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Ethel Darden

Educator Ethel Darden was born Ethel Roby Boswell on February 17, 1900 in Dallas, Texas. She and her twin sister, Esther, were the youngest of the five daughters of two school teachers, Ella Mary Allen and Charles Roby Boswell, from Talladega, Alabama. In 1890, her parents moved to Dallas, Texas and by the turn of century had three daughters: Alberta, Bessie and Doris. Darden attended Washington Elementary School (School #2) and graduated from Dallas Colored High School in 1917. The twins attended historically black Wiley College, in Marshall, Texas and Darden graduated in 1921.

Teaching school in Dallas for nearly two decades, she married Lloyd Darden, a successful accountant in 1942 and moved with him to Chicago where her sister, Doris Allen enlisted her as a teacher in Howalton Day School, where she was a founder. An outgrowth of Oneida Cockrell's pioneering pre-school and kindergarten, the Howalton Day School (1947-1986) was founded by three black educators: June Howe-White, Doris Allen-Anderson, and Charlotte B. Stratton. The name of the school is from a combination of the founders' three last names. Chicago's oldest African American, private, non-sectarian school, Howalton's educational philosophy stressed discovery, enthusiasm, creativity, the arts and the humanities in an informal, controlled atmosphere. Howalton started with 23 students at its height grew to over 200 students from kindergarten to eighth grade. Progress reports were given at teacher/parent conferences and teachers led by Irma P. Johnson and Elizabeth Jones were committed to teaching phonics. Using John R. Malone's unifon alphabet and trained by Dr. Margaret Ratz, Howalton, as cited by John Culkin in the New York Times of July 20, 1977 demonstrated the highest first grade reading scores in the Chicago area from 1974 to 1975. Dr. Frances Horwich, chair of Roosevelt University's Education Department who starred as "Miss Frances" in NBC's "Ding Dong School" also consulted with Darden and Howalton staff members.

Darden often sacrificed her pay to help keep the school afloat. Fundraisers such as a Grace Bumbry concert and a benefit dinner featuring Dr. Andrew Billingsley subsidized revenue and united parents and teachers. Due, in part, to increased black acceptance into better-funded accelerated private and public school programs, Howalton closed in 1986. Darden and Mildred Johnson donated historical material to the Vivian G. Harsh Research Collection of the Chicago's Carter G. Woodson Regional Library's "Howalton School Archives" in 1996. Darden, who is now over one hundred years old, is active, watches her diet and attends church and social events. She is the only surviving member of her family.

Accession Number

A2004.059

Sex

Female

Archival Photo 1
Interview Date

6/1/2004

Last Name

Darden

Maker Category
Organizations
Schools

Dallas Colored High School

Washington Elementary School

Wiley College

Archival Photo 2
First Name

Ethel

Birth City, State, Country

Dallas

HM ID

DAR02

Favorite Season

June

State

Texas

Favorite Quote

Whatever Will Be Will Be, The Future's Not Ours To See, Que Sera, Que Sera.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Illinois

Interview Description
Birth Date

2/17/1900

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Chicago

Country

USA

Death Date

7/17/2011

Short Description

Elementary school teacher Ethel Darden (1900 - 2011 ) taught at Chicago's private, black, high achieving, Howalton Day School, and became the school's assistant principal. She later contributed historical material to the Vivian G. Harsh Research Collection of the Chicago Public Library's "Howalton School Archives".

Employment

Howalton Day School

Favorite Color

Pink

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Ethel Darden's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Ethel Darden lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Ethel Darden lists her parents and siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Ethel Darden talks about her family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Ethel Darden talks about her parents, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Ethel Darden talks about her parents, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Ethel Darden describes her earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Ethel Darden talks about the church she attended while growing up in Dallas, Texas

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Ethel Darden describes the sights, sounds and smells of growing up

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Ethel Darden describes attending elementary and high school in Dallas, Texas

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Ethel Darden describes her teachers and her experiences attending school as a twin

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Ethel Darden describes her and her twin sister's aspirations

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Ethel Darden recalls moving from Dallas, Texas to Chicago, Illinois, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Ethel Darden describes attending Wiley College in Marshall, Texas

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Ethel Darden describes her role in founding the Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority chapter in Dallas, Texas

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Ethel Darden recalls moving from Dallas, Texas to Chicago, Illinois, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Ethel Darden explains the founding of Howalton Day School in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Ethel Darden talks about her experiences at Howalton Day School in Chicago, Illinois, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Ethel Darden talks about her experiences at Howalton Day School in Chicago, Illinois, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Ethel Darden talks about parents who were involved with Howalton Day School in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Ethel Darden talks about funding for Howalton Day School in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Ethel Darden talks about her experiences at Howalton Day School in Chicago, Illinois, pt. 3

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Ethel Darden talks about leading May Day at Howalton Day School in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Ethel Darden describes the locations of Howalton Day School in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Ethel Darden talks about her retirement from teaching

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Ethel Darden describes her hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Ethel Darden reflects upon her life philosophy, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Ethel Darden talks about the closing of Howalton Day School in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Ethel Darden talks about her food regimen

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Ethel Darden reflects upon her life philosophy, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Ethel Darden reflects upon her legacy and her twin sister Esther Boswell's struggle with cancer

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Ethel Darden considers what she would have done differently

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Ethel Darden describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Ethel Darden narrates her photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$3

DAStory

2$5

DATitle
Ethel Darden describes her teachers and her experiences attending school as a twin
Ethel Darden talks about her experiences at Howalton Day School in Chicago, Illinois, pt. 3
Transcript
Are there any teachers that you remember from those days?$$Teachers? In the fourth grade, I remember Lillie Shaw [ph.], Ms. Shaw very well. We thought she was "it." And another one was Mrs. Wilson [ph.]. Ms. Wilson was a music teacher. She was mighty fine (laughter). And we kind of (unclear) after them, you know. And didn't--I remember one teacher came along, I turned my head and was looking back when she came. She put her other hand and turned it around. And I started crying 'cause Ms. Wilson had to correct me (laughter). I didn't want her to have to, you know--I was looking around and she turned my head. (Laughter) We [Darden and her twin sister, Esther Boswell] were crybabies. And if one saw the other crying, she didn't have to know what it was about. We were at the playground, and there was an upstairs and you could look down on the playground. One was up there talking to somebody and the other one was down here playing. She saw her crying, and--the other (laughter)--she didn't even know what she's crying about. "Don't hit one. You got two." And we had a cousin who was a boy in the other, the cousin's side. And he was our age. He took care of us. They knew not to bother us 'cause Roger (laughter) would get them. "Don't bother those twins. Let 'em alone."$$(OFF CAMERA VOICE): One of her parents were high school--grammar school teachers (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) We had fun. And people would say on the street, "Honey, is y'all twins?" (Laughter) And we would say, yes. So we said, you know--they'd always answer and say, "I thought you was." "Let's, let's tell 'em we're not. Let's see what they'll say" (laughter). "Honey, are you all twins?" "No," (laughter), and they'd say, "Eh" (laughter) as if to say, you lying (laughter). But we enjoyed--those were little games we enjoyed.$So you started with what you had from Cockrell School [Rosenwald Nursery School, Chicago, Illinois], right?$$That's right. They were second grade, and we were fortunate in having a good teacher who taught, taught in Saint--I think it's St. Louis [Missouri], yes, St. Louis, had a good record for teachers and she was excellent. She knew what to do. Third grade, we moved on up. And they begged, the children begged to, to go to eighth grade. But we didn't do that. We graduated at sixth grade, and those children who came to us, that's when they left us, at sixth grade 'cause we didn't see eighth grade presence. But we did--we had an eighth grade. I don't know whether Ralph [Metcalfe, Sr.] was with that eighth grade or sixth grade. But at any rate, that's that. And it grew like topsy, as they used to say (laughter). And then these outside people who had their teas and different functions, we sponsored 'Hello, Dolly!' when she came here--the song, Pearl Bailey.$$Yeah, 1964 or so.$$Um-hm. Now, see what they have--as I said, in--at the museum.

Jacob H. Carruthers, Jr.

Professor Jacob Carruthers was born on February 15, 1930 in Dallas, Texas. He was a firm believer that a large part of liberating African American people comes from understanding and connecting history, culture and heritage. He received a B.A. from Samuel Huston College in Austin, Texas in 1950; an M.A. from Texas Southern University in 1958; and a Ph.D. in Political Studies from the University of Colorado in 1966. From 1966 to 1968, Carruthers worked as an assistant professor at Kansas State College before joining the staff of Northeastern Illinois University's Center for Inner City Studies (CICS). Carruthers, along with Dr. Anderson Thompson, Robert Starks, Dr. Conrad Worrill and others shaped the CICS program into one that emphasizes self-determination, activism and study of the global black community.

In this context, Carruthers earned respect as one of the world's leading experts in classical African civilizations. His interests carried him throughout the continent of Africa, conducting study tours to Egypt, Ethiopia, the Nile Valley, Zimbabwe, Senegal, the Ivory Coast, and other parts of West Africa. Carruthers wrote or edited hundreds of essays and papers on his findings and his major works included: The Irritated Genie: An Essay on the Haitian Revolution, Essays in Ancient Egyptian Studies, Intellectual Warfare, MDW NTR: Devine Speech and Science and Oppression. He lectured at various educational institutions; served on evaluation teams for many area high schools; and worked as a consultant to both the Dayton and Chicago public school systems. Carruthers served as founding president of the Association for the Study of Classical African Civilizations for five years. In that capacity, he led a group of 1,000 black teachers, students, artists and scholars from the United States to the Nubian Cultural Center in Aswan, Egypt for a two week conference and tour of Nubia and Egypt.

He was a founding member and priest of the Temple of African Community of Chicago and founding member and director of the Kemetic (Egyptian) Institute, which sponsors the annual Teaching About Africa program for schoolteachers and administrators. He married his wife, Ifé, in 1986 and had four children.

Carruthers passed away on January 5, 2004 at age 73.

Accession Number

A2002.072

Sex

Male

Interview Date

5/13/2002

Last Name

Carruthers

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

H.

Organizations
First Name

Jacob

Birth City, State, Country

Dallas

HM ID

CAR02

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Texas

Favorite Vacation Destination

Trinidad

Favorite Quote

Lift Up Your Heads, Downtrodden And Discouraged Ethiopians, And Listen To This Marvelous Story Told Of Your Ancestors Who Wrought Mightily For Mankind And Built The Foundations Of Civilization True And Square In Days Of Old.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Illinois

Interview Description
Birth Date

2/15/1930

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Chicago

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Fried Catfish

Death Date

1/5/2004

Short Description

African american studies professor Jacob H. Carruthers, Jr. (1930 - 2004 ) was professor emeritus at Northeastern Illinois University, and was the founder of the Kemetic Institute. A scholar of classical African civilizations, he was the author of, "Intellectual Warfare."

Employment

Kansas State College

Northeastern Illinois University Center for Inner City Studies

Temple of The African Community of Chicago

Kemetic Institute of Chicago

Favorite Color

Dark Green

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Jacob H. Carruthers' interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Jacob H. Carruthers lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Jacob H. Carruthers describes his paternal family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Jacob H. Carruthers describes his maternal family history

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Jacob H. Carruthers talks about his father, Jacob H. Carruthers, Sr.

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Jacob H. Carruthers describes the effect of his parents' divorce at age five

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Jacob H. Carruthers describes his experience with racism in his childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Jacob H. Carruthers talks about being unfairly treated by teachers at Phyllis Wheatley High School in San Antonio, Texas

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Jacob H. Carruthers talks about his experiences and interests as an elementary school student

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Jacob H. Carruthers talks about his teachers at Phyllis Wheatley High School in Dallas, Texas

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Jacob H. Carruthers describes his experiences and friendships with people from Africa in his youth

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Jacob H. Carruthers describes the sights, sounds, and smells of growing up

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Jacob H. Carruthers describes his aspirations as a youth

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Jacob H. Carruthers talks about attending Samuel Huston College, in Austin, Texas, and entering law school at the University of Texas in 1950

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Jacob H. Carruthers describes leaving law school and joining the U.S. Air Force from 1951 to 1952

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Jacob H. Carruthers describes working as a reporter for the Houston Informer from 1953 to 1956

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Jacob H. Carruthers describes his Master's Degree program at Texas Southern University in 1958

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Jacob H. Carruthers talks about teaching at Prairie View Agricultural and Mechanical University in 1961

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Jacob H. Carruthers describes boycotting segregated Hempstead, Texas while teaching at Prairie View Agricultural and Mechanical University in the 1960s

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Jacob H. Carruthers describes leaving Prairie View Agricultural and Mechanical University in 1964 to pursue his Ph.D. at the University of Colorado

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Jacob H. Carruthers describes his involvement with the "Friends of SNCC", the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, at the University of Colorado

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Jacob H. Carruthers describes his Ph.D. program at the University of Colorado

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Jacob H. Carruthers describes his Ph.D. dissertation on the theory of Nonviolent Civil Disobedience

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Jacob H. Carruthers talks about teaching at Kansas State College from 1966 to 1968

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Jacob H. Carruthers describes his personality

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Jacob H. Carruthers talks about his advising students' demonstrations at Kansas State College

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Jacob H. Carruthers talks about joining the staff of Northeastern Illinois University's Center for Inner City Studies in 1968

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Jacob H. Carruthers describes the Center for Inner City Studies' building, once the historic Abraham Lincoln Centre

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Jacob H. Carruthers talks about the academics who developed the Center for Inner City Studies in the 1960s

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Jacob H. Carruthers talks about the African-centered approach to history at the Center for Inner City Studies

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Jacob H. Carruthers describes the difference between a Eurocentric and an African-centered perspective

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Jacob H. Carruthers talks about the key people constructing an African Studies curriculum

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Jacob H. Carruthers talks about Cheikh Anta Diop

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Jacob H. Carruthers talks about the influence of Cheikh Anta Diop

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Jacob H. Carruthers describes forming the Kemetic Institute in 1978

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Jacob H. Carruthers talks about the response to the Kemetic Institute

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Jacob H. Carruthers talks about developing the Kemetic Institute in 1978, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Jacob H. Carruthers talks about developing the Kemetic Institute in 1978, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Jacob H. Carruthers describes the creation of the Association for the Study of Classical African Civilizations in 1985

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Jacob H. Carruthers describes working with HistoryMaker Asa Hilliard and HistoryMaker Malauna Kerenga at ASCAC

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Jacob H. Carruthers talks about holding the third Conference of ASCAC in Kemet in 1987

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Jacob H. Carruthers describes his experiences at the ASCA Conference in Kemet in 1987

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Jacob H. Carruthers talks about the response to the ASCAC Conference in Kemet and its theories

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Jacob H. Carruthers describes the opposition to Afrocentric perspectives

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Jacob H. Carruthers describes attending the 1993 Pan-African Conference on reparations

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Jacob H. Carruthers talks about attending the anniversary of the Pan-African Congress in Manchester, England in 1995

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Jacob H. Carruthers describes the commemoration of Cheikh Anta Diop University in Dakar, Senegal in 1996

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Jacob H. Carruthers describes traveling to Ghana in 1997 and South Africa in 1998

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Jacob H. Carruthers talks about visiting South Africa in 1998 and London in 2000

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Jacob H. Carruthers describes visiting Trinidad in 2001

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Jacob H. Carruthers talks about his publications

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Jacob H. Carruthers describes how the Kemetic Institute teaches African history

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Jacob H. Carruthers talks about establishing the Temple of African Community in Chicago in 1998

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - Jacob H. Carruthers talks about his family

Tape: 6 Story: 11 - Jacob H. Carruthers reflects on his career

Tape: 6 Story: 12 - Jacob H. Carruthers talks about his legacy

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Jacob H. Carruthers talks about his hope for the Kemetic Institute

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Jacob H. Carruthers talks about the value to the African American community of studying Nile Valley Civilizations

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Jacob H. Carruthers shares a story about the Kemetic homecoming

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Jacob H. Carruthers describes his hopes and concerns for the black community

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Jacob H. Carruthers talks about how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Jacob H. Carruthers narrates his photographs

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Jacob H. Carruthers narrates his photographs

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Jacob H. Carruthers narrates his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$5

DAStory

7$5

DATitle
Jacob H. Carruthers talks about teaching at Prairie View Agricultural and Mechanical University in 1961
Jacob H. Carruthers talks about holding the third Conference of ASCAC in Kemet in 1987
Transcript
Now, from Texas Southern [University] you move on to Prairie View [Agricultural and Mechanical University, Texas] (simultaneous)-$$Yeah.$$--(unclear) Southern.$$Yeah.$$(unclear).$$I was work--yeah. I was working in the post office, and during the Berlin Crisis of 1961, there was a man teaching political science at Prairie View [PVAMU] who was called up from the [U.S. Army] Reserves to go to Europe to deal with the Berlin Crisis. That left them in the middle of the semester of fall '61' [1961] with no teacher to teach that class. I had a master's degree in political science, so they got in touch with me and asked me would I take over. At first I said no because I was so tired of colleges and all that kind of stuff, and I liked the post office 'cause you didn't have to do anything but learn how to throw mail; and, you know, the money was pretty good; so I said no. But finally, they upped the salary about a thousand dollars more than I was making. And so I left the post office and went to Prairie View [Agricultural and Mechanical University, Texas] with the idea that I would stay there for a couple of years and then move on to something else. By that time, I wanted to be a writer. And so I went to Prairie View. And after a year there, I decided that's what I wanted to be, was a college teacher. And so I, you know, stuck it out and decided to go ahead and get a Ph.D.$$What experiences did you have then that made you decide to become a college teacher?$$Well, in the first place, the students. They were so--you had such a variety in terms of the faculty there. You had some faculty members that didn't care about anything except their checks, and therefore, the students got very uneven treatment. And I really took it seriously, and I got involved in trying to develop the students. And that was one thing. And the second thing, I thought that we needed to develop a professional education, because the Negro schools, most of them at that time, were what I considered to be ridiculous in terms of the way they were kow-towing to segregation. As a matter of fact, while I was at Prairie View [Agricultural and Mechanical University], I got into a whole lot of trouble with the administration, because we decided to boycott the town that we were the major industry of, Hempstead (ph), Texas. They, you know, it was a typical East Texas town. They didn't let black people, you know, do anything on an integrated basis. You couldn't go the restaurants, you had to sit in the crow's nest in the theater, you had to wait on all the white people to get served before--I mean, you know, get service before you could check your groceries out, they wouldn't call you "Mister" or "Mrs." or "Miss". They called--you know, they--they would call us "Prof," you now, to get by that. And so, we made some demands on the town, and the town told us that they were going to stick with the traditions, and they weren't about to listen to a whole lot of foreign colored to come down there, telling them how to change their way of life. And so we decided to boycott the town and we did and we almost closed it down. We closed the Buick dealership down, we closed the mechanic down, because we were the major industry of the town. We almost put the bank in bankruptcy, because we forced the credit union to take the money out of the credit union (sic). And so, you know, that didn't go (simultaneous)-$Okay. So, it seems to me that the idea of going to Kemet or Egypt for--to hold a conference is a tremendous undertaking. I mean, I don't--I can't think of many organizations that can pull something like that off in their third year of existence. And what was it like for you all?$$It was a--it was very--I was sort of reluctant about it as the president of the organization because I realized how much work was involved in it, because I'd been doing study tours for several years by then, and I really was reluctant about it. But there was such a popular demand for it. I mean, we had five or six hundred people in the [ASCAC] association at that time who were just demanding that they wanted to go and hold that conference there and take over--and announce to the world that we were there to take over African--the African antiquity. So we had to run to catch up with the masses, so to speak. It was a lot of work, tremendous work. But, as it turned out, we had one thousand people who went. And that was really something, because the airlines just went crazy trying to get us all there, and it interfered with the Hajj. In North Africa--the Africans in North Africa were trying to get to Mecca (laughs), and we were trying to get to Egypt. And we had all kinds of horrors. They had to--one of our groups we two days late getting there because the Hajj prevailed in northern Nigeria. I believe. The Hajj, who blew us away (laughs), it went and took over the plane and went on to the Hajj. So it was--but it was exciting. And when we all got there, the interesting thing, Aswan is in what they call Egyptian Nubia; and therefore, the people look just like us. When we got off the plane, the people who were--you know, in the town, looked like us. And they started calling us American Nubis. And they started taking various members into their homes and making them put on galabeyas and the galas [ph.] and so forth and so on. So, you know, if we'd kept our mouths shut, they wouldn't have known the difference (laughs). But it was a wonderful, wonderful conference. It excited the non-African world though. The Egyptians who--many of whom do not considered themselves Africans, were very curious, and eventually the equivalent to the FBI in Egypt decided that they were going to record everything we did and watch everything we did and inspect all of our boxes and materials, and so forth and so on. So we had the Egyptian FBI all over the place.

Charles Willie

Educator and social activist Charles Vert Willie was born in Dallas, Texas, on October 8, 1927. Willie attended Morehouse College and graduated in 1948. The following year, he received a master's degree from Atlanta University and in 1957, he obtained a Ph.D. in sociology at Syracuse University. At Syracuse University, Willie served as chair of the Department of Sociology and Vice President of the University, at a time when African Americans were not holding such positions. He then was hired by Harvard University in 1974 where he served as the Charles William Eliot Professor of Education at the Graduate School of Education.

Charles Willie is one of the nation's leading black sociologists. His expertise is in the area of school desegregation. Accordingly, Willie served as a court-appointed master, expert witness, and consultant in many school desegregation cases. In 1975, Willie served as a court appointed master in the Boston school desegregation case and later was retained to develop a controlled choice student assignment plan for Boston and several school districts. He was recognized in 1983 with the Society for the Study of Social Problems' Lee-Founders Award for effectively combining social research and social activism.

Willie is an applied sociologist concerned with solving social problems. Willie is the author or editor of more than 25 books and articles covering topics such as: race relations, urban education, public health, community development, family life, and women's rights. His books include A New Look at Black Families (1976), The Education of African-Americans (1991), Theories of Human Social Action (1994), and Mental Health, Racism and Sexism (1995). Willie has served as Vice President of the American Sociological Association and as President of the Eastern Sociological Society. In addition, he has served on the board of directors of the Social Science Research Council; the technical advisory board of the Maurice Falk Medical Fund; and, by the appointment of President Carter, the President's Commission on Mental Health.

Willie recently retired from Harvard University's Graduate School of Education and was awarded emeritus status by the faculty.

Accession Number

A2001.079

Sex

Male

Interview Date

2/13/2001

Last Name

Willie

Maker Category
Middle Name

Vert

Schools

N.W. Harllee Elementary School

Lincoln High School

Morehouse College

Clark Atlanta University

Syracuse University

First Name

Charles

Birth City, State, Country

Dallas

HM ID

WIL05

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Texas

Favorite Vacation Destination

Adirondack Mountains, New Hampshire

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Massachusetts

Interview Description
Birth Date

10/8/1927

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Boston

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Rice

Short Description

Sociologist and education professor Charles Willie (1927 - ) is an expert in the area of school desegregation. Willie served as a court-appointed master, expert witness, and consultant in many school desegregation cases. Willie is an applied sociologist and the author or editor of more than twenty-five books and articles covering topics such as race relations, urban education, public health, community development, family life, and women's rights.

Employment

Syracuse University

Harvard University

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Charles Willie interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Charles Willie lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Charles Willie recalls his family background and pursuit of education

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Charles Willie describes his parents

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Charles Willie explains his parents' reluctance to talk about the past

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Charles Willie recounts his parents' courtship and marriage

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Charles Willie remembers growing up with his siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Charles Willie shares childhood memories

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Charles Willie recalls his father's work as a Pullman Porter

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Charles Willie describes himself as a youth

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Charles Willie reflects on his siblings and his relationships with them

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Charles Willie details his school experiences

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Charles Willie discusses his brothers' college experiences

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Charles Willie lists his siblings' musical interests

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Charles Willie recounts his experience at Morehouse College

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Charles Willie recalls his Morehouse College experiences

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Charles Willie describes Martin Luther King, Jr. as a Morehouse College student

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Charles Willie lists his famous classmates at Morehouse College

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Charles Willie details his experience at Syracuse University

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Charles Willie discusses his strong sense of self and grounding in the black community

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Charles Willie recalls confronting racism in Syracuse University athletics

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Charles Willie details how he handled 1960s student protests

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Charles Willie explains how he landed a teaching position at Harvard University

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Charles Willie recounts teaching at Harvard University and Episcopal Divinity School

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Charles Willie discusses his activism on behalf of female Episcopal priests

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Charles Willie describes his involvement in school desegregation programs

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Charles Willie expresses his views on desegregation

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Charles Willie discusses the sociological need for diversity

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Charles Willie outlines his sociological theories

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Charles Willie recounts his greatest achievements

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Charles Willie reflects on his parents' influence on his career

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Charles Willie expresses his concerns for the black community

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Charles Willie ponders his legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Photo - Charles Willie with his students, Syracuse, New York, 1952

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Photo - Charles Willie, Dallas, Texas, 1983

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Photo - Charles Willie with Belford Lawson and his Alpha Phi Alpha fraternity brothers, Atlanta, Georgia, 1947

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Photo - Charles Willie with Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., Syracuse, New York, 1961

Tape: 5 Story: 11 - Photo - Charles Willie with Benjamin Elijah Mays and Willie Davis, Boston, Massachusetts, ca. 1979

Tape: 5 Story: 12 - Photo - Charles Willie with Bernard Kramer, Bertram Brown, and Philip Hallen, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, ca. 1969

Tape: 5 Story: 13 - Photo - Charles Willie and his wife, Mary Sue Willie, with Rosalynn Carter, Washington, D.C., ca. 1978

Tape: 5 Story: 14 - Photo - Charles Willie, Cambridge, Massachusetts, ca. 1993

Tape: 5 Story: 15 - Photo - Charles Willie's mother, Carrie Sykes Willie, and father, Louis James Willie, Dallas, Texas, 1971

Tape: 5 Story: 16 - Photo - Charles Willie, Syracuse, New York, 1956

Tape: 5 Story: 17 - Photo - Charles Willie with Samuel DuBois Cook, Atlanta, Georgia, 1998

Tape: 5 Story: 18 - Photo - Charles Willie with Kenneth Shaw, Syracuse, New York, June 2000

Tape: 5 Story: 19 - Photo - Charles Willie with Kenneth Shaw and others, Syracuse, New York, 1992

Tape: 5 Story: 20 - Photo - Charles Willie with Robert Johnson and others, Syracuse, New York, 1992

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Photo - Charles Willie with his family and Robert Johnson, Syracuse, New York, 1992

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Photo - Charles Willie's grandfather, Louis Willie

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Photo - Charles Willie's grandmother, Henrietta Sykes

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Photo - Charles Willie, Dallas, Texas, ca. 1933

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Photo - Charles Willie, New York, New York, ca. 1960s

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Photo - Charles Willie with the Morehouse College Marching Band, Atlanta, Georgia, ca. 1944

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Photo - Charles Willie with his wife, friends, and children, Cooperstown, New York, ca. 1960s

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Photo - Charles Willie with his neighbors, Dallas, Texas, ca. 1933

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Photo - Charles Willie with Cornel West, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1999

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - Photo - Charles Willie with his family

Tape: 6 Story: 11 - Photo - Charles Willie and colleagues, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1997

Tape: 6 Story: 12 - Photo - Charles Willie, Cambridge, Massachusetts, ca. 1976

Tape: 6 Story: 13 - Photo - Charles Willie, ca. 1987

Tape: 6 Story: 14 - Photo - Benjamin Elijah Mays with Charles Willie's children, Syracuse, New York, ca. 1970

Tape: 6 Story: 15 - Photo - Charles Willie, Concord, Massachusetts, 1995

Tape: 6 Story: 16 - Photo - Charles Willie with William Mangin, Syracuse, New York

Tape: 6 Story: 17 - Photo - Charles Willie with Melvin Eggers and John Palmer, Syracuse, New York, 1992

Tape: 6 Story: 18 - Photo - Charles Willie, Newfound Lake, New Hampshire, 1967

Tape: 6 Story: 19 - Photo - Charles Willie with Frederick Humphries and others, Boston, Massachusetts

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$5

DAStory

2$1

DATitle
Charles Willie recalls his father's work as a Pullman Porter
Charles Willie discusses the sociological need for diversity
Transcript
Now, with your father [Louis J. Willie Sr.], did you have--how long, as a Pullman Porter, how long would he be away from home?$$Oh, for long periods of time. Sometimes--that's where my mother [Carrie Sykes Willie] was such a very important person. He did have regular runs like from Dallas [Texas] to--at one time to Minnesota. That's a long ways. He did have other runs like from Dallas to Amarillo, Texas and back to Dallas or from Dallas to New Orleans [Louisiana] and back. But certainly when the wartime, when the war [World War II] came around, he would go away and sometimes not get back for three weeks. So that was a very difficult time with only one parent in the family. But I think the railroad did something else for my father though. Remember he had only an eighth grade education, but the railroad enabled him to really see and know things. And, of course, he would pick up papers in different regions of the country. And I think his work as Pullman Porter enabled him to be what I would call a cosmopolitan person. And, of course, that rubbed off in the family too. So there was nothing parochial about our family, even though we lived in what I would call a black ghetto and did not have access to the full range of opportunities in Dallas [Texas]. But the fact that my father was able to see a lot of what goes on in the world outside of that neighborhood where we lived, I think it was a very important factor in, in our lives and in our growth and in our ability to reach out to distant regions when we finished school and continued in graduate school.$$Now, did he ever tell you any stories about, you know, did he ever bring stories back from the road or do you think those were just shared between he and your mother? Did he ever--$$No, he never did for a specific reason. My older brother asked my father, after he had graduated from high school, would he intercede and see if he could get him a job with the Pullman Company. And that was the worst thing my brother could ever ask my father to do. He was, went into a rage. "Nope, none of my youngsters are ever gonna work for the railroad." He did not feel that this was a demeaning job. But he did not feel it was the appropriate job that one should aspire for. So he never really brought us stories from the railroad because he never wanted us to feel enamored by it. That was deliberate. So, and, of course, now, after that encounter with my older brother, none of the rest of us ever thought that we would go on the road. He saw his work as a Pullman Porter as a means to an end. And the end, of course, was to educate his family, and to maintain, you know, a strong home.$I found, I've proven this from my own studies. I have found out that poor blacks and poor whites, even though they may be poor, do not believe in the same things. Poor whites have great belief in faith and the past. They want their youngsters to do better, but they don't want them to forget their origins. Poor blacks believe in the future. They want their youngsters to be better, and they don't want them to remember the past. Now, faith and hope both are necessary. So you need the poor blacks and you need the poor whites. I have found that poor whites know a great deal about contributive justice, the responsibility of the individuals to the group. This is what [President John F.] Kennedy was saying in his inaugural address. "And so my fellow Americans, ask not what, you know, America can do for you, but what you can do for America". That's the wisdom of poor whites. I have a case study where a youngster went to jail, professing to do a crime that he didn't because his brother, who committed the crime had just gotten married and had a little baby. And he thought that was no place for a father to be. Now, that's contributive justice, an individual trying to do something for his family group and making a real big sacrifice. Poor blacks are the opposite. The group will make a sacrifice to rescue one individual who's floundering, even if it pulls the rest out of the boat (laughs). They'll throw out the life line. Now, contributive and distributive justice are both important in social relations. So you need to have both of these. This is why I believe in diversity. My diversity is not the beauty of the rainbow. My diversity is that you need to have people who have developed different intelligences because of their life experiences. And therefore, they are able to supplement those for the other people. So when I talk about this, I don't talk about the advanced classes being great without having slow learners in them because I know that people in advanced classes need to learn the patience of dealing with slow learners because slow learners have something to teach the others. So I'm a great believer in diversity. My students always send me cards about Noah and his Ark. I, I used to lecture about that all of the time. Noah was really a new creation story. The only people who populated things were the people on Noah's Ark. But I also deal with Noah bringing big animals and little animals and bringing two of each. I said, I don't know why. And I'm not going to the barnyard to try to explain why. But Noah, I think, understood that diversity is needed. And that, and I take that image and move it on to all kinds of places. So I believe in, I'm a great believer in diversity because I know no one has knowledge that's sufficient unto one's self and one needs to call upon others.

Ernie Banks

Baseball player Ernie Banks was born in Dallas, Texas, on January 31, 1931. As legend has it, his father had to bribe young Ernie with nickels and dimes in order to get his son to play catch.

An all-around athlete, Banks was a high school star in football, basketball and track. At age seventeen, he signed to play baseball with a Negro barnstorming team. Manager Cool Papa Bell recognized Banks’ talent and signed him to a contract with the Kansas City Monarchs of the Negro Baseball League.

In 1953, Banks was recruited directly from the Negro League into the majors with the Chicago Cubs. He hit his first home run on September 20, 1953, beginning a long career as one of the Cubs’ most beloved players. From 1955 to 1960, Ernie Banks hit more homers than anyone in the majors, including Mickey Mantle, Willie Mays and Hank Aaron, and he finished his career with five seasons of forty or more home runs. In 1959 he became the first player in National League history to win consecutive Most Valuable Player trophies, a year removed from setting an NL record for homers by a shortstop with forty-seven.

After retiring from the major leagues as a career Cub in 1971, Banks became the first Cub to have his uniform number retired. In 1977, Banks was elected into the Baseball Hall of Fame in Cooperstown. Cubs fans will always remember him as the ballplayer who said, "What a great day for baseball! Let's play two!" On March 31, 2008, Banks was honored with a permanent statue of his likeness at Wrigley Field.

Banks passed away on January 23, 2015 at age 83.

Accession Number

A2000.003

Sex

Male

Archival Photo 1
Interview Date

7/18/2000

Last Name

Banks

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Occupation
Organizations
Search Occupation Category
Archival Photo 2
First Name

Ernie

Birth City, State, Country

Dallas

HM ID

BAN01

Favorite Season

Fall

Sponsor

Hank Aaron

State

Texas

Favorite Vacation Destination

Switzerland

Favorite Quote

One chance is all you need.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Illinois

Interview Description
Birth Date

1/31/1931

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Chicago

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Okra

Death Date

1/23/2015

Short Description

Baseball player Ernie Banks (1931 - 2015 ) nicknamed “Mr. Cub,” played his entire nineteen year baseball career with the Chicago Cubs. Elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1977, Banks was the first Chicago Cub to have his number retired.

Employment

Chicago Cubs

Main Sponsor
Favorite Color

Pink

DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Photo - Ernie Banks with former roommate Lou Brock and Buck O'Neil, manager of the Kansas City Monarchs.

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Photo - Ernie Banks's family

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Photo - Ernie Banks with his father on a radio program

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Photo - Ernie Banks with Willie Mays in San Francisco

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Photo - Ernie Banks sliding into third base with Jackie Robinson (back turned) in Brooklyn, New York

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Photo - Ernie Banks with Ossie Davis, Ruby Dee and two producers in a movie called 'Finding Buck McHenry' in Toronto, Canada

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Photo - Ernie Banks with father at Wrigley Field

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Photo - Ernie invited to golf tournament for a fundraiser for the American Cancer Society with picturess of Michael Jordan and Magic Johnson

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Ernie Banks's favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Ernie Banks talks about growing up with his father

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Ernie Banks describes his father's family background

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Ernie Banks talks about his parents' marriage

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Ernie Banks describes his mother's personality

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Ernie Banks shares some stories about growing up in Dallas

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Ernie Banks talks about his busy childhood household

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Ernie Banks explains why he likes his name

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Ernie Banks talks about his work ethic

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Ernie Banks shares a story about being jilted at his prom

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Ernie Banks describes his personality as a young person

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Ernie Banks describes his parents' occupations

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Ernie Banks talks about growing up in a segregated Dallas, Texas

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Ernie Banks talks about his school days

Tape: 2 Story: 13 - Ernie Banks talks about his average athletic talent in high school

Tape: 2 Story: 14 - Ernie Banks talks about enjoying softball more than baseball as a young person

Tape: 2 Story: 15 - Ernie Banks describes how his father encouraged him to play baseball

Tape: 2 Story: 16 - Ernie Banks briefly describes his military experience and the start of his baseball career

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Ernie Banks describes playing baseball in the Negro Baseball League

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Ernie Banks talks about adjusting from the Negro Leagues to the Major Leagues

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Ernie Banks discusses learning by experience in the Major Leagues

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Ernie Banks talks about St. Louis as a special place in his baseball career

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Ernie Banks talks about his mindset while playing baseball

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Ernie Banks explains why he deflected discussion away from his baseball accomplishments

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Ernie Banks explains the origin of his nickname, "Mr. Cub"

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Ernie Banks describes his relationship with Chicago Cubs owner Philip K. Wrigley

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Ernie Banks briefly describes his dismissal from the Chicago Cubs

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Ernie Banks discusses his feelings about his Hall of Fame status

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Ernie Banks talks about running for alderman in the City of Chicago

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Ernie Banks talks about being an example for social change

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Ernie Banks explains his positive attitude

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Ernie Banks talks about public perception of his positive attitude

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Ernie Banks talks about being perceived as an "Uncle Tom"

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Ernie Banks explains that his business connections are not personal connections

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Ernie Banks explains feeling content in the latter stages of his life

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Ernie Banks discusses his future plans for philanthropy

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Ernie Banks briefly discusses baseball as a business

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Ernie Banks talks about the difficulties faced by some of his favorite athletes

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - Ernie Banks discusses negative societal influences on children

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Ernie Banks discusses how the strenuous pace of society produces a negative effect

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Ernie Banks briefly talks about being a positive influence on professional athletes

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Ernie Banks discusses his views on significant members of the black community

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Ernie Banks talks about his perception of the black community

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Ernie Banks offers advice for young black Americans

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Ernie Banks explains why he doesn't want to be remembered

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Ernie Banks discusses the importance of history

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Ernie Banks talks about his contentment

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Ernie Banks talks about the positive and negative effects of sports on the public

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Photo - Twin boys Joey and Jerry Banks and daughter Jan Banks

Tape: 5 Story: 11 - Photo - Ernie Banks receiving an award with soccer legend Pele

Tape: 5 Story: 12 - Photo - Ernie Banks with his twin boys at the ballpark