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Reverend France A. Davis

Reverend France Albert Davis was born on December 5, 1946 on a farm, outside of Gough, Georgia to John and Julia Davis. He attended and graduated from the segregated Waynesboro High & Industrial School in Waynesboro, Georgia in 1964. In 1966, Davis joined the United States Air Force where he served as an aircraft mechanic. He went on to earn his B.A. degree in rhetoric from the University of California at Berkeley and his B.S. degree in religion from Westminster College in Salt Lake City. Davis also earned his M.A. degree in mass communications from the University of Utah. He has attended several other universities including the Tuskegee Institute and Laney College in Oakland, studying subjects ranging from Afro-American Studies to arts and humanities.

In 1968, Davis served as the assistant to the pastor at St. Paul Baptist Church in Boise, Idaho. Then, in 1971, he received his certificate of ordination at Center Street Baptist Church in Oakland, California where he later became an associate and youth minister. In 1972, Davis came to Salt Lake City, Utah to fulfill a one-year teaching fellowship at the University of Utah. That same year, he joined Calvary Baptist Church where he later served as pastor and chief administrator.

During the 1960s, Davis participated in the Civil Rights Movement and marched from Selma, Alabama to Montgomery, Alabama promoting voting rights for African Americans. At the onset of the Civil Rights Movement, he met Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. and received his spiritual calling into the ministry as a young man. In 1972, Davis was confronted by his minority status, when he was removed from the LDS Church-owned Brigham Young University campus for wearing an afro. As a political activist, Davis was also instrumental in declaring Martin Luther King Jr. Day as an official holiday, an achievement for which his church office was riddled with gun shots. He later furthered his education by earning his M.M. degree in ministry from Northwest Nazarene University in Nampa, Idaho in 1994.

Davis has served as the secretary of the Salt Lake Ministerial Association; a member of the South Africa Preaching Team for the National Baptist Convention’s Foreign Mission and as an advisor, vice-president and assistant to the Dean of the Intermountain General Baptist Convention. He has also taught as an adjunct associate professor in the Department of Communications at the University of Utah in Salt Lake City. Davis has written several publications including Light in the Midst of Zion: A History of Black Baptists in Utah 1892-1996 and his autobiography, France Davis: An American Story Told in 2007.

Davis lives in Salt Lake City, Utah with his wife, Willene. They have three children: Carolyn, Grace and France; and one grandson, Cedric.

Davis was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on March 13, 2008.

Accession Number

A2008.049

Sex

Male

Interview Date

3/13/2008

Last Name

Davis

Maker Category
Middle Name

A.

Schools

Gough Elementary School

Waynesboro High and Industrial School

Merritt College

Tuskegee University

Laney College

University of California, Berkeley

Bay Cities Bible College

Golden Gate Baptist Theological Seminary

Westminster College

University of Utah

Northwest Nazarene University

First Name

France

Birth City, State, Country

Cooperstown

HM ID

DAV23

Favorite Season

Fall, Spring

State

Georgia

Favorite Quote

Yes, I Have A Goodly Heritage.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Utah

Interview Description
Birth Date

12/5/1946

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Salt Lake City

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Fish (Fried)

Short Description

Civil rights activist and pastor Reverend France A. Davis (1946 - ) was the pastor of the Calvary Baptist Church in Salt Lake City, Utah. He participated in the Civil Rights Movement and was instrumental in declaring Martin Luther King Jr. Day an official holiday in Utah. Davis also taught at the University of Utah and published two books.

Employment

University of Utah

Westminster College

Salt Lake Theological Seminary

Calvary Baptist Church

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/608662">Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Reverend France A. Davis' interview</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/608663">Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Reverend France A. Davis lists his favorites</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/608664">Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Reverend France A. Davis describes her mother's family background</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/608665">Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Reverend France A. Davis recalls his maternal family's experiences with the Ku Klux Klan</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/608666">Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Reverend France A. Davis talks about his mother's education</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/608667">Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Reverend France A. Davis describes his father's family background</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/608668">Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Reverend France A. Davis talks about his father's education</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/608669">Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Reverend France A. Davis describes his parents' personalities and who he takes after</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/608670">Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Reverend France A. Davis describes his earliest childhood memory</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/608671">Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Reverend France A. Davis talks about his early religious experiences</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/608672">Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Reverend France A. Davis remembers his father's storytelling</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/608673">Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Reverend France A. Davis describes his family home</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/608674">Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Reverend France A. Davis describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/608675">Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Reverend France A. Davis describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/608676">Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Reverend France A. Davis recalls his childhood pastimes</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/608677">Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Reverend France A. Davis recalls his favorite teachers at Gough Elementary School in Gough, Georgia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/608678">Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Reverend France A. Davis remembers Waynesboro High and Industrial School in Waynesboro, Georgia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/608679">Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Reverend France A. Davis recalls his decision to attend the Tuskegee Institute in Tuskegee, Alabama</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/608680">Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Reverend France A. Davis remembers his early interest in the Civil Rights Movement</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/608681">Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Reverend France A. Davis remembers the March on Washington</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/608682">Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Reverend France A. Davis remembers the Selma to Montgomery March</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/608683">Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Reverend France A. Davis remembers his commitment to civil rights</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/608684">Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Reverend Frances A. Davis recalls leaving the Tuskegee Institute</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/608685">Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Reverend France A. Davis describes his experiences in the U.S. Air Force</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/608686">Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Reverend France A. Davis talks about his call to the ministry</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/608687">Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Reverend France A. Davis recalls meeting his wife</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/608688">Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Reverend France A. Davis describes his college education</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/608689">Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Reverend France A. Davis recalls his first impressions of Oakland, California</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/608690">Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Reverend France A. Davis remembers D'Army Bailey</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/608691">Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Reverend France A. Davis talks about his college coursework</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/608692">Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Reverend France A. Davis recalls teaching at the University of Utah in Salt Lake City, Utah</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/608693">Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Reverend France A. Davis recalls pastoring the Calvary Baptist Church in Salt Lake City, Utah</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/608694">Tape: 3 Story: 12 - Reverend France A. Davis describes the theology of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/608695">Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Reverend France A. Davis describes the history of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/608696">Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Reverend France A. Davis talks about the history of Utah's black Baptist churches</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/608697">Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Reverend France A. Davis describes his religious studies</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/608698">Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Reverend France A. Davis talks about the Buffalo Soldiers</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/608699">Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Reverend France A. Davis recalls advocating for Martin Luther King Jr. Day in Utah</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/608700">Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Reverend France A. Davis describes his civic involvement in Utah</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/608701">Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Reverend France A. Davis recalls his experiences in South Africa</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/608702">Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Reverend France A. Davis describes his membership in the National Baptist Convention, USA, Inc.</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/608703">Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Reverend France A. Davis describes 'Light in the Midst of Zion: A History of Black Baptists in Utah'</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/608704">Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Reverend France A. Davis describes 'France Davis: An American Story Told'</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/608705">Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Reverend France A. Davis talks about the programs at the Calvary Baptist Church in Salt Lake City, Utah</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/608706">Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Reverend France A. Davis talks about his religious philosophy and mentors</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/608707">Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Reverend France A. Davis reflects upon his life</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/608708">Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Reverend France A. Davis describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/608709">Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Reverend France A. Davis reflects upon his legacy</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/608710">Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Reverend France A. Davis describes his family</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/608711">Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Reverend France A. Davis talks about the congregation of the Calvary Baptist Church in Salt Lake City, Utah</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/608712">Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Reverend France A. Davis describes how he would like to be remembered</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/608713">Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Reverend France A. Davis narrates his photographs</a>

DASession

1$1

DATape

1$4

DAStory

4$5

DATitle
Reverend France A. Davis recalls his maternal family's experiences with the Ku Klux Klan
Reverend France A. Davis recalls advocating for Martin Luther King Jr. Day in Utah
Transcript
Any stories about, about Reconstruction or what, you know what it was like in those days between the (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) One of the stories that my mother [Julia Cooper Davis] told us almost daily was about an activity with her family and the Ku Klux Klan [KKK], and there're two of those stories. One of them is that her uncle's wife was walking and refused to step off, out of the way of some white ladies that was walking in the town of Waynesboro [Georgia] and that when she came home that evening that night the Ku Klux Klan showed up to get her. Her husband interfered, who was my uncle, and they then took him down to the local African American Baptist church and put him inside, set the church in fire, and he was never seen again. The other story was that my mother's father [July Cooper] got somehow in trouble with the Klan when she was just a small baby and as a result of that the Klan came and sat on their porch waiting for him to come home and he came home later in the evening, but before he came, he never did come home that night. He always came home after dark, and so my grandmother [Scoatney Scott Cooper] sent one of the children, she had sixteen of them. It was easier to send one out and not miss, that would not be missed out the back door to meet him and tell him not to come home and his life was saved because he never came home that night. But the Klan was sitting on his porch, on their porch, my parents, my mother's grand- my mother's parents' porch waiting for him to come home. And he didn't come home for several days.$$I suppose the Klan didn't have any idea how many children were really there anyway.$$They didn't have any idea how many children were there and they certainly wouldn't miss one. There were just so many of them, and so they didn't miss that one.$$Okay, now that's, that's cert- those stories certainly tell you something about the atmosphere--$$Yes.$$--in that part of Georgia.$$Yeah, yeah.$I have a note here that says--oh did somebody actually, now you were involved in the, making Martin Luther King's [Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.] birthday a holiday?$$Yes.$$Right.$$Nineteen eighty-three [1983] Congress passed the law and President Reagan [President Ronald Wilson Reagan] signed the federal law making Martin Luther King holiday [Martin Luther King Jr. Day], Martin Luther King's birthday a holiday on the federal side. Utah was one of the states that decided that that federal law would not work for them, did not apply to them, and so we had to get a separate bill introduced in the state legislature here in Utah. Senator Terry Williams was the only African American in the legislature at the time. He sponsored the bill, I then took it as chair of a committee to educate and agitate on behalf of the passage of the bill and eventually had a debate with the Representative Robert Sykes [Robert B. Sykes], S-Y-K-E-S who was opposed to the bill. I debated him on television, and at the end of the debate he volunteered to help sponsor the bill.$$So you convinced him?$$Convinced him in the debate that this is something worthwhile, that it's good for everybody. And he sponsored it and the bill passed. We brought Mrs. King [Coretta Scott King] out, and she spoke to the legislature.$$Now what argument did you offer that would actually change the mind of someone that bent on stopping the bill?$$Well a number of their initial arguments against the holiday were erroneous. They were arguing or not proving. They were arguing that Martin Luther King was a womanizer, that he was a drunken, that he never did anything for Utah, that he never came to Utah and that it was an African American holiday. So, those were their arguments. I simply countered all of those. I reminded them as far as Martin Luther King's coming to Utah that he was on the front page of their own newspaper right here in Salt Lake in Salt Lake City [Utah]. I also pointed out to them that what he did in, in the country was manifested more for white women in Utah than it was for African Americans. They were the minority in Utah, white women, so I pointed that out. I also argued with them that, they, they said that there was no holiday for Brigham Young and that if there was gonna be a holiday for anybody, there ought to be one for him. And I suggested to them that we would exchange the holiday for a city called Brigham City that's in Utah and of course they wasn't about to do that, so.$$Okay, but you convinced Robert Sykes to back?$$Yes.$$Okay, now this--$$I saw him by the way just about a month ago, and he reminded me that, that it was that interactions with him that caused him to be the man that he is today.$$Okay and, but this activity was not without its dangers (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) Absolutely not.$$Someone shot up your office I heard.$$Shot my office up. I had seventeen bullet holes in my office. I got threatened, threatening letters all of the time. The worse one came to my home as well as to my office, and they promised to pour gasoline on me and take me out to the Great Salt Lake and drown me and if that didn't work they'd take me back to Africa. So, it was not without danger. My wife [Willene Witt Davis] and children [Carolyn Davis, Grace Davis and France Davis] were afraid.$$The last threat didn't seem so bad I mean to take you to Africa.$$Take you back to Africa (laughter).$$That would have been--$$That would have been good for me. It would have been like throwing the rabbit in the briar patch (simultnaoeus).

Reverend Raleigh Trammell

Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) national board chairman, Reverend Raleigh Trammell was born on December 30, 1936, in Grantville, Georgia. His father, Walter Trammell, worked in a cotton mill and his mother, Thomasina Smith Trammell, was a homemaker who ardently preached to him the benefits of education. Trammell attended segregated Grantville School all twelve years, graduating in 1955. He went on to attend Clarke University, then known as Clarke College, where he was influenced by Reverend Dr. William Holmes Borders of Wheat Street Baptist Church and Dr. C. Eric Lincoln, founder of the Black Academy of Arts and Sciences. When he graduated in 1959, Trammell was an ordained minister and was well-seasoned in civil rights doctrine.

Trammell met Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., and joined the SCLC in 1960. In 1963, he participated in the Civil Rights Movement in Birmingham, Alabama, Albany, Georgia and the March on Washington. Trammell also participated in the march from Selma to Montgomery in 1965, promoting voting rights for African Americans. After the assassination of Dr. King in 1968, Trammell played a major role in the Poor People’s Campaign. He later moved to Dayton, Ohio, joining his parents and siblings as residents and was hired as pastor of Central Missionary Baptist Church. In 1966, he started working for the Montgomery County Welfare Department as deputy director. Then in 1983, Trammell was elected president of the Dayton chapter of the SCLC. Working closely with Andrew Young, Trammell rose to vice chair of the SCLC in 1996 and chairman of the national board in 2004.

Trammell was the first non-union recipient of the AFL-CIO Community Award in 1991. He received the Outstanding Service Award from the NAACP in 1995, the 1996 IBPOE of W Award in 1996 and was inducted into Selma, Alabama’s Civil Rights Hall of Fame in 1998. In 2005, Trammell garnered the Humanitarian Award from the State of Alabama, and in 2006, he received the Doug Couttee Award. Trammell lives in Dayton, Ohio where he has organized an annual march of 10,000 people to commemorate the ideals of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. It is the country’s largest march. Trammell and his wife, Ann, have two daughters, Angela and Cheryl.

Trammell passed away on August 15, 2020.

Accession Number

A2008.034

Sex

Male

Interview Date

2/27/2008

Last Name

Trammell

Maker Category
Schools

Grantville Elementary

Grantville High School

Clark Atlanta University

First Name

Raleigh

Birth City, State, Country

Grantville

HM ID

TRA02

Favorite Season

Christmas

State

Georgia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Las Vegas, Nevada

Favorite Quote

To Serve This Present Age; My Calling To Fulfill.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Ohio

Interview Description
Birth Date

12/30/1936

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Dayton

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Fried Chicken

Death Date

8/15/2020

Short Description

Civil rights activist and pastor Reverend Raleigh Trammell (1936 - 2020) was the National Board Chairman of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. He participated in the Civil Rights Movement, played a major role in the Poor People's Campaign and is the pastor of Central Missionary Baptist Church.

Employment

Central Missionary Baptist Church

Favorite Color

Brown

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/465152">Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Reverend Raleigh Trammell's interview</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/465153">Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell lists his favorites</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/465154">Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell describes his mother's family background</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/465155">Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell talks about segregation in Georgia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/465156">Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell describes his mother's upbringing</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/465157">Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell describes his father's upbringing</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/465158">Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell describes his parents' personalities and his likeness to his father</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/465159">Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell talks about his role as the seventh son</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/465160">Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell describes his childhood home, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/465161">Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell describes his earliest childhood memory</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/465162">Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/465163">Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell describes his childhood home, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/465164">Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell remembers the Greater Jehovah Baptist Church in Grantville, Georgia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/465165">Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell describes the Grantville School in Grantville, Georgia, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/465166">Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell remembers playing basketball</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/465167">Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell describes the Grantville School in Grantville, Georgia, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/465168">Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell remembers his aspiration to join the ministry</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/465169">Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell talks about singing in the choir</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/465170">Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell recalls funding his studies at Clark College in Atlanta, Georgia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/465171">Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell remembers Benjamin E. Mays</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/465172">Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell remembers his professors and peers at Clark College</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/465173">Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell describes the 92nd Division in World War II</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/465174">Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell describes his studies at Clark College in Atlanta, Georgia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/465175">Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell recalls the early Civil Rights Movement</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/465176">Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell describes the philosophy of nonviolence</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/465177">Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell remembers the Montgomery Bus Boycott</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/465178">Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell remembers his early civil rights activism</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/465179">Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell remembers his move to Dayton, Ohio</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/465180">Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell describes the civic organizations in Dayton, Ohio</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/465181">Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell recalls his activism with the Dayton Organization</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/465182">Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell remembers the March on Washington, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/465183">Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell remembers the March on Washington, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/465184">Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell recalls the press coverage of the Civil Rights Movement</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/465185">Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell recalls protesting against the Rike-Kumler Company</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/465186">Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell recalls his involvement with the SCLC</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/465187">Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell describes Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/465188">Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell remembers Reverend Fred Shuttlesworth</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/465189">Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell remembers Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.'s visit to Dayton, Ohio</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/465190">Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell describes the Central Missionary Baptist Church in Dayton, Ohio</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/465191">Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell describes the racial discrimination in Dayton, Ohio</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/465192">Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell recalls the City of Dayton's black elected officials</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/465193">Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell recalls his arrest</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/465194">Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell recalls his presidency of the SCLC chapter in Dayton, Ohio</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/465195">Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell describes the Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. celebration in Dayton, Ohio</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/465196">Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell describes his roles with the Southern Christian Leadership Conference</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/465197">Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell describes the importance of civil rights organizations</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/465198">Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell talks about gun violence</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/465199">Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell reflects upon his life</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/465200">Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell describes the changes in the SCLC</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/465201">Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell reflects upon his legacy</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/465202">Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell describes his hopes for the African American community</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/465203">Tape: 5 Story: 11 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell describes his family and how he would like to be remembered</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/465204">Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell narrates his photographs, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/465205">Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell narrates his photographs, pt. 2</a>

DASession

1$1

DATape

5$5

DAStory

3$9

DATitle
Reverend Raleigh Trammell describes the Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. celebration in Dayton, Ohio
Reverend Raleigh Trammell reflects upon his legacy
Transcript
And organized the biggest Martin Luther King [Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.] celebration that we had--they have in the country because we have a whole week of celebration. We, we changed this, the street out here to Martin Luther King, Jr. Way. We had Mrs. King [Coretta Scott King] come here and, and bless the street the day it was changed. The federal judge, Judge Walter Rice [Walter Herbert Rice] was a part of that. And so we organized the community in celebration, Martin Luther King. We have the biggest banquet, the biggest march.$$There are at least, I know in 2006, I came back I noticed there was like five or six banquets, breakfast and lunches and banquets during that (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Yeah.$$--week or the week of his--$$We start at the first of January with the Emancipation Proclamation celebration and we make that a part of the Martin Luther King celebration. And, of course, we go right on down the line. We have a, we have a student participation, youth participation, they have workshops, we have a, a musical, we have a worship service, we have a cultural service, then we have an ecumenical service, and then we have a march and, of course, we have the, what is called the Presidential Banquet.$$Okay.$$And--$$And as many as ten thousand people march down 3rd Street which is now Martin Luther King Way.$$And we have it coming from four ways.$$Okay. That's right, that's right.$$We have the biggest come from west but it comes from four ways and meet up there in the community (unclear)--$$You mean downtown at the, at Courthouse Square [Dayton, Ohio], right?$$Yes.$$Yeah.$$We meet up at the Courthouse Square all four ways, south, west, east, and north.$$Now, this year the governor of Ohio spoke--$$Yes.$$--Governor Ted Strickland, the mayor, of course--$$Um-hm.$$--Rhine McLin. This is, it's the largest Dr. King march in the country.$$Yes.$Now, when you look back on everything you've done to this point, again, what today would you consider to be your legacy?$$I think the people of Dayton [Ohio] has given a great deal of support to the leadership of SCLC [Southern Christian Leadership Conference], and in such a fashion that we have been able to put together the leading Martin Luther King [Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.] celebration in the country and it is modeled throughout the nation and I'm proud of that. It was not just me, it was all the folks that we bring together. The--we, we have what is called a Martin Luther King committee for which I chair, we bring 'em together and we sit down and plan the celebration. I am really proud of that Martin Luther King celebration because people look forward to it.

Bishop Imagene Stewart

Social activist, pastor and founder of the Washington, D.C. based House of Imagene Shelter and Women’s Center Bishop Imagene Bigham Stewart was born on January 23, 1942 in Dublin, Georgia.

Stewart arrived in Washington, D.C. in 1963 to participate in the March on Washington for jobs and freedom. After the march, she became ill and never returned home to Georgia. In the mid-1960s, Stewart was homeless and survived by living in Washington, D.C.’s Lincoln Park. She eventually found a job at the Government Printing Office where she worked full-time. Although she was gainfully employed, Stewart never forgot the hardships she faced as a homeless person and was inspired to open her own shelter. She managed to set aside time to organize volunteers and found boarder rooms to house thirty homeless people. Stewart then gained the interest of the late Mayor Walter E. Washington with her plans of opening a shelter, and with a meager budget, she was able to purchase property for the opening of the House of Imagene Shelter and Women’s Center in 1972. That same year, Stewart earned her A.A. degree from the University of the District of Columbia.

The House of Imagene is the first Washington, D.C. based shelter founded by an African American woman. It is comprised of two satellite centers: a shelter for battered women and children, and a shelter that provides temporary housing for homeless veterans and their families.

Stewart went on to become the pastor of the Greater Pearly Gates Baptist Church. She also worked as a radio personality for WOL radio in Washington, D.C. In 1992, Stewart was honored with the prestigious Living Dream Award for her service to battered women and the homeless. In 1993, Stewart served as the National Chaplain for the American Legion Auxiliary and as the director of the United States Department of Veteran Affairs.

Stewart was interviewed by the HistoryMakers on January 30, 2008.

Stewart passed away on May 30, 2012.

Accession Number

A2008.002

Sex

Female

Interview Date

4/28/2008

1/30/2008

Last Name

Stewart

Maker Category
Middle Name

Bigham

Schools

Susie Dasher Elementary School

Oconee High School

University of the District of Columbia

First Name

Imagene

Birth City, State, Country

Dublin

HM ID

STE12

Favorite Season

September

State

Georgia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Georgia

Favorite Quote

If I can be of help, that's what I'm here for.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Interview Description
Birth Date

9/23/1942

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Pig Feet

Death Date

5/30/2012

Short Description

Civil rights activist and pastor Bishop Imagene Stewart (1942 - 2012 ) founded the House of Imagene Shelter and Women’s Center in Washington, D.C. She became the pastor of the Greater Pearly Gates Baptist Church.

Employment

U.S. Printing Office

House of Imagene Shelter and Women's Center

Office of Mayor Walter Washington

Favorite Color

Purple

DAStories

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/629847">Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Bishop Imagene Stewart's interview, session 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/629848">Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Bishop Imagene Stewart lists her favorites</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/629849">Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Bishop Imagene Stewart describes her mother's family</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/629850">Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Bishop Imagene Stewart talks about her early experiences of discrimination</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/629851">Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Bishop Imagene Stewart describes her mother's family background</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/629852">Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Bishop Imagene Stewart describes her parents' relationship</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/629853">Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Bishop Imagene Stewart describes her father's role in her family</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/629854">Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Bishop Imagene Stewart remembers her pregnancies</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/629855">Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Bishop Imagene Stewart describes the influence of her father</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/629856">Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Bishop Imagene Stewart talks about her parents</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/629857">Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Bishop Imagene Stewart describes the H.T. Jones Village in Dublin, Georgia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/629858">Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Bishop Imagene Stewart talks about her father</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/629859">Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Bishop Imagene Stewart describes her earliest childhood memory</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/629860">Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Bishop Imagene Stewart describes the sights, sounds and smells of her childhood</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/629861">Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Bishop Imagene Stewart describes her father's preaching circuit</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/629862">Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Bishop Imagene Stewart remembers picking cotton</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/629863">Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Bishop Imagene Stewart describes her schooling</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/629864">Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Bishop Imagene Stewart talks about her early understanding of pregnancy</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/629865">Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Bishop Imagene Stewart remembers Susie Dasher Elementary School in Dublin, Georgia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/629866">Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Bishop Imagene Stewart talks about her sons' father</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/629867">Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Bishop Imagene Stewart recalls her start as a civil rights activist</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/629868">Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Bishop Imagene Stewart describes her sisters' social circle</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/629869">Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Bishop Imagene Stewart remembers joining the SCLC</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/629870">Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Bishop Imagene Stewart talks about her commitment to patriotism, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/629871">Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Bishop Imagene Stewart talks about her commitment to patriotism, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/629872">Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Bishop Imagene Stewart remembers the Citizenship Education Program</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/629873">Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Bishop Imagene Stewart talks about her political affiliations</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/629874">Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Bishop Imagene Stewart recalls picketing the Belk Matthews Company store in Dublin, Georgia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/629875">Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Bishop Imagene Stewart talks about segregation in Georgia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/629876">Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Bishop Imagene Stewart remembers leaving Dublin, Georgia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/629877">Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Bishop Imagene Stewart remembers the March on Washington</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/629878">Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Bishop Imagene Stewart recalls her decision to remain in Washington, D.C.</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/629879">Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Bishop Imagene Stewart remembers joining Walter Washington's mayoral office in Washington, D.C.</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/629880">Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Bishop Imagene Stewart recalls how she came to open the House of Imagene Shelter and Women's Center in Washington, D.C.</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/629881">Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Bishop Imagene Stewart remembers the assassination of Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/629882">Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Bishop Imagene Stewart recalls working at the U.S. Government Printing Office</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/629883">Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Bishop Imagene Stewart shares her perspective on black liberation theology, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/629884">Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Bishop Imagene Stewart shares her perspective on black liberation theology, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/629885">Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Bishop Imagene Stewart describes her ministry</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/629886">Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Bishop Imagene Stewart talks about her sons</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/629887">Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Bishop Imagene Stewart describes her early work at the House of Imagene Shelter and Women's Center</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/629888">Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Bishop Imagene Stewart talks about her approach to victims of domestic violence</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/629889">Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Bishop Imagene Stewart talks about the problem of homelessness among veterans</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/629890">Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Bishop Imagene Stewart talks about fundraising for the House of Imagene Shelter and Women's Center</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/629891">Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Bishop Imagene Stewart describes the counseling services at the House of Imagene Shelter and Women's Center</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/629892">Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Bishop Imagene Stewart describes her career</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/629893">Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Bishop Imagene Stewart reflects upon the legacy of the House of Imagene Shelter and Women's Center</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/629894">Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Bishop Imagene Stewart talks about the Ebony Women's Society</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/629895">Tape: 5 Story: 11 - Bishop Imagene Stewart talks about her husband</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/629896">Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Bishop Imagene Stewart describes her hopes and concerns for the African American community</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/629897">Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Bishop Imagene Stewart reflects upon her work at the House of Imagene Shelter and Women's Center</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/629898">Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Bishop Imagene Stewart talks about domestic violence in the civil rights community</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/629899">Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Bishop Imagene Stewart describes her family</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/629900">Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Bishop Imagene Stewart talks about her awards</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/629901">Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Bishop Imagene Stewart describes the Pearly Gate Baptist Mission in Washington, D.C.</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/629902">Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Bishop Imagene Stewart talks about the National Black Republican Association</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/629903">Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Bishop Imagene Stewart remembers the Civil Rights Movement</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/629904">Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Bishop Imagene Stewart describes how she would like to be remembered</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/629905">Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Bishop Imagene Stewart narrates her photographs</a>

William Lucy

William Lucy is one of the most prominent labor leaders in recent U.S. history. He has been secretary-treasurer of American Federation of State County and Municipal Employees (AFSCME) for the past thirty-five years, and was reelected in July 2008 to another 4-year term. As secretary-treasurer, Lucy holds the second highest ranking position within AFSCME, making him the highest ranking African American in the labor movement.

William Lucy was born on November 26, 1933 in Memphis, Tennessee. Lucy grew up in Richmond, California where his parents, Susie and Joseph Lucy, moved when he was a young boy. He studied civil engineering at the University of California at Berkeley in the early 1950s. Lucy then took a position as an assistant materials and research engineer for Contra Costa County, California. It was in this position that he first got involved in labor organizing. Lucy held that position for thirteen years until 1966. He became a member of AFSCME Local 1675 in 1956 at the age of twenty-three and then was elected its president in 1965 at the age of thirty-two. In 1966, Lucy left his job in civil engineering at Contra Costa County to work full-time for AFSCME’s national office in Washington, D.C., as the associate director of the legislation and community affairs departments.

During the 1960s, AFSCME chapters around the country organized marches and strikes to secure better wages and working conditions for its members. These actions were often met with a violent police response. During this period, many AFSCME members and leaders were beaten, tear-gassed, and jailed. Lucy was jailed by police several times in his capacity as union leader and activist. In 1968, at the age of thirty-five, Lucy worked on the historic Memphis sanitation workers’ strike. He coined the famous slogan, “I Am A Man!” that became the rallying call for the Memphis strikers. In the tumultuous aftermath of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.’s assassination during the Memphis sanitation workers’ strike, Lucy helped maintain the labor-civil rights-community coalition that sealed the workers’ eventual victory and became the model used throughout the nation.

In 1972, Lucy co-founded the Coalition of Black Trade Unionists (CBTU) to ensure African Americans a voice in labor. In 1984, Lucy joined the Free South Africa Movement, a grassroots campaign that sparked widespread opposition to apartheid in South Africa. In 1994, Lucy became the president of Public Services International (PSI), the world’s largest union federation. Lucy was the first African American to hold this position, which coordinates the efforts of ten million members from over 100 nations. Ebony magazine frequently cites Lucy as one of “The 100 most Influential Black Americans.” Lucy has two children, Benita Marsh and Phyllis Manuel.

Accession Number

A2008.001

Sex

Male

Interview Date

1/29/2008

5/1/2012

Last Name

Lucy

Maker Category
Schools

LaRose Elementary School

Roosevelt Junior High School

El Cerrito High School

University of California, Berkeley

First Name

William

Birth City, State, Country

Memphis

HM ID

LUC05

Favorite Season

Thanksgiving

State

Tennessee

Favorite Quote

It Is Better To Be Effective Than Right.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Interview Description
Birth Date

11/26/1933

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Greens (Collard), Peas (Black-Eyed)

Short Description

Civil rights activist, labor activist, and union leader William Lucy (1933 - ) was the first African American president of Public Services International. He co-founded the Coalition of Black Trade Unionists, and served as the secretary-treasurer of American Federation of State County and Municipal Employees (AFSCME).

Employment

Mare Island Naval Shipyard

Contra Costa County Public Works Department

American Federation of State, County and Municipal Employees

Favorite Color

Blue

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DAStories

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/608961">Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of William Lucy's interview, session 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/608962">Tape: 1 Story: 2 - William Lucy lists his favorites, session 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/608963">Tape: 1 Story: 3 - William Lucy describes his father's family background</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/608964">Tape: 1 Story: 4 - William Lucy describes his mother's family background</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/608965">Tape: 1 Story: 5 - William Lucy describes his early school experiences in Memphis, Tennessee</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/608966">Tape: 1 Story: 6 - William Lucy remembers LeMoyne Gardens in Memphis, Tennessee</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/608967">Tape: 1 Story: 7 - William Lucy describes his community on Neptune Street in Memphis, Tennessee</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/608968">Tape: 1 Story: 8 - William Lucy remembers segregation in Memphis, Tennessee</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/608969">Tape: 1 Story: 9 - William Lucy talks about his father's career</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/608970">Tape: 1 Story: 10 - William Lucy describes his school experiences in Richmond, California</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/608971">Tape: 1 Story: 11 - William Lucy remembers his community in Richmond, California</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/608972">Tape: 1 Story: 12 - William Lucy recalls travelling by train to Richmond, California</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/608973">Tape: 2 Story: 1 - William Lucy remembers travelling on a segregated train to Richmond, California</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/608974">Tape: 2 Story: 2 - William Lucy describes Richmond, California</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/608975">Tape: 2 Story: 3 - William Lucy remembers his junior high school teachers</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/608976">Tape: 2 Story: 4 - William Lucy recalls his high school design project</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/608977">Tape: 2 Story: 5 - William Lucy remembers the industrial businesses in Richmond, California</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/608978">Tape: 2 Story: 6 - William Lucy describes El Cerrito High School in El Cerrito, California</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/608979">Tape: 2 Story: 7 - William Lucy talks about his work at Mare Island Naval Shipyard in Vallejo, California</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/608980">Tape: 2 Story: 8 - William Lucy recalls joining the Contra Costa County Public Works Department</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/608981">Tape: 2 Story: 9 - William Lucy describes his engineering courses at the University of California, Berkeley</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/608982">Tape: 2 Story: 10 - William Lucy remembers the impact of the unions in Contra Costa County, California</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/608983">Tape: 2 Story: 11 - William Lucy describes his work in the Contra Costa County Public Works Department, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/608984">Tape: 2 Story: 12 - William Lucy recalls the unionization of the Contra Costa County Employees Association, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/608985">Tape: 3 Story: 1 - William Lucy recalls the unionization of the Contra Costa County Employees Association, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/608986">Tape: 3 Story: 2 - William Lucy describes the early years of AFSCME Local 1675</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/608987">Tape: 3 Story: 3 - William Lucy remembers civil rights leader James Farmer</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/608988">Tape: 3 Story: 4 - William Lucy talks about the labor movement in the San Francisco Bay Area</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/608989">Tape: 3 Story: 5 - William Lucy recalls issues addressed by AFSCME Local 1675</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/608990">Tape: 3 Story: 6 - William Lucy talks about the role of communism in the labor movement</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/608991">Tape: 3 Story: 7 - William Lucy recalls AFSCME Local 1675's opposition to the Vietnam War</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/608992">Tape: 3 Story: 8 - William Lucy talks about his transition from local to national union leadership</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/608993">Tape: 3 Story: 9 - William Lucy describes his family</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/608994">Tape: 4 Story: 1 - William Lucy describes his first impression of Washington, D.C.</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/608995">Tape: 4 Story: 2 - William Lucy talks about the AFSCME's Department of Legislation and Community Affairs</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/608996">Tape: 4 Story: 3 - William Lucy remembers representing Panama Canal Company employees, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/608997">Tape: 4 Story: 4 - William Lucy remembers representing Panama Canal Zone employees, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/608998">Tape: 4 Story: 5 - William Lucy recalls the restructuring of city government in Memphis, Tennessee</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/608999">Tape: 4 Story: 6 - William Lucy describes the Memphis Sanitation Workers Strike</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/609000">Tape: 4 Story: 7 - William Lucy remembers meeting with Memphis Mayor Henry Loeb</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/609001">Tape: 4 Story: 8 - William Lucy recalls Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.'s Poor People's Campaign</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/609002">Tape: 4 Story: 9 - William Lucy describes the labor movement slogan, "I Am a Man"</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/609003">Tape: 5 Story: 1 - William Lucy recalls Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.'s speech in Memphis, Tennessee</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/609004">Tape: 5 Story: 2 - William Lucy describes the support for the labor movement in Memphis, Tennessee</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/609005">Tape: 5 Story: 3 - William Lucy remembers the Memphis Sanitation Workers Strike march</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/609006">Tape: 5 Story: 4 - William Lucy recalls the Memphis Police Department's involvement in the strike</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/609007">Tape: 5 Story: 5 - William Lucy recalls the mobilization of Memphis' black community, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/609008">Tape: 5 Story: 6 - William Lucy recalls the mobilization of Memphis' black community, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/609009">Tape: 5 Story: 7 - William Lucy remembers Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.'s speech, I've Been to the Mountaintop</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/609010">Tape: 5 Story: 8 - William Lucy recalls the Memphis City Council's involvement in the strike</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/609011">Tape: 5 Story: 9 - William Lucy remembers the assassination of Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/609012">Tape: 5 Story: 10 - William Lucy remembers the assassination of Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/609013">Tape: 6 Story: 1 - William Lucy recalls strategizing after Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.'s death</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/609014">Tape: 6 Story: 2 - William Lucy remembers organizing the workers' rights march in Memphis, Tennessee</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/609015">Tape: 6 Story: 3 - William Lucy describes the public support for the labor movement</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/609016">Tape: 6 Story: 4 - William Lucy remembers Coretta Scott King's response to her husband's death</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/609017">Tape: 6 Story: 5 - William Lucy describes the conclusion of the Memphis Sanitation Workers Strike</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/609018">Tape: 6 Story: 6 - William Lucy recalls the impact of Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.'s death in Washington, D.C.</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/609019">Tape: 6 Story: 7 - William Lucy reflects upon the Memphis Sanitation Workers Strike</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/609020">Tape: 6 Story: 8 - William Lucy describes the founding of the Coalition of Black Trade Unionists, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/609021">Tape: 6 Story: 9 - William Lucy describes the founding of the Coalition of Black Trade Unionists, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/609022">Tape: 6 Story: 10 - William Lucy recalls becoming secretary-treasurer of the AFSCME</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/609023">Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Slating of William Lucy's interview, session 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/609024">Tape: 7 Story: 2 - William Lucy lists his favorites, session 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/609025">Tape: 7 Story: 3 - William Lucy describes his mother's family history</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/609026">Tape: 7 Story: 4 - William Lucy talks about his mother's education and employment</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/609027">Tape: 7 Story: 5 - William Lucy describes his father's family history</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/609028">Tape: 7 Story: 6 - William Lucy recalls his father's education and employment</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/609029">Tape: 7 Story: 7 - William Lucy talks about his parents' marriage</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/609030">Tape: 7 Story: 8 - William Lucy describes his mother's restaurant in Thomasville, Alabama</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/609031">Tape: 7 Story: 9 - William Lucy recalls his family's move from Tennessee to California</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/609032">Tape: 7 Story: 10 - William Lucy describes his likeness to his father</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/609033">Tape: 7 Story: 11 - William Lucy describes his earliest childhood memories</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/609034">Tape: 7 Story: 12 - William Lucy remembers the World War II manufacturing industry in the San Francisco Bay Area</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/609035">Tape: 7 Story: 13 - William Lucy lists his elementary schools</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/609036">Tape: 7 Story: 14 - William Lucy describes his childhood activities</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/609037">Tape: 8 Story: 1 - William Lucy describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/609038">Tape: 8 Story: 2 - William Lucy remembers the World War II effort in the San Francisco Bay Area</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/609039">Tape: 8 Story: 3 - William Lucy talks about post-World War II work opportunities for laborers</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/609040">Tape: 8 Story: 4 - William Lucy describes the Richmond Unified School District</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/609041">Tape: 8 Story: 5 - William Lucy remembers his parents' employment in California</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/609042">Tape: 8 Story: 6 - William Lucy describes his early employment prospects</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/609043">Tape: 8 Story: 7 - William Lucy remembers his junior high school teachers</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/609044">Tape: 8 Story: 8 - William Lucy talks about black athletes from the San Francisco Bay Area</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/609045">Tape: 8 Story: 9 - William Lucy recalls the music scene of the San Francisco Bay Area</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/609046">Tape: 8 Story: 10 - William Lucy describes his post high school activities</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/609047">Tape: 8 Story: 11 - William Lucy remembers Zion Hill Missionary Baptist Church in Richmond, California</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/609048">Tape: 9 Story: 1 - William Lucy recalls his role at Mare Island Naval Shipyard in Vallejo, California</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/609049">Tape: 9 Story: 2 - William Lucy describes his position in the Contra Costa County Public Works Department</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/609050">Tape: 9 Story: 3 - William Lucy remembers the founding of AFSCME Local 1675</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/609051">Tape: 9 Story: 4 - William Lucy talks about the California civil service system</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/609052">Tape: 9 Story: 5 - William Lucy recalls the early agendas of AFSCME Local 1675</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/609053">Tape: 9 Story: 6 - William Lucy describes the argument for collective union bargaining</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/609054">Tape: 9 Story: 7 - William Lucy talks about the role of a union's negotiation committee</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/609055">Tape: 9 Story: 8 - William Lucy describes his experience as spokesman of the negotiation committee</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/609056">Tape: 9 Story: 9 - William Lucy recalls AFSCME's civil rights concerns</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/609057">Tape: 10 Story: 1 - William Lucy remembers the March on Washington</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/609058">Tape: 10 Story: 2 - William Lucy talks about collective bargaining in the public sector</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/609059">Tape: 10 Story: 3 - William Lucy describes his transition from local to national union work</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/609060">Tape: 10 Story: 4 - William Lucy talks about the discrepancies between public and private sectors</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/609061">Tape: 10 Story: 5 - William Lucy recalls the catalyst to the Memphis Sanitation Workers Strike</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/609062">Tape: 10 Story: 6 - William Lucy talks about the preconditions for a labor strike</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/609063">Tape: 10 Story: 7 - William Lucy recalls organizing the Memphis Sanitation Workers Strike</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/609064">Tape: 10 Story: 8 - William Lucy remembers Memphis Mayor Henry Loeb</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/609065">Tape: 11 Story: 1 - William Lucy recalls the concerns of the Memphis sanitation workers</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/609066">Tape: 11 Story: 2 - William Lucy describes the churches involved in the Memphis Sanitation Workers Strike</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/609067">Tape: 11 Story: 3 - William Lucy remembers the Memphis City Council's African American members</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/609068">Tape: 11 Story: 4 - William Lucy remembers role of the Memphis Police Department during the strike</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/609069">Tape: 11 Story: 5 - William Lucy remembers Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.'s involvement in the strike, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/609070">Tape: 11 Story: 6 - William Lucy describes the civil rights group, the Invaders</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/609071">Tape: 11 Story: 7 - William Lucy recalls Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.'s involvement in the strike, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/609072">Tape: 11 Story: 8 - William Lucy recalls the introduction of violence to the Memphis Sanitation Workers Strike</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/609073">Tape: 11 Story: 9 - William Lucy talks about Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.'s assassination</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/609074">Tape: 12 Story: 1 - William Lucy recalls the settlement of the Memphis Sanitation Workers Strike, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/609075">Tape: 12 Story: 2 - William Lucy recalls the settlement of the Memphis Sanitation Workers Strike, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/609076">Tape: 12 Story: 3 - William Lucy describes the creation of the labor movement slogan, 'I Am a Man'</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/609077">Tape: 12 Story: 4 - William Lucy recalls the impact of Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.'s death, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/609078">Tape: 12 Story: 5 - William Lucy talks about Memphis Mayor Henry Loeb's opposition to strikers</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/609079">Tape: 12 Story: 6 - William Lucy recalls his election as secretary-treasurer of the AFSCME</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/609080">Tape: 12 Story: 7 - William Lucy describes the first meeting of the Coalition of Black Trade Unionists</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/609081">Tape: 13 Story: 1 - William Lucy talks about the founding members of the Coalition of Black Trade Unionists</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/609082">Tape: 13 Story: 2 - William Lucy describes the Coalition of Black Trade Unionists</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/609083">Tape: 13 Story: 3 - William Lucy remembers the economic boycott of South Africa</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/609084">Tape: 13 Story: 4 - William Lucy describes the Free South Africa Movement, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/609085">Tape: 13 Story: 5 - William Lucy describes the Free South Africa Movement, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/609086">Tape: 13 Story: 6 - William Lucy remembers the end of apartheid in South Africa</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/609087">Tape: 13 Story: 7 - William Lucy describes Nelson Mandela</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/609088">Tape: 14 Story: 1 - William Lucy describes Public Services International</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/609089">Tape: 14 Story: 2 - William Lucy recalls becoming president of Public Services International</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/609090">Tape: 14 Story: 3 - William Lucy remembers joining the AFL-CIO Executive Council</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/609091">Tape: 14 Story: 4 - William Lucy describes the role of the AFL-CIO Executive Council</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/609092">Tape: 14 Story: 5 - William Lucy talks about his criticism of the Iraq War</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/609093">Tape: 14 Story: 6 - William Lucy describes the circumstances of his retirement</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/609094">Tape: 14 Story: 7 - William Lucy talks about the opposition to public sector unions, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/609095">Tape: 14 Story: 8 - William Lucy talks about the opposition to public sector unions, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/609096">Tape: 15 Story: 1 - William Lucy recalls the opposition to Wisconsin Governor Scott Walker's proposed budget reform</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/609097">Tape: 15 Story: 2 - William Lucy talks about nationwide budget concerns</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/609098">Tape: 15 Story: 3 - William Lucy describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/609099">Tape: 15 Story: 4 - William Lucy describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/609100">Tape: 15 Story: 5 - William Lucy reflects upon his legacy</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/609101">Tape: 15 Story: 6 - William Lucy talks about his children's careers</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/609102">Tape: 15 Story: 7 - William Lucy describes how he would like to be remembered</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/609103">Tape: 15 Story: 8 - William Lucy talks about the legacy of racism in formerly colonized countries</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/609104">Tape: 16 Story: 1 - William Lucy narrates his photographs</a>

DASession

2$2

DATape

9$12

DAStory

3$3

DATitle
William Lucy remembers the founding of AFSCME Local 1675
William Lucy describes the creation of the labor movement slogan, 'I Am a Man'
Transcript
Was there any union activity involved in this job at all?$$Well, it wasn't what you'd call union activity at that time. We belonged to an association, the county employees association [Contra Costa County Employees Association], which was a mixture of all employees who worked for the county. We had, you know, public works, engineering, social workers, hospital workers; all of the various classifications that were employed by the county were a part of this in one--some numbers. But we began to find out later on that the system itself was not necessarily fair. And, and what struck me and I think others was the fact that--it's a civil service system, in some places, some types of merit system mixtures. But the, the unfairness of it was that civil service systems, which are responsible for supplying the names of people who have passed some examination and qualified for a position; that's advertised. And then in my estimation, and I think others too, you know, the system had become involved and decided on what kind of discipline you would get for assumed violation of some process, or decide what it--what level of salary you would get, which was not their, their original function, or would decide how many vacation days you got. You know, my view was that some of the people ought to sit down across a table and talk about it, but we didn't have collective bargaining in those days or any other thing that gave workers a voice in this process. And even if we had had it, the association was not necessarily committed to the idea that workers had the right to talk about these things. And when the civil service systems were designed, they were really designed to protect workers from, you know, political abuse. Well, they had gone far beyond that, and now they were judge and jury. And there are other folks felt the same way, that, that we were entitled to a voice in this process. And so a, a debate started in the association itself, you know, what do we want to be? And ultimately, it was put to a vote of all of the members to decide whether you want to continue to be an association or whether you want to really be a union. I mean we really--lived in a very heavily unionized county, and we thought that our lot would be better off if we were a union as opposed to an independent association. And we enjoyed, we enjoyed both because we came to Contra Costa County Employees Association, Local 1675 [American Federation of State, County and Municipal Employees Local 1675]. So, at the end of a year's period, our membership decided we want to be a union, enjoy the privileges of pursuing collective bargaining, and at the same time, be able to present workers' issues and cases before the civil service employees commission. And we did, we, we, we did that, and I became involved in that, in that movement.$$Okay, okay. So you really just become involved from the inside out because of necessity, you know.$$Right.$$And--$$Right.$$All right. So, now--$$Well, even, even more, just that I mean I, I had, at a, at a point in this, in this process became responsible for the administrative affairs of our materials and testing laboratory [of the Contra Costa County Public Works Department], so I had staff employees who reported to me. And I was a part of this other process, determine what would happen to them. Well, this seemed a little, little odd to me because I considered myself a worker just like them. And to be told, here is what we're gonna do to them, (laughter) didn't quite strike me as, as right, so I, I really--I got heavily engaged in trying to form a strong union and to have a place where, you know, employees had a voice.$You are credited with coming up with one of the strategic slogans of the late '60s [1960s] and stuff the, the "I Am a Man." The, the garbage workers [of the Memphis Public Works Division] carried those signs, wore the placards, and it's, it has a historical--now I know you're credited with coming up with it, but I think you even agree it has a historical origin. And tell, tell us about how you, how you did that.$$Well, you know, the, that--somewhere during the early days of the strike [Memphis Sanitation Workers Strike], the mayor [Henry Loeb] had made some comment that, that, you know, about the workers and so and so forth. And Jim Lawson [James Lawson] at a community meeting you know, one night says--and there's a video out there says that when the mayor or some person tells you what you're gonna do, and you must do it, that's not treating you like a man; that's treating you like a child, or something like that. And the essence of racism is when you treat a man if he's not a ma- as if he's not a man. And we didn't--I didn't think a whole lot of it, but we knew that we had to have something to glue this thing together. So this white pastor I was telling you about, Malcolm Blackburn, he and I were tasked with trying to find a slogan that would do that. So we spent one evening at the Rivermont Hotel [Memphis, Tennessee] playing with words to see as few a number of words that we could find that would have glue that everybody could relate to as to why they are doing what they're doing. And finally we came up with four words. And the reason we, we didn't want a lot of words because we, we couldn't pay to get a lot of signs printed (laughter), and the church had committed a print and a sign for us if we get it worked out. So we came up with that, those four words, "I Am a Man." And while it means different things I'm sure to different people, to this whole effort, it, it meant that I'm--I want--I'm standing up for my rights; I will speak out; I am speaking back to someone who I have historically held fear of; and I'm, I'm confronting the system. And I'm, I'm not asking for a whole lot, just to be treated with respect and dignity. And we didn't have any idea that this thing would hit like it hit. And like you say, I mean the--everybody wanted a sign. I mean that was their statement. That was their challenge to the system to treat them right, to treat them with fairness. And to this day, it has, it has hung on. I mean I'd, I'd like to credit one of the strikers with coming up with it, I mean, you know, but after about two and a half, maybe three hours of fiddling around, that's what we came up with. And we took it over to the, the A.M.E. church [Clayborn Temple A.M.E. Church, Memphis, Tennessee], and they, they printed the first batch of signs for it (laughter). And it sent a statement to the broad community, you know. And, and it was, it was their sort of fight back statement, you know, to all of the problems they've ever had for the all the years they'd ever lived there, worked there, or grew up in the South. Then as someone was saying, and I think it's, there's a lot of truth, that in the South, you could go from boy to uncle to grandpa without ever passing the position of man. And man, you know, but these guys I mean, (makes sound) that was it. We didn't have to say nothing else. I mean their commitment to this thing was locked in.

Larry Gossett

Political activist Larry Gossett was born Lawrence Edward Gossett on February 21, 1945, in Seattle, Washington. The son of Johnnie Evelyn Carter Gossett and Nelman Gossett, he grew up in Seattle’s southern and central areas. Gossett attended High Point and Horace Mann Elementary Schools and graduated from Franklin High School, where he was point guard on the basketball team. In 1963, Gossett was one of the few black males to attend the University of Washington.

In 1966, Gossett spent a year with Volunteers in Service to America (VISTA). Through VISTA, he received community organizing training with Harlem Youth, Inc. Gossett came back to Seattle as “Oba” and went on to become the school’s first student to graduate with a degree in African American Studies. Gossett was a member of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) and a founder of the Seattle chapter of the Black Panther Party. He was a co-founder of the University of Washington’s Black Student Union (UWBSU) and used the organization to leverage the University of Washington’s Black Studies Program. Gossett attended the Black Youth Conference in Los Angeles, California in 1967 that featured James Forman, Harry Edwards, Tommie Smith and John Carlos. He was the organizer of the Seattle Alliance of Black Student Unions and helped organize nearly a dozen high school, middle school and collegiate black student unions throughout the Seattle area. On March 29, 1968, Gossett was arrested, but was later exonerated after leading a sit-in to protest the treatment of black students at Franklin High School.

In 1982, Gossett founded the Minority Executive Directors Coalition (MEDC). He served as the Executive Director for the Central Area Motivation Program (CAMP) from 1979 to 1993 and helped to provide job assistance, a food bank and programs for at-risk youth. In the mid-1980s, Gossett was involved in the presidential campaign of Reverend Jesse L. Jackson, Sr. and was an organizer for the Rainbow Coalition. As president of the Rainbow Push Coalition, Gossett supported Norman B. Rice’s mayoral candidacy in 1989. In 1991, Washington’s King County Council was expanded from nine to thirteen members, and in 1993, Gossett won a seat representing Washington’s District 10, an area stretching from the Montlake Cut to Beacon Hill. As a councilman, Gossett has dedicated his time to the reformation of the criminal justice system, better public transportation and job opportunities for the poor and minorities.

Gossett serves as a member and chair of the King County Council. Gossett, a high profile black activist with strong ties to the Hispanic, Asian and Native American communities, was a prime mover in 1996 for changing the symbol of King County (Seattle) from 19th century slaveholder, Rufus Devane King to Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. The county’s official logo was changed to an image of Dr. King. There is a fifty-eight minute documentary produced by University of Washington television that features Gossett’s BSU activism. The film is called In Pursuit of Justice.

Accession Number

A2007.305

Sex

Male

Interview Date

10/25/2007

Last Name

Gossett

Maker Category
Schools

Franklin High School

West Seattle Elementary School

Horace Mann Elementary School

George Washington Middle School

James A. Garfield High School

University of Washington

First Name

Larry

Birth City, State, Country

Seattle

HM ID

GOS02

Favorite Season

Christmas

State

Washington

Favorite Vacation Destination

Santa Barbara, California

Favorite Quote

I Am Proud To Serve You.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Washington

Interview Description
Birth Date

2/21/1945

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Seattle

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Pork Chops

Short Description

Civil rights activist and county council member Larry Gossett (1945 - ) represented the State of Washington's District 10. He was involved in the presidential campaign of Reverend Jesse L. Jackson, Sr. and was an organizer for the Rainbow Coalition.

Employment

Harlem Youth Opportunities Unlimited

Central Area Motivation Program

King County Council

Office of Minority Affairs and Diversity, University of Washington

Favorite Color

Purple

DAStories

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/599029">Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Larry Gossett's interview</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/599030">Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Larry Gossett lists his favorites</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/599031">Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Larry Gossett talks about the history of Nigton, Texas</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/599032">Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Larry Gossett describes his mother's family background</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/599033">Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Larry Gossett talks about his parents' education</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/599034">Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Larry Gossett describes his father's family background, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/599035">Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Larry Gossett describes his father's family background, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/599036">Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Larry Gossett talks about his father's profession</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/599037">Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Larry Gossett recalls how his parents met</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/599038">Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Larry Gossett describes his parents' personalities and who he takes after</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/599039">Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Larry Gossett describes his earliest childhood memory</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/599040">Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Larry Gossett talks about his elementary school education in Seattle, Washington, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/599041">Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Larry Gossett describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/599042">Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Larry Gossett remembers his favorite music and television shows</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/599043">Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Larry Gossett recalls Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.'s visit to Seattle, Washington</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/599044">Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Larry Gossett talks about his elementary school education in Seattle, Washington, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/599045">Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Larry Gossett remembers Washington's notable African American athletes</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/599046">Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Larry Gossett recalls playing basketball in high school</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/599047">Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Larry Gossett describes his decision to attend the University of Washington in Seattle, Washington</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/599048">Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Larry Gossett talks about the racial demographics of the University of Washington</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/599049">Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Larry Gossett recalls the racial climate at the University of Washington</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/599050">Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Larry Gossett describes his early perceptions of the Civil Rights Movement</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/599051">Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Larry Gossett remembers joining the Volunteers in Service to America</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/599052">Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Larry Gossett recalls his work with Volunteers in Service to America in New York City</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/599053">Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Larry Gossett talks about joining the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/599054">Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Larry Gossett describes the Harlem Youth Opportunities Unlimited programs</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/599055">Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Larry Gossett talks about his civil rights activities in Seattle, Washington</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/599056">Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Larry Gossett remembers the 1967 Black Youth Conference</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/599057">Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Larry Gossett recalls the agendas of the University of Washington's Black Student Union</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/599058">Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Larry Gossett describes the Black Student Union's sit-in at the University of Washington, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/599059">Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Larry Gossett describes the Black Student Union's sit-in at the University of Washington, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/599060">Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Larry Gossett recalls his arrest in 1968</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/599061">Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Larry Gossett talks about his early political aspirations</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/599062">Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Larry Gossett remembers his time in jail during the Seattle riots</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/599063">Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Larry Gossett describes his trial in 1968</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/599064">Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Larry Gossett describes his role as a student recruiter for the University of Washington</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/599065">Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Larry Gossett talks about the founding of Seattle's Black Panther Party</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/599066">Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Larry Gossett describes the Central Area Motivation Program</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/599067">Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Larry Gossett talks about the Rites of Passage Experience program at the Central Area Motivation Program</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/599068">Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Larry Gossett recalls his election to the King County Council</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/599069">Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Larry Gossett talks about the renaming of King County, Washington, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/599070">Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Larry Gossett talks about the renaming of King County, Washington, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/599071">Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Larry Gossett talks about the original namesake of King County</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/599072">Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Larry Gossett describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/599073">Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Larry Gossett reflects upon his life</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/599074">Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Larry Gossett reflects upon his legacy</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/599075">Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Larry Gossett talks about his family</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/599076">Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Larry Gossett describes how he would like to be remembered</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/599077">Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Larry Gossett narrates his photographs, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/599078">Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Larry Gossett narrates his photographs, pt. 2</a>

Reverend Joseph Metz Rollins

Civil rights activist and pastor Rev. Joseph Metz Rollins, Jr. was born on September 8, 1926 in Newport News, Virginia to Reverend Joseph Metz Rollins, Sr. and Alice C. Rollins, as the first of two children. Rollins’ father was the pastor of the Carver Memorial Presbyterian Church for forty-four years, beginning just one year before Rollins’ birth. In 1970, his church had become one of the largest in the Southern Virginia Presbytery when Rollins retired.

In 1954, at the age of twenty-seven, the presbytery sent Rollins from Newport News to become the first pastor at Trinity Presbyterian Church in Tallahassee, Florida. There, Rollins was active in the Tallahassee Bus Boycott, which was coordinated by the Inter-Civic Council. Rollins served as treasurer for the group, working with civil rights activist Reverend C.K. Steele. During the boycott, many in the group’s leadership were threatened with violence. Rollins, in particular, received death threats. Despite this, he became known for his outspoken nature and unwillingness to compromise on important issues. Rollins’ activism had consequences on his career. The Florida Presbytery fired him and abandoned Trinity Presbyterian Church, which forced Rollins to take a job as a hospital orderly. His congregation, in the meantime, purchased new land and joined the “Northern Presbyterian Church,” becoming Trinity United Presbyterian. Steadfast in service to civil rights, in 1961, Rollins was arrested in Jackson, Mississippi for his participation in the Freedom Rides. He was struck in the head by a rock in 1963 protesting in Nashville, Tennessee. Rollins served as Vice President of the Nashville Christian Leadership Council, a branch of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.’s Southern Christian Leadership Conference and acted as the field director for United Presbyterian’s Board of Education.

In 1964, Rollins moved to New York to work as a staff member for the United Presbyterian Church; also, he continued his work in the Civil Rights Movement. Rollins became the first Executive Director of the National Committee of Black Churchmen in 1967, an organization dedicated to advocating for racial awareness within churches. The following year, Rollins lost a race for the White Plains, New York school board. As leader of the National Committee of Black Churchmen, Rollins was involved in numerous controversies in the late 1960s and early 1970s, including the debate over James Forman’s “Black Manifesto,” which demanded reparations from white churches, and the National Committee of Black Churchmen coordinated “Black Referendum” on the Vietnam War. By 1972, the National Committee of Black Churchmen had 800 members, and Rollins had relocated to become Pastor at St. Augustine Presbyterian Church in the Bronx, New York. Rollins remained the pastor until 2005, when, at the age of seventy-eight, he became Pastor Emeritus.

Reverend Joseph Metz Rollins, Jr. was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on September 14, 2007.

Accession Number

A2007.264

Sex

Male

Interview Date

9/14/2007

Last Name

Rollins

Maker Category
Middle Name

Metz

Schools

Marshall Elementary School

Hampton University

Johnson C. Smith University

Collis P. Huntington High School

First Name

Joseph

Birth City, State, Country

Newport News

HM ID

ROL02

Favorite Season

Christmas

State

Virginia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Canada

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Interview Description
Birth Date

9/8/1926

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New York

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Hamburgers

Short Description

Civil rights activist and pastor Reverend Joseph Metz Rollins (1926 - ) served as pastor of St. Augustine Presbyterian Church in the Bronx, New York from 1972 to 2005. He was active in the Civil Rights Movement including the Freedom Rides of 1961.

Employment

Johnson C. Smith University

Trinity Presbyterian Church

Nashville Christian Leadership Council

United Presbyterian’s Board of Education

National Committee of Black Churchmen

St. Augustine Presbyterian Church

Favorite Color

Green

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/571700">Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Reverend Joseph Metz Rollins' interview</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/571701">Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Reverend Joseph Metz Rollins lists his favorites</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/571702">Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Reverend Joseph Metz Rollins describes his mother's family background</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/571703">Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Reverend Joseph Metz Rollins recalls his maternal grandmother</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/571704">Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Reverend Joseph Metz Rollins describes his mother's occupation and education</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/571705">Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Reverend Joseph Metz Rollins describes his father's family background</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/571706">Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Reverend Joseph Metz Rollins recalls his paternal grandfather</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/571707">Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Reverend Joseph Metz Rollins remembers segregation in Gastonia, North Carolina</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/571708">Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Reverend Joseph Metz Rollins describes his father's personality</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/571709">Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Reverend Joseph Metz Rollins remembers segregation in Newport News, Virginia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/571710">Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Reverend Joseph Metz Rollins recalls his early education</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/571711">Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Reverend Joseph Metz Rollins remembers John Marshall Elementary School in Newport News, Virginia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/571712">Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Reverend Joseph Metz Rollins recalls the entertainment of his youth</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/571713">Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Reverend Joseph Metz Rollins recalls his early interest in literature</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/571714">Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Reverend Joseph Metz Rollins describes his experiences of racial discrimination</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/571715">Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Reverend Joseph Metz Rollins remembers Marcelino Manuel da Graca</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/571716">Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Reverend Joseph Metz Rollins remembers the Hampton Institute in Hampton, Virginia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/571717">Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Reverend Joseph Metz Rollins recalls Johnson C. Smith University in Charlotte, North Carolina</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/571718">Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Reverend Joseph Metz Rollins remembers his ordination as a minister</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/571719">Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Reverend Joseph Metz Rollins recalls teaching at Johnson C. Smith University</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/571720">Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Reverend Joseph Metz Rollins remembers moving to Tallahassee, Florida</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/571721">Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Reverend Joseph Metz Rollins recalls the formation of the Inter Civic Council</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/571722">Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Reverend Joseph Metz Rollins remembers the Trinity United Presbyterian Church in Tallahassee, Florida</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/571723">Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Reverend Joseph Metz Rollins recalls meeting Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/571724">Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Reverend Joseph Metz Rollins remembers working as a hospital orderly</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/571725">Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Reverend Joseph Metz Rollins recalls the bus boycott in Tallahassee, Florida, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/571726">Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Reverend Joseph Metz Rollins recalls the bus boycott in Tallahassee, Florida, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/571727">Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Reverend Joseph Metz Rollins recalls moving to Nashville, Tennessee</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/571728">Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Reverend Joseph Metz Rollins recalls joining the Nashville Christian Leadership Council</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/571729">Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Reverend Joseph Metz Rollins remembers his daughter's appendectomy</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/571730">Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Reverend Joseph Metz Rollins recalls his activism in Nashville, Tennessee</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/571731">Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Reverend Joseph Metz Rollins remembers visiting Canada with his family</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/571732">Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Reverend Joseph Metz Rollins remembers visiting Virginia with his family</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/571733">Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Reverend Joseph Metz Rollins talks about the National Committee of Black Churchmen</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/571734">Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Reverend Joseph Metz Rollins recalls his activism in Mississippi, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/571735">Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Reverend Joseph Metz Rollins recalls his activism in Mississippi, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/571736">Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Reverend Joseph Metz Rollins remembers James Forman's Black Manifesto</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/571737">Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Reverend Joseph Metz Rollins describes the influence of black liberation theology, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/571738">Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Reverend Joseph Metz Rollins describes the influence of black liberation theology, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/571739">Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Reverend Joseph Metz Rollins recalls the assassination of Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr.</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/571740">Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Reverend Joseph Metz Rollins remembers his opposition to the Vietnam War</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/571741">Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Reverend Joseph Metz Rollins recalls Black Solidarity Day</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/571742">Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Reverend Joseph Metz Rollins recalls pastoring St. Augustine Presbyterian Church in the Bronx, New York</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/571743">Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Reverend Joseph Metz Rollins recalls campaigning to join the school board in White Plains, New York</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/571744">Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Reverend Joseph Metz Rollins recalls advocating for prisoners at the Attica Correctional Facility</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/571745">Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Reverend Joseph Metz Rollins talks about Billy Graham</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/571746">Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Reverend Joseph Metz Rollins reflects upon his personal theology</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/571747">Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Reverend Joseph Metz Rollins describes the history of African Americans in the Presbyterian church</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/571748">Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Reverend Joseph Metz Rollins recalls pledging Kappa Alpha Psi Fraternity</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/571749">Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Reverend Joseph Metz Rollins remembers Cecil Ivory</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/571750">Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Reverend Joseph Metz Rollins reflects upon desegregation, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/571751">Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Reverend Joseph Metz Rollins reflects upon desegregation, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/571752">Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Reverend Joseph Metz Rollins describes how he would like to be remembered, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/571753">Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Reverend Joseph Metz Rollins describes how he would like to be remembered, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/571754">Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Reverend Joseph Metz Rollins remembers Russell Anderson</a>

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$3

DAStory

5$2

DATitle
Reverend Joseph Metz Rollins recalls the bus boycott in Tallahassee, Florida, pt. 1
Reverend Joseph Metz Rollins remembers the Trinity United Presbyterian Church in Tallahassee, Florida
Transcript
Tell us some more about the Inter Civic Council and the development of the Tallahassee bus boycott. How did that work itself out or did it work itself out?$$Well it did because the Inter Civic Council was called, was created when we decided to support the students and C.K. Steele [Charles Kenzie Steele] was, was a pastor of Bethel Baptist Church [Bethel Missionary Baptist Church, Tallahassee, Florida] and, as I said, had been preaching since he was ten years old in the, in the mountains of West Virginia and in the coal mines. DuPont [King Solomon DuPont], and then we even had, most important of all, the chaplain at Florida A and M [Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University, Tallahassee, Florida] was a man by the name of Dr. James Hudson. He was the only real faculty member who ended up supporting us and his, you know, his welfare was threatened. They didn't fire him but when the investigation started and then they arrested us, I'll never forget, I was supposed to be down at court at nine o'clock in the morning and when I got downtown I found that I only had fifty cents in my pocket 'cause I had rushed out to be on time so that they wouldn't create any more problems. And so, there was a lady there, a black woman, bless her heart, she's about eighty or ninety years old and so she over--she was there attending the court session and she had heard me say something and she reached in her pocket and gave me fifty cents. I told her, I said, I'm going to the bank, I don't need this, but she said, "That's all right, you stick to your guns and do what you's got to do, Reverend," and you know so that was the way it was and, of course, the, I won't say, he wasn't a judge but he was a low, low-life lawyer and so he spent time trying to create the illusion that we had all kind of money and we have been receiving some support from the National, NAACP [National Association for the Advancement of Colored People] and the like, but when he was passing this case, he would talk about the fact that this wasn't the poor Inter Civic Council, that we were getting money from everywhere and we were getting some money from some places but it wasn't that much but they end up, to make a long story short, they found us all guilty, C.K. Steele, myself, K.D.S. DuPont, everybody that was on the, the board of directors on the Inter Civic Council, was found guilty.$Now let me ask you, we skipped a little talking, discussing your church in Tallahassee [Florida]. Can you tell us the name of your church and a little bit about it, Trinity [Trinity United Presbyterian Church, Tallahassee, Florida] (simultaneous)?$$(Simultaneous) Well, when I started the church, I was living on 1710--no, I'm sorry, that's, that's another place, I'm sorry, but anyhow, I started, I, I had found a home to rent and we started holding services in my home. This was in 1953 and it got to the point where it was too crowded and an inconvenience 'cause this is where I was living. I used to have to clean up, set up chairs in the living room and the dining room and then, one of the interesting things was, we had one of the few televisions that we had brought, black and white, and so when service was over, we'd turn it on and some of them would stay around to watch television because some of them didn't have, hadn't seen, it was all black and white, but finally we ended up with, 'cause it was inconvenient and when we got some growth and everything, it got to the point where we, we, it was just inconvenient to have to try to clean up on Saturday night, set up folding chairs and we had people standing on the outside. And so, with some help from our white friends from downtown, they got us a rental agreement with a black school and we started worshiping in the auditorium in, and this was still part of, of the area in Tallahassee, near Florida A and M University [Florida Agricultural and Mechanical College; Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University]. And one of the things was after we moved there to the school, we had services and I had found an organist, or a pianist played for us and he taught on the faculty at Florida A and M University, FAMU by this time, by, except the legislature hadn't voted that way. And so we, we, we met at, the name of, see again, I can't remember the name of the school but I think it was Barnes School [ph.]. I'll say that, I think I'm correct, and we started holding services there and it was interesting because some of the white people from downtown came to worship with us and they were quite complimentary. Oh, you all worship just like we do, 'cause they had come expecting us to be jumping and shouting and all that kind of foolishness and I'm a Presbyterian, I'm a third generation Presbyterian minister. I probably was too careful to have, was too dignified 'cause it wasn't 'til I sort of learned from C.K. Steele [Charles Kenzie Steele] and there was a, an A.M.E. Zion [African Methodist Episcopal Zion] minister whose name was K.D.S. DuPont. Wouldn't you like to guess what the K.D.S. stood for? His father had named him King David Solomon DuPont [King Solomon DuPont] at Fountain Chapel A.M.E. Zion Church [sic. Fountain Chapel A.M.E. Church; Greater Fountain Chapel A.M.E. Church, Tallahassee, Florida]. DuPont was as tall as I was and a very well-known man in the, in the black community and he had a knack for finding out everything in terms of, 'cause we didn't have to worry what white folks were saying about us, the maids and things who went, would come to the meeting. White people thought they were deaf and then they would talk about 'em in front of them and then they'd come back and tell us what they were up to.

Hattie B. Dorsey

Founder and former president of the Atlanta Neighborhood Development Partnership (ANDP), Hattie Beleatha Dorsey was born the eldest of eleven children on May 31, 1939 in Teachey, North Carolina. When Dorsey was an adolescent, her family moved to New York City where she attended Charles Evan Hughes High School. As a high school student, Dorsey took courses in fashion design and interior design. The Dorsey Family moved to Atlanta where she attended David T. Howard High School. Her father was the residing pastor of the Tabernacle Baptist Church in Atlanta and chairman of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference’s Operation Bread Basket. She is a first cousin to the father of gospel music great Thomas A. Dorsey.

After attending Spelman College, Dorsey transferred to Clark Atlanta University. In 1964, Dorsey graduated from Clark Atlanta University with her B.S. degree in secretarial science. Dorsey performed secretarial work for various companies, until she became an administrative assistant for the National Urban League. Dorsey continued her civil rights work by working on the NAACP’s legal defense team throughout the 1970s and 1980s, helping to bring landmark legal suits against those who practiced housing discrimination. Dorsey worked for Stanford Mid-Peninsula Urban Coalition on Affordable Housing in San Francisco, California before becoming director of the Atlanta Neighborhood Development Partnership.

As president of ANDP, Dorsey worked to solidify Metro Atlanta neighborhoods and community development corporations. Under Dorsey’s leadership, issues related to public housing became a regional priority. A larger part of Dorsey’s success as ANDP’s president resided in her ability to develop financial resources from all sectors – private, public and philanthropic. In 1995, ANDP launched a $16 million capital campaign to accelerate housing construction and innovation in preparation for the Olympic Games.

Dorsey has received many awards and honors including the 2005 Spelman College Local Community Service Award; Atlanta Woman magazine’s nominee for Woman of the Year, Georgia Trend magazine’s “2004 Notable Georgians”, 2001 Honoree of Women Looking Ahead; 2003 Inductee into the Atlanta Business League’s Women Hall of Fame, The Georgia Black Caucus Grace Towns Hamilton Leadership Award, and the Atlanta Regional Commission’s Golden Glasses Award.

Dorsey and her daughter, Victoria “Michelle,” live in Atlanta.

Dorsey was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on September 13, 2007.

Accession Number

A2007.259

Sex

Female

Archival Photo 1
Interview Date

9/13/2007

Last Name

Dorsey

Maker Category
Middle Name

B.

Schools

Ps 26 Jesse Owens School

Bayard Rustin Education Complex

David T. Howard High School

Charity Middle

Spelman College

Clark Atlanta University

Archival Photo 2
First Name

Hattie

Birth City, State, Country

Teachey

HM ID

DOR05

Favorite Season

Spring

State

North Carolina

Favorite Vacation Destination

Beaches

Favorite Quote

Do Unto Others As You Would Have Them Do Unto You.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Interview Description
Birth Date

5/31/1939

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Atlanta

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Soul Food

Short Description

Civil rights activist and community development executive Hattie B. Dorsey (1939 - ) is the former president of the Atlanta Neighborhood Development Partnership. As president, she worked to solidify Metro Atlanta neighborhoods and community development corporations.

Employment

U.S. Department of the Interior

U.S. Congress

National Urban League

Model Cities

City of Atlanta

Cannonlene Company

Stanford Mid-Peninsula Urban Coalition

Edna McConnell Clark Foundation

Voter Education Project

Atlanta Economic Development Corporation

Atlanta Neighborhood Development Partnership

Favorite Color

Blue, Green

Timing Pairs
0,0:3150,45:3714,52:4090,57:4936,73:6816,96:18650,236:19070,241:19910,253:26900,316:27980,331:29780,362:34820,441:35360,448:48810,629:49690,644:50970,666:51850,680:56010,759:62708,859:64858,927:67610,1001:68384,1012:74060,1087:75522,1112:76038,1119:99890,1382:107402,1429:117834,1562:123286,1623:146676,1810:147816,1824:159624,1975:160536,1984:167590,2026:168059,2035:170081,2048:170469,2053:175830,2152:176130,2157:193890,2339:194770,2350:210720,2560$0,0:2778,18:5082,97:5658,116:12474,261:13050,269:21284,345:24755,409:38050,578:38330,583:41130,629:44210,686:44490,699:44980,711:45330,717:58540,890:68479,990:69349,1002:69871,1009:70567,1025:71176,1033:72394,1055:72742,1062:73525,1072:99380,1393:102194,1412:103058,1431:104030,1441:113658,1552:116034,1590:116386,1595:118058,1614:118674,1623:119290,1631:119906,1639:123602,1697:137797,1846:143250,1915
DAStories

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/529257">Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Hattie B. Dorsey's interview</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/529258">Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Hattie B. Dorsey lists her favorites</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/529259">Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Hattie B. Dorsey talks about her mother's upbringing</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/529260">Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Hattie B. Dorsey describes her mother's family background</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/529261">Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Hattie B. Dorsey recalls the sights, sounds, and smells of visiting her family in rural North Carolina</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/529262">Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Hattie B. Dorsey talks about her white heritage</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/529263">Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Hattie B. Dorsey describes her mother's education</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/529264">Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Hattie B. Dorsey describes her father, Rev. Edward Henry "E.H." Dorsey's family background</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/529265">Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Hattie B. Dorsey recalls her earliest childhood memory</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/529266">Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Hattie B. Dorsey describes how her parents met</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/529267">Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Hattie B. Dorsey talks about music in her family, and her first cousin once-removed, gospel singer Thomas A. Dorsey</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/529268">Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Hattie B. Dorsey describes her father, the Reverend Edward Henry "E.H." Dorsey</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/529269">Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Hattie B. Dorsey recalls being hospitalized at the Roslyn, New York Home for Cardiac Children from 1949 to 1951</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/529270">Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Hattie B. Dorsey describes her childhood illness and the treatment she received at the Roslyn, New York Home for Cardiac Children</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/529271">Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Hattie B. Dorsey recalls her family and home life in 1940s Brooklyn, New York</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/529272">Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Hattie B. Dorsey lists her ten siblings</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/529273">Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Hattie B. Dorsey describes her neighborhood growing up in Brooklyn, New York</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/529274">Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Hattie B. Dorsey talks about her elementary school years at P.S. 26 in Brooklyn, New York</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/529275">Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Hattie B. Dorsey describes attending P.S. 26 in Brooklyn, New York</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/529276">Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Hattie B. Dorsey recalls her mother's strict discipline</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/529277">Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Hattie B. Dorsey describes her classes at P.S. 26 in Brooklyn, New York, and her interest in sewing</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/529278">Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Hattie B. Dorsey talks about her favorite books as a child, and her decision to attend Straubenmuller Textile High School (later Bayard Rustin Educational Complex)…

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/529279">Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Hattie B. Dorsey talks about moving from Brooklyn, New York to Teachey, North Carolina at age fifteen</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/529280">Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Hattie B. Dorsey describes attending Charity High School in Rose Hill, North Carolina until her father, the Reverend E.H. Dorsey, moved the family to Atlanta,…

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/529281">Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Hattie B. Dorsey talks about moving to Atlanta, Georgia and attending David T. Howard High School there</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/529282">Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Hattie B. Dorsey recalls her friends and extracurricular interests at David T. Howard High School in Atlanta, Georgia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/529283">Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Hattie B. Dorsey recounts her decision to attend Spelman College in Atlanta, Georgia, then to transfer to Clark College (now Clark-Atlanta University)</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/529284">Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Hattie B. Dorsey describes attending Clark College (now Clark Atlanta University) in Atlanta, Georgia from 1958 to 1962</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/529285">Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Hattie B. Dorsey explains her father, the Reverend Edward Henry "E.H." Dorsey's role in the Civil Rights Movement in Atlanta, Georgia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/529286">Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Hattie B. Dorsey describes the Atlanta, Georgia home of Martin Luther King, Jr.'s family</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/529287">Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Hattie B. Dorsey talks about the Atlanta, Georgia chapter of Operation Breadbasket, headed by her father, the Reverend Edward Henry "E.H." Dorsey</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/529288">Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Hattie B. Dorsey talks about marrying her first husband, Samuel Thomas, and moving to Washington, D.C.</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/529289">Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Hattie B. Dorsey describes her first job as an administrative assistant at the U.S. Department of the Interior</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/529290">Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Hattie B. Dorsey talks about working for Representative Charles L. Weltner (D-Georgia)</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/529291">Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Hattie B. Dorsey describes working for the National Urban League in Washington, D.C. with HistoryMakers Sterling Tucker and John E. Jacob</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/529292">Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Hattie B. Dorsey talks about returning to Atlanta, Georgia after her 1968 divorce, working for the federal Model Cities Program and then for Mayor Ivan Allen</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/529293">Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Hattie B. Dorsey describes working for Atlanta, Georgia mayor Ivan Allen after the Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.'s 1968 assassination</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/529294">Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Hattie B. Dorsey talks about moving to Oakland, California in 1971 to work for the Urban League, then the Stanford, California Urban Coalition; and marrying James…

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/529295">Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Hattie B. Dorsey describes working for the Stanford, California Urban Coalition</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/529296">Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Hattie B. Dorsey recounts her fundraising work as the Stanford, California Urban Coalition's Director of Resource Development</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/529297">Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Hattie B. Dorsey describes the Stanford, California Urban Coalition's education and training programs, and its independence from federal funding</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/529298">Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Hattie B. Dorsey talks about working for the Edna McConnell Clark Foundation in New York City and adopting her daughter Michelle</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/529299">Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Hattie B. Dorsey talks about her friendships with HistoryMakers Vernon E. Jordan, Jr., Julian Bond, and Xernona Clayton; and Atlanta, Georgia mayor Maynard Jackson<…

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/529300">Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Hattie B. Dorsey describes working at the Atlanta Economic Development Corporation in Georgia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/529301">Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Hattie B. Dorsey talks about founding the Atlanta Neighborhood Development Partnership in Georgia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/529302">Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Hattie B. Dorsey lists some of the Atlanta Neighborhood Development Partnership's projects</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/529303">Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Hattie B. Dorsey recalls the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta, Georgia, and the role of the Atlanta Neighborhood Development Partnership</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/529304">Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Hattie B. Dorsey explains the benefits of mixed-income urban communities, and the need for affordable housing</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/529305">Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Hattie B. Dorsey reflects upon the communities her Atlanta Neighborhood Development Partnership has strengthened, and the challenges they face</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/529306">Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Hattie B. Dorsey reflects upon her legacy, and what she would like to tell future generations</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/529307">Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Hattie B. Dorsey talks about her involvement with 100 Black Women in America and her hopes for HistoryMaker Barack Obama</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/529308">Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Hattie B. Dorsey narrates her photographs</a>

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$6

DAStory

3$3

DATitle
Hattie B. Dorsey explains her father, the Reverend Edward Henry "E.H." Dorsey's role in the Civil Rights Movement in Atlanta, Georgia
Hattie B. Dorsey talks about founding the Atlanta Neighborhood Development Partnership in Georgia
Transcript
Now the Civil Rights Movement was heating up during this time. Were you involved in any of the activities as a student?$$Observation for the most part, my father [Edward Henry "E.H." Dorsey] was very involved. He was friends with the King family. In fact if you ever passed the Historic Center, you would see the house with the family, you know was where the Kings grew up and I use to have dinner in that house, so you know and I taught Sunday school at Ebenezer [Baptist Church, Atlanta, Georgia] for Mrs. King.$$Okay well tell me about some of those times.$$Daddy was like involved in the Civil Rights Movement, he was the first Chair of Operation Breadbasket which was the predecessor to [HM Jesse L. Jackson's] Operation PUSH and all, but he and, and because Daddy King [the Reverend Martin Luther King, Sr.] was instrumental in bringing him back, my father mentored A.D. [Alfred Daniel Williams King] 'cause he was at Morehouse [College, Atlanta, Georgia] and Daddy was taking some refresher courses at Morehouse so Cameron Alexander, Reverend A.D. King and Carl Moncrieff were young ministers going to school there. So Daddy mentored that, Daddy was a, known as one of the few people that could manage A.D. because A.D. had a, a drinking problem and so Daddy was like the person that could, you know if A.D. was acting up or whatever, Daddy was sent to help him. He was very instrumental in, in like starting up Head Start programs and stuff here in Atlanta. He believed in buying property to house members of his congregation who you know couldn't afford to live in other places. So Daddy was, as, as I look back at some of my, the stuff that sort of changed my way of thinking, was that daddy had a profound impact without knowing it on what I do today or what I did in my profession. I would have to go to church, you know, pastor's daughter, you had to go to church. I went to church and I would put on big hats and sit in the back, you know getting over Saturday night (laughter). So but I was absorbing what was happening in high school you know, and I don't know but I was absorbing what was happening in high school and not in high school but in, what my father was doing during Civil Rights, the marches, the saying to your congregation, "You're gonna wear last Easter's hats 'cause we're gonna boycott Richard's Department Store. We can't eat at their counters, we can't shop. We can't try on clothes in their dressing rooms, we can't buy". So he basically stopped a whole lot of stuff you know with reference to his congregation.$All right and you began that organization [the AEDC Neighborhood Development Department] in what year, '91 [1991]?$$That operated under the umbrella of AEDC [Atlanta Economic Development Corporation], the Neighborhood Development [Department]. Maynard Jackson came on board as the mayor again and he felt AEDC should be a pure economic arm and housing had no role there. Now we argued about housing being a part of the economic drivers, as we all see the economy is in a mess because of our housing issues, but at any rate, we argued about that, and so I had a grant from the Ford Foundation to begin the community development corporation movement in Atlanta [Georgia]. So I went to them, I said what do you think about my spinning out? And so we spun out and formed the Atlanta Neighborhood Development Partnership. The best move possible, 'cause AEDC was quasi-public and had public funds, and never had done any fundraising until I came on board, and so with me having worked for a foundation, having worked with the private sector, raising money from a corporate network, knew how to raise money, and so nobody believed that this could happen. So I formed ANDP, and I think in their minds they probably said, "Whew, that'll be gone in a year you know. She can't survive, they're not gonna respond". But it was untapped resources, and so again you remember the lessons learned, the storehouse, pulled that forward and I started a capital campaign just like you would if you were building you know a monument or whatever. I started a formal campaign, and raised, and I would say from that point to this almost a hundred million dollars in investment loans and grants over the period of time that I headed up ANDP.$$And what period of time was that?$$We formed it in 1991, that was the birth date even though the activities before--was before that until I retired last year in 2006 at the end of the year.

Dabney N. Montgomery

Tuskegee Airman Dabney N. Montgomery was born on April 18, 1923 in Selma, Alabama to Lula Anderson Montgomery and Dred Montgomery. He attended the Alabama Lutheran Academy and then Selma University High School, graduating in 1941. After high school, he joined the U.S. Army and was sent for basic training at Keesler Field in Biloxi, Mississippi. After that, Montgomery was sent to Quartermaster Training School at Camp Lee, Virginia (outside of Petersburg), where he received special training in supplies.

In 1943, Montgomery of the 1051st Quartermaster Company of the 96th Air Service Group, attached to the 332nd Air Fighter Group was deployed to Italy. He served there until the end of World War II. In 1946, after returning to the United States, Montgomery entered Livingstone College in Salisbury, North Carolina. Montgomery became a member of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity and graduated with his B.A. degree in religious education in 1949. Between 1949 and 1950, he returned to Livingstone College and acquired thirty hours in economic study. He briefly studied economics at the University of Michigan and Wayne State University before going to Boston, Massachusetts, where he enrolled at the Boston Conservatory of Music, studying dance. Montgomery later studied dance with the New York City Metropolitan Opera Dance School before an injury forced him to end his career. In 1955, he began working for the city, first as a Social Service Investigator in the Department of Social Services and later for the Housing Authority. He retired in 1988.

Montgomery passed away on September 3, 2016.

Montgomery was heavily involved in the Civil Rights Movement. He participated in marches in New York City and in the 1963 March on Washington. In 1965, Montgomery was one of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.’s bodyguards on the historic Selma to Montgomery march.

Since his retirement, Montgomery has worked as a Social Outreach Worker for Project FIND, a non-profit organization assisting older adults on Manhattan’s West Side. Montgomery is also very active with Harlem’s Mother African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church, which is the oldest organized black church in New York, founded in 1796. Montgomery is also active on the Parks Committee and Harlem’s Interfaith Committee of the Tenth Community Board of Manhattan.

Montgomery has been married to his wife, Amelia Montgomery, for thirty-seven years (as of 2007). They have no children.

Montgomery was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on August 7, 2007.

Montgomery passed away on September 3, 2016.

Accession Number

A2007.226

Sex

Male

Interview Date

8/7/2007

2/5/2008

Last Name

Montgomery

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

M.

Schools

Selma University

Concordia College Alabama

Livingstone College

Metropolitan Opera Ballet School

Boston Conservatory at Berklee

University of Michigan

Wayne State University

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Dabney

Birth City, State, Country

Selma

HM ID

MON06

State

Alabama

Favorite Vacation Destination

Los Angeles, California

Favorite Quote

If You Have A Problem, Look At Your Feet. You May Be Standing On The Solution.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Interview Description
Birth Date

4/18/1923

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New York

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Sweet Potatoes, Greens (Collard)

Death Date

9/3/2016

Short Description

City government employee, tuskegee airman, and civil rights activist Dabney N. Montgomery (1923 - 2016 ) was a social services investigator in the Department of Social Services and for the New York Housing Authority.

Employment

U.S. Army Air Corps

New York City Housing Authority

Amsterdam Welfare Center

Favorite Color

Red

Timing Pairs
0,0:798,9:89842,1033:97616,1121:98240,1130:98942,1140:99332,1146:104293,1200:106810,1216:107310,1223:128620,1451:128960,1456:131160,1478:148861,1648:151322,1682:154810,1701$0,0:1391,18:2247,26:6422,57:6818,62:21226,239:25178,301:54784,576:55276,589:55768,596:62595,661:88030,933:92478,970:95610,1030:96045,1036:125686,1353:129557,1422:130031,1429:142500,1543:143300,1586:145140,1616:145460,1621:171264,1955:174232,2003:185955,2079:195222,2190:203654,2276:210124,2336:224734,2493:233492,2593:265754,2907:269665,2966:269965,2971:270265,2976:270565,2981:279859,3095:280294,3101:289634,3197:293089,3231:336260,3626:341920,3683
DAStories

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/577006">Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Dabney N. Montgomery's interview, session 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/577007">Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Dabney N. Montgomery lists his favorites</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/577008">Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Dabney N. Montgomery describes his mother's family</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/577009">Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Dabney N. Montgomery describes his father's family background, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/577010">Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Dabney N. Montgomery describes his father's family background, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/577011">Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Dabney N. Montgomery describes his maternal grandparents</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/577012">Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Dabney N. Montgomery talks about his father's marriages</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/577013">Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Dabney N. Montgomery describes his half-brother, Joe Montgomery</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/577014">Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Dabney N. Montgomery describes his father's career</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/577015">Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Dabney N. Montgomery talks about his father's standing in his career</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/577016">Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Dabney N. Montgomery describes his brother, Mitchel Montgomery</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/577017">Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Dabney N. Montgomery talks about his sister, Fairrow Belle Montgomery Prewitt, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/577018">Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Dabney N. Montgomery talks about his sister, Fairrow Belle Montgomery Prewitt, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/577019">Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Dabney N. Montgomery describes his two youngest siblings</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/577020">Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Dabney N. Montgomery remembers the Clinton Chapel A.M.E. Zion Church in Selma, Alabama</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/577021">Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Dabney N. Montgomery recalls his mother's death</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/577022">Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Dabney N. Montgomery remembers the holidays</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/577023">Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Dabney N. Montgomery describes his neighborhood in Selma, Alabama</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/577024">Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Dabney N. Montgomery remembers the black community in Selma, Alabama</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/577025">Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Dabney N. Montgomery describes his home life</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/577026">Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Dabney N. Montgomery describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/577027">Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Dabney N. Montgomery remembers the Alabama Lutheran Academy in Selma, Alabama</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/577028">Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Dabney N. Montgomery recalls his leadership at the Clinton Chapel A.M.E. Zion Church in Selma, Alabama</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/577029">Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Dabney N. Montgomery recalls attending high school at Selma University in Selma, Alabama</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/577030">Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Dabney N. Montgomery remembers the Clinton Chapel A.M.E. Zion Church in Selma, Alabama</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/577031">Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Dabney N. Montgomery recalls his decision to study religion</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/577032">Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Dabney N. Montgomery describes race relations in Selma, Alabama</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/577033">Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Dabney N. Montgomery recalls being drafted during World War II</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/577034">Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Dabney N. Montgomery describes his assignments in the U.S. Army Air Corps</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/577035">Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Dabney N. Montgomery remembers his colleagues in the U.S. Army Air Corps</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/577036">Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Dabney N. Montgomery describes his experiences on segregated trains</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/577037">Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Dabney N. Montgomery remembers the formation of the 332nd Fighter Group</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/577038">Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Dabney N. Montgomery recalls the Tuskegee Airmen</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/577039">Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Dabney N. Montgomery remembers serving as a chaplain to the Tuskegee Airmen</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/577040">Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Dabney N. Montgomery talks about his friends among the Tuskegee Airmen</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/577041">Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Dabney N. Montgomery describes the Claude B. Govan Tri-State Chapter of Tuskegee Airmen, Inc.</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/577042">Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Dabney N. Montgomery remembers the treatment of black soldiers in Europe</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/577043">Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Dabney N. Montgomery describes the missions of the 332nd Fighter Group</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/577044">Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Dabney N. Montgomery talks about the integration of the U.S. Army</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/577045">Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Dabney N. Montgomery talks about his Congressional Gold Medal</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/577046">Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Dabney N. Montgomery describes the end of World War II</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/577047">Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Dabney N. Montgomery recalls his return from the U.S. military to Selma, Alabama</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/577048">Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Dabney N. Montgomery remembers Livingstone College in Salisbury, North Carolina</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/577049">Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Dabney N. Montgomery remembers studying economics</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/577050">Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Dabney N. Montgomery remembers studying ballet at the Boston Conservatory of Music in Boston, Massachusetts</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/577051">Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Dabney N. Montgomery recalls meeting Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/577052">Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Dabney N. Montgomery talks about his brief engagement in Spain</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/577053">Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Dabney N. Montgomery recalls his return from New York City to Selma, Alabama</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/577054">Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Dabney N. Montgomery describes his first civil rights protest in Selma, Alabama</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/577055">Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Dabney N. Montgomery remembers the impact of the Selma to Montgomery March</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/577056">Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Dabney N. Montgomery narrates his photographs</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/577057">Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Slating of Dabney N. Montgomery's interview, session 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/577058">Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Dabney N. Montgomery describes the civil rights march on Washington, D.C. in 1957</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/577059">Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Dabney N. Montgomery remembers Paul Robeson</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/577060">Tape: 8 Story: 4 - Dabney N. Montgomery describes the influence of Dean John H. Satterwhite</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/577061">Tape: 8 Story: 5 - Dabney N. Montgomery remembers his father's friendship with A. Philip Randolph</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/577062">Tape: 8 Story: 6 - Dabney N. Montgomery remembers the March on Washington</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/577063">Tape: 8 Story: 7 - Dabney N. Montgomery talks about his decision to study economics</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/577064">Tape: 8 Story: 8 - Dabney N. Montgomery describes his experiences as an economics student</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/577065">Tape: 8 Story: 9 - Dabney N. Montgomery recalls his ballet training at the Boston Conservatory of Music in Boston, Massachusetts</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/577066">Tape: 8 Story: 10 - Dabney N. Montgomery talks about his interest in black history</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/577067">Tape: 9 Story: 1 - Dabney N. Montgomery remembers traveling in North Africa</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/577068">Tape: 9 Story: 2 - Dabney N. Montgomery recalls reconnecting with his Spanish fiancee, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/577069">Tape: 9 Story: 3 - Dabney N. Montgomery recalls reconnecting with his Spanish fiancee, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/577070">Tape: 9 Story: 4 - Dabney N. Montgomery remembers receiving a vision of angels</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/577071">Tape: 9 Story: 5 - Dabney N. Montgomery describes his travels in Egypt</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/577072">Tape: 9 Story: 6 - Dabney N. Montgomery describes his acquaintance wiht Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/577073">Tape: 9 Story: 7 - Dabney N. Montgomery describes his start as an activist in Selma, Alabama</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/577074">Tape: 10 Story: 1 - Dabney N. Montgomery remembers staying at a hotel in Selma, Alabama</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/577075">Tape: 10 Story: 2 - Dabney N. Montgomery recalls speaking at the Clinton Chapel A.M.E. Zion Church in Selma, Alabama</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/577076">Tape: 10 Story: 3 - Dabney N. Montgomery recalls drinking from a white water fountain in Selma, Alabama</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/577077">Tape: 10 Story: 4 - Dabney N. Montgomery remembers his decision to join the second Selma to Montgomery March</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/577078">Tape: 10 Story: 5 - Dabney N. Montgomery recalls his arrival at the second Selma to Montgomery March</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/577079">Tape: 10 Story: 6 - Dabney N. Montgomery describes the second Selma to Montgomery March</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/577080">Tape: 10 Story: 7 - Dabney N. Montgomery recalls his sister's role in the Selma to Montgomery March</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/577081">Tape: 11 Story: 1 - Dabney N. Montgomery talks about the decision to remain nonviolent during the second Selma to Montgomery March</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/577082">Tape: 11 Story: 2 - Dabney N. Montgomery recalls his experiences during the second Selma to Montgomery March</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/577083">Tape: 11 Story: 3 - Dabney N. Montgomery reflects upon his life</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/577084">Tape: 11 Story: 4 - Dabney N. Montgomery remembers the Harlem community in New York City</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/577085">Tape: 11 Story: 5 - Dabney N. Montgomery describes the changes in New York City's Harlem neighborhood</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/577086">Tape: 11 Story: 6 - Dabney N. Montgomery talks about the history of the African Methodist Episcopal Zion church</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/577087">Tape: 11 Story: 7 - Dabney N. Montgomery describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/577088">Tape: 11 Story: 8 - Dabney N. Montgomery reflects upon his legacy</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/577089">Tape: 11 Story: 9 - Dabney N. Montgomery remembers joining the Tuskegee Airman, Inc.</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/577090">Tape: 11 Story: 10 - Dabney N. Montgomery talks about his membership at the Mother Zion A.M.E. Church in New York City</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/577091">Tape: 11 Story: 11 - Dabney N. Montgomery remembers meeting his wife, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/577092">Tape: 12 Story: 1 - Dabney N. Montgomery remembers meeting his wife, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/577093">Tape: 12 Story: 2 - Dabney N. Montgomery describes the Tuskegee Airmen, Inc. organization</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/577094">Tape: 12 Story: 3 - Dabney N. Montgomery talks about his great-grandfather's U.S. military service</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/577095">Tape: 12 Story: 4 - Dabney N. Montgomery describes how he would like to be remembered</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/577096">Tape: 12 Story: 5 - Dabney N. Montgomery shares his memorabilia from the Selma to Montgomery March</a>

DASession

1$2

DATape

4$10

DAStory

7$3

DATitle
Dabney N. Montgomery remembers serving as a chaplain to the Tuskegee Airmen
Dabney N. Montgomery recalls drinking from a white water fountain in Selma, Alabama
Transcript
You see, what we did [as part of the 1051st Quartermaster Service Group Aviation Company], were to supply food and clothing, and that was it. We, we didn't have--for example, a chaplain of 332nd [332nd Fighter Group; 332nd Expeditionary Operations Group], because we were--we dealt with food and clothing. We needed a warehouse made out of brick. And they put us in brick warehouses, and we worked out of these warehouses. We tried tents, but tents would not do it. So we worked out of a brick environment. And because we worked out of a brick environment, we were isolated from the airfield. They had to come to us, and the chaplain seldom came to us. So I started, you know what? A Sunday school class, and every Sunday morning I would have service through my Sunday school class. I kept up with it a little bit too. And the lieutenant came to me one day and said, "You know, we haven't had communion in a long time. Since you teach Sunday school here, can you give us communion?" Well, I thought about it. I'm not a preacher, and I had no authority to give communion, to bless communion. However, in an isolated situation where there is no preacher, and I'm the one teaching Sunday school, I think that I also have the authority to give communion if the men want it. And on those grounds, I'll give you communion. And for the first time in my life, I went out and bought wine, went out and bought wine. And I knew the rituals. I came back, had the cook to cook me some bread that was without salt, broke it up, and had prayer over this. And then I served it to them, and we had communion (laughter). Maybe they'll put me in jail for being a preacher without license (laughter).$I went to the bus station which was three blocks or more away from the church, Clinton Chapel A.M.E. Zion Church [Selma, Alabama]. It was closed, locked, I couldn't go in there, but there was a Carter drugstore [Carter Drug Co.] on Broad Street [Selma, Alabama] that a good number of young white men just hung out there and I said, "I'll go there and sit at the counter and ask for ice cream, a Coke [Coca-Cola] or something and wouldn't move." I went there and they were closed. Okay. They're closed, I'll go to the jailhouse, the police headquarters, and that's where I went, to the police headquarters and asked to speak to the police in charge. And he came out with two other police, and I told them, "Sir, my name is Dabney Montgomery [HistoryMaker Dabney N. Montgomery]. I had come here to break segregated laws because it's wrong and it is the will of God that these laws be erased." And there was a fountain for white people only, for color peopled only, another fountain, I went and drank out of that fountain for white people only. He stood right there and said, "This man must be crazy," (laughter). "Take him out." Two cops came, grabbed me by the arm and took me out. I landed on the curb of the street at the jail. That's all. To show you how dangerous this was when the King's [Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.] movement came to Selma [Alabama], two white men ate at a black restaurant two blocks from that jail and both of them were shot, one was killed.$$Two--$$One died from the wound. Two white men--$$Two white men ate at a black restaurant?$$At a black res--$$Okay.$$Two black from that jail and one was killed, the other received the shots. And I thought at the time that SNCC [Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee] was there. I went to a SNCC movement when King movement was there and they said, "Look, never go out alone and break a segregated law (unclear) and never go at night if you're with a group of people, don't go at night." And there I was at night and alone and the angels of the Lord protected me. Well, as I sat on that curb, a black fellow in an automobile came by and said, "What are you doing out here, son? You don't see people sitting on the curb at night, not in Selma. What can I do for you?" "You can take me home." "Where you live?" "Corner, corner of Green Street and 1st Avenue." So he took me in his car home. When we arrived in front of my house, I noticed a few cars parked out in front of the house and the lights on in the house. All those people in the church had gone to my father's house and told them that Dab is in town breaking segregated laws (laughter). I knocked on the door, my father [Dred Montgomery] came to the door, the old man. "There he is." He opened the door and fell on the knees. They had told him about the experience. "Son, whatever you do, don't do it again. They'll come out and burn the house down; they might kill you, they might kill--we don't know what will happen. Please, son," down on his knee. I never had seen my father on his knees before and he was a fireman for forty years on the Southern railroad [Southern Railway]. Strong man. And I listened to him, and the people all left and words got out that Dab was in town and he was mentally deranged, a little crazy. My father get in a car and he goes up to the police office and tell them that my son is World War II [WWII] veteran and he is shell shocked. He is in town now, don't pay him any attention because he's shell shocked. The police went, "Yeah, that boy was up here. We knew something was wrong with his brain." That's why, for that reason, they didn't whatever they had planned to do.

The Honorable James Joseph

Former United States Ambassador to South Africa James Alfred Joseph was born on March 12, 1935 in Plaisance, Louisiana to Julia and Adam Joseph, farmers. Joseph attended the segregated St. Landry Parish Training School where he excelled in English and original oratory. He won the state oratory competition and placed second in the national competition. Joseph was an avid athlete who achieved success in track and basketball, and during high school, Joseph served as student government association president. In 1952, upon graduation from high school, Joseph entered Southern University where he served as class president, president of the Baptist Club and as the debate team champion. He graduated with his B.A. degree in political science and social studies. In 1959, Joseph received his master’s degree in Divinity from Yale University. At Yale, Joseph became active in civil rights protests and marches while serving in the ROTC in a non-combatant unit.

In 1963, Joseph began his academic career at Stillman College while working as a civil rights organizer. As an ordained minister, Joseph also taught at Yale Divinity School and the Claremont Colleges, where he served as University Chaplain. In 1971, Joseph left academia and was hired as Vice President of Cummins Engine Company. He also served as president of the Cummins Engine Foundation. After five years in corporate philanthropy, Joseph moved to government in 1977 when he was appointed Under Secretary for the Department of the Interior under President Jimmy Carter. In 1982, Joseph returned to philanthropy as the president and chief executive officer of the Council on Foundations, an international organization comprised of more than 2,000 foundations, where he served until 1995. During this time, President Ronald Reagan appointed Joseph to the Advisory Committee to the Agency for International Development, and in 1985, he was named a Distinguished Visitor at Nuffield College at Oxford University.

In 1996, Joseph joined the ambassadorial ranks when was named United States Ambassador to South Africa under President Bill Clinton where he would serve until 2000. As such, he was the first ambassador to present credentials to President Nelson Mandela. Joseph was awarded the Order of Good Hope by South African President Thabo Mbeki. Joseph continues to speak publicly about a variety of civic, religious and academic issues and is the author of The Charitable Impulse and Remaking America. After Hurricane Katrina decimated New Orleans and Joseph’s home-state of Louisiana, Governor Kathleen Blanco named Joseph the Chairman of the newly formed Louisiana Disaster Recovery Foundation. Joseph is also the founder of the United States-Southern Africa Center for Leadership and Public Values at Duke University and the University of Cape Town.

Joseph was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on June 24, 2007.

Accession Number

A2007.186

Sex

Male

Interview Date

6/24/2007

Last Name

Joseph

Maker Category
Marital Status

Widower

Organizations
Schools

St. Landry Parish Training School

Southern University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Yale Divinity School

First Name

James

Birth City, State, Country

Plaisance

HM ID

JOS01

Favorite Season

All Seasons Except Winter

State

Louisiana

Favorite Quote

I'm Not An Optimist Because I Do Not Believe Everything Ends Well. I Am Not A Pessimist Because I Do Not Believe Everything Ends Badly.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

North Carolina

Interview Description
Birth Date

3/12/1935

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Durham

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Gumbo

Short Description

Civil rights activist and foreign ambassador The Honorable James Joseph (1935 - ) was appointed Under Secretary of the Department of the Interior under President Jimmy Carter, and became President and CEO of the Council on Foundations. In 1996, President Bill Clinton appointed Joseph as Ambassador to South Africa.

Employment

Stillman College

Claremont Colleges

Cummins Foundation

Department of the Interior

U.S. Department of State

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/487403">Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of The Honorable James Joseph's interview</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/487404">Tape: 1 Story: 2 - The Honorable James Joseph lists his favorites</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/487405">Tape: 1 Story: 3 - The Honorable James Joseph describes his mother's family background</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/487406">Tape: 1 Story: 4 - The Honorable James Joseph describes his father's education and career</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/487407">Tape: 1 Story: 5 - The Honorable James Joseph talks about his grandparents</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/487408">Tape: 1 Story: 6 - The Honorable James Joseph talks about his aunts and uncles</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/487409">Tape: 1 Story: 7 - The Honorable James Joseph describes his earliest childhood memory</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/487410">Tape: 1 Story: 8 - The Honorable James Joseph remembers his early interest in reading</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/487411">Tape: 1 Story: 9 - The Honorable James Joseph remembers his activities in Plaisance, Louisiana</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/487412">Tape: 1 Story: 10 - The Honorable James Joseph describes segregation in southern Louisiana, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/487413">Tape: 1 Story: 11 - The Honorable James Joseph describes segregation in southern Louisiana, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/487414">Tape: 1 Story: 12 - The Honorable James Joseph remembers his influences in high school</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/487415">Tape: 2 Story: 1 - The Honorable James Joseph describes the St. Landry Parish Training School in Opelousas, Louisiana</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/487416">Tape: 2 Story: 2 - The Honorable James Joseph talks about the Creole culture</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/487417">Tape: 2 Story: 3 - The Honorable James Joseph recalls the Starlight Baptist Church in St. Landry Parish, Louisiana</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/487418">Tape: 2 Story: 4 - The Honorable James Joseph describes the Ku Klux Klan in St. Landry Paris, Louisiana</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/487419">Tape: 2 Story: 5 - The Honorable James Joseph remembers working in Houston, Texas</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/487420">Tape: 2 Story: 6 - The Honorable James Joseph describes segregation in Opelousas, Louisiana</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/487421">Tape: 2 Story: 7 - The Honorable James Joseph recalls his early aspirations</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/487422">Tape: 2 Story: 8 - The Honorable James Joseph recalls Southern University in Baton Rouge, Louisiana</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/487423">Tape: 2 Story: 9 - The Honorable James Joseph recalls his extracurricular activities in college</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/487424">Tape: 3 Story: 1 - The Honorable James Joseph recalls joining the Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/487425">Tape: 3 Story: 2 - The Honorable James Joseph recalls his influences at Southern University in Baton Rouge, Louisiana</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/487426">Tape: 3 Story: 3 - The Honorable James Joseph recalls the Reserve Officers' Training Corps</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/487427">Tape: 3 Story: 4 - The Honorable James Joseph describes his U.S. Army service</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/487428">Tape: 3 Story: 5 - The Honorable James Joseph remembers briefly teaching the third grade</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/487429">Tape: 3 Story: 6 - The Honorable James Joseph recalls his civil rights activities at Yale Divinity School in New Haven, Connecticut</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/487430">Tape: 3 Story: 7 - The Honorable James Joseph recalls his Danforth Foundation fellowship</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/487431">Tape: 3 Story: 8 - The Honorable James Joseph describes his studies at the Yale Divinity School</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/487432">Tape: 4 Story: 1 - The Honorable James Joseph describes his civil rights work in Tuscaloosa, Alabama</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/487433">Tape: 4 Story: 2 - The Honorable James Joseph describes a demonstration in Tuscaloosa, Alabama, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/487434">Tape: 4 Story: 3 - The Honorable James Joseph describes a demonstration in Tuscaloosa, Alabama, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/487435">Tape: 4 Story: 4 - The Honorable James Joseph describes his civil rights achievements in Tuscaloosa, Alabama</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/487436">Tape: 4 Story: 5 - The Honorable James Joseph describes his family</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/487437">Tape: 4 Story: 6 - The Honorable James Joseph recalls protesting the Vietnam War in Claremont, California</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/487438">Tape: 4 Story: 7 - The Honorable James Joseph describes his oratorical style</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/487439">Tape: 4 Story: 8 - The Honorable James Joseph recalls the civil rights leaders in Tuscaloosa, Alabama</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/487440">Tape: 4 Story: 9 - The Honorable James Joseph remembers organizing protests at Claremont College</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/487441">Tape: 4 Story: 10 - The Honorable James Joseph talks about returning to the South</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/487442">Tape: 5 Story: 1 - The Honorable James Joseph recalls his civil rights work in Edwards, Mississippi</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/487443">Tape: 5 Story: 2 - The Honorable James Joseph describes his career at Claremont College</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/487444">Tape: 5 Story: 3 - The Honorable James Joseph recalls serving as a foundation executive</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/487445">Tape: 5 Story: 4 - The Honorable James Joseph describes his accomplishments as a foundation executive</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/487446">Tape: 5 Story: 5 - The Honorable James Joseph describes the Martin Luther King Fellows program</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/487447">Tape: 5 Story: 6 - The Honorable James Joseph remembers visiting South Africa, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/487448">Tape: 5 Story: 7 - The Honorable James Joseph remembers visiting South Africa, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/487449">Tape: 5 Story: 8 - The Honorable James Joseph talks about his involvement with the TransAfrica Forum</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/487450">Tape: 5 Story: 9 - The Honorable James Joseph recalls his appointment to the U.S. Department of Interior</a>

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$5

DAStory

4$9

DATitle
The Honorable James Joseph describes his civil rights achievements in Tuscaloosa, Alabama
The Honorable James Joseph recalls his appointment to the U.S. Department of Interior
Transcript
As you look back now, how would you define the accomplishments of those days (simultaneous)?$$(Simultaneous) Well, you know, what? In a year, the, the lunch counters were integrated, the restrooms were integrated, the hotels were integrated, they were hiring black people. The University of Alabama [Tuscaloosa, Alabama] started bringing in blacks for their basketball team and football team. And once during the course of the, the movement during that year, I was invited by a campus minister at the University of Alabama to meet with some people. And while I was meeting, he went out for a minute and then he came back in and he said, "People are gathering in the front. I think we'd better sneak you out the back door," and they did. But a year later, you know, they were looking for athletes (laughter) and stuff. So I would say we were so successful that at the end of the year I said the local community is engaged. And I, I had a, a, a baby [Jeffrey Joseph] when I left New Haven [Connecticut], and he was only a couple of months old and I used to get these threatening calls every night about what they were gonna do to him. And it was very tough for my wife [Doris Joseph] and so my friend from Claremont [Claremont Colleges, Claremont, California] came over and offered me a job (crying).$$Yes, yeah, it's okay.$Jumping ahead just a little bit, tell me about your work with the [U.S.] Department of the Interior.$$Well, I was at Cummins [Cummins Engine Company; Cummins Inc.] minding my own business (laughter) and Andy Young [HistoryMaker Andrew Young] and I were at a conference in Lesotho and Jimmy Carter [President James Earl "Jimmy" Carter, Jr.] had just been elected and I said, Andy and I were having breakfast, and I said, "Andy, are you gonna go in the Carter administration?" 'Cause he had been such a big supporter and he said, "Oh, no. I, I've just gotten a few very important committees in the [U.S.] Congress and I'm gonna stay," he said, "but you ought to go." I said, "Oh, no, I've just gotten big promotions at Cummins and now I've got an opportunity to do more things." Two weeks later both Andy and I were in the Carter administration (laughter). It just happened that in my case, Cecil Andrus was the governor of Idaho and he was a friend of Jimmy Carter's and he was asked to be secretary of the interior. And I had a next door neighborhood who had been in a law firm in Idaho and he and Cecil Andrus were friends. And Cecil Andrus called him to see whether he'd consider being solicitor general. And so Cecil Andrus shared with him what he was looking for and a number two person to run the department and he says, "I've just got just the person for you; he's my neighbor." So he came back and he said, "I'd like for you to meet Cecil Andrus. He wants to meet you," and I say, "The Department of Interior? I mean, why would I wanna go to the Department of Interior?" And so he said, "Why don't you take a look at it?" So I did research the next few days. I found out everything I could, and I found out that it was one of those departments blacks ignored because they usually went into the ones that, social welfare kind of agency. But there were a lot of resources there that whites were taking advantage of, that black people were not getting. And so I said well I think I'll go talk to him. And then I went to Washington [D.C.] and talked to Cecil Andrus and I liked him very much, even though we had very different background. He had been a lawyer, a logger for gun (unclear) politics, got elected governor and now he was being appointed secretary of interior. My background was very different but I liked him and I decided to go and do it.

Jeanne Brayboy

Civil rights activist and elementary school music teacher Jeanne Martin Brayboy was born on February 23, 1930, in Camden, South Carolina. Her father, John Wendell Martin, was a high school teacher and football coach; and he started the first African American athletic conference in South Carolina. Her mother, June Singleton Martin, was a librarian. Brayboy and her younger sister, Thomasina, grew up under strict segregation, and they recognized the disparities between whites and blacks in Camden’s educational system. She attended Mather Academy, an African American boarding school founded in 1867 by the Women’s Division of the Northern Methodist Church in Camden, where the teachers stressed academic excellence and community responsibility. Brayboy graduated from Mather Academy in 1947.

Brayboy went on to attend Bennett College in Greensboro, North Carolina, as a music major, where she became active in the Bennett Choir among other campus activities. In 1951, Brayboy graduated from Bennett College with honors and received her B.A. degree in music. She entered Boston University to pursue her M.A. degree in music education. During her tenure at Boston University, Brayboy met Martin Luther King, Jr. Brayboy and King were a part of a small group of friends that attended black social gatherings on campus. She graduated from Boston University in 1953, and started her teaching career in Charlotte, North Carolina. In 1954, she married the late Dr. Jack Brayboy, who was an administrator at Johnson C. Smith University in Charlotte, North Carolina.

Brayboy spent forty years as a teacher in the Charlotte-Mecklenburg School System, from 1953 to 1993. While she worked in the segregated Charlotte schools, she witnessed bus boycotts and sit-ins during the Civil Rights Movement. In 1969, Brayboy became one of the first African American teachers to integrate the Charlotte-Mecklenburg Public Schools. Brayboy retired in 1993.

The mother of two adult children, Jack and Joyce, Brayboy devotes her time to many civic organizations including the Charlotte Symphony Orchestra, Levine Museum of the New South and the Foundation for the Carolinas. In 2011, Brayboy was awarded the Marie R. Rowe Award by the Symphony Guild of Charlotte, Inc.

Jeanne Martin Brayboy was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on June 20, 2007.

Accession Number

A2007.179

Sex

Female

Interview Date

6/20/2007

Last Name

Brayboy

Maker Category
Marital Status

Widowed

Schools

Boylan-Haven-Mather Academy

Boston University

Bennett College for Women

First Name

Jeanne

Birth City, State, Country

Camden

HM ID

BRA08

Favorite Season

Winter

State

South Carolina

Favorite Vacation Destination

Italy

Favorite Quote

To Whom Much Is Given, Much Is Required.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

North Carolina

Interview Description
Birth Date

2/23/1930

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Charlotte

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Lobster

Short Description

Civil rights activist and elementary school music teacher Jeanne Brayboy (1930 - ) taught for forty years, and was the first African American teacher to integrate the Charlotte-Mecklenburg Public Schools in Charlotte, North Carolina.

Employment

Charlotte-Mecklenburg School System

Johnson C. Smith University

Elementary Music Workshop

Barber-Scotia College

Favorite Color

Yellow

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/411925">Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Jeanne Brayboy's interview</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/411926">Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Jeanne Brayboy lists her favorites</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/411927">Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Jeanne Brayboy describes her mother's family background</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/411928">Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Jeanne Brayboy describes how her parents met</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/411929">Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Jeanne Brayboy describes her parents' education and professions</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/411930">Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Jeanne Brayboy describes her father</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/411931">Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Jeanne Brayboy describes her paternal grandparents</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/411932">Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Jeanne Brayboy describes her earliest childhood memory</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/411933">Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Jeanne Brayboy describes segregation in Camden, South Carolina</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/411934">Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Jeanne Brayboy remembers Mather Academy in Camden, South Carolina</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/411935">Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Jeanne Brayboy describes her sister</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/411936">Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Jeanne Brayboy remembers the holidays with her family</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/411937">Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Jeanne Brayboy describes her great-aunt</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/411938">Tape: 1 Story: 14 - Jeanne Brayboy describes racial discrimination in Camden, South Carolina</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/411939">Tape: 1 Story: 15 - Jeanne Brayboy remembers her aunt's sewing business</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/411940">Tape: 1 Story: 16 - Jeanne Brayboy remembers her teachers at Mather Academy</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/411941">Tape: 1 Story: 17 - Jeanne Brayboy describes Trinity Methodist Church in Camden, South Carolina</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/411942">Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Jeanne Brayboy describes her activities at Mather Academy</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/411943">Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Jeanne Brayboy talks about her family history of college education</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/411944">Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Jeanne Brayboy describes her interest in music</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/411945">Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Jeanne Brayboy describes her great-aunt's land ownership</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/411946">Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Jeanne Brayboy remembers polo and steeplechase races</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/411947">Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Jeanne Brayboy remembers Bennett College in Greensboro, North Carolina</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/411948">Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Jeanne Brayboy remembers traveling with the Bennett College choir</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/411949">Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Jeanne Brayboy remembers her studies at Bennett College</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/411950">Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Jeanne Brayboy describes segregation in Greensboro, North Carolina</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/411951">Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Jeanne Brayboy recalls her social acitivties at Bennett College</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/411952">Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Jeanne Brayboy remembers Boston University in Massachusetts</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/411953">Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Jeanne Brayboy remembers Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/411954">Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Jeanne Brayboy describes Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. as a young man</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/411955">Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Jeanne Brayboy recalls dating Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/411956">Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Jeanne Brayboy describes her social life at Boston University</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/411957">Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Jeanne Brayboy recalls teaching music in Charlotte, North Carolina</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/411958">Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Jeanne Brayboy describes her music curriculum</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/411959">Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Jeanne Brayboy remembers teaching in segregated schools</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/411960">Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Jeanne Brayboy describes McCrorey Heights in Charlotte, North Carolina</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/411961">Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Jeanne Brayboy recalls Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr.'s visit to Johnson C. Smith University in Charlotte, North Carolina</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/411962">Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Jeanne Brayboy recalls Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr.'s speech at a school in Charlotte, North Carolina</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/411963">Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Jeanne Brayboy describes the Civil Rights Movement in Charlotte, North Carolina</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/411964">Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Jeanne Brayboy remembers school integration in Charlotte, North Carolina</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/411965">Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Jeanne Brayboy describes her daughter's experience of school integration</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/411966">Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Jeanne Brayboy remembers her husband, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/411967">Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Jeanne Brayboy describes her children</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/411968">Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Jeanne Brayboy remembers Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.'s assassination</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/411969">Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Jeanne Brayboy describes her teaching career in Charlotte, North Carolina</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/411970">Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Jeanne Brayboy remembers her husband, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/411971">Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Jeanne Brayboy remembers her retirement from teaching</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/411972">Tape: 4 Story: 11 - Jeanne Brayboy describes her involvement in the Foundation for the Carolinas</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/411973">Tape: 4 Story: 12 - Jeanne Brayboy remembers her father's community service</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/411974">Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Jeanne Brayboy talks about her parents' community involvement</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/411975">Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Jeanne Brayboy describes her activities in Charlotte, North Carolina</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/411976">Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Jeanne Brayboy remembers parenting after her husband's death</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/411977">Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Jeanne Brayboy describes the changes at Johnson C. Smith University in Charlotte, North Carolina</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/411978">Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Jeanne Brayboy describes her organizational involvement</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/411979">Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Jeanne Brayboy reflects upon her teaching career</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/411980">Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Jeanne Brayboy describes the aftermath of the school busing program</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/411981">Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Jeanne Brayboy describes the changes in Charlotte, North Carolina</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/411982">Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Jeanne Brayboy talks about her grandson</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/411983">Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Jeanne Brayboy reflects upon her life</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/411984">Tape: 5 Story: 11 - Jeanne Brayboy describes the Levine Museum of the New South in Charlotte, North Carolina</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/411985">Tape: 5 Story: 12 - Jeanne Brayboy talks about Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/411264">Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Jeanne Brayboy remembers the racial violence in South Carolina</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/411265">Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Jeanne Brayboy talks about her husband's U.S. military service</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/411266">Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Jeanne Brayboy describes her neighborhood in Charlotte, North Carolina</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/411267">Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Jeanne Brayboy describes how she would like to be remembered</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/411268">Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Jeanne Brayboy reflects upon her legacy</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/411269">Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Jeanne Brayboy shares her advice to future generations</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/411270">Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Jeanne Brayboy narrates her photographs</a>

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$5

DAStory

3$7

DATitle
Jeanne Brayboy remembers school integration in Charlotte, North Carolina
Jeanne Brayboy describes the aftermath of the school busing program
Transcript
So tell me about the schools, integration.$$Well, as I said, I was, I was first sent to two white schools, all white schools, and I was the only black teacher for the first year and, of course, because they sent the special teachers, art and music, physical ed [physical education], and it was interesting. Some of the teachers went out of their way to be nice to me. Some just ignored me. One or two, I mean, ignored me, I mean, they couldn't ignore me but so much but I remember the principal was very nice to me and the secretary and some of them, you know, just acted matter of fact, which was fine. Most of the children didn't, you know, they didn't react at all. I remember once, one little girl asking me, was I Indian and I said, "No, I'm not Indian, I'm--," I don't know whether I said African American or black probably then and she said, "Well I just asked because the lady across the street from me is Indian and she looks kind of like you." Okay.$$So no problem from the students?$$Well, yeah, the ones who maybe had a problem, they didn't say it, they might have, I'm sure there were some whose parents had a problem, and all, but it wasn't overt and I remember, my same aunt, my [paternal] great aunt [Jessie Dinkins Wright] then was coming visiting and she was very concerned about me going, going into the white schools teaching but I, (laughter) I guess I was naive, I went on and did what I've been doing.$$Do you remember the names of those white schools?$$The first two schools where I worked, Park Road [Park Road Elementary School, Charlotte, North Carolina] and Sedgefield [Sedgefield Elementary School, Charlotte, North Carolina] and I stayed there awhile and then I was switched to some other schools and some white and some, well by that, it was, they were in--after that, they were all integrated, one way or the other (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) So, well did, how did that go over the actual integration of all these schools, the busing of white kids and black kids?$$Oh, there was some big protest about, about it, the high schools mainly and there was some parents. You could always tell the children whose parents were negative but, you see, most of them couldn't afford to send their child--and, of course, there were some more private schools that popped up but some children, you know, most parents couldn't afford to send the children to private schools. So, I can remember Oaklawn [Oaklawn Elementary School, Charlotte, North Carolina], which is near my house where I worked for years, I remember having a chorus and we had, of course, the black and white kids and I have a lot of pictures of those and I can remember a parent sitting and crying and I remember the teachers, one of the children asked me about that later and I said, "Well you know sometimes you all just sounded so good that the people were moved to tears." And we were asked to sing at different little occasions around town. So, you know, and I made, I still have, run into kids now, black and white, who I taught years ago, who all grown like that young lady.$Tell me about the tensions in the '90s [1990s] in the school system in Charlotte [North Carolina], '90s [1990s] and early 2000, 2001, weren't there some--$$The tensions had been because they changed the school plan and they, which has resulted in some of the, some all-black schools, some re-segregation in some cases. You see, I retired in '93 [1993] so I haven't been a part of it really and I hate seeing the re-segregation. I think it's a step backward.$$How did that happen?$$Parents who lived other places, a lot of people we said, moved into Charlotte. Okay, so you live in a little suburban town and, you know, your child doesn't have to be bused and the school is all white or whatever. So they came and they brought suit against Charlotte-Mecklenburg [Charlotte-Mecklenburg Schools] because some of the students were being bused to different places and it, it's just really interesting because the natives, so to speak, of people who've been through integration and know all the problems we went through and came through and survived and made a better school system, you know, we, we were content, so to speak, and these people were outsiders who came from other places and they brought suit and they got a judge, Judge Potter [Robert D. Potter, Sr.] who is now dead, who was sympathetic and he upset the whole plan and went back to, it's not totally neighborhood schools but it's close to it. What they have done, for example, the school that's in my neighborhood [McCrorey Heights, Charlotte, North Carolina], they made it, what they call a language emersion school. They renovated the school, they built practically a whole new school, in my neighborhood there're not ten, ten children 'cause we're all old and the children have grown or go, so now they emphasized Spanish and French and they started out K [kindergarten] through one, and then I guess this year they have third grade, all up to third grade. The school's half empty, or more than half empty. In the suburbs, there are a lot of people who moved, the schools are very crowded and they have all these trailers. And so there's this dialog now about whether they should renovate inner-city schools, which are almost all black, but a lot of them need work because they're getting older and whether building new schools and there's this constant--$$Okay.$$--talk about it.