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Jerome Taylor

Psychologist and Africana studies professor Jerome Taylor was born on January 26, 1940 in Waukegan, Illinois to Willie Mae Taylor and George Washington. Taylor earned his B.A. degree from the University of Denver in 1961, and his Ph.D. degree in clinical psychology from Indiana University Bloomington in 1965.

Upon graduation, Taylor received and completed a postdoctoral fellowship in child and adolescent psychology at the Menninger Clinic of Topeka, Kansas. He then served as director of the county’s Mental Health Unit from 1968 to 1969. In 1969, Taylor moved to the University of Pittsburgh, where he was named director of the Clinical Psychology Center. He went on to serve as chair of the Graduate Program in Social Psychology, and as associate professor and chair of the Department of Africana Studies at the University of Pittsburgh. In psychology, he has chaired more than twenty-five dissertation committees of African American students, a record at the University of Pittsburgh.

Taylor served as a consulting editor for the Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, and has published articles in a number of scholarly journals. He has also presented his research and development activities at numerous institutions of higher learning, including Howard University, Hampton University, Florida A & M University, Princeton University, Yale University, and Oxford University.

Originally conceived in 1970, Taylor founded the Institute for the Black Family at the University of Pittsburgh and the Center for Family Excellence, Inc. in 1988, which serves Allegheny County, and went on to serve as its executive director, president and founder. The Center for Family Excellence, Inc. has received the Alfred W. Wishart Jr. Award, and its violence prevention program has been rated as the best in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.

Taylor’s awards include the University of Pittsburgh Chancellor’s Distinguished Public Service Award; University of Pittsburgh Black Alumni Pioneer in Civil Rights Award; the Distinguished Research Award from the International Association of Black Psychologists; the Kujichagulia Award from the Sankofa Institute of Pittsburgh; and the Norman Dixon Award for Outstanding Black Faculty Member. Taylor is a member of the Association of Black Psychologists and the National Institute of Black Child Development.

Jerome Taylor was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on June 10, 2014.

Accession Number

A2014.168

Sex

Male

Interview Date

6/10/2014

Last Name

Taylor

Maker Category
Schools

University of Denver

Indiana University

First Name

Jerome

Birth City, State, Country

Waukegan

HM ID

TAY15

State

Illinois

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Pennsylvania

Birth Date

1/26/1940

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Pittsburgh

Country

United States

Short Description

Psychologist and africana studies professor Jerome Taylor (1940 - ) served as director of the Clinical Psychology Center, chair of the Graduate Program in Social Psychology, and associate professor and chair of the Department of Africana Studies at the University of Pittsburgh. Taylor also established and served as executive director, president and founder of The Center for Family Excellence, Inc.

Employment

Menninger Clinic

University of Pittsburgh

Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology

Institute for the Black Family

Center for Family Excellence, Inc.

Nathan Hare

African American studies professor and psychologist Nathan Hare was born on April 9, 1933 in Slick, Oklahoma. As a young age he experienced segregation and tense race relations in Oklahoma. Hare planned on becoming a professional boxer until one of his high school teachers suggested he attend college, where he took sociology classes and switched his major from English to sociology. In 1954, he received his A.B. degree from Langston University in Langston, Oklahoma. In 1957, he earned his M.A. degree from University of Chicago. In that same year, he married his wife, Julia Hare, also a noted psychologist and sociologist. Five years later, in 1962, he earned the first of two Ph.D. degrees. The first Ph.D. degree in sociology was from the University of Chicago and the second Ph.D. degree, awarded from the California School of Professional Psychology in 1975, was in clinical psychology.

In 1961, he became an instructor and assistant professor in sociology at Howard University in Washington, D.C. Some of his students included Stokely Carmichael and Claude Brown. Later, in September 1966, he wrote a letter to the editor of the The Hilltop, Howard University’s student newspaper speaking out against then Howard University president James Nabrit’s plan to turn the university’s student body sixty percent white by 1970. As a result Hare was fired in 1967. In 1968, Hare joined the faculty of San Francisco State College (now San Francisco State University) and became the program coordinator of the school's Black Studies program, the first in the United States. This has earned him the title "father of Black Studies" by scholars. As the program coordinator, Hare created the term "ethnic studies" to replace the more pejorative "minority studies." Hare battled with the college administration and left the college just a year later, in 1969. Needing a way to express his thoughts and the ideas of others, he founded the scholarly periodical, The Black Scholar: A Journal of Black Studies and Research in 1969. He left the journal in 1975 to work as a clinical psychologist in community health programs, hospitals, and in private practice. In 1979, he co-founded the Black Think Tank with his wife, Julia Hare. The Black Think Tank addresses the problems and concerns that plague the African American community.

Throughout his career, Hare has served as a consultant and given numerous lectures and presentations. Furthermore, he has written several books and articles including The Black Anglo Saxons, The Endangered Black Family, Bringing the Black Boy to Manhood: The Passage, Crisis in Black Sexual Politics, and The Miseducation of the Black Child. He has been the recipient of many awards such as the Joseph Hines Award for Distinguished Scholarship from the National Association of Black Sociologists, Scholar of the Year Award from the Association of African Historians, and the Lifetime Achievement Award from the National Black College Alumni Hall of Fame. Hare was also awarded the National Council for Black Studies National Award for his distinguished scholarly contributions to Black Studies. Throughout his life, his love of boxing and learning has helped him to fight for social justice.

Nathan Hare was interviewed by the The HistoryMakers on April 5, 2004.

Accession Number

A2004.039

Sex

Male

Archival Photo 1
Interview Date

4/5/2004

Last Name

Hare

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Schools

University of Chicago

Langston University

California School of Professional Psychology

Archival Photo 2
First Name

Nathan

Birth City, State, Country

Slick

HM ID

HAR07

Favorite Season

All Seasons

State

Oklahoma

Favorite Vacation Destination

None

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

California

Birth Date

4/9/1933

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Bay Area/San Francisco

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Greens, Ice Cream

Short Description

Psychologist and african american studies professor Nathan Hare (1933 - ) became the coordinator of the nation’s first Black Studies Program at San Francisco State College, worked as a clinical psychologist in community health programs, hospitals, and private practice, and established The Black Think Tank, which focuses on issues affecting the black family. He is the author of many books and articles and is the recipient of numerous awards.

Employment

San Francisco State College

Black Scholar

Black Think Tank

Howard University

Favorite Color

Light Blue

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Nathan Hare's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Nathan Hare lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Nathan Hare describes his mother

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Nathan Hare talks about his father

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Nathan Hare shares a story about his maternal great-grandmother's enslavement

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Nathan Hare shares his earliest childhood memories

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Nathan Hare talks about his siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Nathan Hare describes his family life as a child in Slick, Oklahoma

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Nathan Hare describes growing up on a farm in Slick, Oklahoma

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Nathan Hare describes the sights, sounds and smells of growing up on a farm in Slick, Oklahoma

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Nathan Hare talks about elementary school in Slick, Oklahoma and junior high school in San Diego, California

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Nathan Hare describes winning six Oklahoma statewide academic prizes

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Nathan Hare describes tense race relations in Slick, Oklahoma in the 1940s

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Nathan Hare talks about going to Landmark Baptist Church and being baptized

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Nathan Hare talks about his teachers at L'Ouverture High School in Slick, Oklahoma

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Nathan Hare talks about living in San Diego, California for two years during World War II

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Nathan Hare talks about pursing his interest in boxing

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Nathan Hare describes his experience at Langston University in Langston, Oklahoma

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Nathan Hare describes the recognition he received from boxing and the deterioration of Landmark Baptist Church in Slick, Oklahoma

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Nathan Hare talks about joining the U.S. Army Reserves

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Nathan Hare talks about being awarded the Danforth Fellowship and going to the University of Chicago in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Nathan Hare talks about his influential teachers in college and graduate school, and taking a teaching position at Howard University in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Nathan Hare describes his dissertations

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Nathan Hare talks about teaching at Howard University in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Nathan Hare describes being offered the position as coordinator of the black studies department at San Francisco State University

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Nathan Hare talks about teaching Stokely Carmichael and Claude Brown

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Nathan Hare talks about the end of his boxing career and the inspiration behind his book, 'The Black Anglo-Saxons'

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Nathan Hare describes his concern about the race issue before the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Nathan Hare talks about his introduction to the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Nathan Hare describes his involvement in the Black Power Committee at Howard University and putting up bail for H. Rap Brown

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Nathan Hare talks about the formation of the Department of Black Studies at San Francisco State University in 1968

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Nathan Hare describes the pedagogy of the Department of Black Studies at San Francisco State University in San Francisco, California

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Nathan Hare talks about hiring professors for the Department of Black Studies at San Francisco State University in San Francisco, California

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Nathan Hare talks about creating the journal, The Black Scholar

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Nathan Hare talks about getting his Ph.D. in Psychology at the California School of Professional Psychology in San Francisco, California

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Nathan Hare talks about the Black Think Tank

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Nathan Hare describes being a boxer and an academic

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Nathan Hare talks about his regrets in life

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Nathan Hare describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Nathan Hare describes how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Nathan Hare narrates his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$3

DAStory

4$8

DATitle
Nathan Hare describes tense race relations in Slick, Oklahoma in the 1940s
Nathan Hare talks about teaching Stokely Carmichael and Claude Brown
Transcript
Could you tell us about, in Slick [Oklahoma], what--was it an all-black town or was it (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) No.$$--mixed or what was the relationship between the, the races there?$$Slick was a town, predominantly white town as was the area surrounding it 'cause Slick was not just a town it was surrounding area of all the people related psychologically, sociologically to each other, and so I was in that and they were--we were set apart, we knew each other, everybody knew each other, at least you didn't know them personally, you knew who they were and you spoke to everybody even if you passing them from behind as strangers, white and black strangers would, would speak, unlike here in the, in the, in the city. And so, we--was very much separated it was like a terror 'cause they might lynch you at any moment at the drop of the hat, we, we knew people that had been lynched and we knew, heard of it and Oklahoma had a high lynching rate because of the combined both the West and South and, and so, we had that there. We couldn't ride in the front of the bus, we couldn't sit and eat in a restaurant and all that, and we had separate schools and, and separate buses and when we were walking to school if our bus was broken down, which usually was the case on a rainy day, then the white bus would pass by and they--they would try to--the driver tried deliberately to run in the water skid water on us kids as we pass by and the white kids would, would lean out and say--call us niggers and we'd call them peckerwoods and things like that, yell at them and stuff, and back and forth and it would keep on going. And, and so that was the kind of way it, it was. If we pass one we'd, we'd usually get in some kind of fight, it was almost like a, a kid play too-fun thing too because you got a great joy out of doing battle with them a little bit (laughter). But, but so it was, it was like that and when I was ten years old, my mother [Tishia Lee Davis]--well there was a bus getting ready to go between Slick and Bristow [Oklahoma], it went for maybe a year or two and my mother said, "Well this is going to--it's going to be segregated we're not going to be able to ride up front and that's not right," and, but, but--by chance she sent us to--with a bucket of cream you could skim it off the milk over time and then sold the cream in the town ten miles away and we'd get things to buy stuff with, money, and we'd take ten cents apiece to go to what they called nigger heaven, which was the balcony of the movie theater that they allowed black people in. They had two theaters and one they allowed black people in, sit upstairs, sometimes we'd throw paper down on the white peoples head (laughter) but anyway-who did it, or where. But any case we went to nigger heaven and so--but I sat on--at, at the front seat when I got on the bus 'cause mother said it was going to be wrong, but a driver pleaded me for thirty minutes, I'd say, to, to move and I wouldn't move, my little brother [Carl Hare] was scared he was leaning over my shoulder because he was scared. The ruckus was going on, he kept pleading but I rode. He would not--I would not leave and he would not bother me, and then mother come 'round with a shotgun and so therefore we ro- I did this, you're talking about '43 [1943], this is thirteen years before Montgomery [Bus Boycott] and so I always had the policy after that to not go past rear of center. I would stand in the front rather than go to the back to sit and I did it all over and I tell, you know, anecdotes about it (laughter), but certainly--I was in Oklahoma not Georgia, maybe Georgia I wouldn't be here to tell the story but that's the way it was down there then.$You had some very interesting students at Howard [University, Washington, D.C.]--$$Yeah.$$--Stokely Carmichael [Kwame Ture] and some other people, could you--$$Claude Brown is the most known--$$Claude Brown, right.$$--he wrote, 'Manchild in the Promised Land' and he was taking my class then, yeah (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) Right, right, and you said the people that were in SNCC [Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee]?$$Yeah.$$So, this was the beginning of black power, and the beginning of the student--$$Well, before, yeah--$$--student movement (simultaneous)--$$--(simultaneous) before black power but, but it was, it was about two or three years later--$$Right.$$--they, they formed black power. Things were turning blacker you might say, and blacks were getting the consciousness out of the Berkley [University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California]--University of Cal, Berkley free speech movement, in fact, Art Goldberg had come to Howard, he looked me up in the (unclear), he in there to go to law school, he said, "I heard you're one of the good guys and I'm going here now to law school at Howard 'cause I couldn't go to Berkley," I said, "If I couldn't go to Berkley, I was gonna bring Berkley here to Howard" (laughter) and so he came here and so I had to--all those people were there. And then things were getting a little more concerned, people were perking their ears about what I--they always started perking their ears up about what I was saying, not about race alone, but about other things in general. 'Cause I took the same approach to everything, not just race and so, he--they would be in this--I remember Stokely Carmichael saying to somebody that my notion of a closed ranks approach, modeled after [W.E.B.] Du Bois, but a turning within yourself to beef up yourself and then to confront the, the wall of segregation was the best thing going. But, but first time I ever saw Stokely was when I came there and he was standing--somebody had taken me by the NAG office, Nonviolent Action Group, which was the name of Friends of SNCC because the administration would not let them have a Friends of SNCC group there on campus, but they had to call it Nonviolent Action Group and so a young fellow sat down with us saying--he said, "I don't believe in this nonviolence, but there's nothing else going on so I guess, I'm fooling with that now," and that was Stokely Carmichael I learned later. And so they were there and he was a very good student. I knew he would be outstanding no matter what he had gone into, he could have been a very great mainstream senator or whatever. He--when--I never was surprised, people said were you surprised at, at Stokely Carmichael, I said no, he was two, two years overdue. In fact when Claude Brown, who was a surprise, Claude Brown was always telling me he was writing his autobiography, he had written an article in, in det- detalis- Dissent magazine, called 'Growing Up in Harlem.' He's writing this book on growing up in Harlem, which later on became 'Manchild in the Promised Land,' but I said, "Yeah, yeah, well, I'll leave him alone," because I really didn't think he was really doing anything and so he came out with this book and it became a best seller. And then Stokely Carmichael came by, and he came by my class when he was visiting here, he wasn't famous then and he said--I said, "What do you think of--," going down the hall later, I said, "What do you think about Claude Brown writing that book?" And so he said, "Well, if Claude Brown can do it, anybody can do it." It become so famous I said--writing that book--become so famous he said, "If Claude Brown can do it anybody can do it." Within a year he came back there and we invited him to speak and you couldn't get into the whole building because of, because the people, he had become famous with the black power. But I knew he was going to be outstanding. He was the best student I'd ever had.$$I see.$$He was, he was unusual.

Julia Reed Hare

The dynamic motivational lecturer, relationship expert, author, social commentator and educational psychologist Dr. Julia Hare was born in Tulsa, Oklahoma. Hare has appeared on several television programs offering her expertise and insights on male/female relationships, gender interactions in the workplace, mate selection, toxic relationships and matrimonial harmony. She has appeared on CNN & Company, C-SPAN, Tony Brown’s Journal and Inside Edition. Hare has also spoken before the Congressional Black Caucus, participated in Tavis Smiley’s “State of the Black Family” Conference and spoke at the annual Essence Empowerment Seminars at the Essence Magazine Culture Festival. Her written work has been featured in several magazines and newspapers including The New York Times, The Washington Post, and The Miami Herald. Hare and her husband co-authored The Endangered Black Family; Bringing the Black Boy to Manhood: The Passage, The Miseducation of The Black Child, Crisis in Black Sexual Politics and How to Find and Keep a BMW (Black Man Working).

Hare, along with her husband, Dr. Nathan Hare, formed The Black Think Tank located in San Francisco, California. Their consulting firm focuses on issues affecting the black family.

Dr. Julia Hare’s work has brought her many awards and honors including Educator of the Year for Washington, D.C. by the Junior Chamber of Commerce and World Book Encyclopedia in coordination with American University; The Abe Lincoln Award for Outstanding Broadcasting, The Carter G. Woodson Education Award, The Association of Black Social Workers’ Harambee Award; the Scholar of the Year Award from the Association of African Historians; and the Lifetime Achievement Award from the International Black Writers and Artists Union. Hare has been inducted into the Hall of Fame of her high school alma mater, Booker T. Washington High, was given a Presidential citation from the National Association for Equal Opportunity in Higher Education and was named one of the ten most influential African Americans in the San Francisco Bay Area.

During graduate school, Hare taught elementary school in Chicago, Illinois integrating music into the student’s lessons. Following a move to California, Hare served as the director of educational programs at the Oakland Museum and later hosted talk shows for both ABC television and KSFO radio stations. She also served as the public relations director in the local federal housing program in San Francisco.

Her formal education includes a B.A. in music from Langston University of Langston, Oklahoma; a M.A. degree in music education from Roosevelt University located in Chicago, Illinois and a Ph.D. in education from the California Coast University in Santa Ana, California.

The former Julia Reed currently resides with her husband, Dr. Nathan Hare, in San Francisco, California.

Accession Number

A2004.040

Sex

Female

Archival Photo 1
Interview Date

4/5/2004

Last Name

Hare

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Reed

Occupation
Schools

Booker T. Washington High School

George Washington Carver Middle School

Booker T. Washington Elementary School

Langston University

Roosevelt University

California Coast University

Archival Photo 2
First Name

Julia

Birth City, State, Country

Tulsa

HM ID

HAR06

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Oklahoma

Favorite Vacation Destination

Florida, San Francisco, California

Favorite Quote

Do You Remember When Common Sense Was Fairly Common?

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

California

Birth Date

11/7/1939

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Bay Area/San Francisco

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Watermelon

Short Description

Psychologist Julia Reed Hare (1939 - ) was the former director of educational programs at the Oakland Museum and hosted talk shows for both ABC television and KSFO radio stations. Hare also co-founded The Black Think Tank located in San Francisco, California and appeared on several television programs offering her expertise and insights on male/female relationships and other issues.

Employment

Black Think Tank

Oakland Museum of California

ABC

KSFO Radio

National Committee against Discrimination in Housing

District of Columbia Teachers College

Favorite Color

Black

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Julia Reed Hare's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Julia Reed Hare lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Julia Reed Hare describes her mother

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Julia Reed Hare talks about her father

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Julia Reed Hare talks about her relatives and holiday family traditions

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Julia Reed Hare describes her early childhood memories of playing the piano

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Julia Reed Hare talks about her siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Julia Reed Hare talks about the 1921 Tulsa race riot and its aftermath

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Julia Reed Hare describes her childhood neighborhood in Tulsa, Oklahoma

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Julia Reed Hare describes the sights, sounds and smells of growing up in Tulsa, Oklahoma

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Julia Reed Hare describes her household responsibilities as a child and her religious upbringing

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Julia Reed Hare talks about going to Booker T. Washington Elementary School in Tulsa, Oklahoma

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Julia Reed Hare describes her teachers and the culture of Booker T. Washington Elementary School in Tulsa, Oklahoma

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Julia Reed Hare remembers prejudiced African American teachers

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Julia Reed Hare describes her childhood personality

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Julia Reed Hare describes her childhood aspirations

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Julia Reed Hare describes the segregated schools in Tulsa, Oklahoma, her teachers and her extracurricular activities as a child

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Julia Reed Hare describes deciding to go to college and keeping in touch with her friends from Booker T. Washington High School in Tulsa, Oklahoma

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Julia Reed Hare describes her experience at Langston University in Langston, Oklahoma

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Julia Reed Hare describes going to Roosevelt University's College of Music in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Julia Reed Hare describes teaching elementary school while in graduate school at Roosevelt University's School of Music in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Julia Reed Hare talks about her work for the District of Columbia Teachers College in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Julia Reed Hare describes being director of education for the Oakland Museum of California in Oakland, California

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Julia Reed Hare describes her work for the National Committee Against Discrimination in Housing, Inc. and as a radio host

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Julia Reed Hare recalls people she interviewed on the radio and teaching others about radio broadcasting

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Julia Reed Hare describes the content of lectures she gives across the country

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Julia Reed Hare talks about getting her educational and social psychology degrees at California Coast University and her lectures

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Julia Reed Hare describes what The Black Think Tank does, with HistoryMaker Nathan Hare, in San Francisco, California

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Julia Reed Hare describes the book she authored with HistoryMaker Nathan Hare, 'Bringing the Black Boy to Manhood: The Passage'

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Julia Reed Hare describes the book she published with HistoryMaker Nathan Hare, 'Crisis in Black Sexual Politics'

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Julia Reed Hare talks about her research on African American families

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Julia Reed Hare describes the changes she would like to see for African American students in the schools

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Julia Reed Hare talks about her love of playing piano

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Julia Reed Hare talks about reading

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Julia Reed Hare talks about her desire to write a romance novel and her spiritual growth

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Julia Reed Hare describes her hopes for the African American community

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Julia Reed Hare talks about her proudest accomplishments and her values

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Julia Reed Hare describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Julia Reed Hare narrates her photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$1

DAStory

3$8

DATitle
Julia Reed Hare describes being director of education for the Oakland Museum of California in Oakland, California
Julia Reed Hare talks about the 1921 Tulsa race riot and its aftermath
Transcript
So, I became the first director of education for the Oakland Museum [of California, Oakland, California], because the museum was opening. Now, the museum was not exactly alien to me, because as the language arts and the college--and the supervisor at the college and--the University of the District of Columbia [Washington, D.C.], which was at the time the District of Columbia Teachers College [Washington, D.C.]--I had to do a lot of work with the curators of the Smithsonian [Institution, Washington, D.C.]. Because we tried to bring the museum to the kids, in addition to taking the kids to the museum. So, when Oakland--it was opening, this was a new museum that had never opened, hadn't had it there. And so, I was speaking at something at San Francisco State [College, later San Francisco State University, San Francisco, California], talking about the Smithsonian. I had no idea that some curators were there and asked would I come there and work with them on getting other people--blacks, ethnic minorities, women, whoever, involved in the museum. And I said, "I'd be delighted to do that." But I said, "I must develop something that you probably haven't had before, and that was a museum on wheels because a lot of people are not coming here. You're going to have to take the museum out to them." So, we had what we call traveling exhibitions that went out. And we had, we got all of this from the changing exhibition galleries. Because we had permanent galleries that you have to come there to see that, because that's borrowed from museums all over the world. But we would take the museums out to underprivileged areas. We would take them to middle class areas, any group of people that we felt would not on their own come there. We had things that they could handle and touch in the museum. It was not a hands-off, you know, you can pick this up, it's not going to break. Before we knew it, then they were coming to the museum. Because I would always dangle the carrot, "There's more of that over there at the museum if you come over to us." So, we would arrange for them to come there when I felt--then I developed a board and brought in people--these were adults, blacks who had never had the opportunity to sit on a board of a museum. Because you know, that's kind of a playground of the rich and the affluent. And so we brought them in and established a board for them. Well, they were surprised. Well by doing this, then we brought in black artists who had never had an opportunity to display their work in a museum. We brought in black scientists, because we also had a specialty there in the natural sciences. And the other specialty was California history. We were able to bring in black historians that never thought that they would have an opportunity to be in a museum. So, when the national museum meetings took place--and Thomas Hoving at that time was the director of the Smithsonian [sic, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, New York]. And we would meet at all of the fancy, great museums, Santa Barbara [Museum of Art, Santa Barbara, California], you know, there are good ones all over the country. These people that we brought into the museum were able to come with me, down, and meet other curators. So, now they are dispersed over the country.$You, you grew up in Tulsa [Oklahoma]?$$Yes.$$And Tulsa has a very interesting history.$$Yes, it does.$$Very interesting. Did your parents [Will Reed and Beatrice Brown Reed] ever talk, or did they experience the riot, the [1921] Tulsa [race] riot?$$No, my mother wasn't living there. She came to Tulsa when she was sixteen. The riot took place I think in 1921. But my father was living there, and he would tell it to us in the house because believe it or not, did you know that black people and black teachers were afraid to talk about that riot when we were growing up in school? Because I mean that was punishable by lynchings, or whatever it might be. That had to be swept under the rug. And the major newspaper of the day, the Tulsa Tribune, that fanned the flames by simply saying that a black man looked at a white woman on an elevator. Well, by the time that hit the radio news--it was not the television--and that went out, then the riot was on. And so, we're talking about concentration camps. They put the black people in that. My father said you could stand and look all across the country--the city and see everything that was burning. Well, the [U.S.] National Guard was called out, and they locked all the black people up in something called the Convention Hall. They locked them up, burned down the houses, destroyed the businesses. One of the reasons that was done is because Tulsa's black community had a self-contained community. They had black--doctors had their own hospitals and businesses. You didn't have to go to the other side of town to purchase anything; it was all done there. In fact, the whites had to come over to the black part of town to purchase a lot of things. And I guess someone just did not like that. And the papers, you know, the newspapers, really fanned that up. And the only church that has ever been bombed from the air in the United States was Mount Zion Baptist Church [Tulsa, Oklahoma], which was the church of my youth, and the church had recently been built, but about a million bucks [dollars] back then in 1921, you know, you can imagine the value of that now. Well, they bombed the church because they said they were destroying, in today's language, weapons of mass destruction but then they said they had an arsenal of weapons that were destroyed. And then after they bombed the church, they later learned that there were no weapons in the church. That church still stands, and they would like to get rid of that church now so that they can build a white university on that land, because they're trying to move now the blacks that are out of North Tulsa. It was often said the reason why--that was the only place blacks could live. It's often said that the reason why they want them out of North Tulsa is because the hurricanes that always visit Tulsa never went through North Tulsa. It always went through the other side of town. And so, they were trying to move them out. The school there that they built for blacks because of segregation, Booker T. Washington High School [Tulsa, Oklahoma], now they're trying to put all of them out and turn that school into a white preparatory school and move the blacks out of Tulsa. I just wrote an editorial for one of the newspapers back there on that situation. So, the reparations movement that they were trying to get for them, the State of Oklahoma ruled that it's so few of them living that we should not pass the reparations on to them or to their heirs, nor has there been an apology. So, the city is about to go up again anytime. Don't be surprised if you hear that.