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The Honorable Wilhelmina Delco

On July 16, 1929, Wilhelmina R. Delco was born to Juanita and William P. Fitzgerald in Chicago, Illinois. She attended Wendell Phillips High School in Chicago where she served as president of the student body and was a member of the National Honor Society. Delco received her B.A. degree in sociology from Fisk University in Nashville, Tennessee, in 1950.

In 1952, Delco married, had four children and relocated to Texas. As a concerned parent, Delco became an active leader in the Parent Teacher Association of her children’s school. Delco ran and was elected to the Austin Independent School District Board of Trustees in 1968, three days after the death of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. This landmark victory made Delco the first African American elected to public office in Austin, Texas. Following her first term on the school board, Delco sought to become a force in statewide policy-making and ran a successful campaign for the Texas House of Representatives, making her the first African American elected official elected at-large in Travis County.

Delco served ten terms in the Texas Legislature and served on more than twenty different committees. Delco was a founding member of the Austin Community College Board. In 1979, Delco was appointed chair of the House Higher Education Committee where she served until 1991 when she was appointed speaker pro tempore. This made her the first woman and the second African American to hold the second highest position in the Texas House of Representatives.

Since her retirement from the Texas Legislature in 1995, Delco remains an active force in education. Having been awarded honorary doctoral degrees from ten colleges and universities, Delco is the chair of the Board of Trustees at Houston-Tillotson College in Austin, Texas, and serves as an adjunct professor at the University of Texas at Austin with the Community College Leadership Program. She and her husband, Dr. Exalton A. Delco, Jr., live in Austin, Texas. They have four children and nine grandchildren.

Accession Number

A2006.090

Sex

Female

Interview Date

5/4/2006

Last Name

Delco

Maker Category
Schools

Wendell Phillips Academy High School

Fisk University

First Name

Wilhelmina

Birth City, State, Country

Chicago

HM ID

DEL04

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Illinois

Favorite Vacation Destination

Anywhere with Family

Favorite Quote

Don’t Do Today What You Can Put Off To Tomorrow 'Cause Tomorrow You Might Not Have To Do It.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Texas

Birth Date

7/16/1929

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Austin

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Salad, Soup

Short Description

State representative The Honorable Wilhelmina Delco (1929 - ) served ten terms in the Texas Legislature and served on more than twenty different committees. In 1991 she was appointed speaker pro tempore, the first woman and the second African American to hold the second highest position in the Texas House of Representatives.

Employment

Austin Independent School District Board of Trustees

Texas House of Representatives

Texas Congress of Colored Parents and Teachers

Favorite Color

Royal Blue, Periwinkle

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of The Honorable Wilhelmina Delco's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - The Honorable Wilhelmina Delco lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - The Honorable Wilhelmina Delco describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - The Honorable Wilhelmina Delco describes her mother's personality

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - The Honorable Wilhelmina Delco describes her maternal grandparents

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - The Honorable Wilhelmina Delco describes her father

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - The Honorable Wilhelmina Delco describes her siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - The Honorable Wilhelmina Delco describes her parents' marriage and divorce

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - The Honorable Wilhelmina Delco recalls the death of her father

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - The Honorable Wilhelmina Delco recalls her childhood community in Chicago

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - The Honorable Wilhelmina Delco recalls her childhood family activities

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - The Honorable Wilhelmina Delco describes her mother's focus on education

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - The Honorable Wilhelmina Delco recalls attending Nashville's Fisk University

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - The Honorable Wilhelmina Delco describes the community of Fisk University

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - The Honorable Wilhelmina Delco remembers joining the Catholic church

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - The Honorable Wilhelmina Delco describes the values espoused by Fisk University

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - The Honorable Wilhelmina Delco recalls her marriage to Exalton Delco, Jr.

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - The Honorable Wilhelmina Delco recalls her husband's service in the U.S. Army

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - The Honorable Wilhelmina Delco recalls moving to Austin, Texas in 1956

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - The Honorable Wilhelmina Delco recalls her involvement in education in Austin, Texas

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - The Honorable Wilhelmina Delco recalls the deaths of American civic leaders

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - The Honorable Wilhelmina Delco describes the course of her political career

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - The Honorable Wilhelmina Delco describes her achievements in elected office

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - The Honorable Wilhelmina Delco talks about being a black woman in the Texas House of Representatives

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - The Honorable Wilhelmina Delco recalls the desegregation of Austin's public schools

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - The Honorable Wilhelmina Delco talks about the decline of urban public schools

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - The Honorable Wilhelmina Delco describes her hopes for community organizing

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - The Honorable Wilhelmina Delco describes her concerns for future generations

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - The Honorable Wilhelmina Delco reflects upon her life, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - The Honorable Wilhelmina Delco reflects upon her life, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - The Honorable Wilhelmina Delco talks about hopes for her grandchildren

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - The Honorable Wilhelmina Delco describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - The Honorable Wilhelmina Delco narrates her photographs, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - The Honorable Wilhelmina Delco narrates her photographs, pt. 2

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$3

DAStory

6$7

DATitle
The Honorable Wilhelmina Delco describes the course of her political career
The Honorable Wilhelmina Delco describes her achievements in elected office
Transcript
I decided to run for the school board [Austin Independent School District Board of Trustees] and--on that basis--and I was elected, and I served--I was elected in April; in August, the first team from the federal government came to Austin [Texas] to say that we were in noncompliance with the desegregation rule, so immediately from being this quiet little board that nobody knew what they did, it--we were on the news every night. And of course, since I was the black on the board, everybody was asking me, "What do black people think? What do black people want?" And I'd tell 'em, "I can't tell you what my husband [Exalton Delco, Jr.] thinks; I'm not about to speak for no whole race." But I had no problem telling them how I felt, so I got to be very well known because I was so visible in the news. And, of course, then--before then, it was ministers and the black precinct chairs that were always invited and involved in things, but now since I was a bona fide elected official, and I was elected at-large because we didn't have single member districts then, so I was elected at-large; that meant that I really was in a sense more representative of black people than all these other people, so anytime anybody came to town, I was in the receiving line, I was invited because I was an elected official. And I had no idea that that was part of what I was getting into when I ran for the school board. And six years later, I--'cause the school board term was six years, and I was trying to decide whether I was gonna run again or just come home 'cause my kids then were getting in--out of high school and, and my oldest daughter [Deborah Delco] was going to her first year in college. And the Rodriguez decision [San Antonio Independent School District v. Rodriguez, 1973] was handed down in the [U.S.] Supreme Court about public school finance, and I decided, given the financial situation in Austin, that I needed to be there, and so I ran for the legislature [Texas Legislature] and became the first African American from Travis County [Texas] elected to the legislature, and I served there twenty years, mostly in legis- in education areas. And I chaired the Committee on Higher Education [Higher Education Committee] for twelve years, and I was speaker pro tempore, and I'm still the only woman that's been speaker pro tempore of the House [Texas House of Representatives].$What were some of the things that you wanted to see change that happened during your terms?$$Well, there are a lot, but the one I think that was the most significant, when I became chair of Higher Education [Higher Education Committee, Texas House of Representatives], the disparity between Prairie View [Prairie View A&M University, Prairie View, Texas] and the University of Texas system--it was a member of the University of Texas system, but in every sense of the word it was a stepchild, and I think the thing I'm proudest of in education is getting them to be a permanent part of the Permanent University Fund, and getting them a lot of money, and getting them the status and the recognition that they should have had from the beginning. There were all sorts of horror stories around what happened to Prairie View; they got all the leftover books, they got all the hand-me-downs. As a matter of fact, one of the stories was that the man who was principal--they didn't even call the president of Prairie View [Prairie View State Normal School; Prairie View A&M University, Prairie View, Texas], president, they called him principal, like it was in a high school or an elementary school, and they decided that instead of giving the money to Prairie View that year, the legislature [Texas Legislature], they gave it to the University of Texas because they were building the medical school in Galveston [Texas], and the comptroller said, "We don't have enough money to do both," so he simply took Prairie View's money to put into Galveston for this medical school. Well, Mr. Anderson [Laurine Cecil Anderson], who was principal, got on his horse and came to Austin [Texas], and he appealed to the legislature. He said--and he was very eloquent--he said, "My young men raise their own food, they make their own clothes, they work very hard, but gentlemen, they have got to have books, and we can't make books, and without your help we can't buy books." And he was so eloquent, when he got back to Prairie View, they had put his furniture and his family out on the road for having the audacity to go by what they said was over them, to appeal to the legislature. Well, the man who was president of the school board [Austin Independent School District Board of Trustees] here in Austin was so impressed, he sent for him and hired him and he became the first black principal in Austin, and L.C. Anderson [L.C. Anderson High School, Austin, Texas] was named after him, and that was another story when I was on the school board. One of the things that HEW [U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services] mandated was that we close Anderson High School, the black high school, and our kids had to get on the bus to go to the other schools. But they promised those kids that the next high school that they built would be named Anderson. Well, of course--so that they'd have some preservation of their history and heritage. Well, of course, when the high school was built, it was built out in northwest Austin, and they didn't wanna name it Anderson. Well, I said, "Well, I was going to vote to name it Anderson if nobody else did," I was going to honor what I felt was a commitment that the board had made. And this guy that was very quiet--he was a little doctor, Dr. Pat Cato, and he says, "If you make the motion, Mrs. Delco [HistoryMaker Wilhelmina Delco], I will second it." And they tried to talk me into saying we'll name it after any other black--blah, blah, blah. I said, "No. If you recognize me, I am going to make the motion," I said to the president of the school board. When we got out in the meeting--then, you could have meetings before the meeting. When we got out into the meeting, he said, "Are there any nominations?" I'll never forget it. He said, "Are there any nominations for the name for the new high school?" And I raised my hand and he said, "Yes, Mrs. Delco." I said, "I move that we name it L.C. Anderson." Dr. Cato said, "I second the motion." And the vote was unanimous; they all chickened out (laughter). But--and incidentally, Will Davis [Will D. Davis] went on to be president of the state and the national--the School Board Association [National School Boards Association]; he'd been chair of the Democratic Party for Texas, and Carole Keeton Rylander Strayhorn was on the school board with me, and now she is a comptroller running for governor.$$Oh, that's wonderful.$$Yeah, so that was, that was one of my really proud achievements on the school board. And when I decided to run for governor [sic.]--the school board didn't cost a lot and I didn't--I wasn't ever gonna go into debt using my grocery money; if I couldn't raise the money, I just wouldn't do it. And I was so fortunate; when I got ready to run for the legislature, they kept telling me I had to raise money, so this guy Charles Miles was--had worked at UT [University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas], and he knew a lot of students out there. He said, "We gotta get you somebody that can raise money." And he sent this lady to my office and she walked in and she says--to my campaign office--and she said, "Are you Wilhelmina Delco?" And I said, "Yes." She said, "You wanna be in the legislature?" I said, "Yes." She said, "We need you there. Put on some comfortable shoes. Let's go raise some money. I'm Ann Richards."$$Oh.$$And she raised every dime for my first campaign--she really did.

The Honorable Lottie Watkins

Lottie Heywood Watkins is the retired CEO of Lottie Watkins Enterprises, Inc., a full-service real estate company specializing in property management. Watkins entered the real estate industry in the early 1960s and became the first African American female real estate broker in the Atlanta market. Watkins is known throughout the Atlanta business community as a shrewd businesswoman and is highly respected for the contributions she has made to civic and social affairs.

Watkins is the daughter of Susie Wilson and Eddie Heywood, a 1920s jazz pianist. Her brother, the second eldest of five children, gained critical fame with the Eddie Heywood, Jr. Trio throughout the 1940s as a songwriter, composer and pianist. Watkins was educated in the Atlanta Public School system and graduated from Booker T. Washington High School’s accelerated class in 1935. She graduated from Reid’s School of Business and became a secretary for Alexander—Calloway Realty Company. She worked as a teller/clerk at the Mutual Federal Savings and Loan Association until she started Lottie Watkins Enterprises, Inc.

Watkins became active with the voter’s rights campaign, the Civil Rights Movement and community–based organizations. In 1977, she was elected to the Georgia House of Representatives. She served as Co-Chair of the YMCA Membership Campaign, the American Cancer Society, and the NAACP Membership Drive and Freedom Fund Banquet. She was Chair of the Christmas Cheer Fund for the Atlanta Inquirer. Watkins has received numerous awards and citations; the Pioneer in Real Estate Award (Providence Missionary Baptist Church), Appeal of Human Rights Award (30th Anniversary Celebration of the Civil Rights Movement), Pioneer Award for Community Leadership (Empire Real Estate Board) and Outstanding Achievement in Real Estate and Business Award (Empire Real Estate Board 50th Anniversary). She was listed in Who’s Who of American Women, in Finance and Industry, Black World and International Who’s Who in Community Service and World Who’s Who of Women.

Watkins resided in her native Atlanta with her daughters and their families, Joyce and Judy, who actively operated Lottie Watkins Enterprises, Inc.

Watkins passed away on February 20, 2017.

Accession Number

A2006.037

Sex

Female

Interview Date

3/16/2006 |and| 4/12/2006

Last Name

Watkins

Maker Category
Schools

Edmund Asa Ware Elementary School

Booker T. Washington High School

Reid's Business School

First Name

Lottie

Birth City, State, Country

Atlanta

HM ID

WAT08

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Georgia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Birth Date

6/4/1919

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Atlanta

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Chicken, Fish

Death Date

2/20/2017

Short Description

Community activist and state representative The Honorable Lottie Watkins (1919 - 2017 ) was the first African American female real estate broker in the Atlanta market, and is the founder of Lottie Watkins Enterprises, Inc.

Employment

Mutual Federal Savings & Loan Association of Atlanta

Alexander-Caloway Real Estate Company

Lottie Watkins Enterprises, Inc.

Georgia House of Representatives

Favorite Color

Pastel

Timing Pairs
0,0:444,2:1221,10:10562,125:10972,131:36968,452:37616,470:38021,476:41828,569:46931,684:48065,710:65050,861:76436,1110:97726,1308:98595,1349:101202,1401:105547,1503:127676,1738:128044,1743:134929,1820:155100,2036:155870,2047:182890,2416:187550,2476:204450,2803:207570,2847$0,0:9367,116:10681,144:11411,154:13455,192:13747,197:14331,208:14988,219:15645,231:17178,262:17689,272:23230,325:28970,382:29738,434:69635,769:83600,927:94470,1283:142830,1658
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of The Honorable Lottie Watkins' interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - The Honorable Lottie Watkins lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - The Honorable Lottie Watkins describes her mother

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - The Honorable Lottie Watkins describes her father

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - The Honorable Lottie Watkins talks about her brother, Eddie Heywood, Jr.

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - The Honorable Lottie Watkins lists her siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - The Honorable Lottie Watkins describes her childhood community in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - The Honorable Lottie Watkins remembers living near Zilla Mays

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - The Honorable Lottie Watkins describes the sights, sounds and smells of growing up, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - The Honorable Lottie Watkins describes Atlanta's Providence Baptist Church

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - The Honorable Lottie Watkins describes the sights, sounds and smells of growing up, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - The Honorable Lottie Watkins remembers Edmund Asa Ware Elementary School

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - The Honorable Lottie Watkins remembers visiting Atlanta area churches

Tape: 1 Story: 14 - The Honorable Lottie Watkins remembers Booker T. Washington High School

Tape: 1 Story: 15 - The Honorable Lottie Watkins recalls working at her aunt's restaurant in Atlanta

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - The Honorable Lottie Watkins talks about her father's jazz career

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - The Honorable Lottie Watkins recalls attending business school in Atlanta

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - The Honorable Lottie Watkins recalls working in Atlanta University's registrar's office

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - The Honorable Lottie Watkins recalls working for the Alexander-Calloway Realty Company

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - The Honorable Lottie Watkins recalls her start at Mutual Federal Savings and Loan Association of Atlanta

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - The Honorable Lottie Watkins recalls building her home in Atlanta

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - The Honorable Lottie Watkins talks about her marriages

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - The Honorable Lottie Watkins recalls her training with Remington Rand, Inc.

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - The Honorable Lottie Watkins recalls how John Wesley Dobbs financed her daughter's education

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - The Honorable Lottie Watkins recalls her daughter's graduation from Clark College

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - The Honorable Lottie Watkins remembers her daughter's wedding

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - The Honorable Lottie Watkins describes Clarence A. Bacote

Tape: 2 Story: 13 - The Honorable Lottie Watkins describes Atlanta's neighborhood clubs

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - The Honorable Lottie Watkins describes Atlanta's African American voting districts

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - The Honorable Lottie Watkins recalls her voter registration work in 1962

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - The Honorable Lottie Watkins describes her decision to start her own business

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - The Honorable Lottie Watkins recalls managing property on Atlanta's Anderson Avenue

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - The Honorable Lottie Watkins recalls residence managers whom she employed

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - The Honorable Lottie Watkins remembers a tenant who stood up for her

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - The Honorable Lottie Watkins recalls joining Rich's Business Women's Advisory Board

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - The Honorable Lottie Watkins recalls the student protest of Rich's Department Store in Atlanta

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - The Honorable Lottie Watkins describes forgetting an important protest at an Atlanta hotel

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - The Honorable Lottie Watkins describes the current management of Lottie Watkins Enterprises, Inc.

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - The Honorable Lottie Watkins recalls her run for the Georgia House of Representatives

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - The Honorable Lottie Watkins recalls her Democratic Party involvement

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - The Honorable Lottie Watkins recalls campaigning for James Earl "Jimmy" Carter

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - The Honorable Lottie Watkins remembers campaigning for Ivan Allen, Jr.

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - The Honorable Lottie Watkins remembers Mayor Ivan Allen, Jr.

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - The Honorable Lottie Watkins recalls serving on the Democratic finance committee

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - The Honorable Lottie Watkins recalls moving to a new office in Atlanta

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - The Honorable Lottie Watkins recalls her office relocation from Hunter Street to Gordon Street

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - The Honorable Lottie Watkins describes the loan for her building on Atlanta's Gordon Street

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - The Honorable Lottie Watkins reflects upon her political campaigns

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - The Honorable Lottie Watkins reflects upon her SCLC involvement

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - The Honorable Lottie Watkins explains why she shared her story

Tape: 4 Story: 12 - The Honorable Lottie Watkins describes her NAACP involvement

Tape: 4 Story: 13 - The Honorable Lottie Watkins reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - The Honorable Lottie Watkins narrates her photographs, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - The Honorable Lottie Watkins narrates her photographs, pt. 2

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$4

DAStory

4$1

DATitle
The Honorable Lottie Watkins recalls managing property on Atlanta's Anderson Avenue
The Honorable Lottie Watkins recalls her Democratic Party involvement
Transcript
I decided that I wanted to go into business. Now there was not another black woman in business, real estate. So--$$All the other companies were men?$$Yeah, but I decided that it was time for a lady to do something, and with me being a lady I can make a difference, you know, appearance-wise, pleading and everything. So I had an office [for Lottie Watkins Enterprises, Inc., Atlanta, Georgia]--well you cut off my dining room just about this size.$$This was when you first started out?$$Yes.$$When you first opened up?$$Y- 774 Hunter Street [Atlanta, Georgia].$$And that was in 1960?$$It--near the en- in November near the end of the year in '60 [1960].$$November of 1960, and you were like forty-something years old?$$Yeah.$$Forty-one or so?$$So I stepped in the water and everybody was so happy, people were calling me. So with me--I, I--the business was growing and during those days the whites managed all the big complexes, blacks didn't have any. So a man named Bob Chennault [Robert L. Chennault] came by and said, "I want you to go with me when you have time." I said, "Where Mr. Chennault?" He said, "I have two friends, Victor Massey [ph.], and his friend is building ninety-six units on Anderson Avenue, and I would like for them to meet you." He said, "Two other real estate companies is trying to get, get them, but I just want them to meet you." I said, "Mr. Chennault, now you know I can't go any place during the week, now I gotta stay here and take care of this business." He said, "Let me call 'em and see will they come down on a Saturday to meet you." So Mr. Chennault took me to the Healey Building [Atlanta, Georgia] on a Saturday, and I met these gentlemen, and they told me they would let me know. The next week, they wrote me a letter and asked me to come back to talk to them and I went up there and they told me they were impressed by me and they would like to give me the opportunity of filling up these units for them. I couldn't believe it, so I got them, but I kept the lawn manicured and--$$This was a property management contract?$$Yes.$$Okay.$$And I kept the shrubs trimmed, and you didn't see nothing out there but clean, clean as a pin. Oh, I had--Jasper Williams [Jasper W. Williams, Jr.] was a tenant. He's one of the biggest preachers in this town now. I had Moses Norman [Moses C. Norman, Sr.], he was superintendent of the schools, and I--there was a guy was named L.C. Crow [ph.] and Daphne [ph.]. Now Crow has a big restaurant in East Point [Georgia].$$Okay.$$He was a teacher but he--but all these guys came from Anderson Avenue, and if they got out of hand, or the music was too loud, I would say "Hey, your music was too loud," blah, blah, blah, blah. "Well we didn't know it, Ms. Watkins [HistoryMaker Lottie Watkins], we apologize," but they stayed there until they bought a house.$Let's talk a little bit about your involvement with the Democratic National Committee, the membership committee for that, and then some of your political involvements, and what you've done to help people get elected to office, and some of the presidents and the mayors of Georgia that you've actually had affiliations with.$$Well--$$I see in 1966 [sic.] you were on President Jimmy Carter's [President James Earl "Jimmy" Carter, Jr.] campaign.$$Well, I--when he announced to be the president I was on the invitation. It had two blacks on it; it had me and Andy Young [HistoryMaker Andrew Young]. My name was up at the top so I got involved with his campaign and there was some good blacks, like George Booker worked for the national Democratic Party, and he had been here to help us with [President] Lyndon Baines Johnson when we got the vote out for him. So he would always come to Atlanta [Georgia]. He knew us and Jimmy Carter, I met him when he was the governor, and there was always some women like me. We always joined a party just to have that card, and then there was the Democratic Women's Party [Democratic Women's Party of Georgia; Georgia Federation of Democratic Women], so we joined that and we would go, you know, all over the State of Georgia with them and they were just--turned out to be lovely people. I was shocked to know that they were nice and even Sam Nunn's wife [Colleen O'Brien Nunn] was nice.$$Sam who? Nunn (simultaneous)?$$(Simultaneous) Nunn, he was our senator then.$$Okay.$$She was nice, and whenever there was a big function here I was always on the dais because I held an office in the state Democratic Party.$$Okay.

The Honorable Byron Rushing

Massachusetts state representative Byron Douglas Rushing was born in New York City on July 29, 1942. His father, William Rushing, worked as a janitor in the Washington Heights neighborhood of New York City. His mother, Jamaican native Linda Turpin, migrated to New York City working as a seamstress. The family moved to Syracuse, New York, where Rushing attended Madison Junior High. He was praised for his public speaking, and entered various oratorical contests. He also attended a youth summer camp, under the direction of the Universalist Unitarian Church, which taught world peace and cultural understanding by bringing various racial, ethnic, cultural, and religious groups together. Rushing attended this camp throughout high school.

In 1960, Rushing graduated from Syracuse Central High School. Members of the Quaker church whom he met at his summer youth camp invited him to participate in another youth summer program operated by the American Friends Service Committee. Rushing was able to travel through Eastern and Western Europe. In the fall of 1960, Rushing attended Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts. At the end of his junior year, Rushing decided to postpone his studies and fully dedicate his efforts to the Civil Rights Movement. He returned to Syracuse to work with the local chapter of CORE [Congress of Racial Equality] tackling issues of employment integration and police brutality.

Rushing moved to Boston, Massachusetts, in 1964 to work for the Northern Student Movement. He operated programs of youth tutoring, and voter education and registration. During this time, Rushing volunteered for various programs involving the Episcopalian church, his religious faith. He was hired by St. John's Church to set up a community information center. The Massachusetts Council for Churches then hired Rushing to establish a community organizing project called Roxbury Associates. It was at Roxbury Associates that Rushing met his first wife, Andrea Benton.

From 1967 to 1969, Rushing worked as an orderly at Rochester General Hospital. In 1969, Rushing returned to Boston as the Director of the Urban Change program for the Urban League. Between 1972 and 1985, he worked as president of the Museum of Afro-American History. As president, he helped raise money for the purchase and restoration of what was cited as the oldest African American church building in the United States, the African Meeting House.

In 1982, Rushing was elected as a representative of the Massachusetts House of Representatives. He was the chief sponsor of the law to end discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation in public schools, and an original sponsor of the gay rights bill in Massachusetts. Rushing also led the Massachusetts state pension fund to launch community development investment of poor communities of Massachusetts. Rushing is an elected deputy to the General Convention of The Episcopal Church; a founding member of the Episcopal Urban Caucus; and serves on the boards of the Episcopal Women's Caucus and the Episcopal Network for Economic Justice.

Accession Number

A2006.013

Sex

Male

Interview Date

2/8/2006

Last Name

Rushing

Schools

Syracuse Central High School

Madison Junior High School

Harvard University

P.S. 2 Morrisania School

Washington Irving Elementary School

First Name

Byron

Birth City, State, Country

New York

HM ID

RUS07

Favorite Season

Fall

State

New York

Favorite Vacation Destination

Caribbean

Favorite Quote

Men May Not Get Everything They Pay For, But They Must Certainly Pay For Everything They Get.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Massachusetts

Birth Date

7/29/1942

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Boston

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Pork

Short Description

Museum director and state representative The Honorable Byron Rushing (1942 - ) has sponsored civil rights and community development legislation in Massachusetts since his election in 1982. Between 1972 and 1985, he worked as president of the Museum of Afro-American History.

Employment

Massachusetts House of Representatives

Museum of Afro-American History/Museum of African American History

Congress of Racial Equality

Northern Student Movement

St. John's Episcopal Church

Massachusetts Council of Churches

Center for Inner City Change

Rochester General Hospital

Favorite Color

Red

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of the Honorable Byron Rushing's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - The Honorable Byron Rushing lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - The Honorable Byron Rushing describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - The Honorable Byron Rushing lists his siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - The Honorable Byron Rushing describes his mother

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - The Honorable Byron Rushing describes her parents' professions

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - The Honorable Byron Rushing describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - The Honorable Byron Rushing recalls his parents' reunion

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - The Honorable Byron Rushing describes the neighborhood of Morrisania in the Bronx, New York

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - The Honorable Bryon Rushing recalls places his mother took him as a child

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - The Honorable Bryon Rushing remembers P.S. 2 Morrisania in the Bronx

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - The Honorable Bryon Rushing describes his baptism in the Presbyterian church

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - The Honorable Bryon Rushing describes his schools in Syracuse, New York

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - The Honorable Bryon Rushing recalls teachers and friends who influenced him

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - The Honorable Bryon Rushing describes his neighborhood in Syracuse, New York

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - The Honorable Bryon Rushing recalls how his mother faced employment discrimination

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - The Honorable Bryon Rushing recalls his experiences at Syracuse Central High School

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - The Honorable Bryon Rushing recalls his parents' NAACP involvement

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - The Honorable Byron Rushing describes his involvement with the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - The Honorable Byron Rushing recalls meeting Ralph Abernathy and Eleanor Roosevelt

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - The Honorable Byron Rushing recalls his trip to Europe with the American Friends Service Committee

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - The Honorable Byron Rushing recalls his decision to attend Harvard University

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - The Honorable Byron Rushing recalls how he became involved with CORE

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - The Honorable Byron Rushing describes his work with CORE in Syracuse

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - The Honorable Byron Rushing recalls CORE's demonstration against urban renewal

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - The Honorable Byron Rushing explains his work with CORE and the Northern Student Movement

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - The Honorable Byron Rushing describes his role at the Northern Student Movement

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - The Honorable Byron Rushing describes the Community Voter Registration Project

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - The Honorable Byron Rushing describes Blue Hill Avenue's African American community

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - The Honorable Byron Rushing describes his work in Episcopal organizations

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - The Honorable Byron Rushing describes the Lower Roxbury Community Corporation

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - The Honorable Byron Rushing explains how he came to work for the Center for Inner City Change

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - The Honorable Byron Rushing recalls working with Melvin King and Hubie Jones

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - The Honorable Byron Rushing describes the Museum of Afro-American History

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - The Honorable Byron Rushing describes the accomplishments of the Museum of Afro-American History

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - The Honorable Byron Rushing recalls the archeological investigation of the African Meeting House

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - The Honorable Byron Rushing describes the Boston African American National Historic Site

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - The Honorable Byron Rushing reflects upon his achievements at the Museum of Afro-American History

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - The Honorable Byron Rushing explains his role at the Roxbury Historical Society

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - The Honorable Byron Rushing recalls running for the Massachusetts House of Representatives

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - The Honorable Byron Rushing describes Boston's Ninth Suffolk District

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - The Honorable Byron Rushing describes his roles in the Massachusetts House of Representatives

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - The Honorable Byron Rushing describes his legislative work against the apartheid

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - The Honorable Byron Rushing recalls creating Massachusetts' Burma Law

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - The Honorable Byron Rushing recalls his work for marriage equality in Massachusetts

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - The Honorable Byron Rushing describes his work to alleviate homelessness

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - The Honorable Byron Rushing describes his family life

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - The Honorable Byron Rushing recalls how Malcolm X changed his religious views

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - The Honorable Byron Rushing reflects upon his life

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - The Honorable Byron Rushing describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - The Honorable Byron Rushing gives advice to young African Americans

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - The Honorable Byron Rushing describes how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - The Honorable Byron Rushing narrates his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$6

DAStory

7$4

DATitle
The Honorable Byron Rushing recalls CORE's demonstration against urban renewal
The Honorable Byron Rushing describes his work to alleviate homelessness
Transcript
(Laughter) So, so we go out to find a place where they're tearing down some buildings. The only building--they're, they're not tearing down any houses on that particular day. They're tearing down a gasoline station. So we go to the gasoline station and, and we walk onto the site and we--and, and the workers just go berserk, right. They start yelling at us and start throwing things at us, and we tell 'em we have to close the whole thing down. We're, of course, nonviolent, and the police come. The police call up the urban renewal authority. The, the, the director and two or three other people of, of, of the urban renewal authority are in Washington [D.C.] because they went to the March on Washington (laughter) and so no one can get--so they--so the whole--so they tell the workers to go home and we have our big success. We close down (laughter)--and so we get all of this publicity and we have a big meeting inside CORE [Congress of Racial Equality]. There, there were a lot of people in the chapter who were mad at us. They think we didn't go about it in the right way. We didn't have enough discussion about doing this demonstration. And now we're sort of stuck 'cause we're now in the--we made the chapter be anti-urban renewal, right, and how are we gonna do all of this with just a bunch of volunteers? And when the school starts, they won't have the volunteers, right 'cause everybody will be in school. And they say--they, they turn to me and they say, "Why don't you stay instead of going down to Louisiana? Why don't you stay here, right, and you spend your year here working for us? And also, you have this big advantage, is that you won't be an outside agitator which was a big thing then, right, always accusing all the civil rights groups of being outside agitators. You're from Syracuse [New York]." So, I said okay and I spent a year working, running the chapter in Syracuse.$$Right. I see.$$I was their twenty-five dollars a week staff person.$$For the record, we should indicate what CORE stands for.$$CORE is the Congress of Racial Equality (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Right.$$--which is an early civil rights organization--$$Back in the '40s [1940s].$$--I mean, which began in the '40s [1940s]--$$Yeah, yeah.$$--in the North based on Gandhian [Mahatma Gandhi] principles. And, and actually the word congress, they took because that's the word that Gandhi used for his political organization [Indian National Congress] was--in India was the--was a--was the congress. And that--and so--and this was the Congress of Racial Equal- Equality.$Now, on a--on a day to day basis, I have to spend a lot of time with the issues that relate directly to my constituency [from the 9th Suffolk District]. Now, sometimes those issues are very interesting issues and sometime--you know, and sometimes they're--and, and apply to other people and sometimes those issues just apply to the South End [Boston, Massachusetts] and, and, and everybody else would glaze over as I talk about the fact that we have flooding problems or that a good deal of the South End is built on filled in land and we're--and we're having problems with foundations of buildings and who should be responsible for that, but I get involved in that a lot. But on the other hand, as I said earlier, I'm very concerned that we have as good housing for poor and working class people as possible in, in, in our community. Now, I want that housing, a lot of that housing, to be in my district. But when I work for improving housing for poor and working class people, when I work for a, a housing trust fund set up by the state so there'll be money available for developing that kind of housing, I, of course, not just doing work for my own constituents, I'm doing work for that whole class of people throughout the state that need--that needs that. That has drawn me, though into what I consider one of the real disgraces of the United States and the--and cities in the United States, and that is homelessness. I mean, you and I can remember when there was no such word as homeless. We could--you can--I can remember when almost everybody had some place to live. We--our--we complained about the, the conditions with which we lived in but we usually didn't complain that they didn't have a roof at all, and that is something that has only happened in the past twenty years. And we don't--and we seem to be just--buy into it, taking it for granted, assuming it's gonna be with us forever, so we set the--we--so the issue becomes, we set up shelters and we try to make sure we have enough beds available for everyone who wants to come in off the street, right, but we're not saying, no. There was a time when this didn't exist and it doesn't need to exist now. So I've been spending a lot of time trying to reframe the question around homelessness and to move it from how to we take care of people who--in shelters and how do we have decent family shelters, get 'em out of--out of hotels and motels and into some kind of shelter where they can get some services when, when, when--but to move it away from that conversation which is an important conversation to the conversation of how do we end homelessness? How do we supply enough housing so that nobody has to be homeless, right? And I find that there are not a lot of people thinking that way. And so I've been working with people here and in other parts, in other states in the country, Wisconsin, Minnesota, who are coming up with working plans, really business plans on how to end homelessness. So I have legislation to establish a commission to come up with a working plan to end homelessness in Massachusetts, a plan that has benchmarks like any business plan, had--will know how much it would cost to do this, how long it would take, spending this amount of money to have this accomplished, and that's one of the things that I've been spending a lot of time on--$$Okay.$$--most recently.$$I'm gonna follow that initiative. I wanna watch it.$$That's good.

The Honorable Melvin King

Across the landscape of neighborhoods and politics of Boston, Massachusetts, Melvin H. King is a household name. Simultaneously, for over fifty-five years, he has been an educator, youth worker, social activist, community organizer and developer, elected politician, author, and an adjunct professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). He is responsible for creating community programs and institutions that have positively changed the lives of low-income, grassroots people across the city of Boston. He is the founder and current director of the South End Technology Center.

King’s mother, Ursula, was born in Guyana, and his father, Watts King, in Barbados. They met and married in Nova Scotia and immigrated to Boston in the early 1920s. King, born in 1928 in Boston’s South End neighborhood, was one of eight children born to the Kings between 1918 and 1938. He graduated from Boston Technical High School in 1946 and from Claflin University in Orangeburg, South Carolina in 1950 with his B.S. degree in mathematics. In 1951, he received his M.A. degree in education from Teacher's College of the City of Boston and then taught math, first at Boston Trade High School and at his alma mater, Boston Technical High School.

In 1953, King left the classroom to work with at risk youth, becoming Director of Boy’s Work at Lincoln House, a settlement house in Boston’s South End community. He continued his community work focusing on street corner gangs as Youth Director at United South End Settlements (USES). He also worked as a community activist and urban renewal and anti-poverty organizer. He was let go by USES when he promoted and supported neighborhood control versus USES and government control over the urban renewal and federal funds to assist poor people. King was then rehired after protests from the community over his firing and was given the job as a community organizer. King, then founded the Community Assembly for a United South End (C.A.U.S.E.), to give tenants and community residents a voice in their communities.

In 1967, King moved to the directorship of the New Urban League of Greater Boston. He brought job training for the unemployed and organized the community around public school, employment, and human services delivery issues.

King ran three times for a seat on the Boston School Committee in 1961, 1963 and 1965, being unsuccessful each time. However, his citywide political organizing for these campaigns paid off. In 1973, he was elected as a state representative for the 9th Suffolk District and served in the Massachusetts Legislature until 1982.

In 1983, King ran for mayor of Boston and nearly beat the incumbent, Raymond Flynn. Out of this historic campaign, King established a Rainbow Coalition Party, a first for Boston and a model for the Rainbow Coalition Party created by Rev. Jesse Jackson.

In 1981, King’s book, Chain of Change: Struggles for Black Community Development, was published by South End Press. It focused on development in housing, education, employment and politics in Boston from the 1950s through the 1970s.

In 1970, King created the Community Fellows Program (CFP) in the Department of Urban Studies and Planning at MIT. He served as an adjunct professor of Urban Studies and Planning and director of the Community Fellows Program for twenty-five years until 1996. CFP, a nine-month long program, brought community organizers and leaders from across America to reflect, research and study urban community politics, economics, social life, education, housing and media.

Upon his retirement from MIT, King established the South End Technology Center to provide computer training for low-income people.

In 2003, King created The New Majority, an organization and program uniting Boston’s communities of color around candidates for elective office.

In addition to writing Chain of Change and journal articles, King has used poetry to share his messages.

King and his wife, Joyce, married in 1951, are parents of six children.

Accession Number

A2005.257

Sex

Male

Interview Date

12/8/2005 |and| 2/6/2006

Last Name

King

Maker Category
Schools

Boston Technical High School

Boston State College

Claflin University

First Name

Melvin

Birth City, State, Country

Boston

HM ID

KIN09

Favorite Season

None

State

Massachusetts

Favorite Vacation Destination

None

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Massachusetts

Birth Date

10/20/1928

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Boston

Country

United States

Favorite Food

None

Short Description

Community activist and state representative The Honorable Melvin King (1928 - ) has been active in the Boston community for over fifty years. He has served as a Massachusetts state representative, conducted a historic run for mayor of Boston, created the Community Fellows Program (CFP) in the Department of Urban Studies and Planning at MIT, and founded several community organizations in Boston, including the South End Technology Center and The New Majority.

Employment

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Massachusetts State Legislature

Lincoln House

Favorite Color

None

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of The Honorable Melvin King's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - The Honorable Melvin King describes his mother

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - The Honorable Melvin King describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - The Honorable Melvin King talks about his mother's life in Canada

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - The Honorable Melvin King describes his mother's religious involvement

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - The Honorable Melvin King remembers helping with the housework

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - The Honorable Melvin King recalls his mother's nickname

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - The Honorable Melvin King describes his father

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - The Honorable Melvin King describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - The Honorable Melvin King describes his father's work in Canada

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - The Honorable Melvin King describes his parents' return to Barbados

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - The Honorable Melvin King remembers a family reunion in Barbados

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - The Honorable Melvin King describes his parents' move to Boston, Massachusetts

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - The Honorable Melvin King describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - The Honorable Melvin King describes his community in Boston's South End

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - The Honorable Melvin King talks about his father's career and union activity

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - The Honorable Melvin King lists his siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - The Honorable Melvin King describes his family's traditions

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - The Honorable Melvin King remembers his mother's cooking

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - The Honorable Melvin King remembers the foods of Boston's South End

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - The Honorable Melvin King talks about corporal punishment in schools

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - The Honorable Melvin King recalls his elementary school experiences

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - The Honorable Melvin King recalls the Quincy School in Boston, Massachusetts

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - The Honorable Melvin King describes Boston Technical High School in Massachusetts

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - The Honorable Melvin King recalls his experiences of discrimination at Boston Technical High School

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - The Honorable Melvin King recalls his decision to attend Claflin University in Orangeburg, South Carolina

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - The Honorable Melvin King describes his arrival at Claflin University

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - The Honorable Melvin King recalls his disappointment with Claflin University

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - The Honorable Melvin King recalls his positive experiences at Claflin University

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - The Honorable Melvin King describes his education at Claflin University

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - The Honorable Melvin King talks about Jackie Robinson's career

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - The Honorable Melvin King describes his summer employment

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - The Honorable Melvin King describes his wife and children

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - The Honorable Melvin King recalls his early community involvement

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - The Honorable Melvin King remembers the Lincoln House in Boston, Massachusetts

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - The Honorable Melvin King describes his work at the Lincoln House, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - The Honorable Melvin King describes his work at Lincoln House, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - The Honorable Melvin King recalls his accomplishments at the Lincoln House

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - The Honorable Melvin King explains his dismissal from the Lincoln House

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - The Honorable Melvin King remembers his return to the Lincoln House

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - The Honorable Melvin King describes the failures of Boston's schools

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - The Honorable Melvin King recalls his campaigns for the Boston School Committee

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - The Honorable Melvin King describes the Community Assembly for a Unified South End

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - The Honorable Melvin King recalls becoming a youth worker

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - The Honorable Melvin King describes the changes in youth culture

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - The Honorable Melvin King describes his approach to youth work

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - The Honorable Melvin King recalls the urban renewal of Boston, Massachusetts

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - The Honorable Melvin King recalls founding the Community Assembly for a Unified South End

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - The Honorable Melvin King recalls forming Tent City in Boston, Massachusetts

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - The Honorable Melvin King talks about Inquilinos Boricuas en Accion

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - The Honorable Melvin King his early political involvement

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - The Honorable Melvin King recalls his first election

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - The Honorable Melvin King recalls running for Boston School Committee

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - The Honorable Melvin King recalls his work with the New Urban League of Greater Boston

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - The Honorable Melvin King recalls his challenges as director of the New Urban League of Greater Boston

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - The Honorable Melvin King describes the programs of the New Urban League of Greater Boston

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - The Honorable Melvin King remembers his criticism of United Way Worldwide

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - The Honorable Melvin King reflects upon his leadership of the Urban League

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - The Honorable Melvin King recalls the need for the Community Fellows Program

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - The Honorable Melvin King remembers founding the Community Fellows Program

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - The Honorable Melvin King describes the Community Fellows Program

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - The Honorable Melvin King reflects upon the Community Fellows Program

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - The Honorable Melvin King recalls his decision to run for Massachusetts state representative

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - The Honorable Melvin King describes his campaign for the Massachusetts state legislature

Tape: 8 Story: 6 - The Honorable Melvin King talks about the Black Legislative Caucus

Tape: 8 Story: 7 - The Honorable Melvin King describes his legislative work

Tape: 9 Story: 1 - The Honorable Melvin King describes his legislative achievements

Tape: 9 Story: 2 - The Honorable Melvin King recalls his mayoral campaign in Boston, Massachusetts

Tape: 9 Story: 3 - The Honorable Melvin King recalls creating the South End Technology Center

Tape: 9 Story: 4 - The Honorable Melvin King considers the uniqueness of the Community Fellows Program

Tape: 9 Story: 5 - The Honorable Melvin King talks about the New Majority Coalition

Tape: 9 Story: 6 - The Honorable Melvin King describes his book, 'Chain of Change,' pt. 1

Tape: 9 Story: 7 - The Honorable Melvin King describes his book, 'Chain of Change,' pt. 2

Tape: 9 Story: 8 - The Honorable Melvin King talks about his love of poetry

Tape: 9 Story: 9 - The Honorable Melvin King talks about his relationship with his wife

Tape: 10 Story: 1 - The Honorable Melvin King reflects upon his life

Tape: 10 Story: 2 - The Honorable Melvin King describes how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 10 Story: 3 - The Honorable Melvin King narrates his photographs

DASession

1$2

DATape

2$8

DAStory

4$1

DATitle
The Honorable Melvin King describes his community in Boston's South End
The Honorable Melvin King remembers founding the Community Fellows Program
Transcript
Tell me a little bit more about the immediate neighborhood around your home on Seneca [Street], Cobb [Street] and/or Seneca, and then the neighborhood just out- outside here in the suburb. How do you remember the neighborhood [South End, Boston, Massachusetts] as a youngster?$$Well, I have to tell you that--and I'm sure others say the same--however, this was the most dynamic neighborhood, street that you'll ever imagine. Life was on this street. And, okay, there were--'cause I have to talk about the neighborhood and the street and the schools at the same time. I lived in a neighborhood where there were thirty-two different racial cultural ethnic groups. In the tenement that I lived in, there was a black family on the first floor, we were on the second floor, there was a Polish family on the third floor, there was, let's see, Mr. Potter [ph.], he was a black person on the next floor, and then there was a Portuguese family or Cape Verdean, although mostly we called them Portuguese. So I lived on a place where there were five, five floors. Next door, my aunt [Wilhelmina King (ph.)] lived, above her Jewish family, above them an Italian family. Next door to them, Greek, Polish, Italian, all right? And it was like that up and down the street across from (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) This was all Seneca?$$This was Seneca Street. Across, Italian, English, a little further down the street Turkish, there was Chinese, you name it, they lived on the--on that street. And there were Armenians and what happened is that a lot of activities took place on this street, and particularly during the spring and summer and fall where then, we had these wind up Victrolas and they would bring one out, set it up on the sidewalk, and there were a couple of guys who danced. And we also--they brought out boxing gloves and we boxed. We played ball in the street, stick ball, all kinds of games in the street. But everything took place right out there. During the--we had--then, there were horses and the horses that were used for delivery, et cetera, well they always dropped their manure on the street. And it was very interesting because my mother [Urcilla Earle King], other folks would go pick it up and use it for fertilizing the plants, flowers they were growing. The older guys would come out with shovels and brooms and buckets of water and they would sweep it up, push it down the sewer because they were gonna play stick ball or squash as they--as they called it or two-hand tag with football. So that didn't matter what time of the year, what the conditions were, if there was snow, they wanted to play, they shoveled the snow, cleaned the street so that they could do all the kinds of things that they wanted. They didn't let weather conditions stop them from the activity of the street. Well, another thing is that I remember where there were these Armenian sisters, twins, and they got married the same day, and their wedding party was in the street, just to look out the window and see the dance, people, et cetera, that's how it was on Seneca Street.$$When we get to talk about your involvement in, in politics and the Rainbow Party [Rainbow Coalition Party] that you started here, you had your rainbow very early in life.$$Oh, it's a--$$Yeah, you had it (simultaneous)--$$--(simultaneous) a major piece of--$$Yeah.$$--growing--of growing up.$Fortunately, you had a seat on an airplane, coming back to Boston [Massachusetts] with the president of MIT [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts] and you were telling--$$Well, I sat down and I had met Mr. Wiesner [Jerome Wiesner] in the past through the efforts with the organizing around the METCO [Metropolitan Council for Educational Opportunity, Boston, Massachusetts] program, et cetera, and his wife [Laya Wainger Wiesner] was very much involved in that. And I had been part of a summer study on--in--on education in which we came up with a systems analysis approach for, for the schools. Sat down next to him, explained to him what the role that I thought MIT should be playing with relationship to the community and how it would be important for folks to be able to come to rest, reflect, research, get revitalized around development of programs, and that he should wanna get that to happen as a role that MIT would be playing. We talked and when we finished and the plane landed, he gave me a couple of names of people to call, said he would call Lloyd Rodwin who was the department head for urban studies and Charlie [ph.], who headed the urban, oh boy, institute. In any event, he called both of them, they both called me, set up meetings. Lloyd put Larry Susskind [Lawrence Susskind] to work on writing a proposal. Prior to that, I had had some contact with the folks at the Rockefeller Foundation [New York, New York] and I'd explained to them why I thought for their leadership issue that this would be--the kind of idea that I had would make some sense. And so re-contacted them, they contacted, and so we got money from them. Plus, they had a contact with another foundation, so between them, we got the money to bring the first group of community fellows into the program [Community Fellows Program; Mel King Community Fellows] at MIT.$$And what year was that?$$Seventy-one [1971], '72 [1972].

The Honorable Shirley Nathan-Pulliam

Shirley Ann Nathan-Pulliam was born on May 20, 1939, in the Parish of Trelawny, Jamaica, West Indies. Her mother was a seamstress and retail store buyer and her father worked as a builder and carpenter. She earned her high school diploma from Mico Practicing School in Kingston, Jamaica in 1956. She fulfilled a childhood dream of becoming a nurse when she attended Bootham Park Hospital School of Nursing in Yorkshire England. While studying in England she met her husband, a United States Army soldier, they married and moved to Baltimore, Maryland, in 1960.

From 1962 until 1966 Nathan-Pulliam worked as a licensed practical nurse or LPN in the obstetrics ward at Baltimore City Hospital. From 1966 until 1967 she worked at Baltimore’s Bansecor Hospital. After earning her GED in 1969 Nathan-Pulliam enrolled in Baltimore City College and in 1975 graduated with an associate of arts degree in nursing. While a student at BCC, she created the nurses alumni association and became its first president. In 1980 Nathan-Pulliam earned her bachelor’s of science degree in nursing from the University of Maryland. In 1987 she received her master’s in administrative science from Johns Hopkins University. From 1975 until 1987 Nathan-Pulliam worked at Lutheran Hospital, later known as Liberty Medical Center.

In 1986, she unsuccessfully ran for the Maryland House of Delegates. Then, in 1994, Nathan-Pulliam was elected to represent Baltimore’s tenth district, becoming the first Caribbean-born and first African American registered nurse elected to the Maryland General Assembly. Nathan-Pulliam has sponsored and championed numerous healthcare legislation bills. Her first year in office she successfully secured 2.6 million dollars for breast cancer diagnosis and treatment for low-income women.

Nathan-Pulliam is currently CEO of a healthcare education consulting firm and serves as executive director of an adult daycare facility. She has been the recipient of many honors and awards for her civic and healthcare leadership.

Accession Number

A2004.174

Sex

Female

Interview Date

9/22/2004

Last Name

Nathan-Pulliam

Marital Status

Divorced

Schools

Mico Practicing School

Baltimore City Community College

First Name

Shirley

HM ID

NAT01

Favorite Season

Spring

Favorite Vacation Destination

Jamaica

Favorite Quote

Can't is not in my vocabulary.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Maryland

Birth Date

5/20/1939

Speakers Bureau Region City

Baltimore

Country

Jamaica

Favorite Food

Jamaican Food, Plantains (Fried)

Short Description

Registered nurse and state representative The Honorable Shirley Nathan-Pulliam (1939 - ) worked as a registered nurse since 1962, and was the first Carribean-born person and first registered nurse elected to Maryland General Assembly, where she sponsored and championed numerous healthcare legislation bills.

Employment

Obstetrics Ward - Baltimore City Hospital

Bansecor Hospital

Liberty Medical Center

Maryland General Assembly

Healthcare Education Consulting Firm

Extended Family Adult Day Care, Inc.

Favorite Color

Fuchsia, Purple

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Shirley Nathan-Pulliam interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Shirley Nathan-Pulliam's favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Shirley Nathan-Pulliam talks about her mother's background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Shirley Nathan-Pulliam discusses her father's background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Shirley Nathan-Pulliam details her earliest childhood memories and the discovery of an older brother

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Shirley Nathan-Pulliam recalls the sights, sounds and smells of her childhood in Jamaica

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Shirley Nathan-Pulliam talks about her grandparents and plantation life in Jamaica

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Shirley Nathan-Pulliam details her family structure after her parents' separation

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Shirley Nathan-Pulliam talks about her experiences battling rheumatic fever as a child

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Shirley Nathan-Pulliam details her religious upbringing

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Shirley Nathan-Pulliam discusses her dyslexia and migrane problems in her youth

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Shirley Nathan-Pulliam recalls the dreams and aspirations from her childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Shirley Nathan-Pulliam talks about her high school experiences

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Shirley Nathan-Pulliam remembers her nursing school experiences in England and meeting her husband

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Shirley Nathan-Pulliam details her move from England to Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Shirley Nathan-Pulliam describes race relations in Baltimore in the 1960s

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Shirley Nathan-Pulliam recalls meeting her husband's parents

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Shirley Nathan-Pulliam discusses her career aspirations and her experiences in college

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Shirley Nathan-Pulliam details her career at Lutheran Hospital of Baltimore

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Shirley Nathan-Pulliam describes her run for the Maryland House of Delegates in 1986

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Shirley Nathan-Pulliam describes her company Nathan's Network

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Shirley Nathan-Pulliam talks about her foray into politics and her trip to Europe, Part 1

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Shirley Nathan-Pulliam talks about her foray into politics and her trip to Europe, Part 2

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Shirley Nathan-Pulliam recalls her first campaign win for the Maryland's General Assembly

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Shirley Nathan-Pulliam talks about her accomplishments in the Maryland General Assembly

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Shirley Nathan-Pulliam discusses the unique qualities she brings to the Maryland House of Delegates

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Shirley Nathan-Pulliam comments on the changes in political leadership in Maryland

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Shirley Nathan-Pulliam talks about the Caribbean population in the Baltimore area

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Shirley Nathan-Pulliam discusses her battles for the rights of immigrants in the state of Maryland

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Shirley Nathan-Pulliam comments on the changes she's seen on her return visits to Jamaica

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Shirley Nathan-Pulliam talks about her hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Shirley Nathan-Pulliam comments on her legacy and how she would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$4

DAStory

1$3

DATitle
Shirley Nathan-Pulliam recalls her first campaign win for the Maryland's General Assembly
Shirley Nathan-Pulliam discusses the unique qualities she brings to the Maryland House of Delegates
Transcript
You were thinking, okay, I'm gonna run for this seat. And what was it that finally--well, and you had, you know--.$$Well, 1993 I decided. It was 1993.$$1993. And you had raised money. So tell us a little bit about what that campaign was like and what was different about than in 1986?$$Well, I'll say what was different about it was that there was, it was a new, brand new district and there were no incumbents. And remember Senator [Delores] Kelley that I mentioned to you, she was then delegate and she moved from Baltimore City [Maryland] into Baltimore County to run as the senator because this--the district had been redistrict. And so I then somehow in our conversation asked or whether she allowed me to be on her ticket. And, and so there were two other people on the ticket. So it's three delegates and one, and one senator. And so we formed a ticket. We each ran our own individual campaign and then we came together before the election and kind of pool our monies and pool her for her brochures and for our mailing and for all the different things that we needed to do. And we campaigned together knocking on doors and doing the different things, yes, and have lawn signs and, you know, the whole works.$$And did you run unopposed?$$Oh, no. There were about twenty-one other folks who ran, too. A lot of folks ran. But the more the merrier because then they dilute the vote and the ones who are the front, you know--. And, and it was, you know, getting out and talking to the people. And, and, and people trust nurses so it, it's kind of help--my theme was "the nurse for your political health." And so, you know, and I gave Band-Aids and all kinds of little stuff out with my names, name on it. I did, you know--and so it was, it was a, it was a good--that night we were victorious in, in November of 1994.$$And so tell us about what it was like for you when you first arrived at the State House [of Delegates] in Annapolis [Maryland].$$Oh, well, before I, I came, Senator Kelley brought me down 'cause, of course, she was a [State] Senate-elect at that point and she was a delegate. So she, she brought me down. It was after the election and after the primary, I think, after I won the primary election. And we still had the general, but I knew that once I'd won the primary I could have, I would won the general because it was a predominantly Democratic district. And so she brought me down here for something, and, and I had to come under the, under the tunnel--not under the tunnel, under the--we have a--the, the garage is underground. And so as she pulled into the underground garage and she said, "This is where we park," you know, that you will be able to park, you know, when she, when she'll be on the Senate side but she still had a place in the House. And when as I drove in her car into the, into the House, that's when it dawn on me, hey, you're gonna be a delegate. You're gonna actually represent the people of your district. And so the rest was history, of course. And come November I won. And then, believe it or not, my office there, that suite where my office was Sauerbrey--she ran for, she had run for governor, Ellen Sauerbrey. She had occupied that office. And the office that I have now Bob [Robert] Ehrlich, who is now the governor of the state of the Maryland, that was his delegate office, and he had just won the seat to [U.S.] Congress.$$So what does that mean?$$So when I came in (laughs), when I came in, I had to--I couldn't move my things in because Bob Ehrlich had all his things still in the office. So he had to come and clean his office out. That was, that was when I first time I met him when he came to clean his stuff out the office. And, and then I was able to get the office cleaned up and have them painted it and start bringing my stuff in, you know. So I was all excited. So I--by Christmas I had all my stuff in so that by time January came I was ready to sworn in.$$And what was the reaction of your children?$$Oh, my, my children were, were, were very supportive and very excited about, about it, you know. Many times they feel I don't give enough time to them, that if I did, if I just quit and stop doing the stuff, I'll have more, they'll have more time. But now they're all grown up so it really don't make a whole lot of difference now.$As a nurse what perspective do you think you bring to the [Maryland] General Assembly?$$Oh, let--as a nurse and as the first--well, back up. Beside being the first African American nurse ever to be elected to this body, there are five nurses in the, in the [Maryland] House [of Delegates], but I'm the first African American and the first Caribbean-born and, and more specifically, Jamaican, first Caribbean-born ever to be elected in the 360-year history of this General Assembly. And so for those, for, for that reason I found, I thought I had a responsibility as a member of the Maryland, of the Legislative Black Caucus of Maryland and as a nurse and, and, and a woman at that time still represented a large African American population, although I do have Caucasians and I do have a mixture of other folks--I don't lose sight of their health care and their needs, but I wanted to make sure that we look at this issue. And my grandfather always said it was important to be at the table. And then I just realized what he really meant about being at the table, okay. Because I know for a fact that if I wasn't at that table sitting in the Health and Government Operations and I served on the Environmental Matters Committee before, if I wasn't there, many of the issues that I'm talking to you about would never discussed--from HIV, AIDS to hepatitis C to, to substance abuse. You name the issues that I've brought before. And anytime that I thought that racism played a part and we were not getting our point out, I made sure I spoke loud enough and clear enough that I was understood. And if I had to get up on the floor of the House and fight for those issues, whether it was immigrant issues because I'm an immigrant, so I'm very touchy about issues that, that impact on immigrants as well. Because I, I, I know the history of America and I know in fact that this country is a country of immigrants. And so for which, regardless of what, which, which of those issues that comes before me, I fight. And don't take on a bill unless I feel that I can put every bit of my energy into getting it to, to passage. And the Children Health Initiative is another thing that I've been proud of. I wasn't the lead sponsor but I was one of the sponsor. I serve on the committee drafted and crafted that that provided health care to over a hundred thousand children in the state of Maryland.$$Poor children who couldn't afford--.$$(Simultaneously) Poor children that, that came in a little bit above within that poverty level. If they were low enough that they're on medical assistance, then they would have coverage. But those who fell within that gray area of poverty up to 200 percent of federal poverty would be able to get--200 and 250 percent of federal poverty.

The Honorable Tyrone Brooks

Georgia State Representative Tyrone Brooks was born October 10, 1945, in Warrenton, Georgia. Brooks attended public school in Warrenton, and later went to high school in Keysville, Georgia.

Brooks became active in the Southern Christian Leadership Conference at the age of fifteen as a volunteer, and by 1967 he was a full-time employee. While there he met such influential leaders as Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.; Joseph Lowery; and the Reverend Ralph David Abernathy. Brooks served in both local and national positions with the SCLC. He was arrested in 1976 in Washington, D.C., while protesting outside the South African Embassy. All told, he has been arrested more than sixty-five times for his civil rights activism. In 1980, Brooks was elected to the Georgia House of Representatives, where he continues to serve. He is active on a number of committees, and led the push to remove Confederate symbols from the Georgia state flag.

Brooks is also president of the Georgia Association of Black Elected Officials, and is a member of the Georgia Legislative Black Caucus. He is still highly involved in the civil rights movement, working to eradicate racism, sexism, illiteracy and injustice.

Brooks received his first honorary degree from the John Marshall School of Law in 2001 as a result of his successful campaigning to change the state flag. He has also been awarded with a Public Servant Award from the Atlanta City Council, been inducted into the NAACP Hall of Fame, and named one of the 50 Most Influential Men in Georgia by the Georgia Coalition of Black Women. Brooks and his wife, Mary, live in Atlanta.

Accession Number

A2003.099

Sex

Male

Archival Photo 1
Interview Date

5/6/2003

Last Name

Brooks

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Schools

University of Chicago

Speakers Bureau

Yes

Archival Photo 2
Speakers Bureau Availability

Weekends

First Name

Tyrone

Birth City, State, Country

Warrenton

HM ID

BRO11

Speakers Bureau Preferred Audience

Human Rights, Politics, Criminal Justice

Speakers Bureau Honorarium

Yes - $5,000 - $10,000

Favorite Season

Winter

Speaker Bureau Notes

Preferred Audience: Human Rights, Politics, Criminal Justice

State

Georgia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Africa

Favorite Quote

Unity in the Black community is our salivation

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Birth Date

10/10/1945

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Atlanta

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Soul Food

Short Description

State representative The Honorable Tyrone Brooks (1945 - ) is a member of the Georgia House of Representatives, and led the push to remove Confederate symbols from the Georgia state flag.

Employment

Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)

George House of Representatives

Favorite Color

Black

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Tyrone Brooks interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Tyrone Brooks lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Tyrone Brooks details his family origins in Georgia

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Tyrone Brooks recalls his grandmother and the privilege her biracial status granted him

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Tyrone Brooks discusses his grandmother's white father

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Tyrone Brooks describes his parents

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Tyrone Brooks recounts how his parents met

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Tyrone Brooks lists his siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Tyrone Brooks shares childhood memories

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Tyrone Brooks remembers segregation

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Tyrone Brooks recounts instances of racial violence in Warrenton, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Tyrone Brooks recalls the media's influence on the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Tyrone Brooks describes his elementary school years and teachers

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Tyrone Brooks discusses the importance of disciplining children

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Tyrone Brooks remembers high school athletics

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Tyrone Brooks recounts his early involvement in the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Tyrone Brooks details his recruitment into the SCLC

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Tyrone Brooks remembers meeting Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Tyrone Brooks recalls his work with the SCLC

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Tyrone Brooks describes his preparatory school

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Tyrone Brooks recounts his time in Washington, D.C. with Reverend Walter Fauntroy

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Tyrone Brooks remembers averting a crisis with the SCLC

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Tyrone Brooks recalls attending a speech by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Tyrone Brooks describes a monument to a murdered civil rights worker, Viola Liuzzo

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Tyrone Brooks details training and recruitment in the SCLC

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Tyrone Brooks discusses staying nonviolent in the face of violence

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Tyrone Brooks recalls a frightening incident during his activist years

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Tyrone Brooks recounts a life-threatening incident during his SCLC tenure

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Tyrone Brooks details the aftermath of his confrontation with the sheriff

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Tyrone Brooks recounts his unjust imprisonment for his civil rights activism

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Tyrone Brooks recalls how Sheriff Odom begged his forgiveness

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Tyrone Brooks reflects on the impact of nonviolent resistance on the U.S.

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Tyrone Brooks remembers his last meeting with Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Tyrone Brooks describes the Poor People's Campaign

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Tyrone Brooks recalls being jailed during Resurrection City

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Tyrone Brooks details his work with Ralph Abernathy and Hosea Williams

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Tyrone Brooks recounts SCLC's efforts to end apartheid

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Tyrone Brooks conveys the changes following the election of Jimmy Carter

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Tyrone Brooks describes Jimmy Carter and his works

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Tyrone Brooks discusses nominating Dr. Joseph Lowery for a Nobel Peace Prize

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Tyrone Brooks reflects on Jimmy Carter's mistakes

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Tyrone Brooks recalls Ralph Abernathy and Hosea Williams endorsing Ronald Reagan

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Tyrone Brooks explains why he ran for a seat in the Georgia state legislature

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Tyrone Brooks shares his first challenge as a state representative

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Tyrone Brooks details the fight over reapportionment of black districts

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Tyrone Brooks describes his efforts to curb racial violence in Georgia

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Tyrone Brooks recounts the struggle to create a Martin Luther King holiday

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Tyrone Brooks discusses his work and legislation on welfare reform

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Tyrone Brooks explains why he wanted to change the Georgia state flag

Tape: 7 Story: 9 - Tyrone Brooks remembers how he fought to change the Georgia state flag

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Tyrone Brooks details his struggle to change the Georgia state flag

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Tyrone Brooks explains Denmark Groover's role in changing the Georgia state flag

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Tyrone Brooks recounts the referendum to ratify the new flag

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - Tyrone Brooks discusses his concerns for the black community

Tape: 9 Story: 1 - Tyrone Brooks ponders his legacy

Tape: 9 Story: 2 - Photo - Tyrone Brooks with Rev. Jesse Jackson, Atlanta, Georgia, ca. 2000

Tape: 9 Story: 3 - Photo - Tyrone Brooks, ca. 1951

Tape: 9 Story: 4 - Photo - Hosea Williams at the Georgia State Capitol, Atlanta, Georgia, January 14, 2000

Tape: 9 Story: 5 - Photo - Tyrone Brooks at the podium at the Georgia State Capitol, Atlanta, Georgia, ca. 1993

Tape: 9 Story: 6 - Photo - Tyrone Brooks on the Jesse Jackson campaign for U.S. President, Atlanta, Georgia, 1984

Tape: 9 Story: 7 - Photo - Tyrone Brooks, John Conyers, and an unidentified man, Washington, D.C., ca. 1985

Tape: 9 Story: 8 - Photo - Tyrone Brooks with others, Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 9 Story: 9 - Photo - Tyrone Brooks with Rommie Loudd, Orlando, Florida, 1978

Tape: 9 Story: 10 - Photo - Tyrone Brooks and others at SCLC headquarters, Atlanta, Georgia, ca. 1970-1980

Tape: 9 Story: 11 - Photo - Tyrone Brooks with Rev. Hosea Williams, Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 9 Story: 12 - Photo - Tyrone Brooks and others giving a press conference in front of the Atlanta City Hall, Atlanta, Georgia, 1981

Tape: 9 Story: 13 - Photo - Tyrone Brooks being presented an award by Dr. Joseph Lowery at an SCLC function, Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 9 Story: 14 - Photo - Tyrone Brooks with Cynthia McKinney and President Bill Clinton, 1999

Tape: 9 Story: 15 - Photo - Tyrone Brooks with members of Jesse Jackson's Presidential campaign, Atlanta, Georgia, 1984

Tape: 9 Story: 16 - Photo - Tyrone Brooks with Mrs. Juanita Abernathy and Dr. Ralph Abernathy, Atlanta, Georgia, 1989

Tape: 9 Story: 17 - Photo - Tyrone Brooks, Jacksonville, Florida, ca. late 1970s

Tape: 9 Story: 18 - Photo - Tyrone Brooks with his son, Tyrone Brooks, Jr., Atlanta, Georgia, ca. 1980s

Tape: 9 Story: 19 - Photo - Tyrone Brooks at the SCLC headquarters, Atlanta, Georgia, 1980

Tape: 9 Story: 20 - Photo - Tyrone Brooks and others, Keysville, Georgia, ca. 1987-1988

Tape: 9 Story: 21 - Photo - Tyrone Brooks with John Lewis, Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 9 Story: 22 - Photo - Tyrone Brooks, Atlanta, Georgia, January 2001

Tape: 9 Story: 23 - Photo - Tyrone Brooks with Roy and Marie Barnes, Atlanta, Georgia, 2001

Tape: 9 Story: 24 - Photo - Jesse Jackson with Rita Samuels, Atlanta, Georgia, ca. 2001

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$7

DAStory

6$4

DATitle
Tyrone Brooks details the aftermath of his confrontation with the sheriff
Tyrone Brooks details the fight over reapportionment of black districts
Transcript
The media was covering this, of course, and the next day the headlines around the state [Georgia], 'Sheriff Threatens Brooks.' 'Sheriff Threatens to Kill Civil Rights Worker.' And that generated so much anger in the black community and on these campuses that the next night, Dr. [Ralph] Abernathy came, Hosea Williams came, students from the University of Georgia [Athens, Georgia], students from Emory at Oxford [College of Emory University, Oxford, Georgia]. They have a campus down there right out of Covington in Newton County. Oxford. Students from Paine College in Augusta [Georgia], Fort Valley College [now Fort Valley State University, Fort Valley Georgia], Clark Atlanta University, Morehouse [College, Atlanta, Georgia], Spelman [College, Atlanta, Georgia], Morris Brown [College, Atlanta, Georgia], Georgia Tech [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta]. It just seemed like all these campuses, these students just like, "We're coming." The next night, we probably had three or four thousand people, the next night cause the media blew it up. The next day it was, it was the talk of Georgia, man. I mean it was everywhere, headlines and tv coverage. So the next night when Hosea and Dr. Abernathy showed up, we had a meeting prior to the march. And since, you know, they were my superiors, they were my bosses, I assumed that they wanted to lead it. And Dr. Abernathy said, "Well, no, no, no." He said, "You're in charge. You're on the scene. We're here to back you up." And he said, "We--you lead--you're going to lead the march tonight." And I said, "Okay." So we--they said, "We're gonna be right behind you. And we're gonna show the sheriff [Junior Odom] that if he bothers you, he's gonna have to deal with us. And if he bothers us, there's gonna be some more people behind us." And so anyway, that was the point they were trying to make. So we gathered at our church, same church. We marched uptown to the little square in downtown Covington. We had our rally in the park. I had Hosea and Dr. Abernathy to speak, and then we marched out of the park. And we went over to the jailhouse, looking for the sheriff. Couldn't find him. Then we marched to his house where he lives; couldn't find him. We marched all over town, singing, "Ain't gon' let Junior Odom turn us around, ain't gon' let Sheriff Odom turn us around". And we couldn't find him. He didn't show up that night. So we go back to the church, have a big victory rally, and the Movement continues on. So about a week later, I'm leading this march and the sheriff pulls up in his car beside me and he got his, couple of deputies with him. He jumps out, and he says, "Well, you're under arrest." It was not uncommon to go to jail all the time in the Movement. "You're under arrest." "For what?" "Inciting a riot, marching without a permit." I said, "Well, the United States Constitution is our permit, and where did you get the, the accusation that I'm inciting a riot?" "Well, we've heard a lot of speeches and maybe you didn't say it, but somebody, somebody said something about some violence is gonna happen if we don't do this or that." Well, he arrest me. He put me in jail. The next day Hosea sends Robert Johnson down. And Robert Johnson leads another march. He's arrested. The next day Hosea sends Lloyd Jackson down. Lloyd leads a march. He's arrested. And the next day, we have Forrest Sawyer, one of the local leaders. He leads a march. He's arrested. Then the next day Joe Lightfoot. It just kept going on. And every night, they would arrest a leader, always get one leader. That's what the sheriff would do. He thought this was going break the Movement. What it did was, it gave the Movement energy 'cause every time they would put one of us in jail, it would seem like a hundred more people would come out and it would just get bigger and bigger and big--and the crowd just grew. And so we were in the jail, awaiting trial on these little Civil Rights trumped-up charges. Now, we're in jail. We could see out of the windows. You could actually open the windows up. They had these bars on the windows, but you could open the glass part and look out. The, the marchers would come to the jail every night to protest our arrest. But the boycott of the businesses intensified. It just got bigger and stronger. Black folks were not spending their money in the county or the city. They would drive to Conyers and Monroe and Social Circle, Monticello, Atlanta, Decatur, Conyers, wherever. They would not spend money there. So the local economy was hurt.$Then 1981, '82 [1982], we went through our first reapportionment, my first reapportionment. Not--the first apportionment for the, for the African American legislators who were here. We went through the first one. And it was ugly. It was, it was tough. We were fighting for one majority black congressional district out of ten. There were ten congressional districts. We only wanted one, and we wanted it right here in Atlanta [Georgia] where we made up sufficient population to justify one. The leadership of the Democratic Party said, "No, you can't have one in this reapportionment process."$$Just a question now. Now, what is the percentage of black residents in Georgia?$$The percentage of black residents in the state of Georgia is about 30 percent. In Atlanta, it's about seventy percent. So in 1981, '82 [1982], we were fighting over one majority black district in the whole Congressional delegation. The leadership of the Democratic Party said, "No, we're not going to give it to you." The Democrats controlled the House [of Representatives], Democrats controlled the Senate, and they controlled the Executive branch, the Governor's office. So us [Georgia] Legislative Black Caucus members decided to fight to get one, one out of ten. We had to sue the state. That year Black Caucus members, which numbered probably fifteen or twenty--today we're forty-nine, but then we were about fifteen or twenty, we formed an alliance with the Republicans in the legislature. We formed this alliance. And we went all the way to the U.S. Supreme Court, and we won. We won that district. We beat back the attempts to deny us that one district. And today, John Lewis is representing us in the United States Congress in the 5th Congressional District from Atlanta, Georgia.

The Honorable George L. Brown

The Honorable George Leslie Brown was born on July 1, 1926, in Lawrence, Kansas. Growing up on a farm in Kansas, Brown was a star athlete in basketball, football and track before graduating from Lawrence Liberty Memorial High School in 1944. During World War II, he served as a Tuskegee Airman.

Brown graduated from the University of Kansas in 1950 with a B.S. in journalism. He also did graduate work at Harvard Business School, the University of Colorado and the University of Denver. For fourteen years, he worked as a writer and editor for The Denver Post and hosted his own Denver radio talk show. He was the first African American editor to work for a major daily newspaper in the Rocky Mountains. Brown served as the assistant executive director for Denver’s Public Housing Program for four years and taught at the University of Colorado and the University of Denver.

In 1955, Brown made history when he was elected to the Colorado House of Representatives. He served as a state senator for eighteen years, and was reelected to five consecutive four-year terms. Then, in 1974, in the middle of his fifth Senate term, he was elected lieutenant governor, a position he held for four years. He was the nation’s first Black lieutenant governor.

In 1979, Brown joined the Grumman Corporation as vice president for marketing and was later promoted to senior vice president in charge of the firm’s regional offices, becoming the first African American corporate officer in a major U.S. aerospace company. He completed Harvard Business School’s Advanced Management Program in 1980 and worked as Grumman’s chief lobbyist in Washington, D.C., until he left Grunman in 1990. That year, Brown joined the Washington, D.C. law firm of Whitten & Diamond. In March 1994, he was named director for Prudential Securities and managed its Washington public finance office. He was a banker for Greenwich Partners from 1997 to 2000.

Brown was active on various boards and serves as a consultant and adviser for various organizations and companies. He received numerous awards and honors for his work. Brown was married to Modeen Brown. They had four daughters: Gail, Cindy, Kim and Laura.

Brown passed away on March 31, 2006 at age 79.

Accession Number

A2003.018

Sex

Male

Interview Date

1/23/2003

Last Name

Brown

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Leslie

Organizations
Schools

Lincoln Elementary School

McAlister Grade School

Lawrence High School

University of Kansas

Harvard Business School

First Name

George

Birth City, State, Country

Lawrence

HM ID

BRO09

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Kansas

Favorite Vacation Destination

None

Favorite Quote

If I Didn't Know Better, I'd Think I Had Right Good Sense.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

7/1/1926

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Potatoes (Mashed)

Death Date

3/31/2006

Short Description

Lieutenant governor and state representative The Honorable George L. Brown (1926 - 2006 ) was the first African American Colorado State Representative, State Senator and Lieutenant Governor.

Employment

United States Army Air Corps

Denver Post

Denver Housing Authority

University of Colorado

University of Denver

Colorado General Assembly

State of Colorado

Grumman Corporation

Whitten & Diamond

Prudential Securities

Greenwich Partners

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of George L. Brown's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - George L. Brown lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - George L. Brown describes his mother's personality

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - George L. Brown describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - George L. Brown describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - George L. Brown describes his relationship with his father

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - George L. Brown describes his father's personality

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - George L. Brown describes how his parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - George L. Brown shares his father's reaction to the day he was born

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - George L. Brown describes his earliest childhood memories

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - George L. Brown describes the sights, sounds, and smells of his childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - George L. Brown describes his experience at Lincoln Elementary School and his love of learning

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - George L. Brown describes his experience on his family's farm in Lawrence, Kansas

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - George L. Brown describes his childhood personality

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - George L. Brown lists the schools he attended in Lawrence, Kansas

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - George L. Brown describes his experience studying engineering and journalism at the University of Kansas in Lawrence, Kansas

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - George L. Brown describes being hired by the Denver Post

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - George L. Brown describes enlisting in the U.S. Army in 1944

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - George L. Brown describes his experience of segregation in the U.S. Army

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - George L. Brown talks about the sports he played at Liberty Memorial High School in Lawrence, Kansas

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - George L. Brown describes traveling to Biloxi, Mississippi after enlisting in the U.S. Army

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - George L. Brown lists some of the Tuskegee Airmen he trained with

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - George L. Brown describes being placed in college prep classes at Liberty Memorial High School in Lawrence, Kansas

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - George L. Brown describes his childhood experience with the University of Kansas in Lawrence, Kansas

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - George L. Brown describes returning from the U.S. Army and attending the University of Kansas in Lawrence, Kansas

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - George L. Brown describes the differences in journalism jobs in Kansas and in Denver, Colorado

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - George L. Brown talks about his promotion while at the Denver Post

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - George L. Brown describes his decision to campaign for the Colorado House of Representatives

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - George L. Brown describes his election to the Colorado House of Representatives in 1955

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - George L. Brown describes his election to the Colorado State Senate in 1957

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - George L. Brown talks about the black population in Denver, Colorado during his 1974 campaign for lieutenant governor

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - George L. Brown describes how the sample ballots for his 1957 election discriminated against him

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - George L. Brown describes building his coalition in Colorado

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - George L. Brown talks about Barney Ford and the history of African Americans in Colorado

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - George L. Brown lists his occupations while he was in the Colorado State Senate

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - George L. Brown describes how he became an effective politician during his career

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - George L. Brown lists others who shared his concerns

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - George L. Brown describes his aversion to running for office

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - George L. Brown describes using a pocket veto to pass his Fair Employment Practices Bill

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - George L. Brown describes gerrymandering and redistricting in the State Senate

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - George L. Brown describes changes that occurred in Denver, Colorado during his nineteen years in the state legislature

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - George L. Brown describes compromising to pass his Fair Employment Practices Bill

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - George L. Brown describes the relationship between politicians and the press after the Watergate Scandal

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - George L. Brown lists some of the Colorado politicians who served with him on the Joint Budget Committee

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - George L. Brown describes his decision to run for lieutenant governor of Colorado

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - George L. Brown describes his relationship with Colorado Governor Richard "Dick" Lamm, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - George L. Brown describes his relationship with Colorado Governor Richard "Dick" Lamm, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - George L. Brown describes his responsibilities as lieutenant governor of Colorado

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - George L. Brown describes being hired at Grumman Aerospace Corporation while serving as lieutenant governor of Colorado

Tape: 5 Story: 11 - George L. Brown talks about other African American politicians in Colorado

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - George L. Brown describes becoming the chief lobbyist for the Grumman Corporation

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - George L. Brown describes the difference between his experience at Grumman Aerospace Corporation and being a politician

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - George L. Brown reflects on becoming the chief lobbyist for Grumman Aerospace Corporation

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - George L. Brown describes his experience as a lobbyist for Grumman Aerospace Corporation

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - George L. Brown describes his career after leaving Grumman Aerospace Corporation

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - George L. Brown reflects on getting older

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - George L. Brown reflects on the money he made during his career

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - George L. Brown reflects on whether he would run for political office in 2003

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - George L. Brown describes the contemporary African American leaders he respects

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - George L. Brown describes the qualities of a good politician

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - George L. Brown talks about the United States' contemporary foreign policy

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - George L. Brown describes what he would still like to do in his life

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - George L. Brown talks about Colorado Congresswoman Pat Schroeder

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - George L. Brown talks about HistoryMaker and Congressman Charles Rangel

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - George L. Brown talks about HistoryMaker and New York Mayor David Dinkins

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - George L. Brown reflects upon the decline in statewide African American elected officials

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - George L. Brown reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - George L. Brown describes how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 7 Story: 9 - George L. Brown reflects upon his parents

Tape: 7 Story: 10 - George L. Brown describes his experience in the march from Selma to Montgomery

Tape: 7 Story: 11 - George L. Brown shares his views on Political Action Committees and the Electoral College

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - George L. Brown talks about promoting HistoryMaker Ed Dwight's career as a sculptor

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - George L. Brown describes how Denver, Colorado became a supportive city for African American politicians

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - George L. Brown reflects on how Denver, Colorado can serve as a template for other diverse cities, pt. 1

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - George L. Brown reflects on how Denver, Colorado can serve as a template for other diverse cities, pt. 2

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - George L. Brown narrates his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$6

DAStory

5$1

DATitle
George L. Brown describes being hired by the Denver Post
George L. Brown describes becoming the chief lobbyist for the Grumman Corporation
Transcript
I had sixteen different job offers. Many of my classmates had none or very few. But they were strange offers. Like, one newspaper said that I could cover the black community, and I could, on Thursdays, I'd have two pages, which all the black news would be run; another one on Sunday or so forth. The one that sounded intriguing was the "Denver Post." And, yet, their response to me was that they wanted me to come out for an interview. And I'd put that aside immediately and then wrote them a short little letter saying, "Thank you, but that I couldn't afford to just run around the country on interviews. I had to have a definite offer." And I got a wire back--telegram back almost immediately as soon as they received it saying that, they're sorry that they had really meant that they were going to pay my way out. And so I went out to Denver [Colorado] for an interview, and I got there--it's another story. I get--took the train out, and I got to Denver, stayed at the "Y," and I went over to the newspaper the first thing in the--the next morning. And I go up to the second floor, which is where the editor's department was. And the editor and publisher was a guy named [Edwin] Palmer Hoyt, whom I was supposed to go see; and [Edmund] Ed Dooley was the city editor. And so there was this lady at the reception desk as you get off the elevator, and I said, "I'd like to see Mr. Palmer Hoyt." And she said, "Who are you?" And I gave her my name, and she says, "What do you want?" I says, "Well, I here to see about a job." And she says, "Well, I know we're not hiring anybody." And I said, "Oh?" And she says, "And I don't have any note that you have an interview scheduled." You can just-- I was devastated. So I went back down to the first floor and standing in the lobby, and the "Denver Post" had just opened a new building, and they had tours and I saw this tour forming and they were going to take them through the plants so they could see how newspaper was made. And since I didn't know how newspaper was made, I said, "Well, I guess I may as well do that and figure out when I'm going to go back home." So I joined the tour, and we went through. And when we got up to the second floor, we came through the back door, and I was right in the middle of the newsroom and, of course, I recognized the newsroom from my short stint at the--on the college paper at the university. And so I saw a fellow, and so I went up to him and I said, "I need to talk to Mr. Hoyt or Mr. Dooley." He says, "Well, I'm Mr. Dooley." He said that, "Who are you?" I said, "George Brown." He said, "Where have you been?" He says, "We've been expecting you. You were supposed to be here this morning." I said, "Well, I've been trying to get in here to see and Mr. Hoyt." So they said, "Well, we're off to lunch." And they took me to the press club for lunch and we talked. And by 1:30, we had decided that I was going to come to work for the "Denver Post." They were going to treat me like any other reporter, which is what I wanted. I didn't want any special treatment. I was going to sign as a cub reporter. They did give me a little more pay than they gave most cubs that came on at that time. And that was the beginning of my journalistic career.$$That's a pretty amazing story.$So you--so this is a whole different thing really, coming to Grumman [Aerospace Corporation, now Northrop Grumman].$$Mmhm.$$And they are--why don't you describe what they, you know, what type of organization it was. They're now Northrop Grumman. Right?$$Northrop Grumman. Right. Let me start as to how I got there. This fella named Jean Esquerry is a Tuskegee Airman, and I came back to New York to sign state bonds and to make a speech, and Jean said would I come out to Grumman where he worked. And he was in the Human Relations Department and wanted me to speak to their officers and talk about diversity and things like that. So I agreed. And I went and spoke at various plants. And towards the end of the afternoon, early evening, the CEO said he'd like to speak with me alone. And the two of us sat and talked and had a lot in common, guy named John Bierwirth--Jack Bierwirth, wonderful guy--and he said, "You know, we'd like you to join us, like, tomorrow." And that's when I said, "No, I want to serve out my term [as lieutenant governor of Colorado], but I'm interested if you're interested when it's over." And we soon came to an agreement that we--that I would do that. Grumman was a firm that had, at that point, no black officers. I was the first and some others followed. There were no women officers. There was a lot of nepotism. It was a non-union firm based in Long Island [New York], which meant that it had a high overhead because of its location competing with companies that had placed their headquarters in low cost employment areas; had good products; made outstanding airplanes during World War II, and had gotten--filled a niche in the space--in the--you know, the space vehicle, they had made most of the parts of that and the like. So it was a good firm. It was a good match for me, because I was expected with the CEO's support to make some changes, interior changes, within that firm; different ways of thinking; different opportunities so that minorities in the firm could look to doing something other than the lower-type jobs; and, yet, at the same time, thinking in terms of what I should help do as far as a national image in a industry image. However, when I talked to Jack, I said, "There's some things I don't want to do. I don't want to lobby." I said, "That's where I was, had done before, or have anything to do with Human Services. I don't want to be your Equal Opportunity Officer, and I don't want anything over in Public Relations." So as I thought about it, I said, "Hell, that's all I got to offer. That's been my history." To his credit, and I guess his belief in me, he said, "Fine." He said, "There are other things we can do and you can do." And so I went with one of the subsidiaries in the beginning, the one on energy systems. And then they sent me off to Harvard [Business School in Cambridge, Massachusetts] for that stint, and I came back and I started taking over some of the Human Services divisions. They came under me. And the next thing I knew, he called me in, he said, "Look. Would you like to--" or would you, not like to, "would you go to New York--" I mean, "to Washington [D.C.] as our chief lobbyist for a period of time?" And I said to myself, "Well, I know this is going to be a period of time until I'm out of here," but I realized I liked him and he had a need and if I can fill it, so I came and ran the Washington office and was our chief lobbyist at that time. And--well, I saw a lot of change at Grumman: some good and some bad, mostly good. And it was a good company. Good company.

The Honorable Ethel Skyles Alexander

Ethel Skyles Alexander was born on January 16, 1925 in Chicago, Illinois. Her father, Charles Skyles, a minister, went on in 1945 to become a member of the Illinois General Assembly. Alexander moved with her family to Davenport, Iowa, and to Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, due to her father’s parish assignments. Returning to Chicago, Alexander attended Sherwood Elementary School and Englewood High School. After completing high school, she had one child, Gayla Aniece.

Alexander worked as a clerk in the Cook County Circuit Court’s Records Department for thirty-three years. She was the first woman to be appointed Assistant Chief Deputy Clerk of the Criminal Division of the Circuit Court. Alexander returned to school, receiving her B.A. from Loop College (now Harold Washington), as well as enrolling in an IBM Executive Training Course.

In 1978, Alexander was elected to the Illinois House of Representatives. She was known for waving a red handkerchief in the air whenever she wanted to discuss an issue with fellow legislators. In 1986, Alexander was appointed to replace the late Charles Chew in the State Senate, where she remained until she retired in 1993. While in the legislature, Alexander served as vice-chair of the Elections and Reapportionment Committee. She co-sponsored a bill that prohibited state agencies from trading with apartheid-era South Africa and sponsored legislation that toughened child pornography laws.

Alexander passed away on September 10, 2016 at age 91.

Accession Number

A2001.080

Sex

Female

Interview Date

4/2/2001

Last Name

Alexander

Maker Category
Middle Name

Skyles

Organizations
Schools

Jesse Sherwood Elementary School

Englewood High School

Harold Washington College

First Name

Ethel

Birth City, State, Country

Chicago

HM ID

PITS001

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Illinois

Favorite Vacation Destination

Hot Springs, Arkansas

Favorite Quote

I can do all things through Christ that strengthens me.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Illinois

Birth Date

1/16/1925

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Chicago

Country

United States

Favorite Food

None

Death Date

9/10/2016

Short Description

State representative and state senator The Honorable Ethel Skyles Alexander (1925 - 2016 ) was known for waving a red handkerchief in the air whenever she wanted to discuss an issue with fellow legislators, and served as vice chair of the Elections and Reapportionment Committee in the Illinois State Senate. She co-sponsored a bill that prohibited state agencies from trading with apartheid-era South Africa and sponsored legislation that toughened child pornography laws.

Employment

State of Illinois

Cook County Criminal Division

Circuit Court of Cook County

Illinois General Assembly

Favorite Color

Blue

DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Ethel Alexander interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Ethel Alexander's favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Ethel Alexander talks about her father and his involvement in Chicago politicals

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Ethel Alexander shares stories about her father's political career

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Ethel Alexander discusses famous black Illinois legislators

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Ethel Alexander talks about lesgislative strategies in the Illinois General Assembly

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Ethel Alexander recalls the political climate in Chicago in the 1940s and 1950s

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Ethel Alexander talks about her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Ethel Alexander discusses her siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Ethel Alexander details her formal education from elementary school to college

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Ethel Alexander talks about her experiences as a clerk at the Circuit Court of Cook County Criminal Division

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Ethel Alexander comments on trying to get a job without her father's political clout

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Ethel Alexander talks about being a prospective candidate for Cook County Commissioner

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Ethel Alexander explains her entry into the Illinois General Assembly

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Ethel Alexander talks about her experiences as an Illinois State Representative

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Ethel Alexander gives her impression on Illinois State Representative, Charles Chew

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Ethel Alexander comments on prominent black politicians from Chicago's South Side in the 1950s and 1960s

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Ethel Alexander talks about black politicians who were her contemporaries in the Illinois General Assembly

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Ethel Alexander details the antics that went on during sessions in the Illinois General Assembly

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Ethel Alexander discusses the importance of the Illinois General Assembly to the African American community

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Ethel Alexander talks briefly about a lobbying expedition to Springfield

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Ethel Alexander talks about the importance of the Illinois Black Caucus in Springfield

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Ethel Alexander discusses the legacy of African Americans in the Illinois General Assembly

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Ethel Alexander comments on what her legacy might be

The Honorable Monique Davis

Monique Dionne Davis was born August 19, 1936, in Chicago, Illinois to James and Constance McKay. After graduating from Calumet High School at age sixteen, Davis attended one semester at Chicago State University, leaving to get married and move to Denver, Colorado. After having two children, Robert and Monique, Davis returned to Chicago State University and received her bachelor’s degree in elementary education in 1966, and later her master’s degree in guidance and supervision. Davis also went on to earn graduate hours in administration supervision and special education, as well as credits toward her doctoral degree in administration and supervision from Roosevelt University.

Davis first worked in education in the Chicago Public School system where she taught for eighteen years. She later served as an administrator for the Chicago Board of Education, and a training specialist for City Colleges of Chicago.

Davis’ political career began as a volunteer to Democratic candidates Gus Savage, Monica Faith Stewart and Harold Washington. In 1987, Davis was elected to the Illinois General Assembly, where she has served since. She has served as chair of the Insurance Committee, vice chair of Financial Institutions, member of the Appropriations – General Services Committee, Appropriations – Higher Education Committee, Elementary & Secondary Education Committee, State Government Committee, The Amistad Commission, Racial Profiling Prevention and Data Oversight Board, and co-chairperson of the Commission to End Disparities Facing the African American Community.

Davis has received several awards, including Teacher of the Year from the Gresham Elementary School, Teacher Who Makes a Difference from the Center for New Schools, and Excellent Legislator from Operation PUSH and the Department of Aging.

Davis is a member of Trinity United Church of Christ, Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Inc., NAACP, and Operation PUSH. She is the mother of two, grandmother of four, and great-grandmother of seven.

Monique Davis was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on July 7, 2000.

Accession Number

A2000.048

Sex

Female

Interview Date

7/7/2000

Last Name

Davis

Maker Category
Marital Status

Divorced

Schools

Gillespie Elem School

Calumet Career Prep Academy High School

Chicago State University

DePaul University

Speakers Bureau

Yes

First Name

Monique

Birth City, State, Country

Chicago

HM ID

DAV14

Favorite Season

Spring, Summer

State

Illinois

Favorite Vacation Destination

Africa

Favorite Quote

May God Bless You.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Illinois

Birth Date

8/19/1936

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Chicago

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Fried Chicken, Fish

Short Description

State representative The Honorable Monique Davis (1936 - ) is a member of the Illinois House of Representatives, where she has sat on the committees on appropriation, consumer protection, urban redevelopment, public utilities and election law. She is also the vice chairperson of the Elementary-Secondary Education Committee.

Employment

Illinois General Assembly

Chicago Public Schools

Del Farm Grocery Store

Favorite Color

Black

DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Monique Davis' interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Monique Davis lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Monique Davis describes her parents' personalities

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Monique Davis reflects onher childhood experiences

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Monique Davis talks about her parents' background

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Monique Davis describes her grandparents' personalities

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Monique Davis talks about the value of community

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Monique Davis reflects upon the values she learned from her parents

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Monique Davis talks about her childhood and her four sisters

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Monique Davis recalls the racism she encountered throughout her education

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Monique Davis talks about completing college

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Monique Davis talks about her experience returning to school as a working mother of two

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Monique Davis describes sacrificing for her children's education

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Monique Davis talks about starting her career as a teacher

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Monique Davis remembers her experience as a teacher

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Monique Davis discusses the value of teachers

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Monique Davis talks about the institutional racism at Chicago Public Schools

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Monique Davis discusses her hopes for business and school reform

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Monique Davis remembers her start in politics

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Monique Davis describes her political accomplishments

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Monique Davis discusses racial profiling

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Monique Davis talks about the independence of black legislators

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Monique Davis discusses the need for reparations

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Monique Davis talks about representing her community with integrity

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Monique Davis discusses her success in funding the Vivian Harsh Collection and the DuSable Museum

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Monique Davis discusses getting appropriations to help the African American community

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Monique Davis talks about the black legislators who came before her

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Monique Davis reflects upon her legacy

The Honorable Wilma J. Webb

Wilma Webb, the First Lady of Denver, Colorado, was born in that same city in 1943. Webb's mother, Faye, was a nurse's assistant and her father, Frank Gerdine, worked for the Federal Government.

When she married Wellington Webb in 1969, Webb was already active in school reform and was a co-founder of the Committee on Greater Opportunity. In 1973, Webb became a Democratic Committeewoman and served as the Democratic Party secretary; the editor of the Democratic State Newsletter; and the chair of the Democratic Committee on Housing.

Webb became a member of the Colorado Legislature in 1980; while in office, she became the first minority woman on the Colorado Joint Budget Committee. Webb sponsored forty-four bills, eleven of which passed, including the Comprehensive Anti-Drug Abuse Program; Elderly Frail People to Receive Care at Home as Opposed to Nursing Home Placement; and Improvement of Living Conditions for Troubled Youth. In one of her hardest battles, Webb fought for four years before the State of Colorado adopted the Martin Luther King, Jr., holiday.

Webb worked hand in hand with her husband in a historic grassroots mayoral campaign in which the couple walked all over the city, resulting in Wellington Webb becoming the first African American mayor of Denver in 1991. Denver's First Lady worked tirelessly on anti-drug abuse programs and youth and family issues. Webb's efforts to promote the arts resulted in the creation of the Denver Art, Culture, and Film Foundation in 1994. In 1998, Webb became the first woman to serve in the U.S. Department of Labor as the primary official for Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming; her duties included the administration and enforcement of federal statutes governing workplace activities, including pension rights, health benefits, and job training.

Webb traveled widely in North America, Europe, Asia, and Africa and held a graduate degree from the Harvard University John F. Kennedy School of Government. Webb was honored with several hundred national and statewide commendations, including the National Education Association's Carter G. Woodson Award for Human and Civil Rights; the Association for Retarded Citizen's Legislator of the Year Award; and the Colorado Banking Association's Political Award. Webb also held memberships in the Zion Baptist Church; Delta Sigma Theta sorority; and the Links. Webb and her husband also raised four children.

Accession Number

A2002.124

Sex

Female

Interview Date

6/20/2002

Last Name

Webb

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

J.

Organizations
Schools

Whittier ECE-8 School

Cole Junior High School

Manual High School

University of Colorado Denver

Harvard Kennedy School

First Name

Wilma

Birth City, State, Country

Denver

HM ID

WEB02

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Colorado

Favorite Vacation Destination

Anywhere

Favorite Quote

The only statement better than 'just do it' is 'we just did it.'

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Colorado

Birth Date

5/17/1943

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Denver

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Steak, Mexican Food

Short Description

State representative The Honorable Wilma J. Webb (1943 - ) is a former Colorado state legislator and was the First Lady of Denver for thirteen years.

Employment

Colorado Democratic Party

Colorado House of Representatives

City of Denver

United States Department of Labor

Favorite Color

Black

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Wilma Webb interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Wilma Webb's favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Wilma Webb describes her parents' backgrounds

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Wilma Webb remembers going to school in the Five Points neighborhood of Denver, Colorado

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Wilma Webb describes the close-knit community of Five Points in Denver, Colorado

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Wilma Webb recalls her family's struggle against discrimination

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Wilma Webb describes her childhood pastimes

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Wilma Webb discusses family life

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Wilma Webb describes her family's church involvement

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Wilma Webb describes social life in her childhood community of Five Points, Denver, Colorado

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Wilma Webb describes her connection to the Five Points community, Denver, Colorado

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Wilma Webb discusses segregation in Denver, Colorado schools

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Wilma Webb comments on her family as motivation for her political involvement

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Wilma Webb discusses the influence of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Wilma Webb recalls instances of race discrimination in employment and education

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Wilma Webb remembers Denver, Colorado school board official Rachel B. Noel

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Wilma Webb describes her courtship with future Denver, Colorado mayor, Wellington Webb

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Wilma Webb describes her ascent in Denver, Colorado's Democratic Party

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Wilma Webb describes the role of trust in her political career

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Wilma Webb discusses the Jane Jefferson Democratic Club

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Wilma Webb discusses the political careers of her husband and herself

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Wilma Webb recalls her 1980 election to the Colorado state legislature

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Wilma Webb recalls her beginnings in Colorado's House of Representatives

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Wilma Webb discusses her record as a member of the Colorado state legislature

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Wilma Webb recounts the battle for a Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. holiday in Colorado

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Wilma Webb discusses highlights in her legislative career

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Wilma Webb explains her career changes after her husband's election as mayor of Denver

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Wilma Webb recalls her term as the First Lady of Denver, Colorado

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Wilma Webb describes Denver, Colorado's emphasis on the arts

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Wilma Webb discusses balancing motherhood and a public career

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Wilma Webb describes how she'd like to be remembered

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Wilma Webb discusses her parents' responses to her success

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Wilma Webb discusses racism and sexism as it relates to being the First Lady of Denver, Colorado

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Wilma Webb dispels claims of her shyness

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Wilma Webb expresses her hopes for the black community

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Wilma Webb expresses her gratitude to supporters

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Photo - Wilma Webb with Mayor Wellington Webb at the groundbreaking of Denver, Colorado's Centennial Park

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Photo - Groundbreaking for Denver, Colorado's Centennial Park, 2002

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Photo - Wellington Webb, with family members, sworn in as auditor of Denver, Denver, Colorado, 1987

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Photo - Wellington Webb with Wilma Webb and her parents, Denver, Colorado, 1980s

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Photo - Harry Belafonte, Julie Belafonte, Wilma Webb and Wellington Webb, Denver, Colorado, ca. 1999

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Photo - Wellington Web, President Bill Clinton and Wilma Webb at the White House, Washington, D.C., 1998

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Photo - Wellington Webb and Wilma Webb at the renaming of a building, Denver Colorado

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Photo - Hillary Rodham Clinton and Wilma Webb, Denver, Colorado, 1995

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Photo - Mayor Wellington Webb and First Lady Wilma Webb unveil the Minoru Yasui bust, Denver, Colorado, ca. 1996

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - Photo - Wilma Webb in the chambers of the Colorado House of Representatives, Denver, Colorado, 1998

Tape: 6 Story: 11 - Photo - Wilma Webb with three Denver, Colorado mayors at a dedication event

Tape: 6 Story: 12 - Photo - Wilma Webb with other essay contest finalists, Denver, Colorado, ca. 1955

Tape: 6 Story: 13 - Photo - Wilma Webb with two Denver, Colorado First Ladies at a dedication event

Tape: 6 Story: 14 - Photo - Wilma Webb with Mrs. Minoru Yasui during dedication ceremonies, Denver, Colorado

Tape: 6 Story: 15 - Photo - Wilma Webb presents MC Hammer with an appreciation award, 1992

Tape: 6 Story: 16 - Photo - Wilma Webb with Hugh Price of the Urban League

Tape: 6 Story: 17 - Photo - Mayor Wellington Webb with wife, Wilma Webb in the Denver, Colorado mayor's office, July 1991

Tape: 6 Story: 18 - Photo - Mayor Wellington Webb and Wilma Webb with the Commodores at an inaugural celebration, Denver, Colorado, July 1999

Tape: 6 Story: 19 - Photo - Wilma Webb with the first ladies of African nations meeting in Accra, Ghana, 1999

Tape: 6 Story: 20 - Photo - Wilma Webb with First Lady Nana Konadu Agyeman Rawlings of Ghana, Denver, Colorado

Tape: 6 Story: 21 - Photo - Wilma Webb with Alexis Herman, U.S. Secretary of Labor, Denver, Colorado, 1998

Tape: 6 Story: 22 - Photo - Wilma Webb with Nick LeMasters at an exhibition opening, Denver, Colorado, ca, 1996

Tape: 6 Story: 23 - Photo - Wilma Webb with Hillary Rodham Clinton on Bill Clinton's presidential campaign trail, Denver, Colorado, 1992

Tape: 6 Story: 24 - Photo - Wilma Webb with Vice President Al Gore, Denver, Colorado, 1999

Tape: 6 Story: 25 - Photo - Wilma Webb introduces Hillary Rodham Clinton at an event

Tape: 6 Story: 26 - Photo - Wilma Webb takes an art tour across the U.S., 1992

Tape: 6 Story: 27 - Photo - Wellington Webb and Wilma Webb at her re-election campaign for state representative, Denver, Colorado, 1985

Tape: 6 Story: 28 - Photo - Wilma Webb with a member of the Commodores at Mayor Wellington Webb's inaugural ball, Denver, Colorado, July 1999

Tape: 6 Story: 29 - Photo - Wilma Webb presents an award to a veteran public servant, Denver, Colorado, 1998

Tape: 6 Story: 30 - Photo - Wilma Webb introduces the U.S. Secretary of Labor, Alexis Herman, 1999

Tape: 6 Story: 31 - Photo - Wilma Webb and Wellington Webb visit city officials in Belfast, Northern Ireland, ca. 2001

Tape: 6 Story: 32 - Photo - Wilma Webb, Wellington Webb, and Denver City Council members visit Belfast, Northern Ireland, ca. 2001

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Photo - Wilma Webb with Coretta Scott King, 1985

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Photo - Wilma Webb and Wellington Webb with Coretta Scott King, 1985

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Photo - Wilma Webb and Wellington Webb with pianist Dave Brubeck, 1986

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Photo - Wilma Webb speaks at the Black American West Museum and Heritage Center in Denver, 1986

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Photo - Wilma Webb witnesses Wellington Webb being sworn in as mayor of Denver, Colorado, July 1, 1991

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Photo - President Bill Clinton, Wellington Webb, and Wilma Webb at a Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. celebration, 1994

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$4

DAStory

4$3

DATitle
Wilma Webb describes her connection to the Five Points community, Denver, Colorado
Wilma Webb discusses her record as a member of the Colorado state legislature
Transcript
You seem to be proud of being a part of [the Five Points community, Denver, Colorado]--,$$Oh, yes. Oh, yes! When I was elected to office, one of my campaign offices was right--well actually, two different campaigns, I had my campaign offices right there in Five Points. And people could come in and share their, their problems with me, and, and if there were government solutions, I would enact on them, and if they needed other kinds of services, I would tell them where they could go, and, and it was right there in Five Points. A lot of the larger campaigns were centralized, at my state representative campaign office there like we, we centralized the district for the governor's race, and for the congressional race, and for the State Senate Race--all of those came right through my campaign office there. So I'm very much a product of, of the Five Points Community, the Five Points Neighborhood. I went to the Phyllis Wheatley YWCA [Young Womens Christian Association, Denver, Colorado]. I went to the library, which eventually became Equity Savings and Loan, which was a savings and loan company for people, KDKL radio [Denver, Colorado] was there, I did interviews there, on several different occasions. I used to rent, before I bought a home, from Public Realty, which was there at Five Points, and, I used to belong to a drill team, when I was young, and we used to practice our drills there. And actually, over the years, I've been able to, along with my husband [Wellington Webb], along with other elected officials, to bring others into Five Points, to share, in a greater way, the neighborhood, and how wonderful it is. As an example: we had the Colorado Symphony Orchestra [Denver, Colorado] to perform a concert, right there in Five Points, the Colorado Symphony Orchestra. And, I narrated a part of that symphony, with the 'Lincoln Portrait', which is a symphony written for President Abraham Lincoln. We've had Juneteenth celebrations there, for which I've been a part of the the Juneteenth celebration ever since it was put into place here, in Denver, Colorado. We also had a major, well the Shriners' Convention was held here, and Five Points was a great part of that. And so, so, it's a part of the African American experience here in Denver.$The one bill that most people know me for, is, that I was the member, the legislator, who carried the legislation for Dr. [Martin Luther] King [Jr.] to have a holiday, in the state of Colorado. It took me four different times, four different years; from the beginning of 1981 up until the time that it was adopted on April the 4th, 1984.$$Now, that wasn't a popular--?$$No, no, no, it was not popular at all. It was a fight. It was a fight, it was a, a task that people believed was impossible. I was also, sort of, doubted by African American people, as to why was I spending so much time on, on this bill--it's nothing but a holiday, and you ought to be working on housing, or you ought to be working on education--which I was doing all of--all along. I carried bills for full-day kindergarten, when no one else did; I was the first one to do it. I was able to pass legislation to get subpoena power for the Colorado Civil Rights Division. I carried legislation when apartheid was very much a part of South Africa, to disinvest retirement funds, which equaled, at that time, some seven billion dollars in the state of Colorado. I also carried legislation for people who were serving as election judges, to be paid a more equitable amount of money. I worked for the poor, on the Joint Budget Committee, for Social Services. I carried legislation for the elderly, to be able to receive care at home, rather than being placed in nursing homes. I carried legislation for the business community, to make sure that people who had their money in banks, if the banks were to, to become disvalued, that they would have insurance, mandatory, to cover whatever money people would have in banks. And so, I carried some forty-four different pieces of legislation, while I was serving as a minority of a minority of a minority. And, of that amount, I got, I think, it was, thirteen different bills adopted that were of significant impact to the state of Colorado.