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Frances Frazier

Education consultant and life coach Frances Curtis Frazier was born on May 19, 1948 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania to Patsy Thompson Curtis, a homemaker and William Henry Curtis, a building manager. In 1966, she graduated from Little Flower Catholic High School. After high school, Fran applied to become a Vista Volunteer, the national forerunner of the current Vista Program. She was in one of the first groups of this national initiative for young people to become part of “The Great America”. She studied at John Hopkins University and worked with maternal deprivation babies. Later she was sent to Portsmouth, Virginia in a small community to help residents who were being harassed by the Klu Klux Klan. Fran taught peanut farmers how to read and write. It was after her Vista experience that with the help of a local school principal she entered Norfolk State University and in 1972 received her B.S. degree in special education. Fran received a Master/Doctoral fellowship to attend The Ohio State University and graduated with her M.A. degree in learning disabilities and behavioral disorders in 1973.

In 1986, Frazier was a special education teacher for Columbus City Schools, working primarily with seventh and eighth graders. After working as a special needs coordinator for the National Assault Prevention Center of Columbus, Ohio from 1985 to 1987, Frazier was hired to the executive staff for the Director of the Ohio Department of Human Services. While at the Department of Human Services, Frazier worked for the Office of Minority Family Preservation and Prevention Services and served as an administrator for cultural initiatives. She has also served as an education and school climate consultant for universities, colleges, professional associations, school districts, and social service agencies across the country. Since 1979, Frazier has established programs, conducted retreats and given presentations on issues of sisterhood, spiritual development and self-empowerment.

In her current role, Frazier is the principal investigator of “Rise Sister Rise,” a research study on trauma and resiliency in African American girls that was developed in partnership with the Ohio Department of Mental Health and women’s organizations across the state. Additionally, Frazier serves as a senior associate for Everyday Democracy, an organization that promotes public dialogue and civic engagement in communities and workplaces.

Frazier has received numerous awards and commendations for her work including the Black Family Award from the Columbus Urban League for co-creating “Black Family Week” in the state of Ohio; the “Woman of the Year” Award from the Eldon W. Ward YMCA; the “Women Making A Difference Award for Community Leadership” from the Ohio Department of Health; from Triedstone Missionary Baptist Church she received the “Remarkable Women’s Award” for her work in the Columbus community. She has also garnered the YWCA “Woman of Achievement Award” in Racial Justice and recognition from the State of Ohio for engaging state employees to participate in workplace dialogues on racism. Frazier has received the “Golden Rulers Award” from the Columbus, Ohio School Board. She is also a recipient of the “Living Faith” Award from the Columbus Metropolitan Area Church Council.

Frances Curtis Frazier was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on April 6, 2012.

Accession Number

A2012.078

Sex

Female

Interview Date

4/4/2012 |and| 5/10/2013

Last Name

Frazier

Maker Category
Middle Name

Curtis

Schools

The Ohio State University

Norfolk State University

Little Flower Catholic High School

St. Elizabeth's Parochial School

The DePaul Catholic School

Speakers Bureau

Yes

Speakers Bureau Availability

Days

First Name

Frances

Birth City, State, Country

Philadelphia

HM ID

FRA08

Speakers Bureau Preferred Audience

5th - 12th grade African american girls; adults

Speakers Bureau Honorarium

Yes - $100

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Pennsylvania

Favorite Vacation Destination

Anywhere Near Water, Nature

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Ohio

Birth Date

5/19/1948

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Columbus

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Pastries

Short Description

Social activist and education consultant Frances Frazier (1948 - ) is an education and civic leader in the State of Ohio, having established programs, conducted retreats and given presentations on issues of sisterhood, spiritual development and self-empowerment across the country. She is the principal investigator for the ground-breaking research on trauma and resiliency in African American girls in Ohio, “Rise Sister Rise.”

Employment

Freelance Work

Everyday Democracy

Ohio Department of Human Services

Buckeye Boys Ranch

Columbus City Schools

National Assault Prevention Center

Favorite Color

Orange

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Frances Frazier's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Frances Frazier lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Frances Frazier talks about her mother

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Frances Frazier describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Frances Frazier talks about her maternal grandparents

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Frances Frazier talks about how her mother and how her parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Frances Frazier recalls advice her mother shared with her as a teenager

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Frances Frazier talks about her father, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Frances Frazier talks about her father, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Frances Frazier talks about her parents' employment as a maid and butler in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Frances Frazier describes her parents' personalities and who she takes after

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Frances Frazier describes her earliest childhood memories

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Frances Frazier describes her childhood personality

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Frances Frazier describes the sights, sounds and smells of her childhood in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Frances Frazier talks about her childhood neighborhood in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Frances Frazier talks about her siblings and attending a Catholic elementary school in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Frances Frazier recalls her experience at St. Elizabeth's Parochial School in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Frances Frazier talks about moving to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania's Nicetown neighborhood and attending Catholic schools

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Frances Frazier talks about attending St. Francis of Assisi Catholic School in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania's Nicetown neighborhood

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Frances Frazier talks about her desire as a teenager to become a nun

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Frances Frazier talks about Little Flower Catholic High School for Girls in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Frances Frazier talks about her taste in music as a teenager

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Frances Frazier talks about a turbulent period of her youth and moving into a federal housing project in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Frances Frazier explains how observing domestic violence as an adolescent affected her personality

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Frances Frazier talks about her home life during her high school years

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Frances Frazier talks about writing short stories and plays as a teenager

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Frances Frazier talks about how the 1963 March on Washington influenced her plans for the future

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Frances Frazier talks about her decision to join VISTA after graduating from high school

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Frances Frazier talks about joining the VISTA program in 1963

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Frances Frazier talks about a year of service with the VISTA program in the Mount Hermon community of Portsmouth, Virginia

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Frances Frazier recalls being threatened by Ku Klux Klan members while serving in the VISTA program in Portsmouth, Virginia

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Frances Frazier talks about VISTA training and teaching in Portsmouth, Virginia

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Frances Frazier talks about her decision to enroll at Norfolk State College in Norfolk, Virginia

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Frances Frazier talks about mentors and her mother's reaction to her rebellious behavior

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Frances Frazier talks about social mores at Norfolk State College during the late 1960s and early 1970s

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Frances Frazier talks about black college basketball players during the late 1960s and early 1970s

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Frances Frazier talks about the special education program at Norfolk State College in Norfolk, Virginia

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Frances Frazier recalls the assassination of Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Frances Frazier talks about volunteering in Norfolk, Virginia's Ghent neighborhood while a student at Norfolk State College

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Frances Frazier talks about enrolling in a master's program at The Ohio State University in Columbus, Ohio

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Frances Frazier talks about Dr. Frank Hale and his efforts to increase diversity at The Ohio State University in Columbus, Ohio

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Frances Frazier talks about the transition from Norfolk State College to The Ohio State University in Columbus, Ohio

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Frances Frazier talks about applying theories in special education to her work with children with learning and behavioral disorders

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Frances Frazier talks about her decision not to complete her doctoral studies at The Ohio State University in Columbus, Ohio

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Frances Frazier talks about teaching boys with behavioral disorders at Buckeye Boys Ranch

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Frances Frazier recounts a spiritual experience she had after her husband's death

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Frances Frazier describes physical and psychological changes she felt after having a spiritual experience

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Frances Frazier talks about the origins of her women's group, A Quality of Sharing

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Frances Frazier talks about the inspiration for and the philosophy of her women's group, A Quality of Change

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Frances Frazier talks about reading women's literature and the early meetings of her women's group, A Quality of Sharing

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Slating of Frances Frazier's interview, session two

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Frances Frazier talks about the philosophy of her women's group, A Quality of Sharing

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Frances Frazier talks about community responses to her women's group, A Quality of Sharing

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Frances Frazier talks about working for the Ohio Association for Retarded Citizens

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Frances Frazier talks about the origins and development of Black Youth Week and Black Family Week in Columbus, Ohio

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Frances Frazier talks about Reverend Dr. Charles Booth and her Sunday morning radio show, Focus on the Family

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Frances Frazier talks about her Sunday morning radio show, Focus on the Family

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Frances Frazier talks about her working for the Child Assault Prevention Project

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Frances Frazier talks about the impact of Grace Williams and HistoryMaker Dorothy Height on the YWCA

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Frances Frazier explains her definition of womanism and how it informed the activities of her women's group, A Quality of Sharing

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Frances Frazier talks about African American women leaders of the 19th century

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - Frances Frazier talks about attending the Third World Conference on Women in Nairobi, Kenya in 1985

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - Frances Frazier describes her experience at the Third World Conference on Women in Nairobi, Kenya

Tape: 8 Story: 6 - Frances Frazier talks about organizing around women's health issues in Columbus, Ohio

Tape: 8 Story: 7 - Frances Frazier talks about attending a women's summit in Moscow, Soviet Union and working for the Ohio Department of Human Services

Tape: 9 Story: 1 - Frances Frazier talks about a spiritual calling that influenced her plans for the future

Tape: 9 Story: 2 - Frances Frazier explains the role of spiritual directors within the Catholic church

Tape: 9 Story: 3 - Frances Frazier talks about the end of her career at the Ohio Department of Human Services

Tape: 9 Story: 4 - Frances Frazier talks about the origins of the Women's Day of Prayer in Columbus, Ohio

Tape: 9 Story: 5 - Frances Frazier talks about Reverend Dr. Leon Troy and Second Baptist Church in Columbus, Ohio

Tape: 9 Story: 6 - Frances Frazier talks about her relationship with Reverend Dr. Leon Troy

Tape: 9 Story: 7 - Frances Frazier describes husbands' reactions to her women's empowerment activities

Tape: 9 Story: 8 - Frances Frazier recalls the incident that inspired her to organize a national women's conference

Tape: 10 Story: 1 - Frances Frazier explains her motivations for organizing the Conference for the Awakened Woman

Tape: 10 Story: 2 - Frances Frazier explains how the Women's Movement stifled the political empowerment of black women, pt. 1

Tape: 10 Story: 3 - Frances Frazier explains how the Women's Movement stifled the political empowerment of black women, pt. 2

Tape: 10 Story: 4 - Frances Frazier talks about the sabotage of the Conference for Awakened Women in the early 2000s

Tape: 10 Story: 5 - Frances Frazier talks about the relationship between the African American community and immigrant groups in Columbus, Ohio

Tape: 10 Story: 6 - Frances Frazier talks about the purpose of federal refugee funds

Tape: 10 Story: 7 - Frances Frazier talks about early experiences working with girls on issues of aggression and victimization

Tape: 11 Story: 1 - Frances Frazier talks about her various professional roles, including consultant and community organizer

Tape: 11 Story: 2 - Frances Frazier talks about the origins of the research study, Rise Sister Rise, pt. 1

Tape: 11 Story: 3 - Frances Frazier talks about the origins of the research study, Rise Sister Rise, pt. 2

Tape: 11 Story: 4 - Frances Frazier talks about the planning period for the research study, Rise Sister Rise

Tape: 11 Story: 5 - Frances Frazier talks about the Ohio cities selected for the research study, Rise Sister Rise

Tape: 11 Story: 6 - Frances Frazier details the findings of her research study, Rise Sister Rise, pt. 1

Tape: 11 Story: 7 - Frances Frazier details the findings of her research study, Rise Sister Rise, pt. 2

Tape: 12 Story: 1 - Frances Frazier talks about the Search Institute's 40 Developmental Assets for Adolescents

Tape: 12 Story: 2 - Frances Frazier talks about the participant selection process and survey criteria for the research study, Rise Sister Rise

Tape: 12 Story: 3 - Frances Frazier talks about partnerships and events organized in the wake of the Rise Sister Rise research study findings

Tape: 12 Story: 4 - Frances Frazier talks about her hopes for the research study, Rise Sister Rise

Tape: 12 Story: 5 - Frances Frazier talks about partner organizations and funding for the research study, Rise Sister Rise

Tape: 12 Story: 6 - Frances Frazier talks about her future plans for the research study, Rise Sister Rise

Tape: 12 Story: 7 - Frances Frazier talks about a future event she would like to organize

Tape: 12 Story: 8 - Frances Frazier talks about what she would have done differently in life

Tape: 12 Story: 9 - Frances Frazier reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 13 Story: 1 - Frances Frazier talks about women she has mentored

Tape: 13 Story: 2 - Frances Frazier reflects upon her life

Tape: 13 Story: 3 - Frances Frazier describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 13 Story: 4 - Frances Frazier narrates her photographs, pt. 1

Tape: 13 Story: 5 - Frances Frazier narrates her photographs, pt. 2

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$6

DAStory

3$6

DATitle
Frances Frazier recalls being threatened by Ku Klux Klan members while serving in the VISTA program in Portsmouth, Virginia
Frances Frazier talks about the inspiration for and the philosophy of her women's group, A Quality of Change
Transcript
Now, tell us that story now about the [Ku Klux] Klan [KKK] shooting at you. There's gotta be a whole story to that.$$It was. Well, they didn't necessarily want us in this community [Mount Hermon, Portsmouth, Virginia]. And we were at a--we were doing our shopping like at a Kroger, but it wasn't as sophisticated as a Kroger but, and a group of Klan members started walking around the--inside the parking lot.$$Now, how did you know they were Klan members?$$Because they were dressed in white.$$With the hoods?$$With the hoods.$$That's a good--$$It's a good way to know.$$Yes.$$So I just happened to look out there, and I said, "Marcia [ph.], look." So we both look out, and we see these guys walking around in the parking center. (Laughter) And we didn't take our groceries out of the shopping cart. We just paid and drove the shopping cart home. And we peed in our pants all the way home. We were scared to death. We pulled the blinds and the shades and stuff down, just really scared. So we called--I even remember this woman's name, but I won't call it. But she was with VISTA [Volunteers in Service to America, later, AmeriCorps VISTA]. She was like our VISTA contact. So we called her and said, "You know, the Klan's in our neighborhood and just need to know what to do." And we didn't get--I can't remember what she said, "Don't leave your community. Stay with your community." And so we're thinking, it might not be good to stay with our community because we had really gotten to know these people. And we felt that they could burn their houses down. You know, I knew they were coming to burn our house down. They could burn them or they could really harm the people. If they were looking for us, then it might be better if we left our neighborhood. So we--you know, when I think about it now, it's like, was this real? But anyway, we put scarves on our heads. We tried to disguise ourselves and you had, then, you had to take a ferry from Portsmouth [Virginia] to Norfolk [Virginia]. So that's what we did. And there were VISTAS in Norfolk, so we stayed with them. And the Feds caught a carload of these Klan members and they had Molotov cocktails. They had guns. They were really gonna try to kill us. So then this woman, who is our rep [representative], comes to Norfolk to see us. And like, she's like, "You should not have left your community. Stay in your community." And we're like, "We're nineteen years old now," you know? "We're doing the best we can. We're scared to death," and we didn't want our commun- we didn't want people in our community to--I mean they could've bombed, you could have blown our house down with a good wind. So we just didn't wanna jeopardize, jeopardize our community. So eventually we went back and opened up a little daycare center for our community. And I continued working with peanut farmers, and we had our graduation. But then I was ready to go to college then.$Now explain to us what the crisis was where this would be necessary.$$Well, it was after Vietnam [War]. A lot of our men who were in college or who might have been considerable desirable mates, most of them had been killed in the Vietnam War, or when they had come back, they were suffering terribly from posttraumatic stress syndrome, or were now on heavy drugs. And it was just--our community had been decimated by the Vietnam War. And life for African American women during this time was awful. And Haki's [HM Haki Madhubuti] theory was that women are the light of the world and if women were not healthy mentally, emotionally, physically and spiritually that neither would communities and neither would children, and eventually it would be our destruction. And he felt that our men, who were healthy, who were able-bodied, who were whole needed to step up and be those second husbands. Well, and June Jordan had subsequently had written about this as well. I read the article. I read the book. And I was kind of fixated on the article and I said to myself, "This won't happen." But I knew it was happening, and it was happening more than we knew in many places. And I think certainly man-sharing was happening even if it wasn't approved. But if I looked at it as a, as a potential possibility that might help our community, I wasn't sure it would be sanctioned by our community. Maybe a great idea, but not wholeheartedly approved of because I knew women would have a rough time with that, especially if you had a really great man who now felt that he should help two or three of the other women in the neighborhood with their children or with anything that a man might be needed for to help stabilize a family. So what I thought about was if women could learn how to really be friends with each other, actually learn how to love each other and care for each other, and create real sisterhood, that maybe that might help in stabilizing our communities and so A Quality of Sharing was our attempt at helping black women to learn how to love themselves, so that they would be comfortable enough to learn how to really create friendship and bonds of sisterhood with other women to get work done, to literally become change agents right in our own communities, so that became my work.

Robert T. Starks

Educator, political consultant and activist professor, Robert Terry Starks was born on January 24, 1944 in Grenada, Mississippi. He earned his B.S. degree from Chicago’s Loyola University in 1968. He earned his M.A. degree in political science also from Loyola in 1971. In 1968, Starks served as a management consultant for Booze Allen Hamilton and a research specialist for the Chicago Urban League. From 1970 to 1972, Starks served as Director of Black Studies at Northern Illinois University and associate professor of political science. He joined the faculty of Northeastern Illinois University’s Center for Inner City Studies (NEIU CICS) in 1976 where he is associate professor of political science.

Starks served as an issues advisor to Reverend Jesse L. Jackson and political advisor to the late Chicago mayor, Harold Washington. He was the founding chair of the Task Force for Black Political Empowerment and has been the local chair of the Free South Africa Movement. In 2001, Starks founded the Harold Washington Institute for Research and Policy Studies at NEIU CICS. Since 1991, Starks has contributed a weekly column to N’Digo news magazine and hosted a show on WVON Radio in the early 1990s. He also was a contributing editor to Urban Affairs Quarterly.

Starks has appeared on WVON Radio’s On Target and on ABC-TV’s Nightline, the Today Show, C-SPAN, CNN News and CNN’s Crossfire television programs. His article “Harold Washington and the Politics of Reform” appeared in Racial Politics in American Cities by Rufus Browning. Starks is chairperson of the board of the Illinois Black United Fund and a member of innumerable civic committees. The recipient of a treasure of community award, he lives in the Woodlawn community with his wife, Judith and his children, Kenya and Robert. Starks has also authored a book on the political life of Harold Washington.

Starks was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on December 15, 2009.

Accession Number

A2009.147

Sex

Male

Interview Date

12/15/2009

Last Name

Starks

Maker Category
Schools

Academy Of St Benedict The African-Stewart Campus

Carey Dodson High School

Loyola University Chicago

University of Chicago

First Name

Robert

Birth City, State, Country

Grenada

HM ID

STA05

Favorite Season

Summer

Sponsor

Herb and Sheran Wilkins Media Makers

State

Mississippi

Favorite Vacation Destination

Jamaica

Favorite Quote

You May Not Get Everything That You Pay For In This World, But You Most Certainly Will Pay For Everything That You Get.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Illinois

Birth Date

1/24/1944

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Chicago

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Broccoli

Short Description

Social activist and professor Robert T. Starks (1944 - ) served as an associate professor of political science at Northeastern Illinois University’s Center for Inner City Studies, as an issues advisor to Rev. Jesse L. Jackson and political advisor to the late Chicago mayor Harold Washington. He was the founder and chair of the Task Force for Black Political Empowerment, and has been the local chair of the Free South Africa Movement.

Employment

Urban Education Center

Booz Allen Hamilton, Inc

Northern Illinois University

Northeastern Illinois University

Main Sponsor
Favorite Color

Black

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Robert T. Starks' interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Robert T. Starks lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Robert T. Starks describes his mother's family background, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Robert T. Starks describes his mother's family background, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Robert T. Starks talks about the South and West Sides of Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Robert T. Starks describes his father's family background in Grenada County, Mississippi

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Robert T. Starks recalls visiting his extended family in Mississippi and working on the farm

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Robert T. Starks explains how his parents met at Camp McCain in Mississippi

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Robert T. Starks describes his brothers, his parents, and who he takes after

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Robert T. Starks recalls his favorite childhood memory

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Robert T. Starks describes the sights, sounds, and smells of growing up

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Robert T. Starks remembers the 1955 murder of Emmett Till

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Robert T. Starks describes growing up in Mississippi and in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Robert T. Starks talks about the schools he attended in Mississippi, the Montgomery Bus Boycott, and the Hungarian Uprising

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Robert T. Starks recalls the African American community's reception of Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. and learning about communism

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Robert T. Starks describes his interests while at Carey Dodson High School in Grenada County, Mississippi

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Robert T. Starks describes growing up on the West Side of Chicago, Illinois during the 1950s and 1960s

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Robert T. Starks recounts his decision to attend Loyola University in Chicago, Illinois and how he avoided the Vietnam War draft

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Robert T. Starks recalls his teachers at Carey Dodson High School in Grenada County, Mississippi

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Robert T. Starks describes the academic environment at Loyola University in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Robert T. Starks talks about athletics at Loyola University in Chicago, Illinois and about college sports teams during the 1960s

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Robert T. Starks talks about his civil right activism while at Loyola University in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Robert T. Starks recounts his student activism in Chicago, Illinois with HistoryMakers Fannie Rushing, Timuel Black, Kwame John R. Porter and others

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Robert T. Starks describes planning a 1967 conference at HistoryMaker Kwame John R. Porter's Christ United Methodist Church in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Robert T. Starks talks about fellow activists in 1960s Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Robert T. Starks talks about meeting SNCC leaders and Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.'s influence in the South

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Robert T. Starks talks about pursuing a graduate degree in urban studies at Loyola University in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Robert T. Starks talks about working at Booz Allen Hamilton consulting and the Urban Education Center in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Robert T. Starks interprets public-choice economist Anthony Downs' explanation for urban decay

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Robert T. Starks recounts working in East St. Louis, Illinois for Booz Allen Hamilton, a consulting firm

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Robert T. Starks describes cultural programs he created as director of the Black Studies Program at Northern Illinois University in DeKalb

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Robert T. Starks recounts how he got his teaching job at Northeastern Illinois University in Chicago

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Robert T. Starks talks about the faculty at the Center for Inner City Studies at Northeastern Illinois University in Chicago

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Robert T. Starks recalls the aftermath of Black Panther Fred Hampton's killing by police

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Robert T. Starks lists people he worked with at the National Urban League and the Black Strategy Center in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Robert T. Starks lists prominent black nationalists affiliated with the African American Studies Program at Northern Illinois University in DeKalb

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Robert T. Starks lists prominent Chicago, Illinois black cultural figures like HistoryMakers Maulana Karenga, Phil Cohran, and Abena Joan P. Brown

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Robert T. Starks recalls African Liberation Day in 1972 and boycotting the South African Springboks rugby team in 1981

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Robert T. Starks recalls artists and activists in Chicago, Illinois like Anas Lukeman and Sister Christine Johnson

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Robert T. Starks talks about Communist activist Ishmael Flory, HistoryMaker Margaret Burroughs, and scholar F.H. Hammurabi

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Robert T. Starks recalls the 1972 National Black Political Assembly in Gary, Indiana

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Robert T. Starks talks about poet Amiri Baraka and HistoryMaker Jorja Palmer

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Robert T. Starks describes the relationship between Chicago mayor Harold Washington and HistoryMaker Gus Savage

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Robert T. Starks recounts the decision to have HistoryMaker Jesse L. Jackson run for President of the United States

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Robert T. Starks describes working on Harold Washington's campaign for Mayor of Chicago, Illinois, pt. 1

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Robert T. Starks describes working on Harold Washington's campaign for Mayor of Chicago, Illinois, pt. 2

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Robert T. Starks describes working for Chicago mayor Harold Washington

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Robert T. Starks recalls the 1984 Democratic National Convention where HistoryMaker Jesse L. Jackson conceded to Walter Mondale

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Robert T. Starks describes the mayoral tenure of Harold Washington in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - Robert T. Starks talks about conflicts after Chicago mayor Harold Washington's death, and about his successor, HistoryMaker Eugene Sawyer

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - Robert T. Starks talks about HistoryMaker Eugene Sawyer's election as mayor by the Chicago City Council

Tape: 8 Story: 6 - Robert T. Starks reflects upon the Harold Washington administration and the Free South Africa movement

Tape: 8 Story: 7 - Robert T. Starks names world leaders he met as a local leader of the Free South Africa movement in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 8 Story: 8 - Robert T. Starks talks about the Million Man March in 1995

Tape: 9 Story: 1 - Robert T. Starks reflects upon working with HistoryMakers Louis Farrakhan, James Bevel, Maulana Karenga and others on the 1995 Million Man March

Tape: 9 Story: 2 - Robert T. Starks recounts how he first met HistoryMaker Barack Obama

Tape: 9 Story: 3 - Robert T. Starks recalls HistoryMaker Barack Obama's senatorial and presidential campaigns

Tape: 9 Story: 4 - Robert T. Starks analyzes HistoryMaker Barack Obama's past successes and continuing political prospects

Tape: 9 Story: 5 - Robert T. Starks reflects upon the lessons from Harold Washington's administration

Tape: 9 Story: 6 - Robert T. Starks analyzes HistoryMaker Barack Obama's political prospects at the time of the interview

Tape: 9 Story: 7 - Robert T. Starks describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 9 Story: 8 - Robert T. Starks reflects upon his life

Tape: 9 Story: 9 - Robert T. Starks reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 9 Story: 10 - Robert T. Starks talks about his family

Tape: 9 Story: 11 - Robert T. Starks describes how he would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$8

DAStory

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DATitle
Robert T. Starks talks about his civil right activism while at Loyola University in Chicago, Illinois
Robert T. Starks reflects upon the Harold Washington administration and the Free South Africa movement
Transcript
Now, okay so were, were you involved in any political activities at Loyola [University, Chicago, Illinois]?$$Yeah, that's interesting, very interesting. I was one of the founders of the Loyola Friends of SNCC [Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee], and also LAASA, which is Loyola Afro-American Students Association. And I never will forget this was when we had the Selma [Alabama], the march in Selma. Some friends of mine and I were going around--cause I was down on, on the downtown campus, 800 North Wabash [Avenue, Chicago, Illinois] in the lounge, student lounge. And we were running around collecting money to help send money to the, to SNCC and to the, the marches in Selma. So I went up to this one white kid at this table, a white kid and said give some money to help Selma. So this one little smart-ass white kid said I didn't know she was sick, ha, ha, ha. And what did he say that for? We had a fight in the cafeteria. We swung at, we beat--but anyway, the--you know the dean called us in and you know, what are you doing? We explained the situation. He said you know, we're going to forget about this. But it was--I mean they, they were smart alecks at that time. Later of course, well yeah it was later, the--we had [Reverend] Dr. [Martin Luther] King [Jr.] came to Chicago. And of course--$$This was '64 [1964]?$$No, no, '66 [1966].$$Sixty-six [1966], yeah when he came to stay.$$And his buddy on the--one of his lead people was of course Jim Bevel [HM James Bevel]. And we loved Bevel. Bevel was one of the most--I can't tell you how--I mean Bevel was one of the smartest guys you ever want to meet. He was in fact, he was Dr. King, one of Dr. King's best strategists. And Bevel was like the guy who took the SNCC kids and CORE [Congress of Racial Equality] kids and college kids and he would give us workshops on how to be nonviolent and all this. And so we had this--our little SNCC group. We would go out on protests with them. We would march against the Board of Education because they were, you know we had to fight over integration of Chicago public schools. We did all kinds of little, little demonstrations and stuff. And it was integrated of course. This was before the black power move. And we hosted over at the Packing House, Stokley Carmichael when he came to Chicago. And this time, this is when I met Fannie Rushing and of course--now let's go back to '63 [1963]. The March on Washington [D.C.]. And of course the, the March on Washington headquarters in Chicago was at the Packing House and that's where I met Lawrence Landry. And Lawrence would--you came in and Lawrence would give you an assignment. My assignment was to go around and collect money to help send people to the March on Washington. So we went door-to-door. And then secondly, to set, to set up support and set up the Freedom Schools because we took kids out of schools cause we had the, the so-called Freedom Schools. And we were in contact at that time with students up at Northwestern [University, Evanston, Illinois], DePaul [University, Chicago, Illinois] and the city colleges. So at that time that's when we met people like Stan Willis, Earl Jones who was Amiri Baraka's cousin. Cause he was at Loyola. He had come in--he was from the East Coast and he was Baraka's cousin. And we--he was a part of our little group. We, we had--I mean just, just a bunch of really enthusiastic young people who thought everything was you know, gung-ho.$(Laughter)$$Now what, what's your assessment of Harold Washington years and what do you make of his--did we make any gains?$$We had made tremendous gains. But the problem was we were unable to sustain the gains because I think we spent too much time investing too much energy into one person rather than sustaining the organizational, institutional support that we had built up. Because as soon as he came into office, many of the organizations and the institutions that we had built up to that point to bring him to, into office, started retracting. 'Cause I remember clearly the, the number of organizations that we had on the list that supported Harold exceeded fifty organizations in the city. West Side, South Side, North Side, southeast side, these were black organizations. But as soon as Harold came into office, many of those organizations began to diminish in their influence because you know the idea was why should we have all these organizations, we got a black mayor, right? And that was the, the key fault. Now in the meantime in '84 [1984], we--[HM] Buzz Palmer, [HM] Alice Palmer, myself, Mark Durham sit down and then later we bring in [HM] Conrad [Walter Worrill]. And we formed the Free South Africa Movement. We got arrested in the consulate office in--and this was around the same time that they began the Free South African arrest and, and movement in Washington [D.C.], right. When Transafrica with Randall Robinson had begun the whole thing, right. So we formed--I became the, the Chairman of that group and we used to meet right up in the, in, on--in Room 408 in this building. I think it was every Thursday night we met. And we, we had every Thursday without a, a--without a doubt, we marched in front of the consulate on North Michigan Avenue. And I--believe it or not, some of the same people who were jumping up and down once [Nelson] Mandela was released, used to walk past us when we were demonstrating, and we would ask them to join the demonstration. They'd look at us like we were crazy, right. And some of those same people once Mandela was elected President, were the first to get on the plane and go to South Africa and, and you know. Interesting, very interesting dynamic. So in '91 [1991], it was '93 [1993] when Mandela came to Chicago [Illinois], well we held, held rallies, Free South Africa Movement had rallies in downtown Chicago, the whole bit. So when he was preparing to come to Chicago, [HM] Jesse [L. Jackson, Sr.] asked me to head up the committee to, to, to plan for the, the, the--his introduction in Chicago. So we put that together. And of course it was held--the main thing was at, at PUSH and that's when all these people who had, who had not participated in the marches all show up, want to have a picture with Mandela. And I just, I was just--I just shook my head; I was just absolutely--but that's, that's, that's the nature of the game. You know you have to get over it. But these were the same people, we begged them to join the line and help us march on those cold, cold days when we were being arrested, when we were being--we were sitting in, we were marching, wouldn't have anything to do with us.

Dick Gregory

Comedian and social activist Dick Gregory’s career spanned four decades. Gregory was born Richard Claxton Gregory on October 12, 1932, in St. Louis, Missouri. A product of humble beginnings, Gregory relied on his exceptional running skills at Sumner High School to eventually earn him a track scholarship at Southern Illinois University Carbondale. While attending Southern Illinois University Carbondale, Gregory set records as a half-mile and mile runner.

Gregory’s college education was put on hold when he was drafted into the United States Army. It was in the army that Gregory first performed as a stand up comedian, entering and winning several U.S. Army talent shows. After his military service ended, Gregory worked at the United States Post Office by day, and by night performed as a comedian in several small black nightclubs.

In 1961, Gregory was hired by adult magazine mogul Hugh Hefner to work at the Chicago Playboy Club. Hefner was impressed by Gregory’s ability to perform successfully for a white audience. Soon after, Gregory received national acclaim, and in 1964 released an autobiography entitled Nigger, which sold seven million copies.

In the mid-1960s, Gregory became increasingly involved in the Civil Rights Movement and spoke out against the war in Vietnam and government policy. In 1967, he decided to run against Mayor Richard Daley in Chicago. Though unsuccessful, Gregory pursued higher political positions and ran for President of the United States in 1968 as a write-in candidate for the Freedom and Peace Party. Gregory was eventually defeated, but efforts landed him on the list of President Nixon’s political opponents; his experiences in the political arena inspired Gregory to write a book entitled, Write Me In.

Throughout the 1980s, Gregory was principally known for his strong voice in the health food industry. Seen as a nutrition guru, Gregory advocated diets consisting of raw fruits and vegetables. Gregory developed a beverage called the Bahamian Diet Nutrition Drink, and advertised the product on television. In 2005, during the last stages of the Michael Jackson trial, Gregory was invited by Jackson’s father to advise him on his health.

In 2004 Gregory was listed as number eighty-one on Comedy Central’s list of the 100 Greatest Stand-Up Comedians of All Time; has also his own star on the St. Louis Walk of Fame.

Accession Number

A2007.220

Sex

Male

Interview Date

7/29/2007

Last Name

Gregory

Organizations
Schools

Charles H. Sumner High School

Southern Illinois University

First Name

Dick

Birth City, State, Country

St. Louis

HM ID

GRE12

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Missouri

Favorite Vacation Destination

None

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Massachusetts

Birth Date

10/12/1932

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Plymouth

Country

United States

Favorite Food

None

Death Date

8/19/2017

Short Description

Social activist and comedian Dick Gregory (1932 - 2017 ) was hired by Hugh Hefner to perform stand-up comedy at the Chicago Playboy Club and performed on many television programs, including The Ed Sullivan Show. Gregory also devoted much of his time to championing the causes of civil rights and the raw foods vegetarian lifestyle.

Employment

Roberts Show Club

Esquire Show Lounge

Playboy Club

Favorite Color

None

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Dick Gregory's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Dick Gregory lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Dick Gregory describes his parents' family backgrounds

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Dick Gregory remembers the John Marshall School in St. Louis, Missouri

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Dick Gregory talks about his early understanding of race

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Dick Gregory describes his community in St. Louis, Missouri

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Dick Gregory talks about his early perceptions of Mississippi

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Dick Gregory talks about color discrimination within the black community

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Dick Gregory remembers Charles H. Sumner High School in St. Louis, Missouri

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Dick Gregory talks about the Black Wall Street in Tulsa, Oklahoma

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Dick Gregory talks about the achievements of the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Dick Gregory recalls his experiences at Southern Illinois University in Carbondale, Illinois

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Dick Gregory remembers a neighbor from his youth

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Dick Gregory shares his philosophy about African American traditions

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Dick Gregory talks about the negative impact of war on black soldiers

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Dick Gregory recalls his commencement address at Harvard University

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Dick Gregory talks about the legacy of the Buffalo Soldiers

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Dick Gregory recalls his social research projects

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Dick Gregory talks about the repercussions of addiction

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Dick Gregory describes the plot of the movie 'Ragtime'

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Dick Gregory talks about his experiences at Charles H. Sumner High School in St. Louis, Missouri

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Dick Gregory talks about the portrayal of African Americans in film

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Dick Gregory talks about his early education

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Dick Gregory describes Charles H. Sumner High School in St. Louis, Missouri

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Dick Gregory describes his impoverished upbringing

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Dick Gregory talks about his teachers at Charles H. Sumner High School

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Dick Gregory remembers the Charles Turner Open Air School in St. Louis, Missouri

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Dick Gregory remembers joining the track team at Charles H. Sumner High School

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Dick Gregory recalls his success on the track team at Charles H. Sumner High School

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Dick Gregory remembers his exclusion from track and field records

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Dick Gregory recalls his advocacy for the integration of high school sports teams

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Dick Gregory remembers the first integrated track tournament in Missouri

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Dick Gregory describes his first impression of Southern Illinois University in Carbondale, Illinois

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Dick Gregory remembers a confrontation with his history professor

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Dick Gregory talks about his activism at Southern Illinois University

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Dick Gregory describes his role at Southern Illinois University in Carbondale, Illinois

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Dick Gregory recalls his efforts to integrate Southern Illinois University in Carbondale, Illinois

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Dick Gregory recalls joining the Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Dick Gregory recalls advocating for the integration of women's dormitories

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Dick Gregory recalls being named the athlete of the year at Southern Illinois University

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Dick Gregory remembers homecoming at Southern Illinois University

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Dick Gregory recalls voting to raise tuition at Southern Illinois University

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Dick Gregory talks about the discrimination against African American athletes

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Dick Gregory remembers Malcolm X, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Dick Gregory remembers Malcolm X, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Dick Gregory recalls being drafted into the U.S. Army

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Dick Gregory talks about the changes in social norms

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Dick Gregory talks about his understanding of white supremacy

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Dick Gregory remembers the denial of medical care to African Americans

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Dick Gregory describes his stand-up comedy routine in the U.S. Army

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Dick Gregory recalls his investigation of accidents involving black soldiers, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Dick Gregory recalls his investigation of accidents involving black soldiers, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Dick Gregory recalls the start of his comedy career in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Dick Gregory talks about his favorite comedians

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Dick Gregory recalls his early performances at comedy clubs

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Dick Gregory remembers a reporter from The New York Times

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Dick Gregory recalls meeting his wife

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Dick Gregory talks about settling with his wife in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Dick Gregory remembers the murder of James Byrd, Jr.

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Dick Gregory reflects upon popular African American culture

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Dick Gregory shares his views on Christianity

Tape: 7 Story: 9 - Dick Gregory talks about police brutality

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Dick Gregory remembers the leaders of the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Dick Gregory talks about the importance of African American history

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Dick Gregory remembers Malcolm X and Alex Haley

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - Dick Gregory talks about the death of Ron Brown

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - Dick Gregory recalls integrating a prison in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 8 Story: 6 - Dick Gregory remembers Margaret Walker

Tape: 8 Story: 7 - Dick Gregory talks about the history of the Tuskegee Institute

Tape: 8 Story: 8 - Dick Gregory remembers John Wayne and Stepin Fetchit

Tape: 8 Story: 9 - Dick Gregory talks about his comedy albums

Tape: 9 Story: 1 - Dick Gregory recalls running for president of the United States

Tape: 9 Story: 2 - Dick Gregory talks about the number of black men in prison

Tape: 9 Story: 3 - Dick Gregory shares his views on the critiques of urban violence

Tape: 9 Story: 4 - Dick Gregory talks about the 1968 Democratic National Convention

Tape: 9 Story: 5 - Dick Gregory describes his autobiography, 'Nigger'

Tape: 9 Story: 6 - Dick Gregory talks about Mark Twain's portrayal of African Americans

Tape: 9 Story: 7 - Dick Gregory talks about the O.J. Simpson trial

Tape: 9 Story: 8 - Dick Gregory reflects upon the use of derogatory language

Tape: 9 Story: 9 - Dick Gregory talks about Albert J. Lingo

Tape: 9 Story: 10 - Dick Gregory describes his criticism of the NAACP

Tape: 10 Story: 1 - Dick Gregory talks about the movie 'Children of the Struggle'

Tape: 10 Story: 2 - Dick Gregory recalls his experiences as a civil rights protestor in the South

Tape: 10 Story: 3 - Dick Gregory remembers the assassination of Medgar Evers

Tape: 10 Story: 4 - Dick Gregory describes his investigation into the assassination of Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., pt. 1

Tape: 10 Story: 5 - Dick Gregory describes his investigation into the assassination of Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., pt. 2

Tape: 10 Story: 6 - Dick Gregory talks about James Earl Ray, pt. 1

Tape: 10 Story: 7 - Dick Gregory talks about James Earl Ray, pt. 2

Tape: 10 Story: 8 - Dick Gregory describes the witnesses of Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.'s assassination, pt. 1

Tape: 11 Story: 1 - Dick Gregory describes the witnesses of Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.'s assassination, pt. 2

Tape: 11 Story: 2 - Dick Gregory describes the witnesses of Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.'s assassination, pt. 3

Tape: 11 Story: 3 - Dick Gregory describes the Slim Safe Bahamian Diet

Tape: 11 Story: 4 - Dick Gregory recalls travelling to Ethiopia

Tape: 11 Story: 5 - Dick Gregory describes his daughter, Michele Gregory

Tape: 11 Story: 6 - Dick Gregory talks about the importance of historically black colleges

Tape: 11 Story: 7 - Dick Gregory talks about his daughters' education

Tape: 11 Story: 8 - Dick Gregory describes his son, Greg Gregory

Tape: 11 Story: 9 - Dick Gregory describes his daughter, Miss Gregory

Tape: 12 Story: 1 - Dick Gregory describes his daughters' careers

Tape: 12 Story: 2 - Dick Gregory talks about his son, Yohance Gregory, pt. 1

Tape: 12 Story: 3 - Dick Gregory talks about his son, Yohance Gregory, pt. 2

Tape: 12 Story: 4 - Dick Gregory describes his son, Christian Gregory

Tape: 12 Story: 5 - Dick Gregory reflects upon his life, pt. 1

Tape: 12 Story: 6 - Dick Gregory reflects upon his life, pt. 2

Tape: 12 Story: 7 - Dick Gregory describes his religious philosophy

Tape: 12 Story: 8 - Dick Gregory remembers a psychic from his youth

Tape: 12 Story: 9 - Dick Gregory recalls performing at Roberts Show Club in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 13 Story: 1 - Dick Gregory recalls performing at the Playboy Club in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 13 Story: 2 - Dick Gregory reflects upon his legacy as an activist

Tape: 13 Story: 3 - Dick Gregory reflects upon the legacy of the Pullman porters

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$12

DAStory

1$8

DATitle
Dick Gregory recalls his success on the track team at Charles H. Sumner High School
Dick Gregory remembers a psychic from his youth
Transcript
So now you have all these scholarship offers--$$No, before that.$$All right. Go ahead (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) Now, I'm running.$$All right.$$And there's no, remember we had three high schools, Sumner [Charles H. Sumner High School, St. Louis, Missouri], Vashon [Vashon High School, St. Louis, Missouri] and Washington Tech [Booker T. Washington Technical High School, St. Louis, Missouri]. We couldn't play football with white high schools or basketball. So the price they paid for segregation wasn't much of a price. But you can't have a football season just playing two other schools. So the law was, in the State of Missouri, if you were black, they had to pay for you. We'd come all the way to Washington, D.C. and played them in high school. We'd go to Kansas City, Missouri. We'd go to West Virginia because there was--and so, and they paid for that, man, you know, that was one of the--so now, we're on the track. And I realized that I'm not an athlete. I'm a monster, something that was developed in my neighborhood 'cause I didn't wanna be me. I didn't like the way I looked. I didn't like the way the people looked, the way the people acted. So now, I started on the relay intimidating folks. I said, okay, I want you to bring the relay stick in, I hate to do this 'cause your mom and dad gonna be there, but you bring that stick in twenty-five yards behind, and then you, you make up ten and then you lose ten, and then when I get it, I'll kick it home coming from a fifty yard deficit and catch everybody. I'm not aware of how that's making me good 'cause I have nobody to warn against that 'cause black folk put they energy in the short distance. And so now I ran the fastest time in the world in high school, and the sad part, my mother [Lucille Gregory] didn't know it was me. My mother called all white folks mister and missus, but they didn't have to call her that, you know. And she asked me one day, she said, "Mr. Bob Burns [Robert Burns]," that's the sports announcer, everybody called him Bob Burns, said, "Mr. Bob Burns, I heard him talking about this, this guy that runs. His name is [HistoryMaker] Dick Gregory." See, white folks changed my name to Dick Gregory, and a lot of black folk didn't know that was me. And my mother said, "Do you know, do you know this guy named Dick Gregory." I said, "Yeah, I met him a couple of times." She said, "He seem like a nice person." She died not knowing it was me, you know. And I started to tell her, but she'd a thought I was lying. She said something real sad to me one day, said, "You know, that Dick Gregory's down in Southern Illinois University [Carbondale, Illinois] with you, y'all on the track team." Said, "I did an awful thing the other day, and I guess it's 'cause I'm sick." She said, "I made believe that they was talking about you and it's a horrible thing to steal another woman's son." Is that painful, you know (simultaneous).$I say when I was eight years old, my mother [Lucille Gregory] loved these psychic readers, like most black folks that we knew. So she took me out of school one day and she said, "Mother Poole want me to bring you to her." And I'm saying to myself, I'm so embarrassed. That stuff is so ignorant, "And told me to bring you at twelve noon. She don't know you. She said, 'Do you have a son named Richard [HistoryMaker Dick Gregory]?' Said, 'Yes.' 'Bring him. I need to tell him something.'" So I go at eight years old with this fraud. And she said, "Richard," and I said, "Yes, ma'am." Said, "I see a star in your forehead," and say, "you might not understand what I'm saying, but the world won't be the same because of you." And she said, "And I'm not talking about America, I'm talking about--," and say, "money, god, you'll have so much money one day, it's almost like another country." Say, "But I see, before it happen, I see this brown briefcase." I'm eight years old and, so I never give it another thought. But one day I'm working this little black nightclub, the Roberts Show Club [Chicago, Illinois], and I'm kind of getting a little play. So ABC was doing a thing called 'Walk in My Shoes' about racism and what black folks have gone through. So Alex Dreier was one of the big news guys there and national. So he told them, said you need to go out and film Dick Gregory. So they came in for two hours. Wow, this is it. I'm looking at it, man, less than two seconds. But when I found out TV, millions of letters came in about this Dick Gregory. That's how powerful TV is. So they were so appreciative of what--remember I'm still in the nightclub making ten dollars a night, they bought me this brown briefcase. Trust me, when CBS, NBC, ABC buy you, you got one, and I thought about what that old black woman told me about this briefcase, and I said, wow, god, I wish she was alive so I could tell her, I'm sorry.

Thomas Barnwell

Thomas Curtis Barnwell, Jr. was born on Hilton Head Island, South Carolina on June 2, 1935. His parents were Hannah White, a schoolteacher, and Thomas Barnwell, a farmer. Barnwell grew up on Hilton Head Island when the only transportation on and off the island was by boat. The native islanders were self sufficient by growing fresh vegetables, raising cows and hogs, fishing, catching shrimp and crabs and hunting deer, rabbit and raccoon. Barnwell graduated from St. Helena High School on St. Helena Island, South Carolina in 1954 and enrolled in Clafin College in Orangeburg, South Carolina.

After one year at Clafin College, Barnwell joined the United States Air Force. In 1959, he received an honorable discharge and enrolled at the Tuskegee Institute in Tuskegee, Alabama. In 1960, he began working as a longshoreman, Local 1414 in Savannah, Georgia.

Barnwell traveled extensively to continue his education. He studied sociology at Fisk University in Nashville, Tennessee in 1961; community development at the University of West Indies in 1963; group dynamics at the University of Ontario in Bethel, Maine in 1964 and community development and community education at the University of Puerto Rico.

Barnwell began his work in community service at Penn Community Service, Inc. While at the Penn Center, he worked in community organization, program planning, federal program orientation and implementation. His community service work continued as he held positions as Assistant Director for Beaufort-Jasper Hampton Economic Opportunity Commission, Executive Director of Beaufort-Jasper-Hampton Comprehensive Health Services, Inc. and the Regional Director of National Consumer Cooperative Bank, Charleston South Carolina branch. Barnwell is a former board member of the Bluffton Oyster Cooperative and the Hilton Head Fishing Cooperative. He testified before the United States Committee on Hunger and Malnutrition and Human Needs in 1969, and participated in President John F. Kennedy’s To Fulfill These Rights Committee.

Barnwell, who was involved in securing affordable housing, healthcare and employment for the natives of Hilton Head Island, is a land developer and a private business owner of rental properties.

Barnwell is married to Susan, his wife of over forty years. They have three adult children.

Barnwell was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on January 30, 2007.

Accession Number

A2007.034

Sex

Male

Interview Date

1/30/2007

Last Name

Barnwell

Maker Category
Occupation
Organizations
Schools

St. Helena High School

Squire Pope Elementary School

Robinson Junior High School

Penn Normal Industrial and Agricultural School

Claflin College

Tuskegee University

Fisk University

University of the West Indies

University of Puerto Rico

Speakers Bureau

No

First Name

Thomas

Birth City, State, Country

Hilton Head Island

HM ID

BAR09

Favorite Season

Summer

State

South Carolina

Favorite Vacation Destination

Caribbean

Favorite Quote

It Must Be Done As Quickly As Possible.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

South Carolina

Birth Date

6/2/1935

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Hilton Head Island

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Rice

Short Description

Real estate entrepreneur and social activist Thomas Barnwell (1935 - ) helped secure affordable housing, health care and employment for fellow natives of Hilton Head Island, South Carolina.

Employment

Penn Center

Beaufort-Jasper Comprehensive Health Services, Inc.

Beaufort-Jasper Economic Opportunity Commission

National Consumer Cooperative Bank

Barnwell Family Associates, LLC

Favorite Color

Green

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Thomas Barnwell interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Thomas Barnwell lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Thomas Barnwell describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Thomas Barnwell talks about his maternal grandfather

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Thomas Barnwell describes his mother's upbringing

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Thomas Barnwell describes his mother's role in the community

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Thomas Barnwell remembers his paternal grandfather

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Thomas Barnwell describes his paternal grandmother

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Thomas Barnwell describes the food traditions on Hilton Head Island, South Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Thomas Barnwell describes his father's role in the community

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Thomas Barnwell remembers lessons from his father

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Thomas Barnwell describes how his parents met

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Thomas Barnwell describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Thomas Barnwell describes his father's occupation

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Thomas Barnwell describes his paternal grandmother's ancestry

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Thomas Barnwell describes the lifestyle on Hilton Head Island, South Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Thomas Barnwell describes his community on Hilton Head Island, South Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Thomas Barnwell describes the role of religion on Hilton Head Island

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Thomas Barnwell remembers catching seafood on Hilton Head Island

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Thomas Barnwell remembers hunting on Hilton Head Island

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Thomas Barnwell remembers hunting wild turkeys on Pinckney Island, South Carolina

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Thomas Barnwell describes the methods of catching crabs on the Sea Islands of South Carolina

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Thomas Barnwell describes the transportation on Hilton Head Island, South Carolina

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Thomas Barnwell describes the law enforcement on Hilton Head Island

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Thomas Barnwell lists the churches on Hilton Head Island

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Thomas Barnwell shares the history of Hilton Head Island's schools, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Thomas Barnwell shares the history of Hilton Head Island's schools, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Thomas Barnwell remembers Squire Pope Elementary School on Hilton Head Island, South Carolina

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Thomas Barnwell describes his challenges with dyslexia

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Thomas Barnwell recalls his activities at Squire Pope Elementary School

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Thomas Barnwell recalls the community's expectations of him

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Thomas Barnwell remembers Robinson Junior High School on Hilton Head Island, South Carolina

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Thomas Barnwell recalls applying to the Penn Normal, Industrial and Agricultural School on St. Helena Island, South Carolina

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Thomas Barnwell describes his experiences at the Penn Normal, Industrial and Agricultural School

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Thomas Barnwell remembers his education at the Penn Normal, Industrial and Agricultural School

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Thomas Barnwell recalls an influential teacher at the Penn Normal, Industrial and Agricultural School

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Thomas Barnwell talks about boarding at the Penn Normal, Industrial and Agricultural School

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Thomas Barnwell recalls graduating from St. Helena High School on St. Helena Island, South Carolina

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Thomas Barnwell remembers Claflin University in Orangeburg, South Carolina

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Thomas Barnwell recalls his enlistment in the U.S. Air Force

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Thomas Barnwell remembers training at the Lackland Air Force Base in Texas

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Thomas Barnwell recalls serving at the Ramey Air Force Base in Puerto Rico

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Thomas Barnwell describes his experiences of discrimination in the U.S. Air Force

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Thomas Barnwell recalls his return to Hilton Head Island, South Carolina

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Thomas Barnwell recalls his interest in the Tuskegee Institute in Tuskegee, Alabama

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Thomas Barnwell remembers his marriage

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Thomas Barnwell describes the Hilton Head NAACP branch

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Thomas Barnwell recalls the problem of land inheritance on Hilton Head Island, South Carolina

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Thomas Barnwell describes his duties at the Penn Center on St. Helena Island, South Carolina

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Thomas Barnwell recalls his conversations with Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Thomas Barnwell talks about the communities served by the Penn Center

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Thomas Barnwell remembers his expectations of the March on Washington

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Thomas Barnwell recalls serving on a committee for President John Fitzgerald Kennedy

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Thomas Barnwell describes the demographics of Hilton Head Island, South Carolina

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Thomas Barnwell remembers continuing his education

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Thomas Barnwell describes the Beauford Jasper Comprehensive Health Service

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - Thomas Barnwell recalls working for the National Consumer Cooperative Bank

Tape: 6 Story: 11 - Thomas Barnwell describes his family's property on Hilton Head Island, South Carolina

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Thomas Barnwell describes his property developments on Hilton Head Island, South Carolina

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Thomas Barnwell talks about the loss of land by the native residents of Hilton Head Island

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Thomas Barnwell describes the dispossession of Hilton Head Island's native residents

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Thomas Barnwell describes the history of the tourism industry on Hilton Head Island

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Thomas Barnwell talks about his book manuscript

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Thomas Barnwell describes his hopes and concerns for Hilton Head Island

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Thomas Barnwell talks about his wife

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Thomas Barnwell reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 7 Story: 9 - Thomas Barnwell shares a message to future generations

Tape: 7 Story: 10 - Thomas Barnwell narrates his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$6

DAStory

2$9

DATitle
Thomas Barnwell describes the methods of catching crabs on the Sea Islands of South Carolina
Thomas Barnwell describes the Beauford Jasper Comprehensive Health Service
Transcript
You bypassed crabs, we need to know how you crab.$$All right, crabs. How did you catch crabs (simultaneous)?$$(Simultaneous) Crabs. Um-hm.$$Two ways. Maybe more than two, but during those days, you learned how to bog for crabs by going out into the mud. Some people had boots on, some people were barefoot. But you would have a stick with a Y in it and you would find--you would learn how to find that stick. We used to call it a stick with a crutch. And you would see the crabs in the mud. You'd know how to identify it. We, we learned how to identify the crab in the, in the crab bed. We used to refer to them as crab in the bed. And you would take that stick and put it across the back of the crab and when the crab had, usually, at least one claw, when the crab stick it's claw up, you would put it--put the stick across the back of the crab to avoid the crab from biting your fingers. Now, we didn't have gloves and sometimes we got, you know, clipped by a crab claw. But that was the process of, of learning how to do it. And you would have a crocus sack in some cases and in some cases, you'd have a large bucket. And then your sack might be way up on the hill. But we would have a container to put the crab in. And then you'd put the crab in that container and go on and continue to crab. Now, the other way we, we crabbed, was on lines. Two, two, two types of line. You could put a throttle line out where you put bullnose, was a meat that you'd get from the crab boat, or put chicken backs and chicken backs was not very popular to put on, because back in those days, chicken was a meat that, that was used for family meals. And nobody was, was rich enough (laughter) to, to use chicken for crabbing, and even the chicken foot was used to--to be eaten back in those days. So bullnose was, you know, or ham skin was, was--that was the meat that you put on a throttle line. And a throttle line was a long line that you would--you would put the meat, the bullnose, about twelve inches, more or less, apart and you'd string it along the side of where the tide would still not go totally low. And you'd get in a batoe and string the line out for whatever length, a thousand, five hundred feet or whatever. And then you'd have a dip net and someone would, would, would guide the batoe while you'd have one--there would be two persons, in some cases, most cases there'd be two in the batoe. The batoe is a small boat, by the way, that's made locally that would have enough room to have a fifty-five gallon drum and--and you'd have a homemade dip net made from wire that you would have one person pulling the line as the other guide the batoe and each time that you--the crabs would hold onto the meat until you got to it and you just put the net in and scoop it up and put--put it in the--in the drum. And then that would be another way of having some cash for whomever in the family that lived close to the water. And the crab boat would come on certain time of the day from Port Royal, South Carolina, and would pick up the crabs and paid so much per pound for the crab. And, and that's, that's the way that would be done.$So what year was it that you leave Penn Community Center--Services [Penn Community Services; Penn Center, St. Helena Island, South Carolina]?$$It was sixty--$$Sixty-seven [1967]?$$Yeah, yeah, '67 [1967]. Went to EOC [Beaufort Jasper Economic Opportunity Commission Inc.].$$You went to the EOC?$$Was it EOC, Economic Opportunity Commission or Beaufort Jasper Comprehensive Health Services [Beaufort-Jasper-Hampton Comprehensive Health Services, Inc., Ridgeland, South Carolina]?$$Okay, I think you--I think it says for the Beaufort Jasper Hampton Economic Opportunity Commission. And what was your job there?$$Well the Beaufort Jasper Comprehensive Health Services is when I, I had my greatest at home experience. EOC was an interim step prior to Comprehensive Health. The economic opportunity commission was, was, was a spin off to the national, then President Johnson [President Lyndon Baines Johnson] economic opportunity program to begin to look at helping communities throughout the country that had specific poverty problems and starting of community centers, community daycare and, and, and some job opportunities, the Job Corps and such programs as that. And from that, then I went to the Beaufort Jasper, I helped--I worked with the Federation Southern Cooperative [sic. Federation of Southern Cooperatives] as a short timeframe in between there working with helping to organize and develop cooperatives here in this area, Beaufort County [South Carolina], as well as when they needed, they pulled me out to go to Mississippi and other places. Then after that, a cooperative experience, then I, I, I went full time with the volunteer service for about a year in volunteering to organize the Organization to Prevent Hunger and Malnutrition, it's not on my resume, but, but that's what it's called. And then it folded in--they changed the name and folded it into the Beaufort Jasper Comprehensive Health Services and that's when I really enjoyed developing--helping the communities throughout Beaufort and Jasper County [South Carolina] to organize neighborhoods throughout these two communities into target--into nineteen target areas for the purpose of putting together a comprehensive healthcare program, and when I say comprehensive, starting from the transportation need to the community health worker need where someone would come into their homes. This is pre-home healthcare service time. Okay.$$Like, 'cause we're talking ab- this is like 1970? Okay.$$Yeah, yeah, yeah. Okay. And, and, and then the dental care in a dental environment. The clinical care prenatal, postnatal, as well as in-hospital care, as well as mental health, as well as speech and hearing, as well as any other referral services that would be needed. And, and, and getting into the area of talking with the persons that would begin to plan the dialysis needs for the area who would operate dialysis clinics.$$Okay, wow.$$That was fascinating.$$I guess so. Because this was a development for people of what income?$$All low income, starting with low income. And as a result of that, I went to the University of Michigan [Ann Arbor, Michigan] worked on a master's [degree] program for about a year and a half on, on a weekend flying in once a month. And I did not finish the program because it got so cold in Michigan, University of Michigan that I told them they could keep their degree. And they threatened me that after--if I did get the degree, they were gonna move me to Washington, and I said no, I have no interest, so bye-bye, I'm gone.$$Okay. So you stay with the Comprehensive Health Services and that was in--this was in Ridgeland [South Carolina], where in South Carolina (simultaneous)?$$(Simultaneous) Yeah, well Ridgeland was the addre- the main address.$$Was the address, the main address.$$Yeah, yeah, yeah.$$Okay, and you stay there for ten years?$$Yeah.

Reverend Dr. Herbert D. Daughtry

Pastor and activist Reverend Herbert Daughtry was born January 13, 1931, in Savannah, Georgia to Emmie Cheatham Williams and Bishop Alonzo Austin Daughtry. When he was one year old, his family moved to Augusta, Georgia. His parents separated shortly after, and his mother returned to Savannah. Daughtry moved back and forth between Savannah and Augusta as a child. His father was heavily involved in the church and Daughtry was raised in a household dominated by this religious upbringing.

When Daughtry was around eleven years old, his family moved north to Brooklyn, New York, and shortly after to Jersey City, New Jersey. Daughtry had trouble adjusting to the interracial classes in Jersey City and returned to take classes in Brooklyn. As a black child from the South, Daughtry found himself a frequent target of derision from his peers, both black and white. In response, Daughtry became regularly disruptive in school, and eventually fell into a decade-long struggle with gambling, crime and drug use. In 1950, Daughtry, hoping to get clean, joined the army, but remained strung out on heroin and was discharged after only a year.

In 1953, Daughtry was imprisoned for armed robbery and assault charges. While in prison, he experienced a religious conversion that changed his life. When he was released, Daughtry returned to the church, becoming a fourth generation minister in his family. In 1958, he became pastor of the House of the Lord Church in Brooklyn, and was named national presiding minister a year later, a post he has held ever since. In 1962, Daughtry married Karen Smith, with whom he would have four children. In the late 1960s, Reverend Daughtry became known for his activism in the struggle for school integration, and worked with organizations such as Operation Breadbasket. He became a significant figure in the Coalition of Concerned Leaders and Citizens to Save Our Jobs in 1977, boycotting Brooklyn businesses in order to obtain jobs and services for Brooklyn African Americans.

In 1982, Daughtry founded the African People’s Christian Organization, which sought to create an African Christian nation by highlighting both African origins and biblical teachings. Two years later, Daughtry became a special assistant to Reverend Jesse Jackson during his presidential campaign and accompanied him on his trip to the Vatican to advocate for a firmer stand on human rights. In 1991, Daughtry participated in Mayor David N. Dinkins’ delegation to South Africa, and met with Nelson and Winnie Mandela.

Reverend Daughtry has published several books. His 1997 book, No Monopoly on Suffering: Blacks and Jews in Crown Heights and Elsewhere dealt with the 1991 crisis in ethnic tensions in that neighborhood. He also published A Seed Planted in Stone - The Life and Times of Tupac Shakur, a book that follows his relationship with the slain rapper, who joined Daughtry’s congregation when he was only eleven years old. In 2003, Daughtry led a delegation of multi-faith protesters to Iraq, in a last-ditch effort to preserve peace in that nation. Daughtry lives in Brooklyn, New York, with his wife Karen.

Accession Number

A2006.101

Sex

Male

Interview Date

9/19/2006 |and| 11/27/2006

Last Name

Daughtry

Maker Category
Middle Name

D.

Occupation
Organizations
First Name

Herbert

Birth City, State, Country

Savannah

HM ID

DAU01

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Georgia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Caribbean

Favorite Quote

I'm Still Ahead Of The Posse.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Birth Date

1/13/1931

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New York

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Spinach, Beans

Short Description

Social activist and pastor Reverend Dr. Herbert D. Daughtry (1931 - ) was the founder of the African People's Christian Organization and is the National Presiding Minister of the House of the Lord Fellowship in Brooklyn, New York. A longtime political and civil rights activist, he wrote books on his involvement in the 1991 Crown Heights crisis between African American and Jewish residents, and on his relationship with Tupac Shakur.

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:14815,297:15155,302:18640,412:55584,841:56320,850:77746,1130:78176,1137:78692,1145:83594,1210:84368,1229:100016,1488:100520,1498:107506,1550:107874,1555:108242,1560:120478,1800:125700,1833:150600,2216:158870,2300:171077,2457:175312,2541:182627,2691:183397,2700:188318,2722:188786,2727:189605,2738:190892,2755:194667,2780:195831,2799:199420,2858:204949,2932:205434,2938:224595,3174:230745,3293:231945,3325:232245,3330:251876,3549:256986,3634:257643,3647:276436,3953:276901,3959:291887,4085:295464,4176:297508,4219:297873,4225:313780,4480$213,0:710,9:1917,43:2485,51:2911,58:8165,220:8520,227:8875,233:21418,464:23143,515:42448,819:42858,825:49172,933:49746,944:50976,965:51386,971:52206,986:52698,993:75512,1424:116180,2011:128820,2297:141630,2495:165390,2941:166758,2971:187372,3340:208450,3629
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Reverend Dr. Herbert D. Daughtry's interview, session 1

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Reverend Dr. Herbert D. Daughtry lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Reverend Dr. Herbert D. Daughtry describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Reverend Dr. Herbert D. Daughtry describes his mother's upbringing and education

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Reverend Dr. Herbert D. Daughtry recalls lessons from his mother

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Reverend Dr. Herbert D. Daughtry remembers his parents' separation

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Reverend Dr. Herbert D. Daughtry describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Reverend Dr. Herbert D. Daughtry describes his father's career as a minister

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Reverend Dr. Herbert D. Daughtry talks about his parents' marriage

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Reverend Dr. Herbert D. Daughtry describes his paternal family's migration to Georgia

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Reverend Dr. Herbert D. Daughtry describes the neighborhood where he grew up

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Reverend Dr. Herbert D. Daughtry describes the changes in Savannah, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Reverend Dr. Herbert D. Daughtry recalls the Florance Street School in Savannah, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Reverend Dr. Herbert D. Daughtry recalls stealing from the grocery store where he worked

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Reverend Dr. Herbert D. Daughtry shares his reason for stealing food from his employer

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Reverend Dr. Herbert D. Daughtry describes the African American community in Savannah, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Reverend Dr. Herbert D. Daughtry describes his father's role in the community of Augusta, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Reverend Dr. Herbert D. Daughtry recalls the growth of his father's church

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Reverend Dr. Herbert D. Daughtry talks about his father's split from Charles Manuel "Sweet Daddy" Grace

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Reverend Dr. Herbert D. Daughtry recalls his aspiration to become a doctor

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Reverend Dr. Herbert D. Daughtry remembers moving to Brooklyn, New York

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Reverend Herbert Daughtry describes his schooling in New Jersey and New York

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Reverend Herbert Daughtry recalls his loneliness as a child

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Reverend Herbert Daughtry recalls his experience in high school in Brooklyn

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Reverend Herbert Daughtry remembers influential black athletes and artists

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Reverend Herbert Daughtry talks about the negative portrayal of African Americans in popular culture

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Reverend Herbert Daughtry recalls his imprisonment as a teenager

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Reverend Herbert Daughtry describes his father's introverted personality

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Reverend Herbert Daughtry describes his troubled teenage years

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Reverend Herbert Daughtry talks about his children

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Reverend Dr. Herbert D. Daughtry recalls his introduction to gambling

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Reverend Dr. Herbert D. Daughtry talks about playing pool

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Reverend Dr. Herbert D. Daughtry recalls his early lessons in entrepreneurialism

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Reverend Dr. Herbert D. Daughtry recalls becoming addicted to heroin

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Reverend Dr. Herbert D. Daughtry recalls his involvement in the numbers game

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Reverend Dr. Herbert D. Daughtry recalls being arrested for running numbers

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Reverend Dr. Herbert D. Daughtry recalls his arrest for grand larceny

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Reverend Dr. Herbert D. Daughtry describes his decision to join the U.S. Army

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Reverend Dr. Herbert D. Daughtry describes his experiences in the U.S. Army

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Reverend Dr. Herbert D. Daughtry remembers returning from the U.S. Army

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Reverend Dr. Herbert D. Daughtry describes his involvement in an armed robbery

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Reverend Dr. Herbert D. Daughtry recalls the term of his prison sentence

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Reverend Dr. Herbert D. Daughtry describes the racial tensions in New Jersey

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Reverend Dr. Herbert D. Daughtry describes race relations in Brooklyn, New York

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Reverend Dr. Herbert D. Daughtry recalls his educational endeavors in prison

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Reverend Dr. Herbert D. Daughtry talks about his interest in holistic ministry

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Reverend Dr. Herbert D. Daughtry remembers his debates with followers of the Nation of Islam

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Reverend Dr. Herbert D. Daughtry recalls raising funds for Emmett Till's family

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Slating of Reverend Dr. Herbert D. Daughtry's interview, session 2

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Reverend Dr. Herbert D. Daughtry describes the police shooting of Sean Bell, Joseph Guzman and Trent Benefield

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Reverend Dr. Herbert D. Daughtry talks about the black leadership's response to police brutality

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Reverend Dr. Herbert D. Daughtry shares his advice to youth regarding police brutality

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Reverend Dr. Herbert D. Daughtry describes his criticism of police departments

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Reverend Dr. Herbert D. Daughtry talks about his role in the African American community

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Reverend Dr. Herbert D. Daughtry describes his philosophy of protest

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Reverend Dr. Herbert D. Daughtry talks about his ministerial leadership style

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Reverend Dr. Herbert D. Daughtry recalls his decision to join the struggle for civil rights

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - Reverend Dr. Herbert D. Daughtry talks about his incarceration

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Reverend Dr. Herbert D. Daughtry recalls his decision to reform himself in prison

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Reverend Dr. Herbert D. Daughtry describes his education in prison

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Reverend Dr. Herbert D. Daughtry describes his initiation to the Civil Rights Movement, pt. 1

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Reverend Dr. Herbert D. Daughtry describes his initiation to the Civil Rights Movement, pt. 2

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Reverend Dr. Herbert D. Daughtry describes his friendship with John Lawrence

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Reverend Dr. Herbert D. Daughtry recalls his start as a preacher

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Reverend Dr. Herbert D. Daughtry talks about his involvement in politics and religion

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Reverend Dr. Herbert D. Daughtry talks about his civil rights activities

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Reverend Dr. Herbert D. Daughtry talks about his activism with Reverend Jesse L. Jackson

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Reverend Dr. Herbert D. Daughtry talks about the Nation of Islam

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Reverend Dr. Herbert D. Daughtry describes the growth of his church

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - Reverend Dr. Herbert D. Daughtry recalls the shooting of Randolph Evans

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - Reverend Dr. Herbert D. Daughtry describes the formation of the National Black United Front

Tape: 8 Story: 6 - Reverend Dr. Herbert D. Daughtry talks about his political support for Reverend Jesse L. Jackson

Tape: 9 Story: 1 - Reverend Dr. Herbert D. Daughtry talks about Reverend Jesse L. Jackson's accusations of anti-Semitism, pt. 1

Tape: 9 Story: 2 - Reverend Dr. Herbert D. Daughtry talks about Reverend Jesse L. Jackson's accusations of anti-Semitism, pt. 2

Tape: 9 Story: 3 - Reverend Dr. Herbert D. Daughtry reflects upon his experiences with Reverend Jesse L. Jackson's presidential campaign

Tape: 9 Story: 4 - Reverend Dr. Herbert D. Daughtry describes his travels with Reverend Jesse L. Jackson, pt. 1

Tape: 9 Story: 5 - Reverend Dr. Herbert D. Daughtry describes his travels with Reverend Jesse L. Jackson, pt. 2

Tape: 9 Story: 6 - Reverend Dr. Herbert D. Daughtry describes his travels with Reverend Jesse L. Jackson, pt. 3

Tape: 9 Story: 7 - Reverend Dr. Herbert D. Daughtry recalls his confrontation with the Hasidim of Crown Heights in Brooklyn, New York

Tape: 9 Story: 8 - Reverend Dr. Herbert D. Daughtry describes his decision to write 'No Monopoly on Suffering'

Tape: 10 Story: 1 - Reverend Dr. Herbert D. Daughtry talks about his book, 'No Monopoly on Suffering'

Tape: 10 Story: 2 - Reverend Dr. Herbert D. Daughtry talks about the New York Ebonics Movement, pt. 1

Tape: 10 Story: 3 - Reverend Dr. Herbert D. Daughtry talks about the New York Ebonics Movement, pt. 2

Tape: 10 Story: 4 - Reverend Dr. Herbert D. Daughtry describes his visits to the White House

Tape: 10 Story: 5 - Reverend Dr. Herbert D. Daughtry talks about the reparations movement

Tape: 10 Story: 6 - Reverend Dr. Herbert D. Daughtry describes his hopes for the African American community

Tape: 10 Story: 7 - Reverend Dr. Herbert D. Daughtry describes how he would like to be remembered

DASession

2$2

DATape

7$9

DAStory

1$5

DATitle
Reverend Dr. Herbert D. Daughtry recalls his decision to reform himself in prison
Reverend Dr. Herbert D. Daughtry describes his travels with Reverend Jesse L. Jackson, pt. 2
Transcript
I was about twenty-two, and so there I was, hemmed in, locked in, Hudson County Jail [Hudson County Correctional Facility, Kearny, New Jersey], and it was a weekend. I was arrested like a, a Friday, and it was one of the president's birthdays, so that's a long weekend which mean that you have a long weekend in the police precinct and that's, that's, that's hard time. And, but it was good time for me in, in that I couldn't go anywhere. Everything was bad, the cells were stinking the, the, the bench was hard, just--'cause it's a transient thing. And in that state of desperation, I think a lot of--I came face to face with myself. And what had precipitated or helped it along was my mother [Emmie Cheatham Williams], but she would visit always faithful, and the last time she visited, she just looked so old and worn and beat and I realized that I had contributed to her aging process. I'd, I'd, I'd been hell on wheels, as they say. And with all of this coming in upon me, I, I threw myself down on that--on the--on the--on that floor, kneeling, and I put my, my hand, my head in my hand and I said, "Lord, listen. I made a mess of things. I've, I've created so much pain and so much agony and I just wanna give my life to you. I, I made a mess of it and I can't even say that I'm telling the truth now. I'm so messed up, I don't even know, God, I might be trying to manipulate now just to get out of jail. I don't know if I wouldn't go back into the same thing. But as well as I know myself, as well as I know myself, I just wanna make this commitment today, just take my life as it is and make me what you want me to be." That was February '53 [1953] if my memory serves me correctly and that's when the change start. I didn't hear any angels flapping wings. I didn't feel any great burning fire. I didn't--I just felt within myself, as well as I knew myself, I'd made a revolutionary commitment and a revolutionary promise. So, leaving the police precinct, then you'll go to the county jail where you're now going to be arraigned and then wait 'til the jury since I didn't have any bail, wasn't gonna put up the bail money, so I commenced the process of, of, of rehabilitation. I remember sitting down with a piece of paper and saying, you know, I, I--it wasn't long after that, I had felt that there was something special I was supposed to do, you know. I had not yet called it ministry or whatever, but I said now, if there is something I'm supposed to do, I might as well get ready for it because I was out of school at fifteen. So I sit down with a piece of paper, said these are the subjects I'm gonna need to learn. I gotta go back and get English, math, history, psychology, you know, like that. And then I set about trying to accumulate the books and, and the teachers. There's a saying, you know, when the student is ready, the teacher will appear. So I was ready. And so--and, and, and I pride myself on my boldness and eagerness of finding teachers. I mean, I'm--if, if whoever came through the place, if they look like they were reading, I would say, "Well, what're you reading, man?" And I would try to find out if they were teachers, who they were or what they knew. So I became--I became--I think it was Ralph Waldo Emerson who said, "Every person I meet is my superior in some things and, therefore, I learn of them." Well, long before I'd read Waldo Emerson, I, I adopted that posture. Everybody I meet, I'm a student, teach me. And fast forward, when I got to--after I--I stayed there about nine months waiting for the trial and so now I've got a decision to make. If I have committed my life to God, I, I, I got to give up the lying business so now I can't go to court, go to trial saying I'm not guilty. So now I gotta cop a plea. And that's what I did. I, I pleaded guilty. There was three, three counts of armed robbery, assault and, and weapon. And my lawyer was Ray Brown; I was his first case, senior. I still got the amount he charged to handle my case (laughter). And so I went to court and I got seven to ten years. I don't know to what extent if I said this before, but I got seven to ten years on each count and they ran them concurrently, which meant then after there, I went to Lewis--Trenton Penitentiary [Trenton State Prison; New Jersey State Prison, Trenton, New Jersey], and I stayed there I guess maybe about three years, and I was eligible for parole at the expiration of my minimum sentence.$What was interesting about that, you know, which I always admired about him, we went from Harlem [New York, New York]--before we left, we went to Harlem and--up to Sylvia's Restaurant [New York, New York], and, and we'd held a rally early in the day. And Jesse [HistoryMaker Reverend Jesse L. Jackson] was his usual way of opening doors for people at this rally of about 25,000 people. Jesse said, "And when I leave here, I'm going up to Sylvia and have me some fish." You know, now you knew everybody was gonna show at Sylvia's, and that's what happened. Everybody descended on Sylvia and there we were in the middle of the street, pimps, prostitutes, buying--everybody, go, Jesse, run Jesse, run Jesse. So we went from the pimps in Harlem to the pope in Rome [Italy] to the archbishop in London [England] to the prime minister of Italy to the ambassador, American ambassador in Italy, all in a matter of less than a week, and that's the range of, of, of, of Jesse Jackson, and I always liked him for that. In fact, I told him, we were coming through Virginia, and had this long entourage, and he looked up--I might have told you this, he looked up and he saw what had formerly been the chain gang, now they got brown suits, but both of us growing up in the South remember the chain gang days. That was another--legal slavery. They'd snatch black folks off the street for nothing, make them work. And, and when he looked up and he saw that scene, he said, "Stop, stop," you know, "stop the car, stop the car." And so this long entourage 'cause, you know, you got the Secret Service, you got the, the wagon in the front, and all the Secret Service, and then--you got a car in the front, Secret Service, then you got the wagon and depending upon how many threats he has received, which he used to see--receive them all the time, you have so many Secret Service and the staff, so it's a long entourage, right? So when he say stop, everything has to stop. So along the highway, you got this entourage, long entourage. And he gets out of the car, and we get out--he gets out of the car and he goes over to the sheriff, you know, who's sitting under the shade of a tree, you know, with--the typical potbelly, big shotgun, and he says, you know, "I wanna talk to these men." He says, "All right." So the guy said, "Okay, yeah, sure, talk to us." He went out--went out into the field, right, and we start talking, and he start talking to them, "How's the family, how you doing, how you making it? Everything's all right, can I help you with anything?" And he said, "Okay, what I'm gonna do is I'm gonna leave some money up there with the sheriff so you all can buy you some sodas or, or sandwiches or, or whatever, okay?" "All right, Jesse, man, thank you, thank you." So we got back in the car and I said to him, I said, "Man, you know, that's what I admire about you. You know, you'll always be my leader. You relate to the people in a biblical way, the least of these." He used to say this boat stuck at the bottom and as long as you can relate at that level, you got me, you know. And he said to me, he said, you know, "I guess that's why I like you. Other folks, you know, we had some names we called each other, said other folks want me because of, of what I do for them, but you the only one around, one of the few around, one of the few around who judge me based upon how I deliver for the people." And so we travel--I mean, from that London trip, first time I was ever on the Concorde [Aerospatiale/BAC Concorde], you know. He had to make a--get back because he was trying to free up these prisoners.

Diane McCoy-Lee

Diane McCoy-Lee was born on February 3, 1947 in Chicago, Illinois to Charles and Dimples McCoy. After graduation from high school in 1966, she attended the University of Southern Illinois for a brief period. McCoy then married a service man that she had known and dated since they were freshmen in high school. She earned her B.A. degree in sociology in 1981 from Chicago State University’s University Without Walls program. In 1988, McCoy earned her M.A. degree from the School of Social Service Administration at the University of Chicago.

McCoy’s first observation of family violence was an incident she observed between her parents prior to their divorce. In 1978, McCoy’s life experience as a battered wife with children led her to work as a volunteer addressing the issues of battered women. She is a founding member of the Chicago Abused Women’s Coalition and served on its Board of Directors from 1978 to 1986. In 1982, McCoy developed and directed the first hospital based crisis intervention program for battered women at Jackson Park Hospital in Chicago. From 1989 through 1992, McCoy worked with the Council on Battered Women, in Atlanta, as the Client Service Manager and served as Acting Director of the agency for a brief period.

From 1990 until 1992, she served as Supervisor of Foster Care for Ada S. McKinney. From 1992 until the present, McCoy serves as curriculum writer for the Georgia Department of Human Resources – Department of Family and Child Services.

Married to Robert C. Lee since 1986, they are the parents of three adult children, one of whom is deceased, and six grandchildren. They reside in Atlanta, Georgia.

Accession Number

A2006.029

Sex

Female

Interview Date

2/20/2006

Last Name

Lee

Maker Category
Middle Name

McCoy

Occupation
Schools

Holy Angels Catholic School

Doolittle Elementary School

Loretto Academy Catholic High School

Southern Illinois University

Chicago State University

University of Chicago

First Name

Diane

Birth City, State, Country

Chicago

HM ID

MCC07

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Illinois

Favorite Vacation Destination

Beaches

Favorite Quote

Let Go And Let God.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Birth Date

2/3/1947

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Atlanta

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Fried Chicken

Short Description

Social activist Diane McCoy-Lee (1947 - ) served as client service manager with the Chicago Battered Women's Organization.

Employment

Jackson Park Hospital

Favorite Color

Red

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Diane McCoy-Lee's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Diane McCoy-Lee lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Diane McCoy-Lee recalls the accident that paralyzed her mother

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Diane McCoy-Lee describes her mother's personality

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Diane McCoy-Lee describes her maternal family background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Diane McCoy-Lee describes her relationship with her father

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Diane McCoy-Lee describes her father's family background, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Diane McCoy-Lee describes her father's family background, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Diane McCoy-Lee describes her earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Diane McCoy-Lee remembers growing up with a handicapped mother

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Diane McCoy-Lee describes her mother's accident

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Diane McCoy-Lee recalls growing up in Chicago's Ida B. Wells Homes

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Diane McCoy-Lee describes the sights, sounds and smells of her childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Diane McCoy-Lee remembers the supportive community of Ida B. Wells Homes

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Diane McCoy-Lee recalls her primary education at Holy Angels Catholic School

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Diane McCoy-Lee recalls her early aspirations to better her community

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Diane McCoy-Lee describes her religious upbringing

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Diane McCoy-Lee recalls her experiences at Loretto Academy in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Diane McCoy-Lee explains her motivations for going to college

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Diane McCoy-Lee recalls President John Fitzgerald Kennedy's assassination

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Diane McCoy-Lee describes her experiences of racism during high school

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Diane McCoy-Lee talks about Vietnam and her first husband

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Diane McCoy-Lee describes the abuse she experienced during her first marriage

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Diane McCoy-Lee recalls divorcing and remarrying her first husband

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Diane McCoy-Lee recalls returning to Chicago and escaping her abusive husband again

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Diane McCoy-Lee recalls beginning to work with battered women while living a homeless shelter

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Diane McCoy-Lee describes her work with Greenhouse Shelter and Chicago Abuse Women's Coaltion

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Diane McCoy-Lee describes her career in social services for battered women

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Diane McCoy-Lee reflects upon her service to victims of domestic abuse

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Diane McCoy-Lee describes her work at the Division of Family and Children Services in Atlanta

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Diane McCoy-Lee reflects upon her experiences with abuse

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Diane McCoy-Lee reflects upon her life

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Diane McCoy-Lee describes her hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Diane McCoy-Lee talks about the importance of family and her second husband

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Diane McCoy-Lee describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Diane McCoy-Lee talks about her children and grandchildren

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Diane McCoy-Lee reflects upon the importance of history

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Diane McCoy-Lee reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Diane McCoy-Lee narrates her photographs, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - Diane McCoy-Lee narrates her photographs, pt. 2

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$3

DAStory

5$7

DATitle
Diane McCoy-Lee recalls beginning to work with battered women while living a homeless shelter
Diane McCoy-Lee describes her career in social services for battered women
Transcript
Let's again fast forward to the homeless shelter with two children [Tamila Brown Taylor and Barry Brown II], and you're not wanting your children to believe that a relationship that they would have in the future should be like yours, please continue what you were telling us regarding that?$$Well, when I first got to the shelter, we were in a room with my two children. It was an old hotel, that's what it was and there a number of many fifty other people there some families, some single people. I was just at the depths of despair one night when I woke up in the middle of the night and the room was filled with moths and I started killing moths and I'm saying, "Oh my God I got my children here." I can't go to my job because he'll [McCoy-Lee's first husband, Barry Brown] find me there. They made me apply for public aid. I'd never been on public aid, never planned to be on public aid, I had a job and we had sizable income, we had savings, why? Then I was sitting outside that morning, I couldn't sleep, I went outside it was about five o'clock in the morning and the newspaper was delivered and I looked in the newspaper and my mother [Dimples Broadway Hester] had written an article to a columnist in a newspaper asking for me, what can I do, where can I get help and kind of described my situation. And I said well if my mother believes, I gotta keep going.$$Now you were in a homeless shelter but your situation was different from other homeless, jobless women there.$$Yeah, I had different issues. I was not homeless because I couldn't find a job or because I had a mental illness that made so I couldn't, you know establish myself in, in a place, I was homeless because I was in fear of my life. I was being abused. I couldn't live safely in any place because my husband was always there. And he found the shelter you know, a family member told him where the shelter was, where I was. So in a sense I wasn't even safe there. It was at that point, well I did try to have him committed and I think I mentioned to you. He broke out of the mental institution and then we went to court, the judge said he's paranoid schizophrenic but not recommended for commitment. And he left before I did. In, in, in court where I filed for divorce it was much the same thing, it took two years to get the divorce and they could not make him give me any of the savings. His attorney finally gave up and said, "I can't represent you anymore." But it was at that shelter that I saw more women coming in there who were battered women as well.$$And what did this inspire you to do?$$I started working with some people at the shelter who wanted to establish a program for battered women and used that to give me strength in working with other women. I started going with women to recover some of their belongings when they knew their husband was at work you know knowing that that was you know the only time they could get some of their belongings. I started working with women going with them to court and and working with them gave me strength and around that we organized a program for battered women and then went on to open a shelter.$$When was your divorce final?$$My divorce wasn't final, it took two years so it was about 1980, '81 [1981] before it was final.$And from a vocational perspective, you have worked with battered women for a living since your own experience?$$Yeah. Well, in Chicago [Illinois] I did keynote addresses for which I was paid. A stipend or honorarium or what have you for giving those speeches, just describing where I was and how I felt and what it took to get out of that situation for other women and for the women to understand more about this whole issue of family violence and what needed to be done. And I went from there when I came to Atlanta [Georgia] I got a job with a Chicago Abused Women's Coalition [Connections for Abused Women and their Children] in Chicago--Council on Battered Women here in Atlanta and I was a client services manager for the sixty-five bed shelter, which was the largest shelter in the State of Georgia I'm sure and I was their first client service manager. They had an old home that was donated and had enough money to add on to that home so they were able to accommodate sixty-five women and children.$$When did you come to Atlanta for that purpose?$$I came to Atlanta in '88 [1988] right after I got my master's degree.$$So throughout this time your experience from high school [Loretto Academy, Chicago, Illinois] throughout the marriage [to Barry Brown], throughout the battering period, you continued to work on your education?$$I did.$$And when did you finish your college degree and what did you major in?$$I got my bachelor's degree from Chicago State University [Chicago, Illinois] in social work. I actually went through the University Without Walls [program] getting college credits for the speeches that I was giving and the work that I did with battered women. I got my master's degree from the University of Chicago School of Social Service Administration [Chicago, Illinois] in, master's degree in social work in 1988. But prior to that, I started the first service for battered women in a hospital. I worked at Jackson Park Hospital [Jackson Park Hospital and Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois] from 1981 to 1986 I believe it was. And that was the first hospital based program for battered women in the State of Illinois because at that time when a woman came into hospital and she said she had been beaten by her husband, there was no documentation in the medical records of what she went through and she was just treated and sent back home, whereas that was the opportune time to offer a woman services when she came into the emergency room. You know, in addition to treating you, we have a safe place for you to go if you want to go there. And even if you don't want to go to a shelter, I can refer you to support groups where you can get some information. And that was completely staffed by volunteers at the hospital and many staff at the hospital came to that program because they were experiencing violence. They were being abused. Yeah.

Allie B. Latimer

Attorney and social justice activist Allie Latimer was born in the 1930s in Coraopolis, Pennsylvania. Growing up in Alabama, her mother was a schoolteacher and her father was a builder. She attended the Alabama State Lab High School where she earned her high school diploma in the 1940s.

Latimer attended Barber-Scotia College in Concord, North Carolina, for a year and then transferred to Hampton Institute in Virginia where she earned her bachelor’s of science degree. While at Hampton, she was active with the drama club and dance team.Upon graduation Latimer joined the American Friends in Service, which is part of the Quaker International Volunteer Service program and worked at a women’s prison in New Jersey. She later traveled to France with the same group as part of a peace rebuilding mission.

In the 1950s, Latimer attended Howard University Law School where she earned her law degree. She has also received a LL.M degree from Catholic University and M. Div. and D.Min from Howard University School of Divinity. In 1969, she became an Ordained Elder at Northeastern Presbyterian Church in Washington, D.C.

In 1968, Latimer organized and founded Federally Employed Women, a national organization, which has more than 200 chapters today. After working in private practice for several years, she joined the General Services Administration (GSA) in the early 1970s as an assistant general counsel. In 1976, Latimer left GSA to serve as an assistant general counsel for National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). In 1977, she returned to the GSA and made history when she became the first woman and African American to serve as general counsel of a major federal agency. She held that post for ten years until she moved on to serve as Special Counsel for Ethics and Civil Rights at GSA from 1987-1995.

In 1998, Latimer was awarded the prestigious Ollie May Cooper Award for her legal and humanitarian achievements.

Accession Number

A2004.055

Sex

Female

Interview Date

5/20/2004

Last Name

Latimer

Maker Category
Middle Name

B.

Organizations
Schools

Alabama State University Laboratory School

Booker T. Washington Junior High School

Barber-Scotia College

Hampton University

Howard University School of Law

Catholic University of America

Howard University School of Divinity

First Name

Allie

Birth City, State, Country

Choreopolis

HM ID

LAT02

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Pennsylvania

Favorite Vacation Destination

Oman, Switzerland

Favorite Quote

You have to think about yourself because no one wakes up in the morning with you on their mind.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

2/16/1928

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Ice Cream

Short Description

Social activist and government lawyer Allie B. Latimer (1928 - ) is the founder of the Federally Employed Women organization and has served as counsel for various government agencies, including NASA. She became the first woman and African American to serve as general counsel of a major federal agency during her tenure with the General Services Administration.

Employment

Federal Reformatory For Women (Alderson, West Virginia)

General Services Administration

Favorite Color

Red

DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Allie Latimer

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Allie Latimer's favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Allie Latimer shares details about her mother

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Allie Latimer shares details about her father

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Allie Latimer discusses her ancestry and shares family stories

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Allie Latimer recalls childhood memories

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Allie Latimer talks about her siblings and grandmother

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Allie Latimer talks about her childhood community

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Allie Latimer reflects on her years in elementary school

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Allie Latimer discusses her junior high and high school years

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Allie Latimer talks about her college experiences

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Allie Latimer talks about her career aspirations after college

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Allie Latimer shares stories of her volunteer experiences before attending law school

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Allie Latimer talks about attending law school and suing to take the bar exam

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Allie Latimer talks about seeking employment with the federal government

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Allie Latimer discusses forming Federally Employed Women

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Allie Latimer talks about becoming the first black general counsel for a major federal agency

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Allie Latimer talks about confronting racism and sexism in the federal government

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Allie Latimer discusses her involvement in various organizations

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Allie Latimer shares her personal philosophy on various topics

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Allie Latimer shares her concerns for the black community and reflects on her life

Paul Hill

Civic leader, social worker, social activist, and author Paul Hill, Jr. was born on November 6, 1945 to Mabel Craig Hill and Paul Hill, Sr. in Cleveland, Ohio. After graduating from Cleveland’s John Adams High School in 1964, Hill earned his B.S. degree in business education from Ohio University and master’s degrees in educational policy studies and social work from the University of Kentucky and the University of Wisconsin. He also completed training with the Gestalt Institute of Cleveland in organizational and systems development.

Hill served for thirty three years as CEO and President of one of the oldest and largest children, youth and family community based services organizations in Cleveland, Ohio. He retired in 2011. Hill is a former W. K. Kellogg Foundation Leadership Fellow (1989 – 1992), and conducted field studies on the socialization of males. In 1992, he authored Coming of Age, a book based on his research on African American boys and men. In 1993, he established The National Rites of Passage Institute, which is designed “to create a critical mass and community of adults to serve and develop youth.” Since 1993, the Institute has provided training to more than 700 men and women in twenty cities. In turn, these individuals have been responsible for mentoring and supporting more than 10,000 children and youth in neighborhood and community-based programs. He has also published several journal articles on rites of passage and human development, including “African Presence in the Americas: Rituals and Rites of Passage.”

A much sought-after speaker, Hill is also active in many community activities, including Kwanzaa cultural programs. Hill and his wife, Marquita McAllister Hill, are the parents of seven children and seven grandchildren.

Paul Hill, Jr. was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on March 17, 2004.

Accession Number

A2004.025

Sex

Male

Interview Date

3/17/2004

Last Name

Hill

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Organizations
Schools

John Adams High School

Charles Dickens Elementary School

Alexander Hamilton Junior High School

Charles W Eliot School

Ohio University

University of Wisconsin-Madison

Speakers Bureau

Yes

First Name

Paul

Birth City, State, Country

Cleveland

HM ID

HIL07

Speakers Bureau Honorarium

Yes - $500 - $1,000

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Ohio

Favorite Vacation Destination

Beaches

Favorite Quote

If You Don’t Where You’re Going, Any Road Will Take You There.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Ohio

Birth Date

11/6/1945

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Cleveland

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Fish, Beans, Corn Muffins, Coleslaw

Short Description

Social worker, social activist, and social work researcher Paul Hill (1945 - ) was president and CEO of East End Neighborhood House, a neighborhood-based nonprofit organization that serves youth and families. In 1993, he established The National Rites of Passage Institute to provide training to adults to mentor and support youth.

Employment

Murtis H. Taylor Multi-Services Center

East End Neighborhood House

W.K. Kellogg Foundation

Favorite Color

Red

Timing Pairs
0,0:4092,79:4356,84:5478,138:9966,223:10428,231:11418,249:13464,327:14850,395:26940,566:27500,575:32470,679:33800,705:34360,714:46044,861:48492,918:56916,1071:57348,1082:60444,1137:74135,1265:78085,1310:104320,1742:105370,1767:108690,1776:110016,1796:115086,1893:115710,1902:119064,1971:125850,2102:126162,2107:132423,2149:132934,2157:136511,2220:138628,2264:139066,2271:148848,2494:155120,2535:156170,2555:159320,2617:177120,2920:177680,2929:191750,3245:192030,3250:192450,3257:198820,3275:199294,3282:204745,3355:205535,3367:212408,3538:225458,3713:227064,3727:227575,3735:232603,3780:233681,3799:235760,3897:245077,4040:246771,4061:247233,4068:249312,4144:250467,4174:270132,4415:285423,4649:288050,4708:290038,4740:290464,4751:307890,5013:308610,5024:309762,5044:313780,5075$0,0:5370,88:39023,665:66162,1014:73748,1068:95560,1347:179945,2341:218360,2829:242940,3108:260320,3274
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Paul Hill's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Paul Hill lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Paul Hill describes his maternal family history

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Paul Hill describes his paternal family history

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Paul Hill comments on his relatives' migration from Alabama to Cleveland, Ohio in the 1930s and 1940s

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Paul Hill describes his parents' high school education in Cleveland, Ohio

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Paul Hill talks about his family's history in sharecropping and at Tuskegee Institute in Tuskegee, Alabama

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Paul Hill describes his three brothers

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Paul Hill describes his earliest childhood memories

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Paul Hill talks about John O. Holly and the Future Outlook League in Cleveland, Ohio

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Paul Hill narrates his photographs

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Paul Hill describes his mother, Mabel Craig Hill

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Paul Hill talks about the post office's role in livelihood of the African American community

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Paul Hill talks about his grade school years and other graduates of John Adams High School in Cleveland, Ohio

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Paul Hill talks about public housing in Cleveland, Ohio, and his neighbors in Cleveland's Lee-Harvard community

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Paul Hill describes his memories of the March on Washington and the assassination of President John F. Kennedy in 1963

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Paul Hill talks about his sheltered home as well as attending Ohio University in Athens, Ohio

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Paul Hill describes his experience at Ohio University in Athens, Ohio

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Paul Hill narrates his photographs

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Paul Hill talks about his transition to campus life at Ohio University in Athens, Ohio

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Paul Hill talks about his early social activism, student teaching at John Hay High School in Cleveland, Ohio, and joining the Teacher Corps

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Paul Hill describes seminal moments in Lexington, Kentucky that shaped his desire for social activism

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Paul Hill describes his experience at the University of Wisconsin-Madison as a Ford Fellow

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Paul Hill remembers his younger brother's death

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Paul Hill talks about campaigning for Carl Stokes' reelection and working with Arnold Pinkney at the Cleveland Board of Education

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Paul Hill talks about desegregation in Cleveland Public Schools in the 1970s

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Paul Hill talks about a disagreement with the Cleveland Board of Education

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Paul Hill describes his work as a regional educational specialist for the U.S. Justice Department Community Relations Services, pt.1

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Paul Hill describes his work as a regional educational specialist for the U.S. Justice Department Community Relations Services, pt.2

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Paul Hill describes his work in the United States Department of Health, Education, and Welfare

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Paul Hill talks about positive conditions for social and cognitive development in black students prior to integration

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Paul Hill talks about his wife, Marquita McAllister Hill

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Paul Hill talks about his children and grandchildren

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Paul Hill describes the African American community in East Cleveland, Ohio, and the state of the African American family

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Paul Hill describes the black community's self-perception

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Paul Hill comments on systemic issues affecting the black community in East Cleveland and his family's experience in the city

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Paul Hill describes the history of and services at East End Neighborhood House in Cleveland, Ohio

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Paul Hill talks about East End Neighborhood House's partnership with Hathaway Brown School in Shaker Heights, Ohio

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Paul Hill comments on the social services in Cleveland, Ohio and a Ford Foundation study on Cleveland's African American community

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Paul Hill talks about the social pacification of the black community

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Paul Hill describes the importance of knowing African American history

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Paul Hill begins to talk about the National Rites of Passage program

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Paul Hill talks about the creation of the National Rites of Passage Institute

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Paul Hill describes his rites of passage efforts as an extension of Kwanzaa

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Paul Hill talks about the eight principles taught through the National Rites of Passage Institute

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Paul Hill talks about published works on rites of passage and his concern for preserving the integrity of the National Rites of Passage Institute

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Paul Hill describes the significance of his contributions and the importance of rites of passage

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Paul Hill narrates his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

5$6

DAStory

3$1

DATitle
Paul Hill describes the history of and services at East End Neighborhood House in Cleveland, Ohio
Paul Hill talks about the creation of the National Rites of Passage Institute
Transcript
So, there are three things that always come to mind when I think about you and your work in greater Cleveland [Ohio], both in the city of Cleveland and also in East Cleveland. The first is your family. We spent some time talking about that family foundation; both for your parents [Paul Hill, Sr. and Mabel Craig Hill], your siblings, and then for your wife [Marquita McAllister Hill] and for your children. But then, I think too, about East End Neighborhood House, and I guess if you moved to East Cleveland in '81 [1981], that's about the same time that you're becoming director of East End.$$That's right.$$So, if we can shift gears a little bit and talk about some of the social services and other programs that are offered here at the East End Neighborhood House in the City of Cleveland.$$Well, East End Neighborhood House was founded in 1907. We are located at 2749 Woodhill [Road, Cleveland, Ohio]. We're west of Shaker Square, in the southeast part of Cleveland. We've been at this location since 1917. We own the property. We're on about three acres of land. The original house itself, you know, is standing. Then we have a 1949 addition, then there's another 7500 square foot addition that we made that houses our child daycare department, our senior services staff offices, and then some senior rooms, and we have our computer lab, and then a lobby. As far as services that we provide, we provide services in the area of child daycare, from infants all the way through school ages. We have 112 children that we provide services for, from infants to before and after school program, with our toddler program and preschooler program. We are a NAECY [National Association for the Education of Young Children] accredited organization; that's the National Association for the Education of Children and Youth. We're only two neighborhood-based organizations that have that national accreditation. We just got reaccredited, so we're real proud of the excellent child day care services we're able to provide and constantly improve upon. We also have our senior day care program and that program provides, we provide services for seniors every day, fifty-five seniors, we provide them breakfast and a lunch, and different recreational services, social services, outreach, field trips, we have a nurse, registered nurse to come in and help them with their medicine and prescriptions. We have a lawyer to come in once a month for any type of legal problems they may have. We also have 200 seniors that are frail and handicapped that we provide meals for; our Meals on Wheels program, so we provide meals Monday through Saturday for them and outreach to them, and those are our two anchor programs, the child daycare and senior daycare, and to me those reflect the two most oppressed segments of the population, the very young and the very old, and if it wasn't for these two anchor programs, a lot of families would not be able to work or to go to school, continue their education. So, we provide a very caring and safe environment for children, and a lot of our seniors, if we didn't provide these services, they probably would have to be institutionalized, 'cause a lot of them live by themselves. Now the organization is open Monday through Saturday; Monday through Friday we're open from 6:30 in the morning to 6:00 at night. On Mondays and Thursdays, we have AA [Alcoholics Anonymous], and it's open 'till 8:00. And then, on Saturdays we're open till 2 o'clock. We have a nontraditional day care program with nontraditional hours. It's open on Saturdays from 6:00 to 12:00, and then we have African drumming that's offered from 12 to 3. So, we're open seven days a week. We have a budget of 2.1 million dollars, a staff of thirty-two. Most of our funding are public dollars from the federal government. Especially, the majority is from the county government. We have a contract for our child day care program and our senior day care program, with monies from Western Missouri Area Agency on Aging, and we also have foundation monies from the St. Luke's Foundation and the Cleveland Foundation, the Gunn [ph.] Foundation, the Brewing [ph.] Foundation; I think I've mentioned all of them. And then we charge some fees based on income for the different services we provide. We also get funding from United Way services; about six percent of our budget reflects United Way, so their dollars are important. And there are a total of nineteen neighborhood centers like East End in Cleveland on the East and West Side, and we're one of the oldest and the largest of the neighborhood centers. We have a real good staff, excellent board. We're approaching our 100th anniversary, which will be 2007. We have an annual, we just started last year having an annual fund campaign, which we have done very well. Some of our supporters are Hathaway Brown School [Shaker Heights, Ohio], Hanna Perkins [School, Shaker Heights, Ohio], have been very good supporters of us, and a lot of other individual supporters over the years throughout the community.$All right, Mr. Hill, I would like to talk with you now about this nationally recognized program, [National] Rites of Passage [Institute], in--that you are responsible for launching in greater Cleveland [Ohio]. It has sort of taken off.$$I'd say, yeah, myself and my wife [Marquita McAllister Hill]. Anything I do, you really can't separate, I can't separate her from, I mean, 'cause her influence is knowledge information, it's all part. So it's really been co-authored, co-facilitated through the both of us, based on our experience as husband and wife and as parents.$$So when was it founded, and what's the basic content of the program?$$Well again, rites of passage, the term rites of passage was coined in 1907, by a French anthropologist named Arnold van Gennep, based on his research of how indigenous groups socialize their--the different age sets into life passages, the crisis periods that we go through from conception to death. Usually when we think of rites of passage, we think of it relative to adolescence, but really rites of passage reflect life stages from early childhood to death and even after death becoming an ancestor. The way that I define rites of passage is it is a process. It's not a program. You really have to think of it as a life cycle development process. It's really a ritual. It's a human development ritual for dealing with life passages and crises from birth to death, and to me, the way I define it, operationally define it, is a process for regenerating community, 'cause, first of all, we're not born men and women. We're born males and females, so we have to be socially and culturally developed into manhood and womanhood. And, in the different phases of a man and woman, you know, midlife, which is really a new Western life phase that we go through midlife, and then you're talking about the onset of eldership, early eldership, and then late eldership, and then death and in transition. So, again, my purpose for doing it is dealing specifically with what is known specific for is adolescence; helping young people to make it from childhood to adulthood and not having to do it by themselves, but there is a support of adults and community. But, in order to do that, you can't do that unless adults have gone through that process. How're you gonna take children through something that you have not gone through as a ritual through ceremony, through initiation? So, it's been necessary, 'cause African term never develop your shield on the battlefield, so we have found ourselves concurrently having to regenerate the community as well as establish and create the community among adults. So, there has been two emphases; first of all, to create a critical mass and community of adults that will serve community and serve young people, facilitate the rites of passage process. And then, the young people themselves, a process for helping them to become men and women and to become adults. So, the process is--I basically used my own children; some of the socialization informally and formally in raising them, and then based on some of my field study, field research, reviewing the literature, coming up with a reinvented process for doing rites of passage through East End Neighborhood House [Cleveland, Ohio].

Robert Woodson

Community activist Robert L. "Bob" Woodson has devoted his career to helping low-income people transcend their impoverished conditions. Born in Philadelphia on April 8, 1937, Woodson has used his own rise from poverty to assist him as the founder and president of the National Center for Neighborhood Enterprise (NCNE).

Woodson spent his early years in South Philadelphia before his father relocated their family to West Philadelphia in 1946. Shortly thereafter, his father died and Woodson's mother was overwhelmed by the task of being a single parent. Woodson became estranged from his mother, lost his self-confidence and dropped out of high school. At age seventeen, he joined the Air Force and turned his life around. Woodson earned his G.E.D. while in the service, going on to study mathematics at Cheyney University. Woodson then took a job at a juvenile jail and, as he began to identify with the kids in the jail, dedicated himself to helping them. He decided to go into social work, attending the University of Pennsylvania, where he earned an M.S.W.

Woodson, however, grew disenchanted with the bureaucratic restrictions and regulations of liberal anti-poverty programs. After working for the National Urban League, Woodson became a research fellow with the American Enterprise Institute (AEI), where he learned effective techniques for self-empowerment. Because AEI emphasized theory more than direct action, Woodson left in 1981 to create NCNE, a grassroots research and demonstration program emphasizing the importance of empowerment and self-management as effective approaches for ending poverty.

For his contributions, Woodson received a prestigious "Genius Grant" from the MacArthur Foundation in 1990. He sits on the boards of the American Association of Enterprise Zones, the Commission on National and Community Service, and the Commonwealth Foundation. Woodson has also written extensively on issues of poverty and empowerment, including The Triumphs of Joseph: How Today's Community Healers are Reviving Our Streets and Neighborhoods. Woodson and his wife, Ellen, live in Silver Spring, Maryland. They have three children.

Selected Bibliography
Woodson, Robert L. The Triumphs of Joseph: How Today's Community Healers are Reviving Our Streets and Neighborhoods. The Free Press, 1998.

Accession Number

A2003.232

Sex

Male

Archival Photo 1
Interview Date

9/22/2003

Last Name

Woodson

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Schools

George Brooke

Shoemaker Junior High School

Overbrook High School

Cheyney University of Pennsylvania

University of Pennsylvania

Archival Photo 2
First Name

Robert

Birth City, State, Country

Philadelphia

HM ID

WOO02

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Pennsylvania

Favorite Vacation Destination

Virginia

Favorite Quote

The people suffering the problem have to be involved in the solution.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

4/8/1937

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Veal

Short Description

Community development chief executive and social activist Robert Woodson (1937 - ) created the National Center for Neighborhood Enterprise, to address issues of poverty.

Employment

National Urban League (NUL)

American Enterprise Institute

National Center for Neighborhood Enterprise

Favorite Color

Blue

DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Robert Woodson interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Robert Woodson lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Robert Woodson traces his family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Robert Woodson explains the lack of information about his family

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Robert Woodson describes his parents' fortitude

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Robert Woodson lists his siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Robert Woodson recalls his childhood neighborhood

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Robert Woodson shares childhood memories

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Robert Woodson relates why his family changed neighborhoods

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Robert Woodson describes the culture of his new neighborhood

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Robert Woodson remembers people he knew in high school

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Robert Woodson describes Wilt Chamberlain

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Robert Woodson shares his grade school experiences

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Robert Woodson recalls his academic underperformance in high school

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Robert Woodson explains why he joined the Air Force

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Robert Woodson recalls his induction into the Air Force

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Robert Woodson details his first experiences with racism

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Robert Woodson remembers his work at the missile base in Florida

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Robert Woodson recounts the racial atmosphere on the Air Force base

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Robert Woodson recalls his decision to attend college

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Robert Woodson describes Cheyney State University

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Robert Woodson explains why he's happy not to have had affirmative action

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Robert Woodson discusses how universities misuse black students through affirmative action programs

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Robert Woodson reflects on the change in attitude towards racism

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Robert Woodson shares his thoughts on reparations

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Robert Woodson expresses the need for self-determination for black people

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Robert Woodson criticizes African American leadership

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Robert Woodson recounts experiences that changed his worldview

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Robert Woodson recalls his work in a juvenile prison

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Robert Woodson details his split with the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Robert Woodson examines the growing gap between wealthy and poor blacks

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Robert Woodson discusses the rise and fall of Marcus Garvey

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Robert Woodson critiques the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Robert Woodson recounts his shift to the Unitarian Universalist Service Committee

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Robert Woodson recalls his work with the Unitarian Universalist Service Committee

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Robert Woodson details his experiences with the National Urban League

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Robert Woodson explains his move to the American Enterprise Institute

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Robert Woodson expresses his political viewpoint

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Robert Woodson details differences between liberal and conservative organizations

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Robert Woodson illustrates the way to help troubled neighborhoods

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Robert Woodson describes his efforts to reduce violence

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Robert Woodson reflects on his most successful project

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Robert Woodson reflects on the importance of religion to his work

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Robert Woodson relates his concerns for the black community

Tape: 5 Story: 11 - Robert Woodson considers his legacy

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Robert Woodson considers how he wants to be remembered

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Photo - Robert Woodson and others, Atlanta, Georgia. ca. 1999

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Photo - Robert Woodson with Navajo leaders, New Mexico, ca. 1983

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Photo - Robert Woodson with Sister Isolina Ferre, ca. 1973

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Photo - Robert Woodson with George W. Bush, Washington, D.C., ca. 2001

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Photo - Robert Woodson with Kimi Gray

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Photo - Robert Woodson with Marion Barry and Jack Kemp

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Photo - Robert Woodson with Marion Barry, H. R. Crawford, and Ronald Reagan, Washington, D.C., ca. 1980s

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Photo - Robert Woodson and Jack Kemp pass the baton to resident leaders

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - Photo - Robert Woodson with Barbara Bush

Tape: 6 Story: 11 - Photo - Robert Woodson with Bill Gray

Tape: 6 Story: 12 - Photo - Robert Woodson with reformed gang members

Tape: 6 Story: 13 - Photo - Robert Woodson with children and reformed gang members

Tape: 6 Story: 14 - Photo - Robert Woodson with Wayne Lee

Tape: 6 Story: 15 - Photo - Robert Woodson with Susan Kidd and members of the 640 Honeys, Washington, D.C.

Tape: 6 Story: 16 - Photo - Robert Woodson with Henry Hyde and ex-gang members, Washington, D.C.

Tape: 6 Story: 17 - Photo - Robert Woodson with grassroots leaders, Park City, Utah, July 2003

Tape: 6 Story: 18 - Photo - Robert Woodson with at-risk youth

Tape: 6 Story: 19 - Photo - Dr. Peter Berger with ex-gang members, 1980

Tape: 6 Story: 20 - Photo - Robert Woodson with George W. Bush and former welfare recipients, Washington, D.C.

Tape: 6 Story: 21 - Photo - Robert Woodson with President George H. W. Bush and black scholars, 1989

Ruby Nell Sales

Ruby Sales, born in Jemison, Alabama, on July 8, 1948, suffered many hardships during the civil rights movement but was not disparaged. She has spent her adult life working in philanthropic endeavors.

While studying at the Tuskegee Institute in Alabama, Sales became involved with the state's Freedom Summer voter registration drive. One afternoon, as she and Jonathan Daniels, a white seminarian, stood in line at a corner store, a man shot and killed Daniels for standing behind Sales in line. Unnerved and unable to speak significantly for seven months, Sales determined to attend the trial of Daniels' murderer, Tom Coleman, and to testify on behalf of her slain colleague. Her perseverance moved her to a career of social activism.

After earning her B.A. in American history in 1971 from Manhattanville College, where she was a National Council of Churches Merit Scholar, Sales enrolled in graduate school at Princeton University. Between 1971 and 1976, she was a Danforth Scholar, and she advanced to Ph.D. candidacy in American history before leaving the university. Sales taught adult education in Boston for a year, and then worked as director of the Citizens' Complaint Center in Washington, D.C. From 1986 to 1988, she taught courses on the civil rights movement and African American women's history at the University of Maryland before becoming affiliated with the National Women's Studies Association. She served as director from 1989 to 1991 of Black Women's Voices and Images, an initiative to wed research to action on issues affecting black women. For the following three years she worked as director of Women of All Colors, coordinating a broad coalition of progressive organizations to work on issues affecting all women.

In 1994, Sales entered the Episcopal Divinity School in Cambridge, Massachusetts. She studied feminist, African American and liberation theologies with an emphasis on race, class and gender issues, and in 1998 received her master's of divinity. Her training as a seminarian prepared her to launch SpiritHouse in 2000, a nonprofit organization focused on community organizing and spiritually based community building. Sales has written several articles and has appeared as a commentator on several television programs. She lives in Washington, D.C.

Accession Number

A2003.226

Sex

Female

Interview Date

9/15/2003

Last Name

Sales

Maker Category
Marital Status

Domestic Partner

Middle Name

Nell

Organizations
Schools

George Washington Carver High School

Tuskegee University

Manhattanville College

Princeton University

Episcopal Divinity School

First Name

Ruby

Birth City, State, Country

Jemison

HM ID

SAL02

Favorite Season

Fall, Spring

State

Alabama

Favorite Vacation Destination

Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts

Favorite Quote

Beloved Community.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

7/8/1948

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Greens (Collard)

Short Description

Nonprofit chief executive and social activist Ruby Nell Sales (1948 - ) is a scholar who focuses on African American women's issues. Sales experiences in the civil rights movement shaped her career which eventually led her to launch SpiritHouse, a nonprofit organization focused on community organizing and spiritually based community building.

Employment

Citizen Complaint Center

University of Maryland, College Park

Black Women's Voices and Images

SpiritHouse Project

Favorite Color

Purple

Timing Pairs
0,0:1190,23:2984,80:4700,130:11830,223:16388,275:16828,281:17356,288:19028,313:19468,319:19996,326:20436,333:20788,338:22812,372:23164,377:23692,384:25188,406:26068,417:27124,432:27740,441:28444,451:29236,462:31524,530:40730,594:41480,606:43130,636:44180,654:44555,661:44930,667:45980,686:46880,703:47480,714:50105,769:50480,775:50780,780:51680,796:52055,803:52355,808:58746,847:59262,855:59950,864:60552,872:67776,995:68464,1006:72360,1018:72944,1024:74990,1029:76400,1034:77597,1060:77912,1066:78416,1076:78857,1084:79361,1094:81494,1118:91000,1267$90,0:1182,18:12028,133:14735,219:15400,228:21901,296:42005,469:42393,474:43072,483:47049,553:47728,561:53370,593:54618,611:60234,720:61326,737:75414,929:76206,939:77614,970:81486,1025:82366,1037:90170,1094:91116,1107:95932,1165:103870,1223:104220,1230:108650,1265:110214,1299:123702,1464:124026,1471:125160,1488:129100,1502:130924,1538:134624,1555:135177,1563:136678,1589:139048,1638:140075,1654:140707,1663:141813,1683:142129,1690:144025,1722:144341,1727:152873,1848:158170,1861:166080,1975:166340,1980:168950,1994:169234,1999:169518,2004:195070,2354
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Ruby Nell Sales' interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Ruby Nell Sales lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Ruby Nell Sales states her parents' birthplaces and birthdates

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Ruby Nell Sales talks about her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Ruby Nell Sales talks about her father's experience in the U.S. Army

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Ruby Nell Sales describes her maternal family's view of her mother's ambition

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Ruby Nell Sales describes how her parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Ruby Nell Sales talks about her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Ruby Nell Sales lists her siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Ruby Nell Sales describes her childhood neighborhood in Columbus, Georgia

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Ruby Nell Sales describes the sights, sounds and smells of her childhood in Columbus, Georgia

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Ruby Nell Sales talks about talks about Carver High School in Columbus, Georgia

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Ruby Nell Sales talks about her childhood activities and the Catholic school she attended in Alabama

Tape: 1 Story: 14 - Ruby Nell Sales talks about her religious background

Tape: 1 Story: 15 - Ruby Nell Sales talks about attending Carver High School in Columbus, Georgia and the school's care for students

Tape: 1 Story: 16 - Ruby Nell Sales talks about her love of school and nurturing teachers at Carver High School in Columbus, Georgia

Tape: 1 Story: 17 - Ruby Nell Sales remembers her grade school teachers

Tape: 1 Story: 18 - Ruby Nell Sales talks about life in the South and impressions of her high school homeroom teacher

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Ruby Nell Sales talks about her high school interests, particularly in reading

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Ruby Nell Sales talks about growing up in the segregated South

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Ruby Nell Sales remembers graduating from Carver High School in Columbus, Georgia, and her disinterest in attending Tuskegee Institute

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Ruby Nell Sales talks about HistoryMaker Gwendolyn Patton, Tuskegee Institute in Tuskegee, Alabama and the town's residents

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Ruby Nell Sales talks about participation in the Civil Rights Movement from Tuskegee Institute students, faculty, and staff

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Ruby Nell Sales talks about her first experience staging a sit-in in Montgomery, Alabama

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Ruby Nell Sales comments on how the Civil Rights Movement coalesced

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Ruby Nell Sales recalls help from faculty at Tuskegee Institute as she engaged in Civil Rights work in Lowndes County, Alabama

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Ruby Nell Sales talks about Lowndes County, Alabama and gives anecdotes about Stokely Carmichael

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Ruby Nell Sales describes Stokely Carmichael

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Ruby Nell Sales describes how she went about inviting people in Lowndes County, Alabama into organizing work

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Ruby Nell Sales talks about differences in movement strategies between Mississippi and Alabama

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Ruby Nell Sales talks about SNCC in Alabama and Mississippi

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Ruby Nell Sales talks about shifting political power in Lowndes County, Alabama

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Ruby Nell Sales talks about debates concerning white people in Civil Rights work

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Ruby Nell Sales talks about how gender factored into civil rights work in the South

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Ruby Nell Sales recalls the murder of Jonathan Daniels in Lowndes County, Alabama

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Ruby Nell Sales describe the aftermath of Jonathan Daniels' murder

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Ruby Nell Sales reflects upon the importance of Jonathan Daniels' murderer being sent to trial

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Ruby Nell Sales reflects upon Jonathan Daniels' reasons for joining in civil rights work prior to his murder

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Ruby Nell Sales talks about the trial of Tom Coleman, who murdered civil rights worker Jonathan Daniels

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Ruby Nell Sales talks about the end of her time in Lowndes County, Alabama

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Ruby Nell Sales talks about her transition to the North

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Ruby Nell Sales talks about her time in the history department at Princeton University in Princeton, New Jersey

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Ruby Nell Sales talks about historians Arthur Link and James McPherson

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Ruby Nell Sales talks about black historians and lack of support at the Ivy League schools she attended

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Ruby Nell Sales offers her thoughts on 'Time on the Cross' by Robert Fogel and Stanley Engerman

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Ruby Nell Sales talks about black women poets who influenced her

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Ruby Nell Sales talks about teaching at Spelman College in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Ruby Nell Sales talks about becoming a feminist, her organizations, and her opinions on the differences between womanism and feminism

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Ruby Nell Sales talks about the impact black folk theology had on her theological studies

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Ruby Nell Sales talks about black folk theology and its connection to the Southern Freedom Movement

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Ruby Nell Sales describes the spirituality of black Southerners who participated in civil rights work

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Ruby Nell Sales talks about the SpiritHouse Project and the political climate of the times

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Ruby Nell Sales talks about the importance of relationship-building in community organizing

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Ruby Nell Sales offers reflections on the state of the black church and African Americans in the American empire

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Ruby Nell Sales talks about the symbolism of the Biblical Exodus story

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Ruby Nell Sales comments on the young people she comes into contact with through her organization, the SpiritHouse Project

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Ruby Nell Sales describes her hopes for the black community

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Ruby Nell Sales reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Ruby Nell Sales reflects upon what she would have done differently in life

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Ruby Nell Sales reflects upon how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Ruby Nell Sales narrates her photographs

DASession

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DATape

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DATitle
Ruby Nell Sales describes Stokely Carmichael
Ruby Nell Sales describes the spirituality of black Southerners who participated in civil rights work
Transcript
Ma'am, can you tell us about Stokely Carmichael [Kwame Ture]? Now what kind of person was he and how, you know--what wouldn't we know about Stokely Carmichael from--?$$Well, first of all, Stokely was very beloved. He was very loved in Lowndes County [Alabama]. All of the local people loved Stokely. He was a local legend when I came into Lowndes County, and he was a very gentle organizer, and a very respectful organizer, and this was before he became the chairperson of SNCC [Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee] and everything I know about organizing, I learned from Stokely, and contrary to some of this notion of him as being chauvinist, when I first came to the county after a week, he gave me my assignment and I was off and running, and there was no sense that because I was a woman, that there were any limitations to my being able to organize Calhoun County [Alabama] all by myself. He sent me out to Calhoun County by myself; and what I would say about Stokely in Lowndes County was that he was very, very much providing the backups for local people to develop their own leadership. He was not trying to be the leader in Lowndes County, Alabama. He was a part of a community movement, where a community designated and named their own leaders.$When you finished school, did you--what you do now is part of a ministry.$$It's part of--it's a call. Um, it's a deepening the call that I heard at Tuskegee [Institute, later Tuskegee University, Tuskegee, Alabama] to work for justice, so it's work that I do, it's continuing that, but adding a larger way of doing that work.$$When those of us who were not direct participants in the movement, physically in the south, hear these stories and even as we saw them on TV from where we were in those days--I mean we can get a profound sense that something special happened that regardless of the beatings. I mean something happened that was transforming I mean for everyone.$$Absolutely and it was a spiritual evangelical transformation. Something had to happen in someone who could sing the song without fear. "I'll do what the spirit says do, and if the spirit says 'die,' I'll die oh Lord." It meant an effect that you had a different vision of death and you have a long meaning of understanding of life and creation and continuity, that killing me didn't mean the end of me as long as the movement was going on. And my life was a part of something, you know, that was larger and greater than myself and so it was not that I would disappear if I died. It was moving up to a different level of consciousness where one was renegotiating one's understanding of life and death. You had to do that or you couldn't have stood before guns, or dogs, or anything of that. Something had to happen in you that reordered how you stood on the ground, and so I believe that the movement and the spiritual, the God talk, and spirituality of the movement was so powerful because it had come from a people who had suffered, it had come from a people--that those words had come from their very essence and their very being, and so that--and they had met the challenge of having to move up a little higher and stand a little bit higher in a world that said that they were nothing--that they were chattel, that they were second-class people, so it was an ability--it was kind of a dual vision to not only be able to see who you are today, but the vision to be able to see who you might be tomorrow and that was powerful and that undergirded the movement.$$Okay.$$Sorry, I didn't mean to preach.$$That is wonderful preaching and it's good. Don't be sorry about that.