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Dr. Henry Lewis

Born on January 22, 1950 in Tallahassee, Florida, Dr. Henry Lewis III received his B.S. degree in pharmacy from Florida A&M University; his Doctor of Pharmacy degree from Mercer University; and completed his post-doctoral training at the Institute for Educational Management at Harvard University.

Lewis has served as a professor, dean and Interim President of the Florida A&M University College of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences. Lewis has also served as president of the Minority Health Professions Foundation and its sister agency, the Association of Minority Health Professions Schools, which, under his leadership, secured a combined sum of over $100 million in support of programs, research and activities to improve the quality and availability of health care to minority and underserved communities. Lewis also played an instrumental role as president of the National Pharmaceutical Association and the Care-Net Health System for the uninsured in Leon County. Under his direction, FAMU has opened a pharmacy for medically deprived patients at the Bond Community Clinic.

Besides serving on numerous local and national boards, Lewis has testified before many Congressional subcommittees on health, research and educational funding, and has provided service to such organizations as the United Way, Habitat for Humanity, the National Urban League, Big Bend Hospice and the American Cancer Society. In 1986, he made history by becoming the first African American elected to the Leon County Board of County Commissioners. The Student National Pharmaceutical Association recognized Lewis as a Teacher of the Year. He married his wife, Dr. Marisa Lewis, also a pharmacist, in 1990.

Accession Number

A2002.058

Sex

Male

Interview Date

4/22/2002

Last Name

Lewis

Maker Category
Occupation
Organizations
First Name

Henry

Birth City, State, Country

Tallahassee

HM ID

LEW03

Favorite Season

Spring

Sponsor

Walgreens

State

Florida

Favorite Vacation Destination

Amelia Island, Florida

Favorite Quote

To Whom Much Is Given, Much Is Required.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Florida

Birth Date

1/22/1950

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Tallahassee

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Fish, Crabs

Short Description

Pharmacist Dr. Henry Lewis (1950 - ) was the first African American elected to the Leon County, Florida Board of Commissioners.

Employment

Florida A&M University, College of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences

Main Sponsor
Main Sponsor URL
Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Henry Lewis' interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Henry Lewis lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Henry Lewis describes his family and his maternal family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Henry Lewis describes his father's background and how his parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Henry Lewis describes his childhood and his earliest memory

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Henry Lewis describes his neighborhood in Tallahassee, Florida

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Henry Lewis describes the sights, sounds, and smells growing up

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Henry Lewis talks about his mentor growing up in Tallahassee, Florida

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Henry Lewis describes his experiences and teachers at Bond Elementary School in Tallahassee, Florida

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Henry Lewis describes himself as a child

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Henry Lewis talks about working at Economy Drugstore during high school

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Henry Lewis talks about working for Mr. Howard Roberts at the Economy Drugstore in Tallahassee, Florida while in high school

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Henry Lewis describes himself as a leader

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Henry Lewis talks about his Pentecostal upbringing

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Henry Lewis talks about race relations and the Civil Rights Movement in Tallahassee, Florida in the 1950s and 1960s

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Henry Lewis talks about the Tallahassee, Florida bus boycott in 1956-1957

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Henry Lewis talks about the segregation and racism in Tallahassee, Florida during his youth

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Henry Lewis talks about attending the pharmacy school at Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University in 1968

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Henry Lewis describes Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.'s assassination and his own detention by the National Guard on April 4, 1968

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Henry Lewis talks about the pharmacy school at Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Henry Lewis describes working at Olin Chemical Corporation's munitions plant during college

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Henry Lewis describes how the Vietnam War affected him as a student at Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Henry Lewis talks about his disappointment in how African American soldiers were treated during and after the Vietnam War

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Henry Lewis describes his Civil Rights activism during college at Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Henry Lewis talks about pursuing a career as a pharmacist in Tampa, Florida

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Henry Lewis describes the influence a white family, the Basses, had on his development

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Henry Lewis describes becoming the first black director at Bay Front Medical Center in St. Petersburg, Florida, in 1973

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Henry Lewis talks about the difference in treatment that black and white patients received at Bay Front Medical Center in St. Petersburg, Florida in the 1970s

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Henry Lewis talks about returning to a position at the Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University's Pharmacy School in 1974

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Henry Lewis narrates his photographs, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Henry Lewis narrates his photographs, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Henry Lewis talks about becoming an assistant dean at the School of Pharmacy at Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University in 1978

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Henry Lewis talks about his work on issues of diabetes and sickle cell anemia

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Henry Lewis describes the inequalities in research and care of diseases that adversely affect African Americans

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Henry Lewis talks about how AIDS affects the black community

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Henry Lewis talks about empowering the black community to improve its healthcare quality

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Henry Lewis talks about becoming the first African American elected to the Board of County Commissioners in 1986

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Henry Lewis talks about his experience serving on the Board of County Commissioners

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Henry Lewis describes becoming Dean of the College of Pharmacy at Texas Southern University from 1990 to 1994

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Henry Lewis talks about returning as Dean of the College of Pharmacy at Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University in 1994

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Henry Lewis talks about serving as interim president of Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University in 2002

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Henry Lewis talks about the role of Historically Black Colleges and Universities

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Henry Lewis talks about what he wants his legacy to be and how he wants to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

5$5

DAStory

6$8

DATitle
Henry Lewis talks about becoming the first African American elected to the Board of County Commissioners in 1986
Henry Lewis describes becoming Dean of the College of Pharmacy at Texas Southern University from 1990 to 1994
Transcript
Now between 1984 and '89 [1989] you come back here and you come back here as dean of planning and development and you're still at the Pharmacy Department [School of Pharmacy, Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University] but you're activism is really taking over now, explain that.$$Well working through the local chapter of the NAACP [National Association for the Advancement of Colored People] we thought that the county government here in Tallahassee, Florida needed to reexamine the way they elected its commissioners. I worked with the then president of the NAACP, Anita Davis to examine the voting rights and indeed voting system of Leon County [Florida] which was an at large system totally at that particular point in time to say whether or not African Americans and other minorities had an equal opportunity to get elected to our Board of County Commissioners. Our findings showed that they did not. We, in fact, filed a lawsuit through the NAACP [National Association for the Advancement of Colored People] to change the at large voting system to a single member district form of governance and we prevailed in that lawsuit through the District Court of Appeals. Once we had won the case, we looked around and said well you won the case, now who's going to run? And they said, "Well Henry you got us in this mess so you've got to run." So I in fact did seek that office of the first single member district office here in Tallahassee in Leon County and I won in 1986 becoming the first African American elected to the Board of County Commissioners.$$What are some of your achievements that you're proud of that you brought forth when you did that?$$I think first and foremost bringing to the county governors a representation of the African American community a voice to the table that they did not have. If you look at the whole county system of governance, we were disenfranchised. Most of the dirt roads in Leon County at that time were where African Americans lived. So we started on a program that we coined as SAFE and that acronym stood for "Surface Asphalt For Everyone" and that was a road paving project that we attempted to pave every unpaved county road in Leon County. And today all of those roads except about five or six that the people on those roads chose to keep as unpaved have been paved by county government and I think that was a significant move to improve access for minority people within the Leon County area. I think the health department system here was not what it should be. We started the branch system of health department coverage. So people who couldn't get out of French Town [Tallahassee, Florida] and other areas had a place close to home to go so we opened up a new county health unit over on Old Bainbridge Road in the French Town area and that now provides, I think, excellent coverage for people who can't--who don't have a physician home but certainly need coverage. There is a full time physician on staff there all the time in that regard. And we finally started the minority business enterprise program for Leon County and I think that allowed minority businessmen and women, in fact, to access county contracts and county services in a way that they never had and that program right now, I think is netting about five to six million dollars a year in county contracts going to minority disadvantaged businesses.$Now from there we're going to your first deanship--$$Yes.$$--at a school. Texas Southern University [Houston]. Now how was, how did they even call or come to you that Texas Southern University wants the man of Tallahassee [Florida]?$$Well I think that the College of Pharmacy [Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University] was growing and continued to grow and we're in good stead as I served both on the [Leon County, Florida] County Commission and working on the faculty here in the College of Pharmacy. I had these aspirations of moving on and staying in academia. I said earlier I had no prior inkling that I wanted to be in academia once I got there, I found out I said hey this is my thing, I kind of like this. So I think I'll make a career out of this and my mom said I couldn't work in a drugstore and I couldn't work in a hospital pharmacy so I had to teach (laughter). So teaching was indeed my forte and I think now that you search for things that really give you that thrill and that benefit and sometimes it's right under your nose and being in academia has been that forte for me and I actually love it. The call came from Texas Southern [University, Houston] because I was president at the same time of the International Pharmacy Association and I had the chance to interact with the African American pharmacists across the nation. I interacted with quite a bit of the alumni from Texas Southern University and, in fact, through the president of the alumni association that I got a call saying that we would like for you to consider the deanship. That was at the same time I was finishing up my first term of office as county commissioner and nobody at that particular point in time had announced opposition for my candidacy for reelection if I had so chose to do that. So I was another decision thinking point. Do I run for county commissioner again and stay in Tallahassee [Florida] or do I go ahead and pursue my aspiration of staying in the academy and I chose the latter. Staying in academia I think was a positive move, I think I got into politics only because I was the rabble rouser and they didn't have anybody else to run for office after you won like a dog chasing a car once you catch it what do you do. And that's how we kind of evolved into that political arena. But what I found though is being in academia has allowed me to be in the political arena as well as the academic arena simultaneously. Being a dean has allowed me to work with congress in crafting legislation, getting funding, getting new programs started and at the same time I'm able to serve the students by providing an opportunity for them to achieve their career aspirations in whatever their chosen field is.$$How were you received at Texas Southern University [Houston] (unclear)?$$Being a rattler and going into--their mascot is the fearless tiger, it was different at first but certainly within the first few months being able to move the school then. They had both pharmacy and six programs in the health sciences, I had little knowledge of physical therapy and occupational therapy and environmental health and those kinds of--health information management--and those kinds of programs that were part of the umbrella of the College of Pharmacy Health Sciences there but I was a quick study. I had good people around me to give me information about the whole process. In my first two years I had four accreditations come up and that's a horrendous task for any dean and certainly a dean with no background in some of those disciplines. But our faculty rose to the occasion and we prevailed. We set about changing the mission of that institution just like Dr. [Charles] Walker changed the mission here. We set forth a course of, a research focus and a graduate program focus and now they are one of the--certainly in the Southwest one of the leading research institutions in the southwest and they now have PhD programs in the pharmaceutical sciences as well and they did not have that prior to then.$$We're going to change the tape.

Na'im Akbar

Publisher, psychologist, psychology professor, and public speaker Na'im Akbar was born on April 26, 1944, in Tallahassee, Florida. Originally given the name Luther Benjamin Weems, Jr., Akbar changed his name in 1971, after joining the Nation of Islam. Akbar attended the Florida A & M University Laboratory School from grades K-12, graduating in 1961. Akbar attended the University of Michigan for the completion of his B.A., M.A., and Ph.D. degrees in psychology.

Prior to attending the University of Michigan, Akbar lived within a completely African American social environment. His freshman year of college marked the first time that he had real contact with whites. At the University of Michigan, Akbar was active with the Black Action Movement (BAM) strike that closed down classes for three weeks during the late 1960s. After receiving his Ph.D., Akbar accepted a position in the psychology department at Morehouse College in Atlanta. There, he instituted Morehouse's first Black psychology course and eventually developed probably the first Black psychology program at a Historically Black College or University. Within two years, he became chair of the department.

Akbar left Morehouse after five years to work with the Nation of Islam's headquarters in Chicago to start their Office of Human Development. After two years, Akbar joined the faculty of Norfolk State University, again instituting courses in black psychology. In 1979, Akbar accepted a faculty position at Florida State University. In 1971, Akbar became active with the Association of Black Psychologists, the largest Black mental health professional organization in the world. He has served on the association's board for numerous terms and was elected its president in 1987. The association has bestowed all of its most prestigious awards on Akbar due to his professional contributions.

Akbar continues to teach a specialized course on the psychology of the African American at Florida State University. In the late 1980s, he formed his own publishing company, Mind Productions, and private consulting company, Na'im Akbar Consultants, to bring his teaching to a wider audience.

Accession Number

A2002.048

Sex

Male

Archival Photo 1
Interview Date

4/22/2002

Last Name

Akbar

Maker Category
Schools

FAMU Developmental Research School

University of Michigan

Hampton University

Speakers Bureau

No

Archival Photo 2
First Name

Na'im

Birth City, State, Country

Tallahassee

HM ID

AKB01

Favorite Season

Fall

Speaker Bureau Notes

The state of his health prevented him from participating.

Sponsor

Knight Foundation

State

Florida

Favorite Vacation Destination

Accra, Ghana

Favorite Quote

This too shall pass.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Florida

Birth Date

4/26/1944

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Tallahassee

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Cauliflower, Okra

Short Description

Psychology professor and publisher Na'im Akbar (1944 - ) pioneered the African-centered approach to psychology and founded one of the first Black psychology programs in the United States at Morehouse College.

Employment

Miner, Barnhill & Galland

Norfolk State University

Florida State University

Main Sponsor
Favorite Color

Gold

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Na'im Akbar Interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Na'im Akbar's favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Na'im Akbar's parents' names

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Na'im Akbar shares memories of his maternal grandmother

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Na'im Akbar shares memories of his maternal grandfather

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Na'im Akbar shares memories his paternal grandparents

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Na'im Akbar shares memories of his mother

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Na'im Akbar talks about his father

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Na'im Akbar discusses his parents' first meeting

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Na'im Akbar discusses his aunt

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Na'im Akbar shares his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Na'im Akbar remembers his childhood household

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Na'im Akbar as a child

Tape: 1 Story: 14 - Na'im Akbar shares memories of Tallahassee, Florida

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Na'im Akbar discusses his neighborhood's mentors and role models

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Na'im Akbar remembers his childhood paper route

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Na'im Akbar discusses the influences of his childhood community

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Na'im Akbar discusses the role of schools in his community

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Na'im Akbar remembers an childhood emphasis on education

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Na'im Akbar remembers his childhood teachers and coaches

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Na'm Akbar discusses additional father figures

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Na'im Akbar as a student

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Na'im Akbar discusses his elementary and high school extracurricular activities

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Na'im Akbar discusses skills gained through childhood activities

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Na'im Akbar discusses the 1956 Tallahassee Bus Boycott

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Na'im Akbar explains the early history of Tallahassee's black neighhorhoods, Frenchtown and Smokey Hollow

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Na'im Akbar explains his understanding of the 1956 Tallahassee Bus Boycott as a teenager

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Na'im Akbar remembers reactions of Tallahassee's black community to demonstrations

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Na'im Akbar reflects on his community's fear of retaliation

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Na'im Akbar describes his fear of the white response to the demonstrations

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Na'im Akbar remembers lessons of needing to staying in one's place

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Na'im Akbar reflects on his admission to the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Na'im Akbar reflects on competing with whites in an academic environment

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Na'im Akbar discusses the race relations at Michigan universites in early 1960s

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Na'im Akbar comments on the resistance to legitimize Black Studies

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Na'im Akbar discusses his decision to major in psychology

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Na'im Akbar remembers his research mentors at the University of Michigan

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Na'im Akbar discusses his mentor, Dr. Howard Wolowitz

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Na'im Akbar reflects on the 1960s and its influence on his research

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Na'im Akbar confronts his own feelings of racial inferiority

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Na'im Akbar discusses his dissertation

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Na'im Akbar joins the Association of Black Psychologists

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Na'im Akbar talks about his birth name

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Na'im Akbar remembers his first academic job search

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Na'im Akbar discusses his experiences at Morehouse College

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Na'im Akbar's introduction to the Nation of Islam

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Na'im Akbar joins the Nation of Islam

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Na'im Akbar describes the reactions of the Morehouse College community to his joining the Nation of Islam

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Na'im Akbar explains the correlation between the Nation of Islam's teaching and Black Psychology

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Na'im Akbar describes the development of African Psychology

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Na'im Akbar moves to Chicago, Illinois to work for the Nation of Islam

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Na'im Akbar discusses working with the Nation of Islam in Chicago

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Na'im Akbar meets and marries his wife

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Na'im Akbar joins the faculty at Norfolk State University

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Na'im Akbar joins the faculty at Florida State University

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Na'im Akbar's exposure in the media

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Na'im Akbar discusses academia's response to Black Psychology

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Na'im Akbar discusses the Association of Black Psychologists

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Na'im Akbar describes the need for continued growth of Black Psychology

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Na'im Akbar discusses the black community's view of Black Psychology

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - Na'im Akbar describes the practical use of Black psychologists

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Na'im Akbar discusses cultural differences among blacks and whites

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Na'im Akbar discusses the Black Church and Black Psychologists

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Na'im Akbar discusses the difference between Eurocentric and Afrocentric Psychology

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Na'im Akbar's hopes and concerns for the black community

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Na'im Akbar describes his legacy and how he wants to be remembered

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Photo -- Na'im Akbar and Father on Toledo, Ohio Beach (1958)

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Photo -- Na'im Akbar (Luther Weems, Jr) as High School Senior (1961)

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Photo -- Na'im Akbar wih Dr. Art Mathis and Nigerian Psychologist at the University of Ibadan, Nigeria (1973)

Tape: 7 Story: 9 - Photo -- Na'im Akbar with Rev. Herbert Alexander (1987)

Tape: 7 Story: 10 - Photo -- Na'im Akbar (Luther Weems, Jr) at Eight Years Old on Easter Sunday (1952)

Tape: 7 Story: 11 - Photo -- Na'im Akbar and Daughter, Shaakira, at Elmina Slave Castle in Ghana, West Africa (1995)

Tape: 7 Story: 12 - Photo -- Shaakira Akbar with Maternal Grandparents in Ghana, West Africa (1995)

Tape: 7 Story: 13 - Photo -- Na'im Akbar with Mother, Bessie; Father, Luther; and Aunt, Eunice (1965)

Tape: 7 Story: 14 - Photo -- Na'im Akbar with Wife, Renee, and Children, Shaakira, Tareeq, and Mutaqee (circa 1987)

Tape: 7 Story: 15 - Photo -- Na'im Akbar with Minister Louis Farrakhan in Accra, Ghana (1995)

Tape: 7 Story: 16 - Photo -- Na'im Akbar with Drs. John Henrik Clarke and Asa Hilliard at the University of Louisville (circa 1998)

Tape: 7 Story: 17 - Photo -- Na'im Akbar (Luther X) (1973)

Tape: 7 Story: 18 - Photo -- Na'im Akbar at the Temple of Edfu, Upper Egypt (circa 1985)

Tape: 7 Story: 19 - Photo -- Na'im Akbar with Sons, Tareeq and Mutaqee, at Cape Coast Slave Castle, Ghana (1996)

Tape: 7 Story: 20 - Photo -- Na'im Akbar with Tony Brown and Drs. A. Hilliard, M. Asante, M. Karenga, L. James Myers, F. Cress Welsing (1995)

Tape: 7 Story: 21 - Photo -- Na'im Akbar "Instooled" as Development Chief in Abono Village, Ghana (1995)

Tape: 7 Story: 22 - Newspaper Photo -- Na'im Akbar with Dick Gregory, Tyrone Brooks and Dr. Ralph Abernathy in Selma, AL (1976)

Tape: 7 Story: 23 - Newspaper Photo -- Na'im Akbar with Khalilah Ali in Chicago, IL

Tape: 7 Story: 24 - Photo -- Na'im Akbar Speaking at the Million Man March in Washington, D.C. (10/16/1995)

Tape: 7 Story: 25 - Photo -- Na'im Akbar Pouring Libation at Inauguration of Tougaloo College President, Dr. Adib Shakir (5/13/1989)

Tape: 7 Story: 26 - Photo -- Na'im Akbar (Luther Weems, Jr.) on Senior Prom with Joan Bailey (1961)

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DATitle
Na'im Akbar describes the development of African Psychology
Na'im Akbar discusses working with the Nation of Islam in Chicago
Transcript
Was there any written books or anything, you can pull from to see, the way you were about to go and move psychology?$$No, we were invent -- we were inventing it as we went along. I wanted to come back to mention to you again this, these people who, who became really kind of key in terms of this whole scholarly development that became, what we call African Psychology. One of those people was my, my very good friend who I met, Phil McGee, who became my kind of connection with the Stanford [University, Stanford, California] group. And Stanford was where Cedric Clark was, who I mentioned to you. And their graduate student was Wade Nobles. Now, Wade Nobles was finishing a graduate degree in psychology at Stanford University. Through my connection with Phil, the four of us became kind of the Africanist group in the Association of Black Psychologists. So each year at their conventions, you know, we would do a major kind of presentation and dealing with this whole kind of redefinition of black people as basically African people. And to begin to somehow talk about psychology within the context of us continuing an African way of life as opposed to being deviations from a European way of life. And Cedric and I were very much directly influenced by the Nation [of Islam] in our thinking. And both Phil and Wade, who never joined the Nation, were also very much influenced by those kinds of ideas. In fact, Wade's wife became an active member of Nation for a period of time. And so all of that became very much a part of the way that we began to sort of like develop this whole kind of paradigm of what became kind of Africentric psychology. Interestingly, Dr. Molefi Asante some years later did the first book on Afrocentricity and he mentioned at the very beginning of the book that like, you know, this whole kind of notion of beginning to think of black scholarship from an African context with that whole paradigm shift where we began to see the world from our center, whether it's economics, whether it's art, whether it's theater, whether it's literature, whether it's psychology, whatever it is, to think of it from our center. He sort of like, he, he referenced the black psychologists, the African psychologists as having, you know, sort of started that paradigm. And he had reference to the work that, you know, the four of us had done. We did a paper back in, in -- it was actually published in first issue of the 'Journal of Black Psychology.' It was called "Voodoo or IQ: An Introduction to African Psychology." And we really kind of laid out -- the four of us, Phil McGee, Wade Nobles, Cedric Clark and myself, laid out the perimeters of this like paradigm of beginning to think of the world, you know, from this kind of Africentric, you know, point of view, and the, the work we began to do. So Wade coming in experimental psychology, he began to get research grants to study the black family. And to study the black family, not as a deviant European family, but as an African family. So he began to look at notions like the extended family system. He began to look at things about the role of spirituality in the black family. And he began to look at how, when that family was working well, people performed better in schools, staying away from socially deviant kinds of behaviors. So he began to like empirically demonstrate that when black people acted consistent with being African, we didn't -- we (unclear), we had more successful lives. You know, I began to sort of write much more in terms of the whole kind of importance of us understanding who we were as a means of finding mental health, you know.$Tell me about your experiences in Chicago [Illinois] when you go there to become, to work directly within the Nation of Islam?$$The first year was really exciting. I mean I -- because all these people came, Sonia Sanchez was in the Nation [of Islam]. She came there. Minister [Louis] Farrakhan was moved out to Chicago, so he was working there. So I was able to begin to interact with all of the major leadership of the Nation of Islam, Muhammad Ali was, you know, very active at the Nation at that point. Khalilah Ali, who he was still married to at the time, was very active around -- so all these people who had been sort of icons, like for the black community as a whole and certainly for the Nation, became my colleagues. We were all kind of working together. What happened, however, like shortly after the first year I was in Chicago, it really became fairly clear that the real agenda that Imam Wallace Muhammad had was to really kind of transform the Nation primarily into an Orthodox religious movement. And to really kind of de -- de-culturalize its, its impact. So, the move he began was to get rid of the businesses, really the schools themselves began to -- he closed the schools down in most parts of the country and eventually kind of phased out the schools altogether. And basically to convert the Nation from being like a, kind of like a social, cultural movement to being exclusively a religious movement. And, and this was very different from what we'd expected. However, during the beginning of that year, like, you know, we began to do some of the things that I indicated in terms of writing those pamphlets and things like that. And by the end of two years, it was much that the Nation was going in another direction altogether, you know. So those of us who had moved to Chicago, one, one very brilliant man who was a lawyer out of Richmond [Virginia], his name was Sa'ad -- well his name Gerard X. Green he became Sa'ad El-Amin, who subsequently became a city councilman and major prosecutor and a judge out of Richmond when he went back. But he'd moved to Chicago, two or three accountants from PriceWaterhouse out of New York [New York] had moved to Chicago. So we brought together this kind of brain trust of people who were kind of like parts of various [Black] Muslim communities around the country, parts of the Nation who (unclear) like, the (unclear) all centered there in Chicago. But it didn't go the direction, you know, that we had anticipated. But it was be -- it, it, it introduced me to a national network of people, number one. And it began to give exposure to the ideas that I'd been working with on a national basis as well because my articles were in the national newspaper of 'Muhammad Speaks.' I did the -- I, I published the first little pamphlets, the first one being, I think, 'The Community of Self' and then which I subsequently revised. And then a couple of others that I did as well which became like these little readable pamphlets that people could use to begin to develop and understand their psychology as black people. So that was the start of the work that, you know, subsequently I, I expanded much later on. So I spent those two years there. After finding out that the Nation was really not going to go that kind of way, really going much more to a religious movement, then I went to back to work at Norfolk State [University, Norfolk, Virginia].