner [Benjamin Ladner], this may be a good enough launch. And so, for three years I led this small nonprofit that worked with school systems and universities to provide professional development for schools. And after doing it for about three or four years I got my first college presidency [at Dillard University, New Orleans, Louisiana]; and I think that's where we should stop.

Channing Johnson

Lawyer Channing Johnson was born on February 21, 1951 in Pasadena, California to Alvin and Jeffalyn Johnson. His mother was a college professor who taught African American history, turned management consultant. Her sister, Betye Saar, is a well-known African American artist. Johnson graduated from John Muir High School in Pasadena in 1969. He went on to earn his B.A. degree in economics from Stanford University in 1972, and his J.D. degree from Harvard Law School in 1975.

Channing began his legal career as a corporate associate at the law firm of Tuttle & Taylor in Los Angeles, California. In 1978, Los Angeles City Councilman Robert C. Farrell hired Johnson as his chief deputy where he worked until being appointed as president of the Economic Resources Corporation in Lynwood, California. In 1986, Johnson was hired by Kaye Scholer Fierman Hays & Handler in Los Angeles and later became partner, where his clients included groups like the R&B group TLC. He co-founded the Los Angeles office of Akin Gump Strauss Hauer & Feld LLP in 1997, where he represented entertainment companies and Stevie Wonder, GospoCentric Records, and SFX Entertainment. Johnson negotiated the $30 million acquisition of The Great Western Forum Arena for Bishop Kenneth Ulmer of the Faithful Central Bible Church, leading Johnson to expand his clientele to mega church leaders and their companies, including Bishop T.D. Jake’s TDJ Enterprises. When he joined Loeb and Loeb LLP as a partner in the entertainment and corporate practice groups, Johnson expanded his practice to include independent film companies. Johnson also served as counsel for KCET Television on their merger agreement with Link Media in 2012.

Johnson has served on the board of directors and as chair of KCET Television. He was taught as an adjunct professor of entertainment law at Whittier Law School in Costa Mesa, California. Johnson has been named one of the Top Black Lawyers in the country by Black Enterprise magazine in 2003, and as a Southern California Super Lawyers by Thomson Reuters for the past ten years since 2000.

Johnson has four children.

Channing Johnson was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on November 18, 2016.

Accession Number

A2016.135

Sex

Male

Interview Date

11/18/2016

Last Name

Johnson

Maker Category
Marital Status

Divorced

Middle Name

Dale

Occupation
Organizations
Schools

John Muir High School

Stanford University

Harvard Law School

First Name

Channing

Birth City, State, Country

Los Angeles

HM ID

JOH49

Favorite Season

Christmas, favorite time of day: dusk

State

California

Favorite Vacation Destination

Carribean

Favorite Quote

Anything worth doing is worth doing well.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

California

Birth Date

2/21/1951

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Los Angeles

Country

United States

Favorite Food

None

Short Description

Lawyer Channing Johnson (1951 - ) represented high-profile clients like TLC, Stevie Wonder, GospoCentric Records, and SFX Entertainment.

Employment

Tuttle & Taylor

Economics Resources Corp.

Kaye Scholer LLP

Akin Grump Strauss Hauer & Feld LLP

Loeb & Loeb LLP

Favorite Color

None

Michael A. Cummings

Visual artist Michael A. Cummings was born on November 28, 1945 in Los Angeles, California to Arthur Cummings and Dorothy Dent. Cummings graduated from John C. Fremont Senior High School in Los Angeles in 1963. While Cummings attended Los Angeles City College for business administration from 1963 to 1966, and Woodbury College for design from 1968 to 1969, he earned his B.A. degree in art history from SUNY-Empire State College in 1979. Before graduating, Cummings enrolled in the New School for Social Research in 1973, completing the Workshop in African Arts and Crafts program at The American Museum of Natural History in 1976.

Cummings began his career in 1972 as a technical director for the New York Department of Cultural Affairs. In his spare time, he worked as a collage artist and painter. He discovered his passion for quilting after creating a cloth banner for an exhibition in 1973. He taught himself to quilt by studying the works of local quilters and how-to quilt books. In 1974, Cummings became the purchasing manager assistant for The American Museum of Natural History. He served as an arts administration assistant for The Children’s Art Carnival in 1976; and that same year, held his first solo exhibition at the Studio Museum of Harlem. Cummings was the artist-in-residence for the New York Foundation for the Arts from 1977 to 1979, and joined the New York State Council on the Arts as an arts program analyst in 1980, working in contract administration. Cummings’ solo exhibitions showed at the Francine Seders Gallery (1992), the Akron Art Museum (1993), Bates College (1998), Nobis Gallery (2007), the International Quilt Festival in Japan (2011), and the Artquilt Gallery (2014).

Cummings quilt work, which adheres to the narrative, story-telling tradition, has been commissioned by the American Embassy Art program, the City of Knoxville, Tennessee, the New York Department of Cultural Affairs, Home Box Office (HBO), The White House, and the House of Seagram, among others. His work was also included in the public collections at the Brooklyn Museum, the Museum of Art and Design, the California African American Museum, the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, the Smithsonian’s Renwick Gallery in Washington, D.C., and in the private collections of stars like George C. Wolfe, Whoopi Goldberg, and Alonzo and Tracy Mourning.

Cummings received the 2001 Louis Comfort Tiffany Biennial Award, the 2001 Excellence in Design Award from the City of New York City Art Commission, and the 2001 Children’s Book of Distinction award from the Riverbank Review. He was interviewed for the Smithsonian Archives of American Art in 2012, and by the ART CART: SAVING THE LEGACY project at The Research Center for Arts and Culture, an affiliate of The Actor’s Fund, in 2013.

Michael A. Cummings was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on November 9, 2016.

Accession Number

A2016.109

Sex

Male

Interview Date

11/09/2016

Last Name

Cummings

Maker Category
Marital Status

Single

Middle Name

Arthur

Occupation
Schools

Hooper Avenue Elementary School

Samuel Gompers Middle School

John C. Fremont High School

Los Angeles City College

Art Students League of New York

State University of New York at Albany

Thomas Jefferson High School

99th Street Elementary School

First Name

Michael

Birth City, State, Country

Los Angeles

HM ID

CUM01

Favorite Season

All Seasons

State

California

Favorite Vacation Destination

International Travel

Favorite Quote

This Too Shall Pass.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Birth Date

11/28/1945

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New York

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Fruits, Vegetables

Short Description

Visual artist Michael A. Cummings (1945 - ) served as an arts program analyst for the New York State Council on the Arts, starting in 1980. His quilt work is in collections at the Brooklyn Museum, the Museum of Art and Design, the Smithsonian’s Renwick Gallery, among others.

Employment

Children's Art Carnival

NYC Dept. of Cultural Affairs

NYS Council on the Arts

NYS Concil on the Arts

Malcolm-King Community College

New York Foundation for the Arts

Cultural Council Foundation/CETA Artists Project

The Children's Art Carnival

The American Museum of Natural History

Department of Cultural Affairs of Parks

The Puerto Rican Traveling Theatre, produced by Miriam Colon

Favorite Color

Bright Colors

Timing Pairs
0,0:997,30:4385,165:4847,172:5540,185:6387,207:20564,395:21250,403:22328,419:23504,443:23994,449:34644,642:36177,673:42017,783:50018,910:50738,925:56426,1069:56930,1081:74440,1400:75268,1416:76165,1434:79132,1478:79891,1486:80305,1496:87378,1630:88784,1663:89672,1678:89968,1683:90708,1694:91892,1717:96258,1835:105453,1965:106190,1981:107865,2018:108870,2035:109875,2057:110143,2062:110411,2079:112153,2105:124765,2331:125090,2337:125675,2358:126065,2365:127625,2400:129055,2435:130875,2474:131265,2481:134125,2556:134710,2571:135100,2578:135685,2589:148281,2769:149464,2785:152649,2843:153013,2848:154833,2887:156107,2904:161363,2962:163778,3019:165089,3064:170180,3110$0,0:540,6:920,11:1585,20:1965,25:2535,33:4150,52:4815,62:8520,140:8900,145:9755,157:10325,164:10990,173:15311,185:16163,198:16518,207:18080,246:18435,253:23831,367:24257,375:30874,443:31558,453:31938,459:32318,467:38854,591:43300,612:44820,632:45140,637:45700,646:46100,652:47460,684:47860,690:50580,701:52344,724:53630,730:54038,737:54582,748:55126,757:55806,770:56690,790:57098,798:70503,1090:81514,1289:93148,1475:93543,1483:93859,1488:94412,1496:96861,1555:100100,1612:100890,1638:101285,1644:109800,1749:110790,1757
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Michael A. Cummings' interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Michael A. Cummings lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Michael A. Cummings describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Michael A. Cummings talks about the jazz scene in South Central Los Angeles, California

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Michael A. Cummings remembers his community in South Central Los Angeles, California

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Michael A. Cummings describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Michael A. Cummings talks about his parents' professions

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Michael A. Cummings describes the sights and sounds of his childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Michael A. Cummings remembers buying a motorcycle as his first vehicle

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Michael A. Cummings talks about his mother's marriages

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Michael A. Cummings recalls the drug culture in Los Angeles, California

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Michael A. Cummings talks about his childhood illnesses

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Michael A. Cummings remembers developing an interest in art

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Michael A. Cummings remembers his relatives' career advice

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Michael A. Cummings talks about his early artwork

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Michael A. Cummings remembers his social life in Los Angeles, California

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Michael A. Cummings describes his experiences of integration in Los Angeles, California

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Michael A. Cummings reflects upon his experiences of peer pressure

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Michael A. Cummings remembers the Watts riots in Los Angeles, California

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Michael A. Cummings remembers the black arts community in Los Angeles, California

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Michael A. Cummings recalls his decision to move to New York City

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Michael A. Cummings remembers moving to New York City

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Michael A. Cummings remembers his apartments in the Meatpacking District of New York City

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Michael A. Cummings describes the Meatpacking District of New York City

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Michael A. Cummings talks about his jobs in New York City

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Michael A. Cummings remembers working at the New York City Department of Cultural Affairs

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Michael A. Cummings recalls his start as a fabric artist

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Michael A. Cummings remembers the influence of Romare Bearden

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Michael A. Cummings recalls learning to sew

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Michael A. Cummings remembers his first quilt series 'Springtime in Memphis'

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Michael A. Cummings remembers researching African American history and culture

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Michael A. Cummings recalls moving to the Harlem neighborhood of New York City

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Michael A. Cummings remembers purchasing a brownstone in New York City

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Michael A. Cummings describes the tenants of his brownstone building

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Michael A. Cummings remembers his exhibition at the Studio Museum in Harlem

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Michael A. Cummings remembers exhibiting his work at the Cinque Gallery

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Michael A. Cummings talks about the spaces for black artists in New York City

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Michael A. Cummings remembers Sister Gertrude Morgan

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Michael A. Cummings remembers his paternal grandmother's religious faith

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Michael A. Cummings talks about the interest in black folk art during the 1980s

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Michael A. Cummings describes his transition from collage to quilting

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Michael A. Cummings reflects upon his early artistic influences

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Michael A. Cummings describes his quilting process

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Michael A. Cummings talks about the 'African Jazz' quilt series

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Michael A. Cummings remembers joining the Women of Color Quilters Network

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Michael A. Cummings describes the history of quilting in the United States

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Michael A. Cummings talks about the value of quilt artwork

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Michael A. Cummings remembers showing his artwork at the Jacob Lawrence Gallery in Seattle, Washington

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Michael A. Cummings talks about his decision to represent his own artwork

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$5

DAStory

8$9

DATitle
Michael A. Cummings recalls learning to sew
Michael A. Cummings remembers showing his artwork at the Jacob Lawrence Gallery in Seattle, Washington
Transcript
(Simultaneous) So that banner that I made for the department of cultural affairs [New York City Department of Cultural Affairs] for that little event that we had, I walked around for a week or two trying to find out how I was going to sew it 'cause I didn't know how to sew. I didn't know how to do a sewing machine. So I--somebody said go to a tailor. So I went to a tailor, and he wanted a hundred dollars. And I said, "No way. This is scrap material. It's not worth a hundred dollars." So then I knew a woman name Sara Penn. She had a, a, a shop in SoHo [New York, New York]. She was the first black woman to have a shop in SoHo, called the Knobkerry. And she made clothes, and she had fabric and jewelry from Tibet and China. It was just really a collage of different things. And so I knew her, so I went to her and I showed her. And she said, "Oh, Michael [HistoryMaker Michael A. Cummings], this is really exciting." She said, "I could show you how to operate the machine. You use the bobbin, and you do the needle; you put the thread here and all that." And that was overwhelming to me. I said (laughter) it was like learning a com- computer in five minutes. I, I, I said, "Oh, no, I can't do that." So then everybody said, "Well, Michael--," and I didn't want to glue. I was anti-glue. So I said, "Okay, I'm just gonna do a up and down stitch," you know. So I, I did it that way, and I finished it. And then I wanted to learn more. So I knew the museum, museum of arts and craft museum [American Craft Museum; Museum of Arts and Design, New York, New York], it had a, a research library, so I went there. And I knew the director, because he had been associated with the event and all that, and he was a friendly guy. Paul Smith [Paul J. Smith] was his name. And he said, "Well, Michael, you know, we have the, the library here. You could come and look at the books." So I learned embroidery stitches. I taught myself how to do that. And then after so many months of working with fabric, and I, I made a piece that was like four feet by six feet, all hand sewn, with buttons and beads and stuff like that. I said, "Well, if I'm gonna continue with this I have to get a sewing machine." 'Cause I said, "This is too slow a process." So, in the meantime, before getting a sewing machine, I was going back to him with the little pieces, like little samplers I was making, and showing him and he was critiquing them (laughter).$$So he was really helping you to--$$Right.$$--perfect your skills.$$Yeah, a little bit. And then I got the sewing machine at Macy's [R.H. Macy and Co.; Macy's, Inc.] in about '74 [1974], '75 [1975]. And it's in this room right now. I never changed. And--$$That same sewing machine?$$The sewing machine produced all my work. And the woman that sold it to me, she said, "Well, come back if you have any problem." I went back about twice because I didn't know how to work the bobbin and the, the tension in the bobbin and the stuff like that. So after that got settled I never went back.$$And you never took a sewing class?$$No, no (laughter).$And I have only had that type of representation one time, and that was with the Jacob Lawrence Gallery out in Seattle [Washington]. And at that time, I had really tried to cultivate a relationship with the director at the time. And for a whole year I wrote to her. I said, "Oh, my art is colorful. It's like Jacob Lawrence. It could make a good sort of pairing, please, please, please." So finally she accepted me into her gallery. And that is a place where I showed the 'African Jazz' series. And she flew me out to Seattle, because she said, "Well, what's part of the agreement: I give you a show, and then I promote your work with the other clients that I have." So for a whole year I was with her I had to sign about twelve pages of a contract about what I could do and not do with my artwork. And I had to let her know and give her a percentage and all this other stuff.$$What year was this?$$Well, it had to be after--it had to be maybe '93 [1993], '94 [1994]. It was just one year. And so when I flew out there, she said, "Well, you're coming to Seattle. What would you like to do?" And I said, "I'd like to meet Jacob Lawrence," so she said, "Okay." So she had him and his wife [Gwendolyn Knight] come to the opening. And I shook hands and said hello. They walked around and saw what I did, and he gave me a few compliments, and they were out the door. But still, I had the honor and the, and that historical moment of meeting him.$$Of course.$$But after a year nothing happened, so I told her, I said, "Well, you know, it's not working out. You're way over here. I'm way over in New York [New York]. And I'm doing more to promote and try to get sales than you are, so I don't think it's worth it." 'Cause she wanted 50 percent.

Roy Ayers

Jazz composer and vibraphonist Roy Ayers was born on September 10, 1940 in Los Angeles, California to Ruby Ayers and Roy Ayers, Sr. Ayers’ mother, a schoolteacher and piano instructor, began teaching him music when he was only a toddler. Growing up near Central Avenue, the heart of the West Coast jazz scene, Ayers was exposed to local luminaries from an early age. At five years old, Ayers was given his first set of vibraphone mallets by bandleader Lionel Hampton. Ayers attended Thomas Jefferson High School, where many of his classmates also went on to become famous jazz and R&B artists.

Ayers first played steel guitar and piano and did not study the vibraphone until meeting vibraphonist Bobby Hutcherson at age seventeen. At twenty-two, Ayers began his prolific recording career as a sideman for jazz saxophonist Curtis Amy. In 1963, Ayers released his first album, West Coast Vibes, and went on to record with the Jack Wilson Quartet, Chico Hamilton, and the Gerald Wilson Orchestra in the 1960s, before joining up with jazz flutist Herbie Mann at The Lighthouse club in Hermosa Beach, California. Mann produced three of Ayers’ albums for Atlantic Records, and Ayers was a principal soloist on Mann’s hit album Memphis Underground. In 1970, Ayers moved to Manhattan and formed Roy Ayers Ubiquity, marking his move into jazz fusion. Ubiquity released a number of records on Polydor Records, including hits like ‘We Live in Brooklyn’ and ‘Everybody Loves the Sunshine.’ As the decade closed, Ayers went solo with songs like Let’s Do It. In 1980, Ayers began collaborating with Nigerian musician Fela Kuti and formed Uno Melodic Records. Ayers considered In The Dark, released on Columbia Records in 1984, as one of his best recordings.

He continued releasing yearly albums through the 1990s. At the same time, Ayers’ work was remixed, covered, and sampled by the emerging hip hop generation that included such artists as Mos Def, Puff Daddy, and Mary J. Blige. In 1993, Ayers appeared on Gang Starr rapper Guru’s Jazzmatazz, Vol. 1, one of the first albums to combine a live jazz band with hip hop production. Singer Erykah Badu has dubbed Ayers the Godfather of Neo-Soul.

Roy Ayers was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on September 19, 2016.

Accession Number

A2016.022

Sex

Male

Interview Date

9/19/2016

Last Name

Ayers

Maker Category
Organizations
Schools

Thomas Jefferson High School

Los Angeles City College

Wadsworth Avenue Elementary School

First Name

Roy

Birth City, State, Country

Los Angeles

HM ID

AYE01

Favorite Season

Christmas

State

California

Favorite Vacation Destination

Mexico

Favorite Quote

What's Up?

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Birth Date

9/10/1940

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New York

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Shrimp

Short Description

Jazz composer and vibraphonist Roy Ayers (1940 - ), a prolific jazz musician with more sampled hits than any other artist, was dubbed the “Godfather of Neo-Soul” in the 1990s.

Employment

The Jack Wilson Quartet

The Gerald Wilson Orchestra

Atlantic Records

Roy Ayers Ubiquity

Uno Melodic Records

Favorite Color

Red

Timing Pairs
0,0:7050,97:7426,102:9964,136:11656,169:22966,294:35530,434:35980,439:36430,445:38320,478:45142,536:49680,566:50340,573:63666,674:69230,793:70621,839:71049,844:78094,1007:87520,1102:89872,1150:91440,1172:97830,1252$0,0:498,28:1328,38:11012,206:11586,215:12078,222:15112,284:21162,322:23298,363:23654,368:26057,408:26947,417:27659,426:32338,441:33553,457:39460,535:40020,546:40500,554:41140,563:41540,569:44240,591:54912,705:68714,850:70692,880:74160,905:76080,938:78160,979:78560,988:89725,1153:102380,1291:113888,1417:133450,1602
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Roy Ayers' interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Royer Ayers lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Roy Ayers describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Roy Ayers describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Roy Ayers describes his siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Roy Ayers recalls the South Central neighborhood of Los Angeles, California

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Roy Ayers describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Roy Ayers talks about the Civil Rights Movement in Los Angeles, California

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Roy Ayers recalls his early interest in music

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Roy Ayers remembers Thomas Jefferson High School in Los Angeles, California

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Roy Ayers remembers Bobby Hutcherson

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Roy Ayers remembers his early musical work with Curtis Amy

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Roy Ayers talks about recording his first solo album, 'West Coast Vibes'

Tape: 1 Story: 14 - Roy Ayers describes his musical influences

Tape: 1 Story: 15 - Roy Ayers remembers performing with Chico Hamilton

Tape: 1 Story: 16 - Roy Ayers describes his collaboration with Gerald Wilson

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Roy Ayers recalls touring with Herbie Mann

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Roy Ayers recalls his musical collaboration with Sadao Watanabe

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Roy Ayers remembers the release of 'Virgo Vibes'

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Roy Ayers describes the 'Stoned Soul Picnic' and 'Daddy Bug' albums

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Roy Ayers recalls the formation of Roy Ayers Ubiquity

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Roy Ayers talks about the hit song 'We Live in Brooklyn Baby'

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Roy Ayers remembers signing a contract with Polydor Records

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Roy Ayers recalls composing the soundtrack to 'Coffy'

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Roy Ayers describes talks about the popularity of his music among hip hop artists

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Roy Ayers recalls leaving Polydor Records

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Roy Ayers talks about organizing the musical group RAMP

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Roy Ayers talks about his inspiration for 'Everybody Loves the Sunshine'

Tape: 2 Story: 13 - Roy Ayers describes his friendship with Fela Kuti

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Roy Ayers talks about Fela Kuti

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Roy Ayers talks about the sampling of his music

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Roy Ayers talks about founding Uno Melodic Records

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Roy Ayers describes the musical style of his album, 'In the Dark'

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Roy Ayers recalls his collaboration with Lonnie Liston Smith

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Roy Ayers remembers the honorary Roy Ayers Day in Los Angeles, California

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Roy Ayers recalls performing at Ronnie Scott's Jazz Club in London, England

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Roy Ayers talks about the political messages of his music

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Roy Ayers talks about his collaborations with hip hop artists

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Roy Ayers reflects upon his creative process

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Roy Ayers describes his wife

Tape: 3 Story: 12 - Roy Ayers describes his plans for the future

Tape: 3 Story: 13 - Roy Ayers reflects upon his life and legacy

Tape: 3 Story: 14 - Roy Ayers talks about James Baldwin

Tape: 3 Story: 15 - Roy Ayers reflects upon his career

DASession

1$1

DATape

1$2

DAStory

13$6

DATitle
Roy Ayers talks about recording his first solo album, 'West Coast Vibes'
Roy Ayers talks about the hit song 'We Live in Brooklyn Baby'
Transcript
And then it came time, shortly thereafter, 1963 you were twenty-three years old and you recorded your first album that was yours, 'West Coast Vibes.'$$Right. Exactly.$$Tell me about 'West Coast Vibes.'$$Leonard Feather, I was performing with Vi Redd, Vi Redd, a saxophonist of an older, older generation. She was my sister's age, around that, and, my oldest sister [Thomasina Ayers] and she asked me to be on an album with a lot of West Coast musicians. And, I said, "I'd be happy to." And, I, I came on the album and it was really wonderful and rather than the person that did the production was Leonard Feather. He's the writer of the, of the, he's the writer of the Encyclopedia of Jazz, Volume One, Two, and Three ['Leonard Feather's Encyclopedia of Jazz.' Leonard Feather]. And, he said, "Roy [HistoryMaker Roy Ayers], have you ever recorded an album before?" And, I said, "No, I haven't. I have not. I'm not ready." He said, "Yes, you are." (Laughter) I was blown away. I said, "Wow." He said, "Yes." You know. He's a white guy but really a great guy, really a great guy. And, he said, "Yes, you are." And, he took me into the studio, and that's my first album, that 'West Coast Vibes,' there (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) Yep.$(Simultaneous) And then you also made another huge hit which is 'We Live in Brooklyn.'$$Right. 'We Live in Brooklyn,' Harry Whitaker wrote it, right, right, right. Harry Whitaker wrote, wrote that song.$$That has become iconic, for sure. Well (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Sure, with rappers too, right.$$But, at the time, you know before we get to the, the more recent times, but at the time when you, when you recorded that, what was going on in the world that made this anchor in Brooklyn [New York] so important.$$Well, we, I guess, 'We Live in Brooklyn Baby' because the song, the song made sense when my piano player, Harry Whitaker, he died too. Doggone, so many great guys that pass on, you know. But, Harry Whitaker said, "Roy [HistoryMaker Roy Ayers], you should do this song." And, when Ron Carter was playing the bass finger, Ron could not get the bass finger together. He did get it together but he could not get it together. And, so, Harry Whitaker is so funny he said, "We got 'em," (laughter). It was so funny because Ron Carter is such a genius of a bass player and he plays everything. He could play anything. He couldn't play it (scatting). It was very difficult for him to play that (scatting). Oh, my god. And, so, Harry said, "We got 'em," (laughter). That fool's so crazy. I couldn't believe it. I was, I was crazy because I was laughing. I said, "Oh, you crazy man, you're crazy." He said, I said, "You gotta be going crazy." He said, "Yeah," (Laughter). Anyway, but that was, that was interesting because he said, "We got, we got Ron Carter," (laughter).

Michelle Miller

News correspondent and anchor Michelle Miller Morial was born on December 8, 1967 in Los Angeles, California. She graduated from Howard University in 1989 with her B.A. degree in journalism. Morial went on to receive her M.A. degree in urban studies from the University of New Orleans in 1997.

In 1988, Morial interned for The Minneapolis Star-Tribune, and then “ABC News Nightline” in Washington, D.C. As a reporter for the Los Angeles Times from 1989 to 1990, she wrote articles that appeared in the “South Bay” and “Valley” sections. Following a two-and-a-half year stint as a general assignment editor, producer and news reporter for the Orange County Newschannel in Santa Ana, California, Morial moved to Columbia, South Carolina in 1993, where she continued working as a news reporter as well as being named anchor of the “Weekend Morning News” at WIS-TV.

In 1994, Morial moved to New Orleans, Louisiana, where she served as a news reporter and weekend anchor at WWL-TV, a CBS-News affiliate. She then moved again in 1997 to host “The Early Edition.” From 1998 to 2001, Morial served as an adjunct professor of journalism and mass communications at Dillard University. In addition, she has lectured at Drew University, Howard University, Wellesley College, Stony Brook University, Southern University at New Orleans, Loyola University, and Louisiana State University. Also, while in New Orleans, she married Marc H. Morial, who was then serving as the Mayor of the City of New Orleans and went on to become President and CEO of the National Urban League, in 1999.

In 2004, Morial moved to New York City and was hired as the national correspondent and substitute anchor for “B.E.T. Nightly News,” and also joined CBS News. In 2005, she became a northeast bureau correspondent for CBS News. In that position, she not only reported the news for all CBS News broadcasts and platforms, but her work regularly appeared on the “CBS Evening News with Bob Schieffer,” “The CBS Evening News with Katie Couric,” “The CBS Evening News with Scott Pelley,” “The Early Show,” “CBS This Morning” and “CBS Sunday Morning With Charles Osgood.”

Morial has served as a member of the board of advisors at both the Scripps Howard School of Journalism at Hampton University as well as the School of American Ballet. She has also served on the March of Dimes National Communications advisory council. Morial is a member of the Greater New York City Chapter of the Links, Inc and Jack and Jill of America. A founding member of the Women’s Leadership Initiative for the United Way of New Orleans, she also served as vice president of the YWCA of Greater New Orleans, and as the president of both the Black Journalists Association of Southern California and the New Orleans Association of Black Journalists.

Morial received the 2013 Dupont Award from Columbia University and the 1998 Edward R. Murrow Award from the Radio and Television News Directors Association. She also received the 1998 and 2013 Salute to Excellence Award from the National Association of Black Journalists, and was voted as the Woman of the Year by the National Sports Foundation.

Michelle Miller Morial was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on January 15, 2014.

Accession Number

A2014.015

Sex

Female

Interview Date

1/15/2014 |and| 1/16/2014

Last Name

Miller

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Mari

Schools

University of New Orleans

Dayson Center, Tulane University

Palisades Charter High School

Walter Reed Middle School

Saticoy Elementary School

School For International Training

Howard University

First Name

Michelle

Birth City, State, Country

Los Angeles

HM ID

MOR14

Favorite Season

Summer

State

California

Favorite Vacation Destination

Lamu, Kenya

Favorite Quote

A setback is nothing but a setup for a comeback.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Birth Date

12/8/1967

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New York

Country

United States

Favorite Food

All Foods

Short Description

Television news correspondent Michelle Miller (1967 - ) News correspondent and anchor Michelle Miller Morial (1967- ) is an award-winning CBS News correspondent based in New York, reporting for all CBS News broadcasts and platforms.

Employment

CBS News

WWL TV

WIS TV

OCN

Favorite Color

Blue, Red

Harold Lewis

Resturant owner and operator Harold Lewis and his wife, Tina Lewis, have managed twenty McDonald’s resaturant franchises since 1987. Lewis’s father was the sole-proprietor of one of the largest African American-owned contracting firms in Los Angeles, California. Following the death of his father at age seven, Lewis’ and his mother kept the business going along with an uncle.

In 1972, Lewis met his wife, Tina Lewis, while working in the airline industry. Lewis was employed with United Airlines in management positions in sales and human resources; Tina worked as a flight attendant and an in-flight services instructor with United Airlines and Continental Airlines, respectively. In 1982, Lewis and his wife embarked on their first business venture when they purchased a Sir Speedy Printing franchise in Los Angeles. Lewis co-managed the business for four years and assisted in winning a printing contract with the U.S. Olympics Committee. He and his wife sold the Sir Speedy Printing franchise in 1986 and began the process of becoming McDonald’s restaurant franchise owners and operators. In 1987, Lewis and his wife established HRL Group, LLC and opened their first McDonald’s restaurant franchise in Sand Diego, California. From 1987 to 2011, HRL Group, LLC operated twenty McDonald’s restaurants.

Lewis has been a leader in the San Diego County McDonald’s Operators Association. As a community leader, he has contributed numerous hours and resources to a variety of community organizations and causes. In 1993, Lewis and his wife founded The African American Visionary and Inspirational Leaders (AVAIL) Scholarship Program, which has awarded more than $550,000 to graduating high school seniors in the San Diego County. In addition, Lewis and his wife have provided scholarships through the Trumpet Foundation in Atlanta, Georgia.

The McDonald’s Corporation has recognized Lewis’ contributions by bestowing upon him the distinguished “Ronald Award” which honors operators for outstanding service to the community. Lewis is also a recipient of the McDonald’s “Outstanding Store Award,” one of the companies highest regarded achievements.

Lewis lives in Las Vegas, Nevada with his wife, Tina Lewis. They have three children: Jeremy Lewis (a second generation McDonald’s restaurant franchise owner and operator), and twins, Jonathan Lewis and Jennifer Lewis.

Harold Lewis was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on November 23, 2013.

Accession Number

A2013.324

Sex

Male

Interview Date

11/23/2013

Last Name

Lewis

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Roscoe

Schools

Sixth Avenue Elementary School

Los Angeles High School

Admiral Arthur W Radford High School

Los Angeles City College

California State University, Los Angeles

First Name

Harold

Birth City, State, Country

Los Angeles

HM ID

LEW17

Favorite Season

Summer

State

California

Favorite Vacation Destination

Acapulco, Mexico

Favorite Quote

To whom

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Nevada

Birth Date

10/8/1947

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Las Vegas

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Liver, Onions

Short Description

Restaurant owner and operator Harold Lewis (1947 - )

Employment

HRL Group, LLC

Sir Speedy Printing

United Airlines

Favorite Color

Blue

Tracey Edmonds

Producer and business executive Tracey E. Edmonds was born on February 18, 1967 in Los Angeles, California to Jacqueline and George McQuarn. Edmonds graduated from Stanford University with her B.A. degree in psychobiology in 1987.

Upon graduation, Edmonds ran a successful mortgage and real estate business. Then, in 1993, she created Edmonds Entertainment Group, Inc., a multi-million dollar enterprise actively involved in all aspects of the entertainment business. Edmonds Entertainment produced the film Soul Food in 1997, which earned five NAACP Image Awards. The success of Edmonds Entertainment set the stage for the independent film production company, e2 Filmworks. Edmonds produced two independent films under this banner: Hav Plenty, which was released in 1998; and 2001’s Punks. In 2004, she executive produced the reality show College Hill, the first African American reality program on BET, which set a network record as BET's highest rated series premiere. Edmonds also produced the series Lil' Kim: Countdown to Lockdown, as well as DMX: Soul of a Man, which both aired on BET in 2006. She has produced a number of other films and television shows, including Light It Up, Soul Food: The Series, Josie and the Pussycats, Maniac Magee, Keyshia Cole: The Way It Is, Good Luck Chuck, Who’s Your Caddy? , New in Town, and Jumping the Broom, which won two NAACP Image Awards.

In 2006, Edmonds was hired as chief operating officer and president of Our Stories Films, where she oversees the development and production of projects for urban audiences. In 2013, she launched ALRIGHT TV, an inspirational, faith-friendly YouTube Premium channel, for which she serves as president and chief executive officer.

Edmonds has served on the boards of the American Film Institute, People for the American Way, Children Uniting Nations, and the Producers Guild of America. She also served as a Global Ambassador for CARE, a leading humanitarian organization that works to fight global poverty. Edmonds has won numerous awards, including Turner Broadcasting System’s Tower of Power Award in 2000; Ebony magazine’s Outstanding Women In Marketing & Communications Entrepreneur Award in 2002; the Girls, Inc. Award in 2004; the National Organization for Women’s Excellence in Media Award in 2005; and The Caucus for Television Producers, Writers and Directors Diversity Award in 2006. She has also received an Honorary Doctorate degree in business from Southern University.

Edmonds resides in Beverly Hills, California with her two sons, Brandon and Dylan.

Tracey Edmonds was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on November 19, 2013.

Accession Number

A2013.313

Sex

Female

Interview Date

11/19/2013

Last Name

Edmonds

Maker Category
Marital Status

Divorced

Middle Name

E.

Schools

Braodacres Avenue Elementary School

Progress Elementary School

W.C. Woodbury Middle School

Bishop Gorman High School

Woodrow Wilson Classical High School

Stanford University

First Name

Tracey

Birth City, State, Country

Los Angeles

HM ID

EDM04

Favorite Season

Holiday Season

State

California

Favorite Vacation Destination

Europe

Favorite Quote

Do Unto Others As You Would Have Them Do Unto You.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

California

Birth Date

2/18/1967

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Los Angeles

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Mexican Food

Short Description

Film producer and entertainment manager Tracey Edmonds (1967 - ) was the founder and CEO of Edmonds Entertainment Group, which produced numerous films and television shows including Soul Food, Josie and the Pussycats, Good Luck Chuck, Who’s Your Caddy? and Jumping the Broom.

Employment

Edmonds Entertainment

e2 Filmworks

Our Stories Films

ALRIGHT TV

Yab Yum Entertainment

Edmonds Record Group

Edmonds Management

Favorite Color

Beige

Timing Pairs
0,0:4522,48:4992,57:6872,80:14486,222:14956,228:20930,322:21362,329:27698,540:27986,545:28562,718:56523,1063:60538,1163:65940,1317:77145,1595:95982,1911:103388,2063:104405,2081:111350,2191:111878,2199:123861,2433:124731,2502:136884,2690:143740,2841:148924,2949:153724,3043:163430,3143:164735,3168:165083,3173:165518,3179:170564,3275:170912,3280:178150,3367:180962,3432:181342,3438:182178,3451:182634,3458:190219,3576:196316,3670:196771,3677:197408,3688:205234,3802:214254,3936:216630,3997:217062,4013:217998,4036:218790,4051:230689,4203:231419,4216:231930,4224:233682,4250:234266,4260:243225,4380:246370,4444:247305,4464:249005,4490:265022,4795:267234,4824:267866,4839:271105,4909:286820,5248:300574,5518:300886,5523:304708,5604:305410,5615:305878,5624:306346,5631:308764,5683:311260,5763:319122,5859:320970,5941:321410,6071:340673,6320:351390,6537$0,0:4056,107:4602,116:5538,143:10842,264:22774,421:26260,432:26800,439:27970,457:28690,467:29410,475:30850,501:33100,529:41805,662:42825,678:47585,775:49540,862:59970,1016:61995,1065:65721,1147:66288,1155:69042,1207:83800,1414:84866,1434:85932,1450:89212,1507:89704,1513:90278,1521:91918,1547:101005,1650:103925,1731:109327,1828:111663,1910:114510,1940:114948,1947:115386,1993:123660,2078:128551,2231:128989,2238:129573,2247:129938,2253:131982,2318:134537,2397:134829,2402:137311,2448:137676,2454:141545,2535:141910,2541:142348,2548:157815,2761:158340,2769:159015,2784:160815,2822:161115,2827:166365,2952:167490,2981:185721,3250:186183,3257:187030,3275:191694,3293:192432,3306:192924,3314:193252,3319:194974,3372:195302,3377:203584,3549:204076,3556:204978,3568:209693,3587:210190,3601:229260,4008:229596,4013:230016,4019:233880,4085:234720,4097:235224,4104:238458,4131:238770,4136:239082,4141:239940,4155:250376,4380:256000,4487
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Tracey Edmonds' interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Tracey Edmonds lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Tracey Edmonds describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Tracey Edmonds talks about her maternal family's move to Los Angeles, California

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Tracey Edmonds remembers her maternal grandparents

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Tracey Edmonds talks about her parents' teenage years

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Tracey Edmonds describes her father's family background, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Tracey Edmonds describes her father's family background, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Tracey Edmonds talks about her father's childhood in Los Angeles, California

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Tracey Edmonds describes how her parents met

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Tracey Edmonds talks about her father's coaching career

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Tracey Edmonds describes her parents' personalities and who she takes after

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Tracey Edmonds recalls her early years in Nevada and California

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Tracey Edmonds describes her early childhood memories

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Tracey Edmonds recalls her elementary school experiences

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Tracey Edmonds describes her experiences at Bishop Gorman High School in Las Vegas, Nevada

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Tracey Edmonds talks about the segregation at Woodrow Wilson High School in Long Beach, California

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Tracey Edmonds talks about her extracurricular activities at Woodrow Wilson High School in Long Beach, California

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Tracey Edmonds recalls her experiences with racial discrimination at Woodrow Wilson High School

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Tracey Edmonds describes her experiences at Woodrow Wilson High School

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Tracey Edmonds recalls her college application process

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Tracey Edmonds describes her experiences at Stanford University in Stanford, California

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Tracey Edmonds remembers studying abroad in Florence, Italy

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Tracey Edmonds recalls her professors at Stanford University in Stanford, California

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Tracey Edmonds talks about her decision to become a real estate broker

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Tracey Edmonds talks about the entertainment of her youth, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Tracey Edmonds recalls the entertainment of her youth, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Tracey Edmonds talks about her mother's real estate company in Newport Beach, California

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Tracey Edmonds remembers meeting her first husband, Kenneth "Babyface" Edmonds, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Tracey Edmonds remembers meeting her first husband, Kenneth "Babyface" Edmonds, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Tracey Edmonds talks about the formation of Yab Yum Entertainment

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Tracey Edmonds recalls the artist she worked with through Yab Yum Entertainment

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Tracey Edmonds talks about producing the film, 'Soul Food'

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Tracey Edmonds talks about the success of the movie 'Soul Food'

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Tracey Edmonds remembers the creation of 'Soul Food' the television series

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Tracey Edmonds talks about the theatrical release of 'Light It Up'

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Tracey Edmonds describes her acquisition of the film 'Hav Plenty'

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Tracey Edmonds talks about producing the film, 'Punks'

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Tracey Edmonds describes her various entertainment companies

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Tracey Edmonds remembers pitching 'College Hill' to BET

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Tracey Edmonds talks about the filming of 'College Hill'

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Tracey Edmonds talks about the reception of 'College Hill'

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Tracey Edmonds recalls producing 'Jumping the Broom'

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Tracey Edmonds talks about Our Stories Films

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Tracey Edmonds reflects upon her career

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Tracey Edmonds talks about mentoring aspiring film producers

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Tracey Edmonds describes the YouTube premium channel Alright TV

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Tracey Edmonds describes her hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Tracey Edmonds reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Tracey Edmonds talks about her family

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - Tracey Edmonds describes how she would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$5

DAStory

4$8

DATitle
Tracey Edmonds remembers meeting her first husband, Kenneth "Babyface" Edmonds, pt. 2
Tracey Edmonds talks about the filming of 'College Hill'
Transcript
So, that was February of 1990, by May is when I made the decision to move up to L.A. [Los Angeles, California]. And so, the weekend of our move we're unpacking and I'm in sweats and a ponytail and we decide to take a food break from moving and we go to KFC [Kentucky Fried Chicken] to go get some food and stuff and we're coming back to our new office and stuff and, you know, there's a lot of traffic on Santa Monica Boulevard, my mom [Jacqueline Moten McQuarn] detours and goes on a side street and there's a, some kind of studio on this side street and so out, you know, comes Kenny "Babyface" Edmonds [Kenneth "Babyface" Edmonds] walking out of this studio and we're driving, you know, and she's like, "Isn't that that guy Babyface you were supposed to do the video with?" And I said, "Yeah," I said, "I think that's him." She goes, "Well, you should go say hi to him." I go, "Mom, I don't look good, you know, like I'm dirty, no." And so, she was like, "Well, I don't care what you say, I'm driving." So, she pulls into the parking lot or whatever and rolls down the window and, you know, Kenny is dressed in a nice suit and, and everything and so my mom is like, "Hey, are you Babyface?" And he's like, "Yeah." And she's like, "You know, my daughter, Tracey [HistoryMaker Tracey Edmonds], was supposed to be in this video with you but she got chickenpox. There's Tracey," and he's like, "Oh, yeah," you know, and I'm just like (laughter). And so, he's like, "Yeah, you know, we were wondering what happened to you." And I was like, "Yeah, I got sick," you know. And she's like, "Well, she just moved up here and she doesn't know anyone, so, here's her card," you know. And he's like, "Oh, okay." She's like, "You guys should get together," you know. And so, he's like, "Okay." And I was like, you know, we drove off. And I was like, "Mom," I was like, "that is so embarrassing." I'm like, "Why did you do that?" And so, but sure enough like, you know, he got the card and I think I got a phone call (laughter) in the next hour or so, where he called me and invited me to, to dinner. And so, so, we had dinner at The Cheesecake Factory in Marina del Rey [California] and, you know, the rest is history. And so, we just, you know, we dated for, I think a year and a half and then got engaged and, you know, got married a couple of years later.$$Okay. Okay (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) And then my, my life changed.$$Yeah, and apparently his did--$$(Laughter).$$--too because, you know, he wrote that you really pushed him, I mean, you know, in terms of what, what his ambitions were and what he was trying to do you, you were, you give him a, a push.$$Oh, I never knew he said that. That--$$Yeah, that's, we got a quote in here.$$(Laughter).$$I don't wanna read it but, but there, yeah, he actually said, he said this to--anyway.$$Is that from a interview he did for something or--$$Yeah, yeah.$$Oh.$$Yeah.$$Okay.$$Yeah.$$Yeah.$$So, yeah, he said, "She, she pushed me in ways I needed to be pushed. She encouraged me to try new things, things I had never done before."$$Oh, wow. That's, I mean, that's really sweet. We, Kenny and I are still to this day, we're very close friends. And so, I have a lot of beautiful, beautiful memories with him. And, you know, when we talk about how my mom, I always told my mom how she was blessed to be young and to have had that real young love and, you know, and, and, getting your first house together and having kids together and all that kind of stuff, I had that with Kenny which was beautiful. You know, and so, he was like my first young love and we, I mean, we had an amazing time, we grew together. And so, we did the house, buying our house and fixing up, and finding furniture, and fixing rooms, and having, you know, our babies together. And, and then I always, you know, I had this travel bug and he--in me and he knows that's just my character so I'm always, you know, I was the person to take him to Europe for the first time and so I was like, you know, always the one kind of planning these experiences and these memories that I wanted us to have together. And so, so we did our first Europe trip together, we saw China together, we saw Japan together, we climbed through pyramids of Egypt together, Thailand, Australia, we went all over the world together, you know, as we got older and experienced life and, and stuff together. And so, you know, and he was, you know, both of us, I think, you know, he really supported me in my ambitions and I did whatever I could to, to support him too behind the scenes too. And--yeah.$$Now, he grew up in Indianapolis [Indiana] right?$$Um-hm.$$That's, yeah, 'cause (unclear) (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Yeah. Yeah, he--yeah, he grew up in Indianapolis. But we did, you know, we did a lot of things together. Like when I decided that I wanted to go into film, you know, and become a producer and stuff and created Edmonds Entertainment [Edmonds Entertainment Group, Inc., Los Angeles, California], he supported me and I found the 'Soul Food' movie and I said, "Hey, well, let's do this together," you know. So, I produced the movie and then he did all the music. So, it was, it was fun 'cause, you know, we flew out to Chicago [Illinois], I had just had Brandon [Brandon Edmonds]. And we're staying in this, you know, hotel, I think it was like the Four Seasons Hotel [Four Seasons Hotel Chicago] or something, I'm on the set every day producing the movie, he's got a little studio set up inside the hotel room and he's writing all the songs as we're shooting the scenes and stuff. And so, so, we did that a few times on movies together and stuff and then we created a management company [Edmonds Management Group] and stuff. And so, I really, you know, I was inspired by--like I read this Donald Trump [President Donald John Trump] book when I was in, in college [Stanford University, Stanford, California] and it was kind of, you know, about the art of branding yourself, you know. And then we saw how Trump branded himself and put Trump all over the hotels and all that kind of stuff. And so, when Kenny and I got married I was like, "Okay, let's be like, you know, one of those big families and let's brand ourselves and stuff," and, you know, and I said, "And let's do Edmonds Entertainment," and, you know, and then we bought a, a, a building together and so I put a big E at the top (laughter), at the top of the building for Edmonds and--$$Well it--$$--you know (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) I, I think that all that worked.$So, Stephen Hill and BET [Black Entertainment Television] they said, "Okay, the, this 'College Hill' thing that you just pitched sounds really interesting. We only have this amount of money." And I was like, "Are you serious?" And they're like, "Yeah, and we need thirteen episodes. Can you do it?" And so, for me, you know, I've done a lot of things, as I'm sure you see, that's not always about making money. It's just about like taking things to another level for African American entertainment or opening a door or proving a point. And so, so, I said, "Okay, all right. I have this amount of money, you need thirteen episodes. Okay, I'll do it." And so, so, again, me being really hands on with everything, so I went out, I found a university that let us do it, Southern University [Southern University and Agricultural and Mechanical College], Baton Rouge, Louisiana. And, and I grabbed Chris Cherot [Christopher Scott Cherot] who I had done 'Hav Plenty' with because I knew Chris knew how to make stuff for no money (laughter). So, I'm like, "Chris, I have X number of dollars, we need to do thirteen episodes, okay. Can we get our guerilla reality making going and lets me and you go out to Southern University and shoot this reality show, and can you direct it and help me put it together?" So, he was like, "Okay, let's do it." So, so, we went out and shot our first season of 'College Hill.' Now, so sad compared to how all these shows are properly done. I mean, the only location we had were the kids' college dorms themselves. And so, nowadays, and in our subsequent seasons we got to put them in more, you know, better locations, a real house, and all this kind of stuff. First season we were actually just inside the dormitories having to shoot in these little tiny rooms and, you know, we had no story producers, nothing, so it was just me and Chris and it was all about casting. So, it was all about finding eight kids with really strong personalities that--$$Really different personalities.$$Yeah, really different personalities.$$I, I know one, Jabari Roberts from Chicago [Illinois].$$Oh, yes, yeah, yeah.$$He is exactly the way he is in (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Yeah, yeah.$$--on TV and--$$Yeah.$$--and people probably think that he's acting or doing something.$$No.$$He, he's exactly like that.$$No.$$He was the nerdiest kid in the--$$Absolutely.$$That's him.$$And we were really the realest reality show out there. We never scripted anything, we never pushed the kids to do anything, you know, it was all about strong personalities and, and the right casting and stuff. So, so, we did the show at Southern, they put it on the air and it broke all their ratings, you know, history. You know, like we, you know, we were the, had the highest ratings in the history of, of BET. And so, everybody went crazy, you know, over this little show, you know, or whatever and so I was like okay, cool, cool, yay, okay, well, we showed that there's an audience out there. So then, so then, we got picked up, you know, for another season. And then slowly, the second season they gave us, they increased our budget a little more, and then finally BET got bought out by Viacom [Viacom Inc.]. So, once that Viacom money came in they were really able to give us a proper budget, so that we were able to look like, you know, the competing shows, we were able to look like a, you know, a MTV show [Music Television; MTV], you know, or whatever. And so, so, we had six seasons always, you know, the number one top, top, top show. And it was really interesting because, you know, early on that first season like nobody knew what our budget was and everybody was like, "Well, how come your show, I love it, but how come it don't look like, you know, the other shows on, you know, why it gotta look like that?" I'm like, if you only knew (laughter) how much money, you know, we had to, you know, to shoot with, you know, it was, you know, pennies. So, so, yeah, so, we did six seasons and, you know, we were their number one rated show and then unfortunately we were put on pause because the regime changed and so to this day I've been trying to get them to unpause us and let us continue on, you know, with the show. And I get a million tweets 'cause it's on Netflix and, you know, everybody is like, "Oh, my god, Tracey [HistoryMaker Tracey Edmonds], when are you bringing back 'College Hill'?" You know, "What's going on with that?" And so, still talking to the network about it.

Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson

Broadcast executive Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson was born in 1948 in Los Angeles, California. Jackson graduated from George Washington High School in 1966. She went on to receive her B.A. degree in child development from California State University in Los Angeles in 1972.

Upon graduation, Jackson was hired as a secretary in the network research department of NBC-TV. She was promoted to a manager 1976, and soon became a program executive and supervisor for many shows, including The Richard Pryor Show, Chico & the Man, Little House on the Prairie, and ChiPs. In 1982, Jackson was promoted to vice president of children’s and family programs at NBC, becoming the first African American woman to reach the level of vice president in programming. While serving as vice president, she implemented, directed and supervised a number of children’s television programs, including the Smurfs, Alvin & the Chipmunks, Mr. T, Punky Brewster, Jim Henson’s StoryTeller, Big Bird Goes to China, and Saved by the Bell. Jackson was instrumental in making NBC Saturday morning the number-one rated kids network for seven years, and she increased advertising sales from $2 million to $35 million.

In 1991, Jackson joined the World African Network, where she served as executive vice president until 1997. After raising her family in South Africa for thirteen years, Jackson returned to the United States when she was hired as the special projects consultant for the launch of The Hub cable network. Jackson was promoted to network story editor of The Hub in 2012. Then, in that same year, she was hired as the vice president of broadcast standards and practices at Saban Brands, where she became responsible for the review of all Saban Brands programming content for the CW Saturday morning block. Jackson has received many honors and awards, including being named to Dollars and Sense Magazine’s America’s Top 100 Black Business and Professional Women. She was also appointed to the board of trustees of the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts by President Bill Clinton.

Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on November 17, 2013.

Accession Number

A2013.296

Sex

Female

Interview Date

11/17/2013 |and| 12/16/2013

Last Name

Jackson

Maker Category
Marital Status

Divorced

Middle Name

Tucker Vinson

Occupation
Schools

California State University, Los Angeles

George Washington Preparatory High School

116th Street Elementary School

Los Angeles Harbor College

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Phyllis

Birth City, State, Country

Los Angeles

HM ID

JAC33

Favorite Season

Summer

State

California

Favorite Vacation Destination

South Africa

Favorite Quote

Tell Yourself The Truth

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

California

Birth Date

7/2/1948

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Los Angeles

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Shrimp, Chicken

Short Description

Broadcast executive Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson (1948- ) was the first African American woman to reach the level of vice president in programming when she was hired as the vice president of children’s and family programs at NBC in 1982.

Employment

Saban Brands

Hub

Tommy Lynch Productions

World African Network

NBC

Favorite Color

Yellow

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson's interview, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Slating of Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson's interview, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson talks about her maternal family history

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson talks about her paternal family history

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson talks about the tradition of education in her father's family

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson describes her mother's experience growing up on a farm in Neeses, South Carolina

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson describes her father's experience growing up in Orangeburg, South Carolina

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson talks about her family's tradition of attending Claflin College in Orangeburg, South Carolina

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson talks about her parents' move to Los Angeles, California

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson describes her parents' personalities

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson lists her siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson describes her earliest childhood memory in Lancaster, California

Tape: 1 Story: 14 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson talks about the community in south Los Angeles, California where she was raised

Tape: 1 Story: 15 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson remembers her first day of fifth grade at 116th Street Elementary School in Los Angeles, California

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson describes her experience in school in the 1950s and her children's experience in school in South Africa in the 1990s

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson talks about the stigma of being a divorcee in 1971

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson talks about attending Holman United Methodist Church in Los Angeles, California

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson describes her family's values as a child

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson talks about her experience watching television as a child

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson talks about her exposure to African American history as a child

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson explains that she did not know many celebrities growing up in South Los Angeles, California

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson describes the social organization she and her friends created at George Washington Preparatory High School in Los Angeles, California

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson describes her social life during her high school years

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson talks about her role models and being discouraged from going to college by a high school counselor

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson talks about the riot in Watts, California in 1965

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson recalls the March on Washington and President John F. Kennedy's assassination in 1963

Tape: 2 Story: 13 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson talks about her early experiences with live television

Tape: 2 Story: 14 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson talks about attending Los Angeles Harbor Community College in Los Angeles, California

Tape: 2 Story: 15 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson talks about being a young single mother

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson talks about applying to the police academy in 1969

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson talks about the television show 'Julia' starring HistoryMaker Diahann Carroll

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson talks about majoring in child development at California State University, Los Angeles, in Los Angeles, California

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson talks about collecting children's literature

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson talks about teaching in a mobile pre-school while in college

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Phyllis Jackson talks about graduating from California State University, Los Angeles and being hired by NBC as a secretary

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson describes working at NBC in 1972, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson describes working at NBC in 1972, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson talks about TV shows that were on NBC when she first started working at the network in 1972

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson talks about being promoted to manager of variety programming at NBC

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson talks about the live taping of the first episode of 'The Richard Pryor Show'

Tape: 3 Story: 12 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson describes the people working on 'The Richard Pryor Show': Richard Pryor, Paul Mooney and Rocco Urbisci

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson explains why 'The Richard Pryor Show' was unsuccessful

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson describes why she was not interested in producing variety programming

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson describes her work in child and human development at Pacific Oaks College in Pasadena, California

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson describes the shows she oversaw as program executive for dramatic programming

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson talks being promoted to director of children's programming at NBC

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson talks about the production process for NBC's children's programming

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson talks about developing the 'Smurfs' TV show

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson talks about the role of toy manufacturers in the development of children's programming

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson talks about how characters were developed in children's programming

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson talks about supervising the creation of the TV show 'Alvin and the Chipmunks,' pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson talks about supervising the creation of the TV show 'Alvin and the Chipmunks' pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson talks about 'Saved by the Bell' and working with HistoryMaker Karen Hill-Scott

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson talks about briefly working with Bill Cosby

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson talks about the global impact of 'Saved by the Bell'

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson talks about the African Americans she hired while working at NBC

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson talks about her attempts in the early 1980s to increase diversity on television

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson talks about the television characters she's named after her children

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson talks about NBC's declining to invest in the Cabbage Patch Kids

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson talks about the World African Network, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson talks about the World African Network, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson leaves NBC to work at NBC Productions, where her programs were described as "too black"

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson talks about the show 'Miss Collegiate African American Pageant'

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson describes her sister, Dorothy Middleton Taylor, as one of the first African American writers for children's programming

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson describes the opportunity she and her husband, Eugene Jackson, had to work in South African television programming in 1992

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson talks about the popularity of Nigerian soap operas

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson talks about moving to South Africa with her family

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson talks about World African Network Online

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson talks about meeting HistoryMakers Charlayne Hunter-Gault and Ronald T. Gault in South Africa

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson talks about moving from Bryanston, South Africa to a farm outside of Pretoria, South Africa

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson talks about South African fashion

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson talks about 'Saved by the Bell'

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson talks about the conference she organized on diversity in television

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson explains how 'Saved by the Bell' set the stage for diverse casting in pre-teen shows

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson talks about positive black characters on TV shows

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson talks about 'The Cosby Show'

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson talks about NBC's lack of interest in investing in the Cabbage Patch Kids

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson talks about Phil Mendez and 'The Black Snowman'

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson talks about NBC's Project Peacock

Tape: 7 Story: 9 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson talks about the TV show the 'Gummi Bears' and blond haired heroines in children's television

Tape: 7 Story: 10 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson talks about the production schedule in children's programming

Tape: 7 Story: 11 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson talks about the success of Nickelodeon

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Phyllis Jackson talks about the change in network television since the 1980s and 1990s

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson talks about the types of programming she liked to air on NBC, pt. 1

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson talks about the types of programming she liked to air on NBC, pt. 2

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson talks about her decision to leave NBC Productions and work full-time at the World African Network

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - Phyllis Jackson describes how historically black colleges and universities in were popularized in the 1980s and 1990s

Tape: 8 Story: 6 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson talks about her interest in African media and selling World African Network to cable operators

Tape: 8 Story: 7 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson talks about 'Stomp,' a show produced by the World African Network

Tape: 8 Story: 8 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson explains why the World African Network never got on the air

Tape: 8 Story: 9 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson talks about what she would have done differently with World African Network

Tape: 8 Story: 10 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson talks about what convinced she and her husband to move to South Africa

Tape: 9 Story: 1 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson talks about having tea with Nelson Mandela, pt. 1

Tape: 9 Story: 2 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson talks about having tea with Nelson Mandela, pt. 2

Tape: 9 Story: 3 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson talks about having tea with Nelson Mandela, pt. 3

Tape: 9 Story: 4 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson talks about other African Americans who were moving to South Africa in the 1990s

Tape: 9 Story: 5 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson talks about the type of programming she wanted to air on the World African Network, pt.1

Tape: 9 Story: 6 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson talks about the type of programming she wanted to air on the World African Network, pt. 2

Tape: 9 Story: 7 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson talks about attending Nelson Mandela's inauguration in 1994

Tape: 9 Story: 8 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson talks about the culture in South Africa, post-apartheid

Tape: 9 Story: 9 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson talks about the cell phone business, Afrotel, her husband, Eugene Jackson, started in South Africa

Tape: 9 Story: 10 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson talks about sending her children to South African schools

Tape: 9 Story: 11 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson talks about the cultural differences in South African business

Tape: 10 Story: 1 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson describes the differences in the business environment in South Africa and that in the United States

Tape: 10 Story: 2 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson describes the difficulty she experienced trying to adapt American business models to South Africa

Tape: 10 Story: 3 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson talks about subtle cultural distinctions between South Africa and the United States

Tape: 10 Story: 4 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson talks about the ethnic and racial demographic in South Africa

Tape: 10 Story: 5 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson talks about the children's television series, 'Scout's Safari'

Tape: 10 Story: 6 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson talks about the first World AIDS Day and starting a production company in South Africa

Tape: 10 Story: 7 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson describes her return to the United States to work for the Hub network and the changes in technology from 1998

Tape: 10 Story: 8 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson talks about working on the animated television program, 'Secret Millionaires Club'

Tape: 10 Story: 9 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson talks about the Children's Television Act of 1990 and the new standards for children's programming

Tape: 10 Story: 10 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson talks about her role as vice president of broadcasting standards and practices at Saban Brands

Tape: 11 Story: 1 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson describes her feelings while working at Saban Brands

Tape: 11 Story: 2 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson talks about her dream of creating a show that tells children's stories from the African diaspora

Tape: 11 Story: 3 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson talks about the film industry in African countries, pt. 1

Tape: 11 Story: 4 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson talks about the film industry in African countries, pt. 2

Tape: 11 Story: 5 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson describes what she would have done differently in her life

Tape: 11 Story: 6 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 11 Story: 7 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson describes her hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 11 Story: 8 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson describes the challenges of balancing her career with raising children

Tape: 11 Story: 9 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson talks about her relationship with her ex-husband Eugene Jackson

Tape: 11 Story: 10 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 11 Story: 11 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson narrates her photographs, pt.1

Tape: 11 Story: 12 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson narrates her photographs, pt. 2

Tape: 12 Story: 1 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson narrates her photographs, pt. 3

Tape: 12 Story: 2 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson narrates her photographs, pt. 4

Tape: 12 Story: 3 - Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson narrates her photographs, pt. 5

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$5

DAStory

12$6

DATitle
Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson describes the people working on 'The Richard Pryor Show': Richard Pryor, Paul Mooney and Rocco Urbisci
Phyllis Tucker Vinson Jackson talks about her attempts in the early 1980s to increase diversity on television
Transcript
And Richard [Pryor]--it was really a pleasure to work with him because he's so--he was just so brilliant. I remember we did a sh--sh--sketch about clowns. And the sketch itself, in terms of him being a sad clown, as I was sitting there and watching it in the bleachers, just moved you to tears. He was such a brilliant actor.$$Okay, yeah, you know, it's been said many times that comedians are really sa--very sad people. Did you find that to be true with him?$$No, what I said was I think they're brilliant. After working with Richard Pryor and Robin Williams, they are brilliant. You don't realize that the kit--it made me--because--maybe because I'm the child development and the mother, realize that--and, and Ed--Eddie Murphy the same thing. They're brilliant. And school situations contain them and constantly tell 'em no and sit down and things like that. And they are actually brilliant. They are brilliant observers of life, and they bring it to life through their observations of life. And Robin Williams used to play with my son [Nye Tucker] like in the sta--in the--in the bleachers. He'd do all those faces and, and voices and things like that and make him laugh. He was eight (unclear) he's--he was eight years old, and he would just entertain him. 'Cause they--and they also keep busy, and they keep moving. They can't be still. That's what I found, in terms of being around them. They have to--they're constantly on, they're constantly entertaining; they're constantly moving around; they're constantly telling jokes; they're constantly having the focus of the attention on them; but they're brilliant 'cause they just see things in life that you don't see.$$Okay, so you're saying when they're, they're in public they're actually being themselves. They're engaging all the time.$$They're engaging. They're on all the time. And Richard was just--he would run and he would hide and not--I mean, Rocco Urbisci was the producer. And Paul Mooney was a part of the team that got him to come out.$$So that's interesting. That relationship--Paul Mooney I know did a lot of the writing for the 'Richard Pryor Show.'$$Um-hmm, he did.$$And so he had to actually persuade Richard to come out?$$Uh-hmm, 'cause he was a good--he was a--he was kind of a friend. Rocco Urbisci--in fact, to me there needed to be a stronger authority on the show who could make Richard more--Richard needed to be more accountable. If anything, those, those people to me, from my perspective--and I mean I was a young program executive--they were more friends with Richard. They were more friendly with Richard, and it took--it just needed to be--there needed to be an authority figure as far as I was concerned.$$Okay, well, we know that the show ran four episodes, but--so what was--kind of give, give us a perspective I guess from--what happened, you know.$$It wasn't a ratings success. It wasn't a ratings success, and I also think it was a combination. It wasn't a ratings success--but any show that starts new, unless it's highly promoted, has to be given time. Richard was not happy because of the restrictions, and it really was not programmed in the right time period. It should have been a ten o'clock show.$Now you hosted--I don't know what, what time period. The date isn't here, but you put together a conference of African Americans, Hispanics, Asians, women, the physically disabled people to discuss program content. Is this--well, what was the name of this?$$It didn't have a name really. It started out as a meeting that we organized with the research department from NBC [National Broadcasting Company], and we brought in consultants from those various communities, and had a meeting actually at the Universal Sheraton. Be--the rea--the impetus for the meeting was this: All the writers, you know, the Joe Bar--Joe Barbera, Friz Freleng, and the writers at the studio who were trying to create these content, did not have any--much exper--it's mostly men, no women at that time, and no people of color, and there was no diversity. So you're trying to get them to be more diverse and more open to having African-American characters, to having Latino characters, to dealing with let--you know, disabled stories. So what we decided--what I decided to do was--and I talked to our research department about organizing a meeting and having someone come in. Karen [HM Hill-Scott] from the African American community, Dr. Scott [ph.] from Latin American community, a woman from UCLA [University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California], Asian--some--a Chinese--either--it was Asian. I can't remember what community it was from, but we met and talked about what it was like to come from all these diverse communities as a group--as a research group first. The information was so enlightening, we decided to share it with the creative community. And I will never forget we, we had a bigger meeting where we invited the studios in, the writers, everybody that we knew. It was probably fifty, one hundred people. It was so successful, we ended up doing it in New York [New York] as well and talked about what it was like being a person of color and how you wanted to see yourself on television. And one of the statistics that came out was--and this probably was in, say, '81 [1981], '82 [1982]--that in twenty years, the population in Los Angeles [California] would be--I don't know--forty percent Latino. And there was a gasp in the room; it was like (gasp sound) (laughter), and it's here. You know, it was like--because people were looking at numbers and making projections--they saying things like the white community is on--only having 1.2--these numbers are not accurate--1.2 children; the African-American family is having 2.5 children; you know, the Latino community is having 4.5. Well, they thought based on those numbers, they were gonna grow in population. So it was--and we were saying that to say how important it was to embrace these other cultures and portray them on television. Because I would give writers notes to say why don't we make this character--I'll never forget, a writer on 'Spiderman.' There was a manager of a upscale hotel in a 'Spiderman' cartoon. And I said, "Why don't we make this role African American?" And he said, "That would never happen, have an African American manager of an upscale hotel." And from his experience, that's what his experience was. And just tying it to my own life, I remember going and staying at the Ritz Carlton Hotel in Buckhead in Los An--in Atlanta [Georgia] thinking--and there was an African American manager. I'm like see (laughter), but it wasn't his experience. So that's what we were up against. It's like, the writers who were actually writing material could not even imagine having people of color in other roles. And in their mind it was just a block. So it was educating that community. We educated that community and the larger community, and then we did it in New York. And as a result of what we did and understanding that people of color wanted to see themselves on television--and at that time, NBC was number three--Brandon Tartikoff took that information, and as a result, in 'Miami Vice,' cast--what was the African American brother's name [sic, Philip Michael Thomas] who was in--$$Yeah, I know Don Johnson and the other was--God, what was--$$Mario Van Peebles? Was it--$$No, it wasn't Mario. It was--yeah, this is tel--I hope he doesn't see this.$$Well, we'll stop--$$We can't think of his name.$$--right and we'll go back and--$$But--$$--say that, but--$$Yeah, but--$$--as a result of that information, he put him in that role to attract our community, and more people beginning to understand the importance of that. All right God, what is his name?$$Let's not dwell on that--$$Okay.$$We'll, we'll, we'll get to that.$$But anyway--$$--(Simultaneous)--$$--we'll go--$$--(Simultaneous)--$$Anyway--and we'll go back and--$$Yeah.$$--they can edit it--but anyway, yeah. But as a result of that information, they be--NBC began to thoughtfully consider populating their television shows with people of color. So not only did it affect children's programming, but it affected other areas as well.