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The Honorable Jennifer L. McClellan

State representative Jennifer L. McClellan was born on December 28, 1972 in Petersburg, Virginia. McClellan graduated as valedictorian of her class at Matoaca High School in Chesterfield, Virginia in 1990. She then earned her B.A. degree from the University of Richmond in 1994, and her J.D. degree from the University of Virginia in 1997.

In 1996, McClellan served as a page at the Democratic National Convention. After graduating from the University of Virginia, she was hired at the law firm of Hunton & Williams. In 2005, McClellan ran for her first political office in the Virginia House of Delegates. From 2006 to 2017, McClellan served as the representative for the 71st District in the House of Delegates of Virginia, where she served on the House Education, Commerce and Labor, and Courts of Justice Committees, and the Virginia Conflicts of Interest and Ethics Advisory Council. She also served as a super-delegate at the 2009 Democratic National Convention, and served as vice chair of the Democratic Party of Virginia. In 2017, McClellan was elected to the Virginia State Senate, where she served on the Agriculture, Conservation & Natural Resources, Local Government, and Transportation Committees. McClellan also chaired the Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Memorial Commission, and served on the Virginia Indian Commemorative Commission and the Task Force on the Preservation of the History of Former Enslaved African Americans.  She co-chaired the Capital Region Caucus, served as vice chair of the Virginia Legislative Black Caucus, and was a member of the Rural Caucus and the Women’s Health Care Caucus. In addition to her position in the Virginia State Senate, McClellan also served as an assistant general counsel at Verizon Communications.

McClellan received numerous awards, including the Freedom Fund Banquet Award from the Richmond NAACP in 2008, the Leadership Award from the Virginia Housing Coalition in 2009, the Older Virginians Champions Award from the Virginia AARP in 2011, the Health Policy Award from the Virginia Commonwealth University Student National Medical Association in 2012, the Exceptional Dedication and Public Service Award from the Fan Free Clinic in 2014, the Trailblazer Award from the Virginia Leadership Institute in 2015, and many more. McClellan was also a member of the Virginia Bar Association (VBA) Board of Governors, the Virginia State Bar, the Metropolitan Women’s Bar Association, the Richmond Bar Association, and the Oliver Hill/Samuel Tucker Bar Association as well as the Junior League of Richmond, the Fan District Association, the Fan Women’s Club, the League of Women Voters, and the Richmond Crusade for Voters. In 2017, McClellan was selected as a Hunt-Kean Leadership Fellow.

McClellan and her husband, David Mills, have two children, Jackson and Samantha.

Jennifer L. McClellan was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on December 7, 2016.

Accession Number

A2016.147

Sex

Female

Interview Date

12/07/2016 |and| 1/19/2018

Last Name

McClellan

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

L.

Occupation
Schools

University of Richmond

University of Virginia School of Law

First Name

Jennifer

Birth City, State, Country

Pettersburg

HM ID

MCC20

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Virginia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Hawaii

Favorite Quote

Highly illogical

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Virginia

Birth Date

12/28/1972

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Richmond

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Italian

Short Description

State Representative Jennifer L. McClellan (1972 - ) served in the Virginia House of Delegates from 2006 to 2017, when she was elected to the Virginia State Senate. She also served as the vice chair of the Democratic Party of Virginia.

Employment

Virginia House of Delegates

Verizon

Hunton and Williams

Favorite Color

Blue

The Honorable Ruth Hassell-Thompson

Civic leader and political official Ruth Hassell-Thompson was born on November 6, 1942 in New York City to Branon Hassell and Thelma Crump Hassell. She attended Bronx Community College in the Bronx, New York and Sarah Lawrence College in Bronxville, New York.

In 1963, Hassell-Thompson began working as a pediatric nurse and substance abuse counselor at Montefiore Mount Vernon Hospital in Mount Vernon, New York, where she worked for thirty-six years. Between 1971 and 1980, she worked for the Westchester Community Opportunity Program, serving in a number of positions, including director of an infant daycare center and assistant to the executive director. Then, from 1980 to 1987, Hassell-Thompson served as executive director of the Westchester Minority Contractors Association. Hassell-Thompson joined the Mount Vernon City Council in 1993, where she served as council president and acting mayor of the City of Mount Vernon. In addition, Hassell-Thompson served on several council committees, in addition to serving as vice chairperson of the Urban Renewal Board and Real Estate Board. In 2000, she was elected as the Democratic representative of New York’s 36th District in the New York State Senate. Serving for eight terms, Hassell-Thompson was instrumental in the passage of New York’s marriage equality legislation. She also chaired the Crime Victims, Crime and Corrections Committee and was a ranking minority member on the Consumer Protection and Judiciary committees. In 2016, Governor Andrew Cuomo appointed Hassell-Thompson as special advisor for policy and community affairs of New York State Homes and Community Renewal.

In addition to her political career, Hassell-Thompson served as president and CEO of Whart Development Company, Inc. and The Gathering, a women’s center in Mount Vernon. She also served as a health educator for the Mount Vernon Neighborhood Health Center and as a consultant to Automotive Consultant, Inc. Hassell-Thompson was the recipient of two honorary degrees from Mercy College and Eastern Theological Consortium. In 2007, she was appointed by the Akwamu Traditional Council in the Eastern Region of Ghana as their Mpuntuhemaa, or Queenmother for Development. Hassell-Thompson also received the Joseph P. Gavrin Memorial Award.

Hassell-Thompson has two daughters.

Ruth Hassell-Thompson was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on November 7, 2016.

Accession Number

A2016.081

Sex

Female

Interview Date

11/7/2016 |and| 12/1/2016

Last Name

Hassell-Thompson

Maker Category
Marital Status

Widow

Middle Name

Elaine

Schools

Nathan Hale School

First Name

Ruth

Birth City, State, Country

Mount Vernon

HM ID

HAS01

Favorite Season

Winter

State

New York

Favorite Vacation Destination

None

Favorite Quote

How Does The World Alter When You Walk Through It?

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Birth Date

11/6/1942

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New York

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Macaroni and cheese

Short Description

Civic leader and political official Ruth Hassell-Thompson (1942 - ) served for eight terms in the New York State Senate. In 2016, she became the special advisor for policy and community affairs for New York State Homes and Community Renewal.

Employment

New York State House of Representatives

New York State Senate

Mount Vernon City Council

Whart Development Co.

Montefiore Mount Vernon Hospital

Y Med Infant Day Care Director

Favorite Color

Black

The Honorable Bill Perkins

Political official and activist Bill Perkins was born on April 14, 1944 in the South Bronx neighborhood of New York City. After completing high school preparatory courses at Dartmouth College in Hanover, New Hampshire, Perkins was awarded a full scholarship to attend the elite Collegiate Preparatory School during high school. Following graduation, he received a full scholarship to attend Brown University in Providence, Rhode Island, where he earned his B.A. degree in political science in 1972.

After graduating from Brown University, Perkins returned to New York City, where he worked as a social worker and tenant organizer. Encouraged by former Harlem politician, Bill Lynch, Perkins founded the Sojourner Truth Democratic Club as a base for his community activism. In 1998, Perkins was elected to the New York City Council, where he served as deputy majority leader during his seven year tenure. Perkins garnered national attention as an outspoken advocate for progressive issues, including public health, human rights, community services, and education reform. He sponsored the Childhood Lead Paint Poisoning Prevention Act of 2004, and tackled New York City’s rat infestation problem. As an advocate of public education, he also secured funding for scholarships, full-time staffing, and college preparatory courses for the City University of New York (CUNY) system. In 2006, Perkins was elected to the New York State Senate as a representative of New York City’s 30th District, which encompassed Harlem, East Harlem, the Upper West Side, and Washington Heights. Perkins supported raising the minimum wage, reforming the juvenile justice system to prevent minors from being sentenced as adults, setting limits on the solitary confinement of prisoners, and prohibiting eating on subways to minimize the rat population. In 2007, Perkins was the first New York City politician to support presidential hopeful Barack Obama.

After leaving the New York Senate in 2017, Perkins returned to the New York City Council as a representative of the 9th District. He introduced the Patriot Act Resolution in the City Council, and sponsored landmark legislation to protect the rights of gay, lesbian and transgender communities.

Perkins is married to Pamela Green.

Bill Perkins was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on October 26, 2016.

Accession Number

A2016.055

Sex

Male

Interview Date

10/26/2016 |and| 11/10/2016

Last Name

Perkins

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Occupation
Schools

Dartmouth College

Brown University

Collegiate School

First Name

Bill

Birth City, State, Country

Bronx

HM ID

PER06

Favorite Season

All Seasons

State

New York

Favorite Vacation Destination

None

Favorite Quote

Your health is your wealth.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Birth Date

4/14/1944

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New York

Country

United States

Favorite Food

None

Short Description

Political official and activist Bill Perkins (1944 - ) served on the New York City Council from 1998 to 2005, and the New York State Senate from 2006 to 2017, before returning to the New York City Council.

Employment

Unknown

New York City Council

New York State Senate

Favorite Color

None

The Honorable Barbara Lee

U.S. Congresswoman Honorable Barbara Lee was born on July 16, 1946 in El Paso, Texas. Her biological father, James Lewis, was a veteran of the Korean War; her mother, Mildred Massey, a clerk. In 1960, Lee’s family moved to the San Fernando Valley in Los Angeles, California. As a teenager, she immersed herself in music and won two music achievement awards from the Rotary Club and the Bank of America. Lee graduated from San Fernando High School in 1964. She worked for one year in the California Department of Labor Statistics, and then went on to receive her B.A. degree in psychology from Mills College in 1973 and her M.A. degree in social work from the University of California at Berkeley in 1975.

Upon graduation, Lee worked for Congressman Ronald V. Dellums after serving as a legislative intern there during graduate school. While there, she managed Congressman Dellums’ offices in Washington, D.C. and Oakland, California for eleven years and eventually rose to the position of senior adviser. In 1990, Lee was elected to the California State Assembly; and, in 1996, she was elected to the California State Senate. As a Democrat, she worked successfully with California’s Republican administration in those years and sponsored sixty-seven bills that were signed into law by then-Republican Governor Pete Wilson. Lee’s political agenda focused on issues such as education, public safety, environmental protection, health, labor, and women’s rights. In 1998, she became the first woman to represent the State of California’s then-9th Congressional District in the U.S. House of Representatives and served as chair of the Congressional Black Caucus from 2009 to 2011. She was later elected as the first woman to represent the California’s now-13th Congressional District in 2013. Lee also published a memoir, Renegade for Peace and Justice: A Memoir of Political and Personal Courage (2008).

Lee’s honors and distinctions include receiving the Dean’s Appreciation Award from the University of California at Berkeley School of Social Welfare, and the Willie L. Brown, Jr., Leadership Award, both in 2001. Lee was also nominated for the Alfred R. Nobel Peace Prize. In 2009, The National Urban League honored her with the Congressional Leadership Award; and, in 2012, she received the Lifetime Legacy Achievement Award from the United Nations Association. Lee is the mother of two sons, Tony Lee and Craig Lee.

U.S. Congresswoman Barbara Lee was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on November 5, 2013.

Accession Number

A2013.249

Sex

Female

Interview Date

11/5/2013

Last Name

Lee

Maker Category
Marital Status

Divorced

Middle Name

Jean

Schools

University of California, Berkeley

Mills College

San Fernando High School

San Fernando Junior High School

St. Joseph’s Elementary School

First Name

Barbara

Birth City, State, Country

El Paso

HM ID

LEE05

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Texas

Favorite Vacation Destination

Grenada

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

California

Birth Date

7/16/1946

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Bay Area/Oakland

Country

United States

Favorite Food

None

Short Description

U.S. congresswoman and state senator The Honorable Barbara Lee (1946 - ) was the first woman to represent the State of California’s then-9th and now-13th Congressional District in the U.S. House of Representatives.

Employment

California State Senate

United States House of Representatives

California State Assembly

W.C. Parish/Lee Associates

Office of Representative Ronald Dellums

Far West Laboratory for Educational Research & Development

Glendale Welfare Office

California Department of Labor Statistics

Favorite Color

Orange

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of The Honorable Barbara Lee's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - The Honorable Barbara Lee lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - The Honorable Barbara Lee describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - The Honorable Barbara Lee talks about tracing her African roots

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - The Honorable Barbara Lee describes her mother's upbringing

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - The Honorable Barbara Lee talks about her mother's experiences of color discrimination

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - The Honorable Barbara Lee talks about her mother's education and career

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - The Honorable Barbara Lee describes her father's family background and how he met her mother

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - The Honorable Barbara Lee describes her stepfather

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - The Honorable Barbara Lee remembers moving with her family to California

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - The Honorable Barbara Lee describes her likeness to her mother

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - The Honorable Barbara Lee lists her siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - The Honorable Barbara Lee describes her earliest childhood memory

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - The Honorable Barbara Lee remembers her house in El Paso, Texas

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - The Honorable Barbara Lee talks about her maternal grandfather's move to El Paso, Texas

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - The Honorable Barbara Lee remembers her neighborhood in El Paso, Texas

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - The Honorable Barbara Lee talks about the role of religion in her childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - The Honorable Barbara Lee remembers her extracurricular activities

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - The Honorable Barbara Lee talks about her family's departure from El Paso, Texas

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - The Honorable Barbara Lee describes her early political participation

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - The Honorable Barbara Lee talk about her early influences

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - The Honorable Barbara Lee describes her experiences at San Fernando High School in San Fernando, California

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - The Honorable Barbara Lee describes how travel influenced her interest in politics

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - The Honorable Barbara Lee remembers her high school graduation

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - The Honorable Barbara Lee remembers the political events of the 1960s

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - The Honorable Barbara Lee recalls her time living in Europe

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - The Honorable Barbara Lee remembers her return to San Fernando, California

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - The Honorable Barbara Lee remembers moving to Northern California

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - The Honorable Barbara Lee remembers joining the Black Panther Party

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - The Honorable Barbara Lee talks about her maternal grandfather's emphasis on education

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - The Honorable Barbara Lee talks about her decision to attend Mills College in Oakland, California

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - The Honorable Barbara Lee describes her experiences at Mills College in Oakland, California, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - The Honorable Barbara Lee describes her experiences at Mills College in Oakland, California, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - The Honorable Barbara Lee recalls developing the African study abroad program at Mills College

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - The Honorable Barbara Lee recalls the influential figures she met through her activism

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - The Honorable Barbara Lee talks about the Black Panther Party

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - The Honorable Barbara Lee talks about her psychological training

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - The Honorable Barbara Lee recalls the founding of the CHANGE, Inc. mental health center in Berkeley, California

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - The Honorable Barbara Lee talks about the influence of Dr. Price Cobbs and William H. Grier

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - The Honorable Barbara Lee describes the importance of mental healthcare in the African American community

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - The Honorable Barbara Lee remembers the Cal in the Capital program

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - The Honorable Barbara Lee remembers Huey P. Newton

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - The Honorable Barbara Lee remembers working as Congressman Ronald Dellums' chief of staff

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$2

DAStory

5$7

DATitle
The Honorable Barbara Lee talks about the influence of Dr. Price Cobbs and William H. Grier
The Honorable Barbara Lee describes her early political participation
Transcript
Now, now did you have any act- interaction in those days with Price Cobbs [HistoryMaker Dr. Price Cobbs] and--$$Yeah.$$--and William Grier [William H. Grier]?$$That's right yeah, yeah. They were over at Pacific Psychotherapy [Pacific Psychotherapy Associates].$$Um-hm.$$Um-hm, on Sacramento Street [San Francisco, California], yep a lot of interaction with them.$$Okay.$$Yeah.$$The authors of 'Black Rage.'$$'Black Rage.'$$Everybody was reading that during the--$$Yeah.$$--seventies [1970s].$$I was too--$$Yeah.$$--and that was part of my rage, is looking at how psychiatric services and mental health services were being presented to the black community which didn't work, I mean I ended, you know, and my model was based on yeah you gotta provide the counseling and psychoanalysis and psychotherapy 'cause if people are depressed and if they're a psychotic or schizophrenic or, you know, they need help, I mean they really do. But that doesn't mean that they don't need a job, you know, it's kind of like the social and economic issues that underline a lot of the mental health problems in the African American community need to be dealt with. And so my clinic, while it provided the services we had, what I called advocates, psychiatric advocates who would really go out and if you needed a job, or needed daycare, if you needed a home, you know, would help people in their real needs, their reality stuff, and so those people would work in a team setting with the clinical people to try to help a person really regroup and it worked. And then we had a community component where we tried to do what we call primary prevention and that was on a community level, have workshops and forums about mental health issues so people would really begin to understand mental health, and so people would know if the early signs of depression, early signs of anger, early signs of whatever, stress, you know, come to the clinic quick so we can kind of sort it through and the, you know? So we did a whole community mental health component of my clinic, so it was great and it survived 'til Ronald Reagan [Ronald Wilson Reagan] cut out the funding, OEO [Office of Economic Opportunity], I think, but I went on to D.C. [Washington, D.C.] and hired a whole staff and board to keep it going.$California is, of course there's no signs in California right, in, well like that?$$Oh California was horrible. No really, it, the segregation out here was it was de facto in a lot of ways. I wanted to be a cheerleader at my high school and the way they selected 'em, they had criteria and I assume you had to have blonde hair and blue eyes and white, but I couldn't for whatever reason, no black girl could, felt confident enough or assured, assured enough that they could pass the test to be a cheerleader. So, I got very upset about that, went to the NAACP [National Association for the Advancement of Colored People] and they got the school to change their rules where students could then tryout in front of the student body and then the vote, students would vote on who they wanted to be their cheerleaders, so that was my first election. I actually tried out in front of the student body and I won. And so I was the first black cheerleader that El Pa- at San Fernando High [San Fernando High School, San Fernando, California], but that just kind of shows you how the segregation and the discrimination worked in California. There was housing, you know, in California, I think the fair housing law didn't pass, the Byron fair housing act didn't pass until, shoot, '64 [sic. California Fair Housing Act of 1963], when I graduated from high school, I think that was when it was, I mean in the '60s [1960s]. So it was horrible, it was bad in California and, and you know it was varied, I didn't see any coloreds only signs, but the segregation was alive, it was real and it was very deep.$$Okay, so this is in the San Fernando Valley [California]?$$Um-hm.$$Wha- wha- what was the name of the town that you lived in?$$Pacoima [California], although it--$$(Unclear) (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) Yeah, Pacoima and San Fernando, we lived at 11920 Chadron Avenue, San Fernando, California, but it was like right next to Pacoima.$$Okay, okay.$$And it was a large, mainly black community, now it's largely Latino, and I think there's some of the old timers still there who are African Americans, but for the most part it's a Latino community now.$$Okay, now did you--in 1960, were you aware of politics? I know that was a big election the Kennedy [John Fitzgerald Kennedy] and Nixon [Richard Milhous Nixon] election which was, which was--$$Yeah.$$--national news and--$$Oh yeah.$$--I, I don't know--$$That was in the '60s [1960s].$$--if you were, you know?$$I was aware, but not really, it was like okay, you know, who's gonna win, fine, good, you know? I hope a Democrat wins but it wasn't nothing, nothing else, you--$$Wha- what--$$--know?$$Wha- was, what was your [maternal] grandfather [William Parish] and your, your family Democrats for the most part?$$Yeah, you know, actually my grandfather like many African Americans had been Republican because of, you know, it was the party of Lincoln [President Abraham Lincoln], by then he was a Democrat, I'm sure. But he, they oh yeah, they all would talk about elections and, you know, as being part of NAACP [National Association for the Advancement of Colored People], I mean that was the core civil rights organization that they were affiliated with, we talked a lot about it all the time and knew that Kennedy had to win for black people, you know, and we knew the Democrats had to, to continue with our fight for, you know, justice and equality, but in terms of being kind of in tune with the election and all the politics of the election and the debates, ah no.

The Honorable Ray Miller

Retired State Senator Ray Miller was born in Hampton, Virginia on April 6, 1949. Miller graduated from East High School in Columbus, Ohio. He then attended Ohio State University and graduated with his B.S. degree in political science and his M.A. degree in public administration in 1971 and 1973, respectively. Miller was hired as the vice president for Columbus State Community College from 1975 to 1978. In 1976, he was appointed assistant director of legislation for the American Federation of State, County & Municipal Employees union (AFSCME)/Ohio Council 8. Miller then worked as a deputy special assistant to President Jimmy Carter from 1979 to 1980. After working for the White House, he returned to his vice president post at Columbus State Community College from 1975 to 1978. Miller returned to the post again from 1981 to 1986 and finally from 1987 to 1993. He was elected to the Ohio State House of Representatives in 1981 and again in 1998. In all, Miller served sixteen years in the Ohio House of Representatives, becoming dean of the state legislative body during his tenure. Miller was also appointed president of the National Urban Policy Institute in 1997 and president/CEO of the Professional Employment Services of America, a year later.

In 2003, he was elected to the Ohio State Senate, becoming the fourteenth African American elected to the Ohio Senate in the state's 205-year history. Miller also served as the minority whip of the Senate before his retirement in 2010. During his tenure as state senator, Miller was chief sponsor for legislation that helped to create the Ohio Department of Alcohol and Drug Addiction Services, the Community Mental Health Act of 1988 and the Ohio Commission on Minority Health, where he served as founder and chairman. Additionally, Miller is regarded as the "Father of Head Start Funding" in Ohio because of his sponsorship of legislation that established the nation's first state-level funding for the Head Start Program.

Miller also authored legislation which established the Institute for Urban Education at Central State University. He also established a 25% set aside for minority health programs from Ohio's $10 billion Tobacco Settlement Agreement. Miller is also the chief sponsor of legislation that led to the creation of the Ohio African-American Hall of Fame.

He has garnered numerous awards for his service, including Trailblazer Award from the Ohio Legislative Black Caucus; International Pathfinder Award from the World Congress on the Family; a Distinguished Legislator of the Year Award from the American Public Health Association and the President’s Award from the Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc. Miller is the president of The Center for Urban Progress in Columbus, Ohio. He and his wife, Marty, have one son, Ray III.

Raymond Miller was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on April 2, 2012.

Accession Number

A2012.095

Sex

Male

Interview Date

4/2/2012

Last Name

Miller

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Schools

The Ohio State University

East High School

Washington-Jackson Elem Magnet

Fair Elementary School

Franklin Junior High School

Champion Avenue School

First Name

Ray

Birth City, State, Country

Hampton

HM ID

MIL08

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Virginia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Africa

Favorite Quote

Never Allow Your Greatest Accomplishment Become Your Highest Achievement in Life.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Ohio

Birth Date

4/6/1949

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Columbus

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Cake (Pineapple Upside Down)

Short Description

State senator and state assemblyman The Honorable Ray Miller (1949 - ) was regarded as the "Father of Head Start Funding" in Ohio because of his sponsorship of legislation that established the nation's first state-level funding for the Head Start Program.

Employment

Ohio State Senate

National Urban Policy Institute

Columbus State Community College

Ohio State House of Representatives

U.S. Office of Federal Contract Compliance

White House

Favorite Color

Red

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Ray Miller's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Ray Miller lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Ray Miller describes Hampton, Virginia as his mother's birth place

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Ray Miller describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Ray Miller talks about his mother's extended family in Hampton, Virginia

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Ray Miller describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Ray Miller talks about his father, Inus Ray Miller, Sr.

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Ray Miller talks about how his father may not have been his father and moving frequently as a child

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Ray Miller describes his relationship with his father after his parents' divorce

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Ray Miller recounts how his parents may have met, and his relationships with them

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Ray Miller recalls his mother, Inez Smith Miller's second marriage to George Emerson

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Ray Miller recalls his earliest childhood memories

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Ray Miller describes growing up on a U.S. Air Force Base in San Antonio, Texas

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Ray Miller recalls the sights, sounds, and smells of his childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Ray Miller lists the schools he attended in Hampton, Virginia; Wichita Falls, Texas; and Columbus, Ohio

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Ray Miller describes being an introverted child

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Ray Miller describes the musical talent in his family

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Ray Miller talks about Columbus, Ohio's jazz scene

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Ray Miller recalls his years at Fair Avenue Elementary School in Columbus, Ohio, and attending the National Spelling Bee in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Ray Miller remembers President John F. Kennedy and his 1963 assassination

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Ray Miller recalls the 1963 March on Washington, and his mother's preoccupations with attending church and playing the lottery

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Ray Miller recounts how he became involved in the Federal Model Cities Program's Model Neighborhood Assembly in Columbus, Ohio

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Ray Miller describes working with the Columbus Metropolitan Area Community Action Agency

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Ray Miller remembers his involvement with the Columbus Metropolitan Area Community Action Agency, and his boxing coach's mentorship

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Ray Miller describes his interests in middle and high school, and losing his brother to leukemia

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Ray Miller talks about deciding to attend Kent State University in Kent, Ohio

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Ray Miller recalls classism at East High School in Columbus, Ohio

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Ray Miller recounts his suspension from Columbus, Ohio's East High School, and the intervention of his band teacher

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Ray Miller lists some of the musicians and groups he knew while playing with the Four Mints band in Columbus, Ohio

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Ray Miller talks about the basketball team at East High School in Columbus, Ohio

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Ray Miller recalls enrolling in Ohio State University in Columbus, Ohio and pledging Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Ray Miller describes the African American student community at Ohio State University in Columbus

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Ray Miller recalls helpful advisors he had at Ohio State University in Columbus

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Ray Miller recounts confronting National Guardsmen at Ohio State University in Columbus, at the time of the Kent State University shooting

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Ray Miller remembers John Evans and other African American leaders at Ohio State University during the late 1960s

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Ray Miller recounts a student strike at Ohio State University in Columbus, Ohio

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Ray Miller recounts his decision to attend graduate school for public administration at Ohio State University in Columbus, Ohio

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Ray Miller recalls his Ohio state legislative fellowship in 1971 with Majority Leader Rep. William Mallory and Majority Whip Rep. Richard F. Celeste

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Ray Miller recounts being snubbed by the Black Elected Democrats of Ohio

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Ray Miller describes the mentorship of Ohio State Representative C.J. McLin

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Ray Miller describes working for AFSCME, a government employees' union, and at Columbus State Community College

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Ray Miller recalls the 1979 Columbus Board of Education v. Penick court decision on school desegregation

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Ray Miller reflects upon the positive and negative effects of school desegregation in Columbus, Ohio

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Ray Miller describes working for AFSCME, a government employees' union

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Ray Miller recounts accepting the position as Director of the Office of Federal Contract Compliance

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Ray Miller recalls working with President Jimmy Carter and the Congressional Black Caucus, including HistoryMakers U.S. Congressmen Charles Rangel and Louis Stokes

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Ray Miller talks about representing President Jimmy Carter and making deals with members of the U.S. Congress

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Ray Miller recalls his dealings with Ron Brown, who represented Senator Edward Kennedy

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Ray Miller recalls bringing HistoryMaker Dick Gregory to the White House to talk about the Iranian Hostage Crisis, pt. 1

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Ray Miller recalls bringing HistoryMaker Dick Gregory to the White House to talk about the Iranian Hostage Crisis, pt. 2

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Ray Miller reflects upon Jimmy Carter administration's relationship with the African American community

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - Ray Miller compares HistoryMaker Andrew Young and Jimmy Carter

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - Ray Miller recalls preparing to leave the White House after Jimmy Carter's 1980 electoral defeat

Tape: 8 Story: 6 - Ray Miller talks about what the presidential administration of HistoryMaker Barack Obama has done for African Americans in politics, pt. 1

Tape: 8 Story: 7 - Ray Miller talks about what the presidential administration of HistoryMaker Barack Obama has done for African Americans in politics, pt. 2

DASession

1$1

DATape

7$8

DAStory

4$2

DATitle
Ray Miller recalls working with President Jimmy Carter and the Congressional Black Caucus, including HistoryMakers U.S. Congressmen Charles Rangel and Louis Stokes
Ray Miller recalls bringing HistoryMaker Dick Gregory to the White House to talk about the Iranian Hostage Crisis, pt. 2
Transcript
So I went and did that [directed Office of Federal Contract Compliance, Washington, D.C.] and--great experience, great experience. And that's when I really found out how powerful [Ohio state rep.] C. J. [McLin] was because people, in that building, people visiting from other states would say, "Good Lord"--my boss, who was Louie Martin, and legendary Louie Martin.$$Oh, yes, Louis [E.] Martin.$$Yeah, that's who I worked with directly. So I came in as a chief of staff. Louie needed somebody--he needed a man, number one, he had all women, Karen Zanica [ph.], Julia Dobbs, very bright women, University of Chicago [Chicago, Illinois], Harvard [University, Cambridge, Massachusetts], you know who ends up in the White House, a bunch of Ivy Leaguers. But he needed somebody practically who knew politics and a man. So I come in and met with a little resistance, but then you prove yourself. So I showed that I knew how to work the [Capitol] Hill even though that wasn't my job. They had congressional leads on staff. I still wanted to go up and do it because they couldn't get anything done. And [President Jimmy] Carter was fish out of water. In terms of really knowing how to work Washington and the [U.S.] Congress, he was pretty much disastrous almost. That was--you know when you're in a situation and you're afraid and you're not comfortable. Well he surrounded himself with all the Georgia guys, Hamilton Jordan, and Jody Powell, and Rick Hutchinson, so the small circle, talented guys--you know Hamilton had better instincts politically and so did Jody than Carter. Carter didn't have political instincts. He's an engineer. So he would literally come to the meetings--because I was a deputy, I was second level guy, so I'm in all the meetings, so he would literally come into the meetings with gridded, the engineer's paper, gridded paper, you know what I mean, and a portfolio. He's a naval guy. He's on time and I'd set up meetings with the members of the Congressional Black Caucus, and you know how that goes, all the brothers from the Congressional Black Caucus get together and they're talking stuff and they show up late, some, maybe six of them would show up on time, and maybe three of them are coming from some other committee but they're going to get there and they may get there ten, fifteen minutes late, and Carter, being the engineer and the naval guy, man, he was intractable. So, you know how politics go. The first is a lot co-bits and these are people that you don't get a chance to see all day every day, so [HM] Charlie Rangel is asking Lou Stokes [HM Louis Stokes] about something, and Bill Clay about. So these guys are like talking and catching up. And Carter is just sitting there getting hot, and then Charlie Rangel stands up and he does the New York, "The problem, mister president, is that we're like two ships passing in the night, and if you understood what we're trying to do." So he's doing the Charlie Rangel and Carter is sitting there because he could get tight, really tight. He had that big old toothy grin, but he would be really tight inside. And I'm watching him--I got pictures--I could show you some pictures if I could pull them of me standing in the background of meetings that I've convened. And I've been raised in politics, so I have a real appreciation for it. I really enjoy it. I like the give and take of it all. And he didn't. For him, we are here to talk about this and--I remember in one of these meetings, he said--closed his portfolio, he said, "I was here on time." Who cares? "I was here on time and you weren't. I think we have exhausted this conversation. The meeting is over." I was like, "No, you didn't, not with members of the Congress, right?" So I then had to go and repair that.$I bring him in--after several attempts, I tell the Secret Service I want to bring [HM] Dick Gregory in and they said, "Well, Mr. Miller, have you looked at his record?" I said, "No." They said, "Do you know how many times he has been arrested? I said, "No, I don't know how many times he's been arrested." They said, "Like fifty-two times or something like that." I said, "This is Dick Gregory. This is like prot--Yeah, he would have been arrested but for social protests, you know that kind of thing, not as a criminal." They said, "Okay, we'll let him in but only into your office." So my office--we had a beautiful suite right on the east wing, right on 15th [Street] and Pennsylvania [Avenue] there. So right inside the door, our office looked into the Jacqueline Onassis Gardens--so I say this to Dick, "I'm going to set up a meeting for you to meet with the president [Jimmy Carter]." He said, "Oh no, brother, I'm not meeting with the president." I said, "Why," and he said, "I know what happens to black folks when they meet with the president." He said, "A little cavity opens up on the top of your head and your Uncle Tom jumps out," and he said, "Whatever the president says, you say, 'Oh, yes, sir, Mr. President, I agree with you." He said, "I'm not meeting the president." He had me dying laughing. I said, "No, man, you got all this information." He said, "No, I'm not doing it." He said, "You meet with me tomorrow morning at the Hay-Adams Hotel and bring your tape." He said, "You gotta a tape recorder?" I said, "Yep." He said, "You bring your tape recorder," so we meet like 7:30 in the morning. He's doing this Bahamian diet. He's got all these pills and tea. No food. And then he starts telling me all this experimental stuff about your strength that comes from it. Then we get down to the interview, and we sat for about three or four hours, right? I'm popping tapes, man, one after the other. And he was right. I mean the bottom line we had their assets frozen when it was all said and done. It was a sizable amount of money. I can't remember how many millions or billions of dollars it was. But if you recall when [Ronald] Reagan won, it was no time before the hostages were released. We had the failed attempt where they went in and they said that sand got up into the engine of the helicopters and the helicopters crashed into the compound and those guys lost their lives.$$Yeah, they called it the "October Surprise,"--(simultaneous)--$$--Yeah.--(simultaneous)--$$--now, or the plotting around that being that-- I know a lot of people--I guess some conspiracy theorists and (unclear) people think it was a sabotage.$$Absolutely, absolutely and I'd be one of those. I'd definitely think it was sabotaged. But I think it goes back--I don't know if I've heard anybody say this, but when the President Carter came in, he did a very foolish thing, in my opinion, he terminated something in the neighborhood of two hundred CIA agents and when you go back and take a look at that--at the very beginning of his administration--and that's the last thing you want to do to have the cloak and dagger guys, you know, on the opposite of what you want to do. There was never much conversation around that, but when I saw that, I was like, "Oh, my goodness!" It would be ten times worse than a governor coming and firing 250 highway patrolmen. They have too much information. It would be that kind of analogy but only a hundred times worse because some of these guys are trained to sabotage, trained to disrupt, and worse. Yeah, that's what he did. So, in any event, Gregory had all kind of proposals about a big prayer vigil on the South Lawn and all those kind of things that he thought we could add in. I'm like, "Okay, I don't think we need to do all that." But because of that, then I was in all the negotiations, all the senior meetings, around the Iranian hostage crisis and I was there when the helicopters went down and I saw Jimmy Carter break down and cry in the Oval office. We were at the Oval Office together when the attempt went off, and Dick Gregory put me there whether he knew that or not because I had all that information--I had all those tapes that I shared with the foreign policy staff.

The Honorable Royce West

Royce West has received numerous accolades as a politician in addition to his responsibilities as managing partner of a law firm. He was born on September 26, 1952 in Annapolis, Maryland. West attended the University of Texas at Arlington where he received his B.A. and his M.A. degrees in Sociology. While an undergraduate, West became the first African American to serve as president of the Student Congress, foreshadowing later events. He went on to receive his J.D. degree from the University of Houston in 1979 and worked in the Harris County District Attorney’s Office before joining the Dallas County District Attorney’s office where he became Texas’ first African American chief felony prosecutor. Following his time there, in 1994, West became a senior partner at the Dallas law firm Robinson, West, and Gooden.

Since 1993, West has represented Dallas County (District 23) in the Texas Senate. He won the Democratic primary the previous year against Jerald Larry and Jesse Oliver with over 57 percent of the votes. He has served on Senate committees including Education, Finance, Health and Human Services, and Criminal Justice; has served as chair of committees on Jurisprudence and Higher Education, and is the current Chair of Intergovernmental Relations. He has also been appointed to the Education Commission of the States in 2005, the Intergovernmental Affairs Committee of the Council of State Governments in 2009, and the Southern Regional Education Board Legislative Advisory Council also in 2009. In 1994, West created the “One Community-One Child Program” to increase parental involvement in students’ academic careers. West furthered his law career by becoming managing partner of West & Associates, now a law firm of 11 attorneys in 1994. He was sworn in as President Pro Tempore of the Texas Senate in 2006 and during that period, served as Governor for a Day.

West has received Honorary Doctor of Law degrees from Paul Quinn College and Huston-Tillotson College in 1997 and 2000, respectively. In 2001, his alma mater, the University of Texas, recognized him with a Distinguished Alumni Service Award. Texas Monthly Magazine named him of the “Ten Best Legislators in Texas” in 1999 and one of the “25 Most Powerful People in Texas Politics” in 2005. That same year, the Associated Press called him one of the “key players of the 2005 Legislature” in their “Movers and Shakers” list.

Royce West was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on May 12, 2010.

Accession Number

A2010.020

Sex

Male

Interview Date

5/11/2010

Last Name

West

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Occupation
Organizations
Schools

Walter S. Mills-Parole Elementary School

University of Texas at Arlington

University of Houston

Phillis Wheatley Elementary School

Wilmer Hutchins High School

First Name

Royce

Birth City, State, Country

Annapolis

HM ID

WES06

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Maryland

Favorite Vacation Destination

Jamaica

Favorite Quote

If It Is Going To Be, It Is Up To Me.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Texas

Birth Date

9/26/1952

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Austin

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Seafood

Short Description

Lawyer and state senator The Honorable Royce West (1952 - ) was Texas’ first African American chief felony prosecutor, and served as State Senator of the Texas twenty-third district.

Employment

7-11

General Motors Company

Harris County District Attorney's Office

Dallas County District Attorney's Office

West and Associates, LLP

Royce West and Associates

Robinson, West and Gooden, PC,

Favorite Color

Gold, Purple

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of The Honorable Royce West's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - The Honorable Royce West lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - The Honorable Royce West describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - The Honorable Royce West describes his relationship with his mother

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - The Honorable Royce West talks about his mother's upbringing

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - The Honorable Royce West describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - The Honorable Royce West remembers his maternal grandfather

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - The Honorable Royce West talks about his paternal grandparents' legacy

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - The Honorable Royce West lists his siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - The Honorable Royce West describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - The Honorable Royce West describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - The Honorable Royce West remembers Parole Elementary School in Annapolis, Maryland

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - The Honorable Royce West describes his organizational involvement

Tape: 1 Story: 14 - The Honorable Royce West remembers his community in Annapolis, Maryland

Tape: 1 Story: 15 - The Honorable Royce West describes his early personality

Tape: 1 Story: 16 - The Honorable Royce West recalls his early aspirations

Tape: 1 Story: 17 - The Honorable Royce West remembers moving to Augsburg, Germany

Tape: 1 Story: 18 - The Honorable Royce West describes his experiences in Germany

Tape: 1 Story: 19 - The Honorable Royce West talks about his schooling in Germany

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - The Honorable Royce West recalls the assassination of President John Fitzgerald Kennedy

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - The Honorable Royce West remembers moving to Dallas, Texas

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - The Honorable Royce West recalls Phyllis Wheatley Elementary School in Dallas, Texas

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - The Honorable Royce West describes his community in Dallas, Texas

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - The Honorable Royce West recalls Pearl C. Anderson Junior High School in Dallas, Texas

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - The Honorable Royce West remembers his academic interests

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - The Honorable Royce West talks about his aspirations to become a lawyer

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - The Honorable Royce West describes his reading habits

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - The Honorable Royce West recalls the influence of religion

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - The Honorable Royce West remembers Wilmer-Hutchins High School in Dallas, Texas

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - The Honorable Royce West remembers Bishop College in Dallas, Texas

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - The Honorable Royce West remembers the Highland Hills area of Dallas, Texas

Tape: 2 Story: 13 - The Honorable Royce West recalls his experiences of discrimination at Wilmer-Hutchins High School

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - The Honorable Royce West recalls his mentors at Wilmer-Hutchins High School in Dallas, Texas

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - The Honorable Royce West remembers applying for college

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - The Honorable Royce West describes his experiences at Paris Junior College in Paris, Texas

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - The Honorable Royce West recalls playing football at the University of Texas at Arlington

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - The Honorable Royce West remembers his election as student body president

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - The Honorable Royce West talks about his left handedness

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - The Honorable Royce West recalls his part time employment at the General Motors Corporation

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - The Honorable Royce West remembers his influential professors

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - The Honorable Royce West remembers his graduate studies in sociology

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - The Honorable Royce West remembers the University of Houston Law Center in Houston, Texas

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - The Honorable Royce West remembers the bar examination

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - The Honorable Royce West remembers passing the bar examination

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - The Honorable Royce West remembers working with Tom Joyner

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - The Honorable Royce West recalls joining a motion to dismiss a racist jury, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - The Honorable Royce West recalls joining a motion to dismiss a racist jury, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - The Honorable Royce West recalls his experiences of discrimination as the chief felony prosecutor of Dallas County, Texas

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - The Honorable Royce West remembers trying a murder case against a black minister

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - The Honorable Royce West talks about his private law practice

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - The Honorable Royce West recalls the establishment of his law firm

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - The Honorable Royce West shares his advice to young lawyers

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - The Honorable Royce West talks about his family

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - The Honorable Royce West recalls his campaign for district attorney

Tape: 4 Story: 12 - The Honorable Royce West remembers his election to the Texas Senate

Tape: 4 Story: 13 - The Honorable Royce West recalls his achievements as a state senator

Tape: 4 Story: 14 - The Honorable Royce West describes his juvenile justice initiatives

Tape: 4 Story: 15 - The Honorable Royce West describes his elderly care initiatives

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - The Honorable Royce West reflects upon the demographic changes in Texas

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - The Honorable Royce West talks about the Dr. Emmett J. Conrad Leadership Program

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - The Honorable Royce West describes the One Community-One Child program

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - The Honorable Royce West recalls his chairmanship of the Senate Interim Committee on Gangs and Juvenile Justice

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - The Honorable Royce West remembers Texas Lieutenant Governor Bob Bullock

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - The Honorable Royce West talks about University of North Texas at Dallas

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - The Honorable Royce West describes how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - The Honorable Royce West reflects upon his life

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - The Honorable Royce West shares a message to future generations

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$4

DAStory

7$12

DATitle
The Honorable Royce West talks about his aspirations to become a lawyer
The Honorable Royce West remembers his election to the Texas Senate
Transcript
What did you think that you would become at that time, had you given it any thought?$$Very good question. I'm gonna tell you about a story. Mr. Edwards, Tommy Edwards [ph.] it's, it's amazing how I can now recall all of this. Mr. Tommy Edwards was the metal shop teacher, now I think we're about the eighth grade, at that time, seventh eighth grade. Someone had stolen someone's apple, so he shut down the metal shop class. And basically said, "Denise [Denise Gines], I'm gonna teach you all something about law and order," something like that. But, what he did, he decided to have a jury trial, 'cause this guy who's apple had been stolen was accusing someone else. And so, what he did he said, "I'm gonna put you guys over here as a jury. I'm a put you over here as the defendant. Royce [HistoryMaker Royce West] you will defend him, okay." And then had another guy who was presenting the evidence. We never resolved the issue, but he planted a seed. And mind you I told that in elementary school [Parole Elementary School; Walter S. Mills Parole Elementary School, Annapolis, Maryland] my favorite character was Perry Mason. So, in junior high school [Pearl C. Anderson Junior High School, Dallas, Texas] Mr. Edwards further, I guess you could say, fertilized that seed in my mind. And, and it was just, it was just the thought in the back, in the recesses of my mind. I wanted to be a football player, okay. That's what I wanted to be. But, it was at that time that he, he began to fertilize that seed. And even though I still wanted to be a football player, it was there. In the back, in the recesses of my mind.$When's the next time you decide that you want to be in public office?$$Well, interesting enough I, I'm in--my wife [Carol Richard West] is from New Orleans [Louisiana], she talk like dat, you talk like you know, people down there talk like dat. And I'm, I'm standing--[HistoryMaker] Eddie Bernice Johnson, Congresswoman Eddie Bernice Johnson, was the senator in this district before me becoming the senator. And she's now in [U.S.] Congress. Be, before I became a senator, excuse me. And you know, she's talking about, you know, drawing a congressional seat and running for Congress. And so, I'm thinking about the possibility of running for the state senate [Texas Senate]. And the thought actually crystallized in my mind when I was standing on banquette--the porch of my in-laws' house in New Orleans. And look across the street and there's a sign on a tree and it says, "Marc Morial [HistoryMaker Marc H. Morial] for state senate." Marc at that time was the mayor of New Orleans, I said, "Yeah, that's what I'm gonna do." Because that will help me to continue what at that time was kind of a mission for me, of, of public service. As it relates to doing some things in the community. So, I decided to run and I ran against two great guys, one by the name of Jerald Larry [Jerald H. Larry], who was a sitting state representative. And Mr. Jesse Oliver, who was a former judge and also a state representative. We did not have a contentious election, I was able to win on the first ballot and in part I won on the first ballot because I had previously ran for district attorney. And had a lot of name identification as a result of that. I became state senator and was sworn into office as state senator in January of 1993.$$And what district was this?$$District 23 [Texas Senate District 23], which is out of Dallas, Texas.$$And you won with 50 percent of the vote?$$I think I had about 57 percent.$$Okay. So, what was your platform?$$My platform then as it is now, is to deal with issuing concerning juveniles, elderly, education and economic development.

The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner

Former Colorado state senator Gloria Travis Tanner was born on July 16, 1934, in Atlanta, Georgia, to Blanche Arnold Travis and Marcellus Travis. Tanner received her B.A. degree in political science and graduated magna cum laude from Metro State College in 1974. She received her M.A. degree in urban affairs from the University of Colorado in 1976. In addition, Tanner graduated from the American Management Association Program for Women in Top Managerial Positions and the Women in Leadership Program at the John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University.

Tanner worked as an administrative assistant for the Office of Hearings and Appeals at the United States Department of the Interior from 1967 to 1972. She worked as a reporter and feature writer for the Denver Weekly News, one of the leading African American newspapers in the Denver area, from 1972 through 1976. From 1976 to 1978, Tanner was the executive assistant to Colorado lieutenant governor George L. Brown, one of the first black lieutenant governors since Reconstruction. She then worked for Senator Regis Groff as the executive director of his communications office. Tanner was elected as a member of the Colorado State House of Representatives for District 7 in 1985 and served as the House Minority Caucus leader from 1987 through 1990. She was the second African American to be elected to a leadership position in the Colorado House of Representatives. In 1994, Tanner was appointed to the Colorado State Senate to replace Regis Groff who resigned to take a position elsewhere. She was the first African American woman to serve as a Colorado state senator, and held the seat until the year 2000. During her seventeen years in public service, she initiated and sponsored legislation on key issues such as marital discrimination in the workplace, parental responsibility, worker’s compensation cost savings, civil rights for women and minorities, and parental rights for adoptive parents.

Tanner is a widow and has three children: Terrance Ralph, Tanvis Renee, and Tracey Lynne.

Accession Number

A2008.131

Sex

Female

Interview Date

11/6/2008

Last Name

Tanner

Maker Category
Middle Name

Travis

Occupation
Schools

David T. Howard High School

Gray Street School

Metropolitan State University of Denver

University of Colorado Denver

First Name

Gloria

Birth City, State, Country

Atlanta

HM ID

TAN02

Favorite Season

Holiday Season

State

Georgia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Paris, France

Favorite Quote

This Too Shall Pass.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Colorado

Birth Date

7/16/1934

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Denver

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Soul Food

Short Description

State senator The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner (1934 - ) was the first African American woman to serve as a Colorado state senator. She was also elected as a member of the Colorado State House of Representatives for District 7 in 1985, and served as the House Minority Caucus leader from 1987 through 1990. She was the second African American to be elected to a leadership position in the Colorado House of Representatives.

Employment

General Rose Memorial Hospital

U.S. Air Force

Colorado House of Representatives

Town and Country Real Estate, Inc.

Coldwell Banker Real Estate LLC

U.S. Department of the Interior

Colorado Governor

Favorite Color

Green

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner talks about her parents' marriage

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner describes her relationship with her parents

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner lists her siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner describes her earliest childhood memories

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner remembers the holidays

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner describes the Gray Street School in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner recalls her extracurricular activities

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner remembers David T. Howard High School in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner describes the sounds and smells of her childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner describes the sounds of her childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner remembers Auburn Avenue in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner recalls her aspiration to attend college

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner describes her activities at David T. Howard High School in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner remembers her time in the U.S. Air Force, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner recalls her conversion to Catholicism

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner remembers her time in the U.S. Air Force, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner recalls meeting her husband

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner describes her early career in Denver, Colorado

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner lists her children

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner talks about her work experiences in Denver, Colorado

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner describes her political activities in Denver, Colorado

Tape: 2 Story: 13 - The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner talks about her career in real estate

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner remembers the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner talks about segregation in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner recalls the assassinations of the 1960s

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner remembers her first political campaign

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner describes her tenure in the Colorado House of Representatives, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner describes her tenure in the Colorado House of Representatives, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner talks about her tenure in the Colorado State Senate

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner describes her organizational affiliations

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner remembers her work with NOBEL Women

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner talks about serving on the Colorado State Senate's Joint Budget Committee

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner describes her hopes for women in politics

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner describes her mentorship of aspiring black female politicians

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner remembers the 2008 Democratic National Convention

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner talks about the election of President Barack Obama

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner remembers meeting Nelson Mandela

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner reflects upon her life, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner talks about her family

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner describes her plans for the future

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner shares her advice for aspiring politicians

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner describes her concerns for the African American community

Tape: 4 Story: 12 - The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner describes her hopes for the public education system

Tape: 4 Story: 13 - The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner shares a message to future generations

Tape: 4 Story: 14 - The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 4 Story: 15 - The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner reflects upon her accomplishments

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner talks about obstacles to her success

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner reflects upon her life, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner narrates her photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$3

DAStory

2$1

DATitle
The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner describes her hopes for women in politics
The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner remembers the Civil Rights Movement
Transcript
And so, that's what made you so successful in the different organizations, you know, for, for women, and making sure that they get appointed. What was, what are some of the things--you talked about a lot of different organizations. But in the, and, and a lot of them have to do with women and making sure that, you know, they get appointed to boards. And what are some of the things that, that you had to accomplish to get these things done?$$Well, the first thing you have to help women to believe in themselves, to believe that you can accomplish this, and that you can do it. We always put everybody else before we put ourselves. We got our children. We got our husband. We got the house to take care of. We got this. We always have an excuse that we don't have time, and a lot of times, we don't, unless we can get our schedules together and set up priorities and do things. But the first thing you have to make women think that you, you can do it. You've done this at home. You've, you've done these kind of things before. You just didn't know you were doing it, you know, and get them to think that you can, you can accomplish it. And you can do it, and you are needed, and this is why you're needed there, you know, because if you're not there, these things are never going to come up 'cause, you know, men, men usually don't bring up some of this stuff, especially when it comes to things like parenting. And any kind of legislation that they--in fact, they used to tell us all the time, "That's the problem with you women that you don't get on the budget committee, or you don't get a leadership position 'cause you're always talking about families." Well, shouldn't they be concerned about families, too (laughter)? Are we the only one? But they think they talk about the big things, and we talk about the small ones, you know. So, you have to instill in women that we are capable of doing the same thing, you know. I think the only difference is that we're more sensitive. They say, we are more emotional, but I think being more emotional is--women make us more sensitive to these things, so that--but I, I think is really, really important. I think the most important thing for me, when I walked through that senate door every morning, was to realize how many shoulders I came in on, and how many people are going to be looking at my shoulders to see, can I climb on them, you know? But you got to do something to make it right, a lot less troublesome for women than it has been before. And from the Northeast, too, you know, you have, you have to look at those things and see. And people always say, "Aren't you proud of being the being the first black woman elected to the senate [Colorado State Senate]." I say, "No, I'm not, I'm honored because they finally opened the door, and let one in." But of a hundred years, that'll be, have the senate or so it just shows how many have been denied. It doesn't--I'm not so carried away with just being the first black woman, but what am I going to do with that? I'm going to make sure that I'm not the last one, that's for sure, so that's, that's some of the things (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) And so--$You wanted to--we kind of brushed over the civil rights era.$$The era, um-hm.$$And we, we tried to go back and then we, we got a little lost, but you wanted to share a story--$$Yeah.$$--about that time.$$I, when I got out of the [U.S.] Air Force, as I told you, I got accepted at Emory University, Grady School of Nursing [Grady Memorial Hospital School of Nursing, Atlanta, Georgia] there. And when I was there, the civil rights, it just really started with the Rosa Parks and everything. And the black students and nurses, we had a different dormitory. And for the least little thing that would happen if you were late coming in, five minutes, anything that would happen and, and you would get suspended and kicked out of school and everything. It was not happening to the white student nurses. So, we decided to go on strike there, and we all sit in the auditorium. And finally, they sent the dean there and she said to us, "If you don't get back in your classes, and get back in that hospital, you're all going to be maids, like your mother--like your mothers." And, and she never tried to tell us, we're going to try to make it right or anything, and that was really when it got started. And they, they finally suspended some of the students, you know, that got--they said, they got it started, and so forth and so on. But that--by that time in '56 [1956], I, in May, I left Atlanta [Georgia], so I wasn't there any longer. When I got to Denver [Colorado], most people worked for the government, so they all made around the same salaries. They were teachers. They worked at the Federal Center [Denver Federal Center, Denver, Colorado]. So, didn't have much of a civil rights thing going on here 'cause they didn't feel like they needed it, which I didn't agree, but they didn't feel that they needed it here. So, it was not really--the only thing you could really do is send money. And then things start getting tough here with gang type stuff, you know. And that's when people got involved here a lot, but before that, it was not a whole lot. Martin Luther King [Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.], I can remember coming here a few times, but not a whole lot of things. But I had faced so much prejudice as a child, drinking out of the coloreds' fountains, and going up all those steps to the Fox Theatre [Atlanta, Georgia] there that Senator Martha Ezzard was a senator here like I was. And she and I were back there in Atlanta for the Democratic Convention [1988 Democratic National Convention, Atlanta, Georgia]. And they took us over to the Fox and took pictures. And she showed how she went in the front door and I had to go up all these stairs, you know, and stuff. So, it was so many things that I remember--sitting on the back of the bus, and not being able to sit at the counters to eat lunch at the downtown drugstores, at Kress's [S.H. Kress and Co.] and all that, that a lot of things that these people here probably had not faced, you know. I don't know, but I do know they did have problems in Denver, but nothing like we had probably. So, I, I--it's a lot of memories back there, a lot of things that happened as a child, you know.

Herbert U. Fielding

Politician Herbert U. Fielding was born on July 6, 1923 in Charleston, South Carolina to Julius and Sadie Fielding. Fielding served in the United States Army during World War II prior to attending and receiving his B.S. degree from West Virginia State College in 1948.

In 1952, Fielding took charge of the day-to-day operations of the family funeral home business, becoming President and CEO of Fielding Home for Funeral Services. Founded in 1912 by Fielding’s father, Fielding Home for Funeral Services was the largest African American-owned and operated funeral home in the state of South Carolina.

Fielding became involved in the Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s. He often paid for the bail of civil rights activists, picketers and demonstrators. Fielding encouraged African Americans to vote and mobilized them to memorize the constitution in order to gain voting rights.

In 1970, Fielding became the first African American to be elected a representative in South Carolina since Reconstruction. He served for three years, then returned to the South Carolina State House in 1983. In 1985, Fielding was elected to South Carolina’s State Senate, where he served until 1992. In 1990, he became the chairperson of the South Carolina Legislative Black Caucus.

Fielding is a member of several organizations including the South Carolina Commission on Vocational Rehabilitation, the University of South Carolina Budget Board and the South Carolina Human Affairs Commission. He is also a vestry member at Calvary Episcopal Church in Charleston.

The Department of Transportation named Highway 61 from James Island Expressway to South Carolina Route 61 in Charleston County as the Herbert U. Fielding Connector.

Fielding was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on February 2, 2007.

Fielding passed away on August 10, 2015.

Accession Number

A2007.042

Sex

Male

Interview Date

2/2/2007

Last Name

Fielding

Maker Category
Middle Name

U.

Schools

Avery Normal Institute

Lincoln Academy

West Virginia State University

First Name

Herbert

Birth City, State, Country

Charleston

HM ID

FIE03

Favorite Season

Summer

State

South Carolina

Favorite Vacation Destination

Bermuda

Favorite Quote

Dad Blame It.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

South Carolina

Birth Date

7/6/1923

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Charleston

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Pork, Beans, Sausage

Death Date

8/10/2015

Short Description

Politician Herbert U. Fielding (1923 - 2015 ) was the first black representative elected to the South Carolina legislature since Reconstruction. He later served as the chairperson of the South Carolina Legislative Black Caucus.

Employment

Fielding Home for Funeral Services

South Carolina Senate

South Carolina House of Representatives

Favorite Color

Beige, Brown

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Herbert U. Fielding's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Herbert U. Fielding lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Herbert U. Fielding lists his maternal relatives

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Herbert U. Fielding describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Herbert U. Fielding describes his mother's upbringing in Charleston, South Carolina

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Herbert U. Fielding talks about his mother's family history

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Herbert U. Fielding describes his paternal grandparents

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Herbert U. Fielding remembers his paternal step-grandfather

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Herbert U. Fielding describes his family's roots in South Carolina

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Herbert U. Fielding describes his neighborhood in Charleston, South Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Herbert U. Fielding recalls his paternal family's religious and business activities

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Herbert U. Fielding lists his siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Herbert U. Fielding describes his paternal family's store in Summerville, South Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Herbert U. Fielding describes the Avery Normal Institute in Charleston, South Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Herbert U. Fielding remembers Lincoln Academy in Kings Mountain, North Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Herbert U. Fielding recalls class distinctions at Avery Normal Institute

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Herbert U. Fielding remembers his activities at Lincoln Academy

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Herbert U. Fielding recalls West Virginia State College in Institute, West Virginia

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Herbert U. Fielding recalls joining the U.S. Army during World War II

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Herbert U. Fielding recalls racial discrimination in the U.S. Army during World War II

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Herbert U. Fielding recalls serving overseas in the U.S. Army in World War II

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Herbert U. Fielding remembers returning to college after World War II

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Herbert U. Fielding recalls his return to Charleston, South Carolina

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Herbert U. Fielding describes his paternal grandmother's community service

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Herbert U. Fielding recalls his political activity in the late 1940s and early 1950s

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Herbert U. Fielding describes the funeral customs of Charleston, South Carolina

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Herbert U. Fielding recalls joining Fielding Home for Funeral Services

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Herbert U. Fielding recalls the civil rights involvement of Charleston's black business community

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Herbert U. Fielding describes his civil rights activities in Charleston

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Herbert U. Fielding describes his interactions with Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr.

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Herbert U. Fielding recalls the violence during the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Herbert U. Fielding recalls his election to the South Carolina House of Representatives

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Herbert U. Fielding recalls serving in the South Carolina House of Representatives

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Herbert U. Fielding recalls resigning from the South Carolina legislature

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Herbert U. Fielding describes his political career in the 1980s and 1990s

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Herbert U. Fielding talks about his retirement from politics

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Herbert U. Fielding describes his successors at Fielding Home for Funeral Services

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Herbert U. Fielding describes his organizational involvement

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Herbert U. Fielding describes his marriage

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Herbert U. Fielding reflects upon his life

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Herbert U. Fielding describes his advice for future generations

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Herbert U. Fielding offers advice for those seeking a career in politics

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Herbert U. Fielding narrates his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$4

DAStory

6$4

DATitle
Herbert U. Fielding recalls his political activity in the late 1940s and early 1950s
Herbert U. Fielding describes his interactions with Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr.
Transcript
So you started with the NAAC [sic. National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)] as one of your first service organizations and you began to work with your sister [Emily Fielding] here at the funeral home [Fielding Home for Funeral Services, Charleston, South Carolina].$$Yeah.$$Okay.$$Um-hm.$$So, tell me what happens next? 'Cause it's 1946 and then we go on to the--into the '50s [1950s].$$I started working here at the funeral home, and at that time, I got really involved with Esau Jenkins and the Citizens Committee [Citizens Committee of Charleston County]. And what--Esau had a nonpartisan charter for the Citizens Committee, and our basic aim was getting black folks registered to vote. It was right after 1948 when the Waring decision came down, Judge J. Waties Waring [Julius Waties Waring]. I guess you've heard of him?$$Okay, tell, tell us about that.$$Judge J. Waties Waring was a white aristocrat, but a federal judge, and he broke up the segregated Democratic Party and forced the party to, to let us in. And at, at the time, Esau was running the Citizens Committee and it had a nonpartisan charter, so we couldn't directly involve in partisan politics. So what Esau used to do, he'd call a Citizens Committee meeting and we'd go through the routine in--usually in a church and about a half an hour, forty-five minutes, and then Esau would adjourn the meeting and then call me up front and say, now--tell me to run the meeting--run the meeting and we'd turn it into a political meeting. And that's how we started the political action com- in fact, Esau taught me how to form the Political Action Committee [Political Action Committee of Charleston County]. It came right out of the Citizens Committee. And, then we started fighting for positions in the Democratic Party. And that went from one thing to the other, and we built up--in fact, at one time, the Political Action Committee of Charleston County was the strongest political organization in the State of South Carolina. Nobody could get elected without the endorsement from PAC and, and that's how we built--we started running folks for the house [South Carolina House of Representatives]. In fact, I was in the first group to run for the house in 1952. I ran with J. Arthur Brown and Frank Veal and myself. And we knew we couldn't get elected because in those days, you ran at-large in the county and they had two things in there. You had to have a full slate--they had this full slate law. The eleven members to be elected from Charleston County [South Carolina], you had to vote for all eleven, and if you didn't, your vote didn't count at all. And so when you go in there and you cast--say you got a thousand black votes and you got ten thousand white votes, you got to take your thousand black votes and put them on the black folks and you also got to put them on eight white folks, do you see what I mean? So there's no way in the world you can catch up. So we ran in 1952 really knowing that we couldn't get elected, but we ran to encourage black folks to get registered, and we got a whole lot of folks registered.$That's when I first met Martin Luther [Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.] myself 'cause Esau [Esau Jenkins] had a little Volkswagen bus, and we used to drive from here to Monteagle, Tennessee. And Martin Luther would come there I think from Atlanta [Georgia], and we used to have little conferences and all up there in Tennessee. And Miss Clark [Septima Poinsette Clark] joined that group and she started teaching, and then she formed the educational schools. In fact, there's one on Johns Island [South Carolina] named after her right now. But all, all of that came out of Monteagle, Tennessee, with Martin Luther King and Myles, Myles Horton. Myles Horton was the name of the fellow that ran the camp in Tennessee [Highlander Folk School; Highlander Research and Education Center, New Market, Tennessee].$$Do you remember any conversations you had with Martin Luther King?$$Yeah, at that time?$$Um-hm.$$Well, I had a lot of conversations with Martin Luther at Myles Standish, and then Esau and I got tied in with SCLC [Southern Christian Leadership Conference] and at that time, it was a rivalry between the NAACP [National Association for the Advancement of Colored People] and SCLC. And we stuck--Esau and I stuck mostly with SCLC, and we'd go on conferences all over--mostly all over the South with Martin Luther. I remember one time we were in a conference with Martin Luther at, I think it was Memphis [Tennessee]. I think it was Memphis, Tennessee, and Martin Luther was up on the stage and speaking, and this white guy--Esau and I were sitting on the front seat in this big auditorium, and this white guy was sitting right next to me, and all of the sudden, he jumped up and ran up the steps and got up on the--and had on brass knuckles, and started beating on Martin Luther, and boy, Martin Luther had guards all the time, and those guards grabbed him and they were fitting to tear him up. And, and Martin Luther himself came. They--he wouldn't let them. He took the darn brass knuckles off the guy. I think that was in Memphis.$$That's something. Were you a part of the March on Washington?$$Yeah (laughter).$$Tell me about that day.$$I woke up--I don't know how in the devil I did it, but I was tired. We had gone on a train. They, they started a train way down in Florida and it stopped on the way and we picked up the train here, went straight on up and went into Grand Central Station [sic. Union Station, Washington, D.C.]. And--I think it's Grand Central Station.$$In D.C. [Washington, D.C.]?$$In D.C.$$Okay. I don't know the name of the (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) The big station.$$--train station.$$And, and I think we walked from that station to the Mall [National Mall, Washington, D.C.] and there was a bunch of us here from Charleston [South Carolina], and I got lost from my crowd. And I was tired and I laid down on the grass and put my coat under my head and went to sleep (laughter). And I--when I woke up, Martin Luther started speaking. When--that's what woke me up and I'll never forget that as long as I live.$$There were so many people.$$Oh, it was just like that. It was jam-packed.$$But how were the people treating one another?$$Oh, it was--it was like a love feast, you know, everybody. And it didn't matter who you were or what color you were or anything.

The Honorable Basil Paterson

Lawyer Basil Alexander Paterson was born on April 27, 1926, in Harlem, New York. Paterson’s mother Evangeline Rondon was a secretary for Marcus Garvey. Paterson received his high school diploma in 1942 from De Witt Clinton High School in the Bronx neighborhood of New York City. After working for six months, Paterson entered St. John’s College from which he received his B.S. degree in biology in 1948, having spent two years in the Army. Paterson entered St. John’s Law School and received his J.D. degree in 1951. Paterson then began his professional career as a lawyer in Harlem where he became law partners with Ivan A. Michael and former New York City Mayor David Dinkins. Paterson and Dinkins became heavily involved in Democratic politics in Harlem, along with former Manhattan Borough President Percy Sutton, and Congressman Charles Rangel.

Paterson was elected to the New York State Senate in 1965 where he remained until he won the primary to be the Democratic candidate for Lieutenant Governor on a slate headed by Arthur Goldberg in 1970. The ticket lost to incumbent Governor Nelson A. Rockefeller. Paterson's son, David Paterson, was elected Lieutenant Governor in 2006; in 2008 he became Governor when Eliot Spitzer resigned. Paterson became the President and Chief Executive Officer of the Institute for Mediation and Conflict Resolution in 1972; he remained in that position until 1977. Paterson was the first elected African American Vice Chairman of the Democratic National Committee in 1972. In 1978, Mayor Ed Koch appointed Paterson to the position of Deputy Mayor of Labor Relations and Personnel. In 1979, Governor Hugh Carey appointed Paterson to the position of New York Secretary of State, making him the first African American to hold that rank. In 1989, Paterson became a commissioner of the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, a position he held until 1995.

Paterson chaired the New York City Mayor’s Judiciary Committee for four years, and the New York State Governor’s Screening Panel for the Second Department for eight years. Paterson also served for ten years as a member of the Board of Editors of the New York Law Journal. In 2003, Paterson was appointed to the Commission to Promote Public Confidence in Judicial Elections. That same year, Paterson was elected Chairman of the KeySpan Foundation Board of Directors. Paterson served as Co-Chairman of the New York State Governor’s Commission on Determinate Sentencing, and the New York State Commission on Powers of Local Government. Paterson received numerous awards including the Humanitarian Award from Coalition of Black Trade Unionists, and the St. John’s University Medal of Excellence. Paterson practiced law at the law firm of Meyer, Suozzi, English and Klein where he served as co-chair of the firm’s labor practice.

Accession Number

A2007.016

Sex

Male

Interview Date

1/18/2007

Last Name

Paterson

Maker Category
Schools

DeWitt Clinton High School

St. John's University

St. John's University School of Law

First Name

Basil

Birth City, State, Country

New York

HM ID

PAT05

Favorite Season

Summer

State

New York

Favorite Vacation Destination

Home

Favorite Quote

Get Outta Here.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Birth Date

4/27/1926

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New York

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Hot Dogs

Death Date

4/16/2014

Short Description

Lawyer, city government appointee, state government appointee, and state senator The Honorable Basil Paterson (1926 - 2014 ) was appointed Secretary of State for New York, and was a New York State senator.

Employment

Levy and Harten

Paterson and Michael

New York State Senate

Meyer, Suozzi, English and Klein

Favorite Color

Red

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of The Honorable Basil Paterson's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - The Honorable Basil Paterson lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - The Honorable Basil Paterson describes his mother

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - The Honorable Basil Paterson describes his father

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - The Honorable Basil Paterson explains why his parents came to New York City

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - The Honorable Basil Paterson recalls New York City's Harlem neighborhood

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - The Honorable Basil Paterson reflects upon police conduct in New York City

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - The Honorable Basil Paterson remembers African American police officers

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - The Honorable Basil Paterson describes his religious upbringing

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - The Honorable Basil Paterson recalls his decision to pursue law

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - The Honorable Basil Paterson recalls his time at DeWitt Clinton High School

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - The Honorable Basil Paterson remembers being encouraged to pursue college

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - The Honorable Basil Paterson reflects upon his primary education

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - The Honorable Basil Paterson talks about educational inequality

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - The Honorable Basil Paterson recalls experiences at St. John's College

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - The Honorable Basil Paterson reflects upon the impact of desegregation

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - The Honorable Basil Paterson talks about the gentrification of Harlem

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - The Honorable Basil Paterson remembers serving in the segregated U.S. Army

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - The Honorable Basil Paterson talks about the importance of protest

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - The Honorable Basil Paterson recalls St. John's College School of Law

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - The Honorable Basil Paterson talks about the history of black lawyers

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - The Honorable Basil Paterson remembers founding his law firm

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - The Honorable Basil Paterson describes what he learned by practicing law

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - The Honorable Basil Paterson remembers how he became a labor rights advocate

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - The Honorable Basil Paterson recalls the New York City transit strike of 2005

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - The Honorable Basil Paterson talks about the Transport Workers Union

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - The Honorable Basil Paterson recalls moving his law firm to his Harlem neighborhood

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - The Honorable Basil Paterson remembers other lawyers in the community

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - The Honorable Basil Paterson recalls becoming involved in politics

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - The Honorable Basil Paterson describes the Harlem Clubhouse

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - The Honorable Basil Paterson remembers Robert Wagner and Robert Moses

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - The Honorable Basil Paterson recalls his early interactions with David N. Dinkins

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - The Honorable Basil Paterson remembers Adam Clayton Powell Jr.'s support

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - The Honorable Basil Paterson reflects upon the progress of the African American community

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - The Honorable Basil Paterson recalls his first political campaigns

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - The Honorable Basil Paterson describes fraternity life in New York City

Tape: 3 Story: 12 - The Honorable Basil Paterson describes his siblings

DASession

1$1

DATape

1$3

DAStory

7$8

DATitle
The Honorable Basil Paterson reflects upon police conduct in New York City
The Honorable Basil Paterson remembers Adam Clayton Powell Jr.'s support
Transcript
At that time do you remember--I mean, just thinking on the street, were, were there the same kind of tensions between the police and the black community in Harlem [New York, New York] that exists or has existed in the past?$$I've tried to think about that at different times, because growing up I had trouble with the cops. I always had trouble with the cops, and one once told my mother [Evangeline Rondon Paterson] I had a bad attitude. Well, you know, when you're eleven, twelve years old, how can you have a bad attitude? I mean, there was a tension, but there was no confrontation with the cops. Nobody would dare do that, but I can remember being chased by cops. For what? For putting a--building a fire in the street, you know. Three of us would--I always remember this, we were chased around a corner. It was dark--it didn't have to be that late, it was winter--and the cop threw his nightstick at us. I always remember that, the nightstick clanging along as we're running on, and I said--you know, I thought about it years later, the eldest person with us couldn't have been more than thirteen years old, twelve maybe, and a cop throws a nightstick at us. As I got older, it got more difficult. There's been tension with people in Harlem with the police since I can remember. It's always been there. The strangest thing is we used to say that the very cops who--by the way, corruption was rife, you saw it, you saw the numbers men, who were the only ones who knew the cops, knew their first names. Numbers, if anybody doesn't understand that, it was a policy racket, you bet three numbers, if you came out, you got 550 to one, what happened to the other 450? You figure it out. Some people got rich, and some cops got rich. All this came out with the Knapp Commission [Commission to Investigate Alleged Police Corruption] investigation many years ago, it all got--it was laid right out. But everybody that lived in Harlem knew about it long before that. You knew that when you saw a police car stop in front of the local deli on a Sunday morning, they're stopping to get their pay-off because the deli was probably selling beer before two o'clock or whatever time it was, we had blue laws in New York and churches required that they not sell beer before a certain time. You saw it. It was--obviously, and the cops break up crap games and somebody says, "Stop and give them the money," and the crap game resumed, yeah, you saw this. It's not like that anymore. I mean, there may be graft, there may be corruption, but it's not systemic. I mean, even when Judge Mollen, Milton Mollen Commission [Commission To Investigate Allegations of Police Corruption and the Anti-Corruption Procedures of the Police Department] investigated the Dirty Thirty precinct, his report was you had certain precincts where you might have a gang of four or five cops who in many ways intimidated the other members and did things that were bad, but it's not like it once was. I mean, it's systematized, but the precinct got a certain amount of money every month from the numbers men, the cop on the beat got, the traffic cop got, you name them, they all got paid a certain amount, it was known. What was funny, I look back now, I remember all these big scandals and they're shaking up the police department [New York City Police Department], they're transferring people from one borough to the other, but when I got to law school [St. John's College School of Law; St. John's University School of Law, New York, New York], I found out what that was about. The black book stayed in the precinct, so whoever came to the precinct knew who it was who paid X number of dollars into the precinct each week or each month. That began--it was an interesting point in law, because that black book was entered into evidence--I think it was Tom (unclear) [ph.] and his special prosecutors way back on the grounds that these were entries made in the ordinary course of business, which is a fundamental law of evidence. Entries made into any document in the ordinary course of business are admissible into evidence, so that black book was admissible into evidence, and that's how they got a lot of people. But that black book was always there, they could shift cops around, but it didn't matter. The system remained and existed until--probably the biggest impact on it was when they legalized the lottery. When they had a legal lottery--when they legalized it (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Now, when did they legalize the lottery--$$Oh, that had to be--I was going to say I was in the State Senate [New York State Senate] when it happened, so it had to be around '68 [1968], 1968, '69 [1969], but there's still numbers men operating, the state and the government can't give credit, but private entrepreneurs can give credit. But it's not like it once was, and the graft is not there, but the tension still remained. You asked about the tension, the tension's still there, but they used to say the very same cops who were on the take would risk their lives to save you, there was a belief there, the very cops that might be abusing somebody (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Did you agree with it?$$Did I agree with it? Yeah, I think it was true. I think it was just a system that existed. They--some cops say, well, it was combat pay. Combat pay for what? For operating in a minority community, a black or Latino community? I literally have seen a cop cry, and asked--I was eating in a restaurant, what's (unclear)--I said, "What's that about," and another cop said to me, "He's being transferred." I said, "Where to?" He said, "Staten Island [New York]." I said, "Where does he live?" He said Staten Island, I said, he ought to be happy. He said, "He can't afford it." He was in a precinct where he could make money, he couldn't afford to be sent to a precinct where he couldn't make money, but that's--hopefully it's gone.$Rangel [HistoryMaker Charles B. Rangel] and Sutton [Percy Sutton], after I won, it was a one year term because they were doing reapportionment, they said, we're gonna reapportion you out, we've got, we got too--with our heavy hitters, and you're finished. Well, what happened--I was finished. I understood what they--they reapportioned me out of where I was strong, put me into mostly in Adam Powell's [Adam Clayton Powell, Jr.] district, so one of their people, unbeknownst to them, invited me to meet with Powell. He liked me, he said, "I like ya," he says, "Come meet with Powell." And Powell said to me--one day I went down to see Powell--here's a story, but it's true--went down to see Powell, took my wife [Portia Hairston Paterson] and one of my sons, my other--I have two sons, the other son--and Powell, only thing he wanted to know was, he said, "Are you Sutton's guy?" I said, "No, we used to be friends but he opposed me." He said, "Are you Sutton's guy?" And I said, "I don't think so, I think I'm my own guy." He said, "Well, okay." He said, "The four closest people to me all sing your praises." I said, "Who are they?" "Livingston Wingate [Livingston Leroy Wingate] says you're his protege." Wingate was his counsel, and I was Wingate's protege.$$What was that name again?$$Livingston Wingate.$$Livingston.$$He was his counsel, he later became a judge. Wingate had always kind of looked out for me. And then a guy named Chuck Sutton. Remember, he was the editor of a local newspaper one time, and then he was his press guy. Not Chuck Sutton--got the wrong name. Chuck Sutton's his nephew--Sutton's nephew--oh, his name'll come to me, but you know--you probably know the name, he was well-known in the black newspaper guild and all that--who I knew. And then a guy named Wellington Beal, who did a lot of economic stuff for him, and sometimes would ask me to sit down and work with him.$$Wellington--what was--$$Wellington Beal, B-E-A-L. And the last one was a fella named Lloyd Mitchell [ph.], who was his bodyguard, and Mitchell sang my praises to him, he said, he and his friends have always helped me. Well, we were street guys, so of course we were his help, he was a nice guy. So Powell said, "I'm interested, let me think about it." I was asking would he help me. He says, "Is that your wife and your son outside?" I said, "Yeah." He said, "Bring them in, I'd like to meet them," so I bring them in, introduced my wife and my son. About that time Daniel [Daniel Paterson] was--let me think. If this was '66 [1966]. He was born in '57 [1957], so he was nine years old. He hadn't yet turned nine, he was eight. So he said to him, "How old are you, Daniel?" He said, "I'm eight years old." "When's your birthday?" He said, "November 29th." And Powell stopped, he said, "Either you're the luckiest guy going or one of the slickest people I've ever met." He said, "Isn't this a school day?" He was smart. I said, "Uh-huh." "And you took your son out of school and brought him down here?" I said, "Uh-huh." It's his birthday. It's just one of those weird coincidences. Powell's birthday. So he said, I think I'm gonna support you (laughter). And you know what he did, he sent his secretary to bring all kinds of things that had his name on it, he used to send birthday cards to my--to my son, and by that night word was out I was Powell's candidate, and I was now Jones' [J. Raymond Jones] candidate. He called Jones. Powell said, "I want this guy," and Jones said, "Okay."

The Honorable Dianne Wilkerson

Dianne Wilkerson, the first African American woman elected to the Massachusetts State Senate, was born on May 2, 1955, in Pine Bluff, Arkansas. She was born in her maternal grandmother’s shotgun shack on a farm, because the local hospital did not allow black women entry to deliver children. Wilkerson and her family later followed an uncle who fled Arkansas to Springfield, Massachusetts, to escape harassment from the Ku Klux Klan. After graduating from Springfield’s High School of Commerce in 1973, Wilkerson attended the American International College, earning her B.S. degree in public administration in 1978. After completing her B.S., Wilkerson attended Boston College Law School, earning her J.D. in 1981.

Beginning her legal practice that same year, Wilkerson clerked in the Massachusetts Appeals Court until 1982, when she left to become deputy counsel to the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court. In 1983, she joined the law firm of LeBoeuf, Lamb, Lerby and McRae, where she remained until 1985. That year, Wilkerson became the assistant legal counsel to Governor Michael Dukakis. In 1987, Wilkerson became the first African American woman in Boston to become a partner in a major law firm, Roche, Carnes and DeGiacomo, where she practiced until being elected to the Massachusetts State Senate in 1992. In 2005, she was the highest-ranking black official in the State of Massachusetts, serving her sixth term representing the Second Suffolk District.

As a state senator, Wilkerson has sponsored a number of bills to protect low-income, black and other minority residents of Massachusetts, including a bill authorizing the collection of data relative to racial profiling in traffic stops and a bill to curb high interest rates on bank loans. As the lone African American in the Massachusetts State Senate at the time of her interview, Wilkerson has described herself as a “professional agitator,” and has championed policies to improve the lives of people underserved by the government.

Accession Number

A2005.026

Sex

Female

Archival Photo 1
Interview Date

1/27/2005

Last Name

Wilkerson

Maker Category
Marital Status

Divorced

Occupation
Organizations
Schools

Carew Street School

Homer Street School

Samuel Bowles School

Forest Park Middle School

High School of Commerce

American International College

Boston College Law School

The High School of Commerce

Archival Photo 2
First Name

Dianne

Birth City, State, Country

Pine Bluff

HM ID

WIL21

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Arkansas

Favorite Vacation Destination

None

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Massachusetts

Birth Date

5/2/1955

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Boston

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Chicken (Roasted), Dressing

Short Description

State senator The Honorable Dianne Wilkerson (1955 - ) was the first African American woman elected to the Massachusetts State Senate. In January, 2005, she was serving her sixth term representing the Second Suffolk District and the only African American in the Massachusetts Senate. Wilkerson sponsored a number of bills to protect low-income, black and other minority residents.

Favorite Color

Red

DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Dianne Wilkerson interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Dianne Wilkerson talks about her grandparents and growing up in Pine Bluff, Arkansas

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Dianne Wilkerson recalls her grandfather

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Dianne Wilkerson talks about her mother and her personality

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Dianne Wilkerson talks briefly about her father and both her grandmothers

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Dianne Wilkerson recalls the stories her parents shared about growing up in rural Arkansas

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Dianne Wilkerson tells of her uncles who left Arkansas and shares a story of meeting one of them in 1979

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Dianne Wilkerson describes her earliest memories and her uncles' trial, imprisonment and later departure from Arkansas

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Dianne Wilkerson talks briefly about those who influenced her as a child

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Dianne Wilkerson recalls the assassination of John F. Kennedy

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Dianne Wilkerson talks about her attitude towards learning as a child

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Dianne Wilkerson describes her introduction to busing in elementary school in Massachusetts

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Dianne Wilkerson talks about her experiences in an integrated elementary school

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Dianne Wilkerson recalls her neighborhood and her circle of friends during her teenage years

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Dianne Wilkerson talks about her teachers and her experiences in junior high school

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Dianne Wilkerson recalls summers visits with her grandparents down South

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Dianne Wilkerson talks about her religious upbringing

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Dianne Wilkerson describes early sights, smells and sounds from her childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Dianne Wilkerson recalls her high school experiences

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Dianne Wilkerson describes her summer job she took to pay for college

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Dianne Wilkerson recounts her high school struggle to attend college

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Dianne Wilkerson describes her major and how she paid for college

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Dianne Wilkerson recalls juggling her education with her new family

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Dianne Wilkerson describes what made her decide to attend Boston College Law School

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Dianne Wilkerson describes her experiences at Boston College Law School

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Dianne Wilkerson talks about the culture shock she experienced in Boston

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Dianne Wilkerson details how she passed the bar exam

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Dianne Wilkerson talks about her first job assignments after passing the bar exam

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Dianne Wilkerson details her activities in a New York law firm and with the NAACP

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Dianne Wilkerson talks more about her activities with the NAACP and their lawsuit against HUD

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Dianne Wilkerson describes her career achievement and details her decision to enter into politics

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Dianne Wilkerson details her campaign for Senator of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Dianne Wilkerson talks about her career accomplishments as Massachusetts State Senator

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Dianne Wilkerson talks extensively about her position for gay marriage in Massachusetts

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Dianne Wilkerson shares some of her advice to young people

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Dianne Wilkerson talks about the committees on which she serves in the Massachusetts State Senate

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Dianne Wilkerson talks about the change in racial demographics in her political district

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Dianne Wilkerson reflects on how she has lived her life

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Dianne Wilkerson talks about how she would like to be remembered and her future

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Photo - Dianne Wilkerson's grandson, Cornell Devon Mills, Jr. and grand-nephew, Kendall, Boston, Massachusetts, 2002

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Photo - Dianne Wilkerson with Massachusetts State Senators Bill Owens and Royal Bolling, Sr., Boston, Massachusetts, 2000

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Photo - Dianne Wilkerson and an unidentified man present an award to Aaron Feuerstein, Boston, Massachusetts, 1999

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Photo - Dianne Wilkerson with former President Bill Clinton and others at a fundraiser, Washington, D.C., 2003

Tape: 5 Story: 11 - Photo - Dianne Wilkerson with the mayor and members of the Empowerment Zone Board, Boston, Massachusetts, ca. 1994

Tape: 5 Story: 12 - Photo - Dianne Wilkerson with other leaders at an NAACP function, Boston, Massachusetts, 1997

Tape: 5 Story: 13 - Photo - Dianne Wilkerson with others at a Massachusetts Legislative Black Caucus function, Boston, Massachusetts, 1996