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Joan Langdon

Mathematician and education administrator Joan Sterling Langdon was born on August 1, 1951 in Marion, South Carolina. After graduating from Hampton University with her B.A. degree in 1973, she enrolled in the College of William & Mary where she received her M.A. degree in 1977. Langdon went on to graduate from Old Dominion University with her M.S. degree in 1985, and American University with her Ph.D. degree in 1989.

Langdon began her career in higher education as an instructor at Rappahannock Community College in 1977. From 1979 to 1985, she was appointed instructor/lecturer at Hampton University where she also served as the first director of the Mathematics/Science Laboratory. After completing her doctorate at American University in 1989, Langdon joined the Bowie State University community as an Associate Professor in 1989. During her tenure at Bowie State University, she has served in several administrative positions, including as Director of the Summer Institute in Engineering and Computer Applications Program; Coordinator of the Computer Science program in the Department of Natural Sciences, Mathematics, and Computer Science; and, as the Faculty Administrative Intern. In 1994, she initiated the Senior Year Progression and Transition Program (SYPAT) and served as coordinator of the program. While there, Langdon served as Founding Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences. In 2006, she was appointed as Director of the Title III Program and Director of the Office of Research and Sponsored Programs.

Langdon has also served as chair and/or as a member of numerous committees at Bowie State University and in the University System of Maryland. She was appointed as a curriculum, proposal, and paper reviewer for the Maryland State Department of Education, the National Science Foundation, and the Association of Computing Machinery (ACM), respectively. In 1996, she was appointed to the ACM National Program Committee for SIGCSE. In addition, she has made presentations at all levels of higher education, participated in numerous workshops and conferences, published in conference proceedings, and developed software programs. She has also served as the principal investigator or co-principal investigator for several grants and sub-contracts, and has authored technical reports.

In 1999, Langdon received the ROTC Army Achievement Medal. Bowie State University honored her with the Distinguished Faculty Award in 2003 and the Distinguished Services Award for Outstanding and Dedicated Leadership in 2012. In 2007, she was awarded the NASA Administration Diversity Enhancement Award.

Langdon is married to Larry L. Langdon. They have four daughters: Tomaysa Sterling, Yvonne Langdon, Yvette Langdon, and Heather Langdon.

Joan Sterling Langdon was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on June 22, 2013.

Accession Number

A2013.160

Sex

Female

Interview Date

6/22/2013

Last Name

Langdon

Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Sterling

Schools

American University

Old Dominion University

College of William and Mary

Hampton University

Bryn Mawr College

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Joan

Birth City, State, Country

Marion

HM ID

LAN09

Favorite Season

Fall, Spring

State

South Carolina

Favorite Vacation Destination

Alaska

Favorite Quote

God bless the child who has his own.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

8/1/1951

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Fruit

Short Description

Math professor and education administrator Joan Langdon (1951 - ) , the Founding Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences at Bowie State University, also served as director of the Title III Program and Director of the Office of Research and Sponsored Programs.

Employment

Bowie State University

American University

United States Census Bureau

Hampton Institute

Rappahannock Community College

York County Public Schools

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Joan Langdon's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Joan Langdon lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Joan Langdon describes her mother's family background - part one

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Joan Langdon describes her mother's family background - part two

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Joan Langdon talks about her maternal grandparents

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Joan Langdon talks about her maternal grandmother's lineage and her grandfather's service in World War I

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Joan Langdon talks about his grandfather purchasing land in South Carolina

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Joan Langdon talks about her mother's growing up in Marion, South Carolina

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Joan Langdon describes her father's family background

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Joan Langdon describes her father's growing up on a farm, his livelihood as a farmer, and his purchase of land in Marion, South Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Joan Langdon talks about her father's desire to become a brain surgeon, his aptitude for math, and her parents' home remedies for illnesses

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Joan Langdon describes how her parents met

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Joan Langdon talks about church and about the name "Marion"

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Joan Langdon describes her parents' personalities and who she takes after

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Joan Langdon describes her earliest childhood memory

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Joan Langdon talks about her siblings - part one

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Joan Langdon talks about her siblings - part two

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Joan Langdon describes the sights, sounds and smells of growing up

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Joan Langdon talks about her interest in television as a child

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Joan Langdon talks about reading her older siblings' textbooks

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Joan Langdon describes her experience in elementary school

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Joan Langdon talks about her interest in math in school

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Joan Langdon talks about being removed from the Civil Rights Movement, segregation in South Carolina, and growing up attending segregated schools

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Joan Langdon describes her experience in middle school and high school - part one

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Joan Langdon describes her experience in middle school and high school - part two

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Joan Langdon talks about the teachers who influenced her in school, and her decision to attend Hampton University

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Joan Langdon talks about her initial experience at Hampton University

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Joan Langdon talks about her mentors, Geraldine Darden and Genevieve Knight at Hampton University

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Joan Langdon talks about her social experience at Hampton University and the teachers who influenced her confidence in school and college

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Joan Langdon talks about the encouragement that she received from her math teacher, Geraldine Darden, at Hampton University

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Joan Langdon talks about her academic performance at Hampton University

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Joan Langdon talks about her experience of taking a computer science class at Hampton University

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Joan Langdon talks about getting married, graduating from Hampton University, and pursuing graduate studies at The College of William and Mary

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Joan Langdon talks about teaching mathematics at Rappahannock Community College and at Hampton University

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Joan Langdon talks about attending Old Dominion University for her master's degree in computer science

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Joan Langdon talks about the evolution of computer science in the 1980s and later

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Joan Langdon talks about how she decided to pursue her Ph.D. degree in computer science at American University

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Joan Langdon discusses her experience in the Ph.D. program in computer science at American University and African American female Ph.D.s

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Joan Langdon talks about Dr. Mary Gray and her class of African American female graduates at American University

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Joan Langdon talks about balancing her family life and children with graduate school at American University

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Joan Langdon talks about the success of the Patricia Roberts Harris Fellowship program at American University while she was there

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Joan Langdon talks about her doctoral dissertation at American University

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Joan Langdon talks about Bowie State University

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Joan Langdon talks about STEM education at Bowie State University, and her involvement with the SIECA program

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Joan Langdon talks about receiving the NASA Diversity Award

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Joan Langdon talks about serving on the University of Maryland System Chancellor's Commission on Mathematics and Science Teaching

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Joan Langdon talks about the Maryland Collaborative for Teacher Preparation

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Joan Langdon talks about becoming a full professor at Bowie State University and her involvement in professional mathematical societies

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Joan Langdon talks about her work-load at Bowie State University

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Joan Langdon talks about serving as the dean of the School of Arts and Sciences at Bowie State University

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Joan Langdon talks about her involvement in the 'Writing Across the Curriculum' initiative

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Joan Langdon talks about her involvement with the military science department at Bowie State University

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Joan Langdon talks about serving as the interim director of the Office of Research and Sponsored Programs at Bowie State University

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - Joan Langdon talks about her involvement with the NASA Women in Science and Engineering (WISE) program and other university programs

Tape: 6 Story: 11 - Joan Langdon describes her service as the director of Title III programs at Bowie State University and as the acting director of the office of research

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Joan Langdon talks about the major sources of grants at Bowie State University

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Joan Langdon talks about African American doctoral graduates in the computer science department at Bowie State University

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Joan Langdon talks about her teaching and administrative responsibilities at Bowie State University

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Joan Langdon talks about her plans for the future

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Joan Langdon reflects upon her career and her choices

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Joan Langdon talks about her family

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Joan Langdon reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Joan Langdon describes her hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 7 Story: 9 - Joan Langdon talks about attending the HERS program at Bryn Mawr College

Tape: 7 Story: 10 - Joan Langdon talks about how she would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$4

DAStory

2$1

DATitle
Joan Langdon talks about her father's desire to become a brain surgeon, his aptitude for math, and her parents' home remedies for illnesses
Joan Langdon talks about her initial experience at Hampton University
Transcript
Okay, I have to ask you this question. I have to go back to what your father's [Albert Moody] aspiration was to become a brain surgeon because it's a STEM [science, technology, engineering and mathematics] aspiration, a science aspiration. Is there a story behind how he came up with that?$$Well, he liked working on animals, okay, and he decided he liked to do that. So on the farm he didn't have a whole lot of opportunities to do those things, because you had to do the manual stuff. But every opportunity that he got, he actually worked on the animals. So he worked--we had cows and we had swine, so, not so many goats, a goat was just there for people's pleasure, things like that. But if anything went wrong with them, he would work on them, and he liked doing that; didn't have the opportunity to work on people, but he never wanted to be a veterinarian. He said, he wanted to actually to be able to do those kinds of things on people, and he had a hard time, this is what he told us, he had a hard time when they told him that he had to stop going to school and actually start working because they needed him to work all day, making money. Before he stopped completely, he told us he would get up at four o'clock in the morning, he would go and work on the farm, then he would come back, eat and go to school. And then when he came home from school, he would get back out into the fields and work until dark, so you couldn't see. So he actually tried to prolong it by working early and by working late so he could go to school in between, but eventually that just didn't work, so he had to stop going to school.$$Okay. Now did your father or mother [Julia Ann Smalls] have a particularly high aptitude for math?$$My father did. Everything that he did on the farm, he did himself. When he laid out his acreage and made decisions on what the yield would be for the land--we planted cotton, corn, tobacco, wheat and lots of garden-related things, how much land you needed to plant for the yield that he wanted to make the amount of money, he figured all that out himself. In fact, I can tell you, one day when--this was after I was in college and went back. I used to go back home and work on the farm every summer. He was telling me how to figure out what to do with the land, how to get the yield that you wanted and how many acres and what you had to do. And it was amazing to me that he could do this, and he did it all in here (indicating head). He didn't--no calculators, no whatevers, he did it here (indicating), and he did a few things on paper, but mostly, he did it in here (indicating). Early on he helped us with our homework. So up to the point where he had gone to school, he helped us all do our work for grade school and the early part of grammar school. He's the one who helped us do our work. So, he could do those things. He surprised me because there were times I had to use the calculator to get it done.$$Okay. Like I said, you know, a brain surgeon is an aspiration, it seems like a pretty big aspiration, but he was already doing veterinary things. He had a sense that he could do something. Did he have any--did he know like the traditional herbal remedies for--$$Oh, my goodness, yes. We never went to the doctor, never went to the doctor until things were really, really serious, otherwise, between my mother and my father, we didn't go. Brewed us tea and drink it, you felt better, eat this, you felt better, making combinations of things so that you would have a medication that would solve the problem, that's all that they did. In fact, I can honestly tell you, I probably went to the doctor for the first time--somehow, I had low blood pressure and I was getting weak, and nobody could figure out why. That's the first time that I could remember having gone the doctor when I was growing up, first time. Other than that--$$How old were you?$$Early high school.$$Okay.$$Now, we went--you had to go for shots, you know what I mean.$$Vaccinations?$$Yeah, vaccinations and things like that, but I mean literally seeing a doctor, didn't do that, didn't have to, they gave us the remedies. We were okay.$$Okay.$All right, 1969, at Hampton University. Well, tell us about your first day at Hampton?$$Well, believe it or not, my first day was a little different than what people would expect. I had to go early, okay. So that means the first day we were supposed to arrive, it would have been on Monday. But my father's [Albert Moody] truck had problems, so we had to hire somebody to take me to school. So, literally, I had to go a day early. So they took me on Saturday, because the person who took us had to be at work on Monday and, of course, couldn't take me on Sunday. So, literally, my mom [Julia Ann Smalls] and one of our neighbors drove me to school on Saturday, and so there were only--and two other people had the same problem. So three of us were in the dorm that night, and the dorm mother was there. And when we showed up, of course, we surprised her to death, because of course we weren't supposed to be there. So we were there that day and the next day. And then on Monday, when we were actually supposed to be there to sign in and register and all of that stuff, so I was able to do that and my scholarships were all there in place, everything was there, and you know, well in those days we had a week of orientation. So we went around, we registered during that week, we learned the Hampton song, we found our other buildings that we were supposed to go to for our classes, we took our testing, we did all of those things within the first five days at Hampton, and I ended up actually taking two tests because I wanted to be a math major. So, to be a math major, I had to prove to them that I knew algebra inside and out, so they gave me this algebra test to take to prove to them that I knew some, and so I did, I to a test, extra test, you took the first one and then you had to take the second one.$$Okay. Okay, so you qualified to become a math major?$$Yes.

Robert Dottin

Biologist and research director Robert Dottin was born in Trinidad in 1943. He graduated from St. Mary’s College in 1970 with his B.S. degree in in biology. Dottin went on to earn his M.S. degree in medical biophysics in 1972 and his Ph.D. in medical genetics in 1974 from the University of Toronto. Upon graduation, Dottin was awarded the Centennial Fellowship to pursue post-doctoral research at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Dottin served as a professor at the Johns Hopkins University, and has been a visiting professor at the University of Copenhagen, Pasteur Institute in Paris, Karlova University in Prague and Oxford University. Dottin then became a full professor at Hunter College of the City University of New York. His teaching experience includes courses in bioinformatics, genetics and developmental biology, all of which utilize internet and digital technology to promote interactive learning. In addition, Dottin has developed many strategies that promote the inclusion of under-represented groups in STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathemathics) research as well as addressing health disparities. Dottin is the founder of the “JustGarciaHill” website – a internet-based community of more than four-thousand minorities in science. Dottin scholarship is published in journals such as the Journal of Biological Chemistry and Ethnicity and Disease.

From 1988 to 1986, Dottin served as the program coordinator for the Center for the Study of Gene Structure and Function (Gene Center) at Hunter College. In 1998, he was appointed as the director of the Gene Center. As director, Dottin increased the productivity, the level of funding, and the diversity of the faculty and staff within the organization. He steered the research at the Gene Center towards a “translational research” agenda and managed equal partnership of the Gene Center in the Clinical and Translational Science Center (CTSC) with the Weill Cornell Medical Center, the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, and the Hospital for Special Surgery. He is the principal investigator for the CTSC sub-award to Hunter College, and he is co-principal investigator on T3 Translational Research Network pilot projects to use an interactive videoconferencing platform to prevent chronic diseases, infectious diseases, and environmental toxicity.

Robert Dottin was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on March 28, 2013.

Accession Number

A2013.102

Sex

Male

Interview Date

4/11/2013

Last Name

Dottin

Maker Category
Middle Name

Philip

Occupation
Organizations
Schools

University of Toronto

First Name

Robert

Birth City, State, Country

Port of Spain

HM ID

DOT03

Favorite Season

Spring

Favorite Vacation Destination

Valldemossa, Majorca

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Birth Date

5/5/1943

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New York

Country

Trinidad & Tobago

Favorite Food

Grilled Seafood

Short Description

Biologist Robert Dottin (1943 - ) is a professor at Hunter College of City University of New York where he also was appointed as the program coordinator for the Center for the Study of Gene Structure and Function (Gene Center).

Employment

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

John Hopkins University

City University of New York

Hunter College

Favorite Color

Green

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Robert Dottin's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Robert Dottin lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Robert Dottin describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Robert Dottin talks about his mother, Lena Decoteau

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Robert Dottin describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Robert Dottin describes how his parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Robert Dottin talks about his parents' personality and who he takes after

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Robert Dottin describes his siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Robert Dottin describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Robert Dottin describes the neighborhoods where he grew up in Port of Spain, Trinidad

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Robert Dottin describes the sights, sounds and smells of growing up in Port of Spain, Trinidad - part one

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Robert Dottin describes the sights, sounds and smells of growing up in Port of Spain, Trinidad - part two

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Robert Dottin discusses the Trinidadian economy and political activism, and his memories of the country gaining its independence from Great Britain in 1961

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Robert Dottin describes the demographics of Trinidad and Tobago, and talks about famous writers who lived in Trinidad

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Robert Dottin discusses the genetic diversity in Africa and his work with the H3Africa project

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Robert Dottin talks about the schools that he attended in Trinidad, and describes the British system of education

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Robert Dottin describes his experience in elementary school

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Robert Dottin describes his math education in high school

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Robert Dottin talks about studying calculus

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Robert Dottin talks about his interest in science and mathematics, and his experience in high school at Fatima College in Port of Spain, Trinidad

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Robert Dottin describes how Trinidad gained independence from Great Britain in 1961

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Robert Dottin talks about Trinidad's independence celebrations of 1961, and discusses the different ethnic backgrounds of immigrants and African Americans

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Robert Dottin describes his experience in high school at St. Mary's College in Port of Spain, Trinidad

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Robert Dottin describes his decision to attend the University of Toronto

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Robert Dottin describes his experience as an undergraduate student at the University of Toronto

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Robert Dottin describes his decision to pursue his master's and Ph.D. degrees at the University of Toronto, studying bacteriophage integration mechanisms

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Robert Dottin describes his master's and Ph.D. dissertation on bacteriophage lambda regulation

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Robert Dottin describes the scientific reaction to his Ph.D. dissertation on bacteriophage lambda regulation

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Robert Dottin describes his postdoctoral research at MIT, where he discovered novel features of the messenger RNA of the amoeba, Dictyostelium discoideum

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Robert Dottin talks about his experience as a visiting professor in Copenhagen, Sweden in 1976

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Robert Dottin describes his research on signal transduction in Dictyostelium discoideum

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Robert Dottin talks about working with Judge W. Arthur Garrity, Jr. on minority education in Boston, Massachusetts

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Robert Dottin describes his decision to accept a faculty position at Hunter College in New York

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Robert Dottin describes his initial experience at the Center for the Study of Gene Structure at Hunter College

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Robert Dottin describes his experience at the Center for the Study of Gene Structure at Hunter College, and its achievements over the years - part one

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Robert Dottin describes his experience at the Center for the Study of Gene Structure at Hunter College, and its achievements over the years - part two

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Robert Dottin talks about Just Garcia Hill

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Robert Dottin talks about a study of the underlying biases that affect minorities in science and ongoing efforts to change this trend

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Robert Dottin discusses his current focus on science education and administration, and his research contributions over the course of his career

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Robert Dottin discusses his work promoting collaborations in science and education

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Robert Dottin describes his involvement in the Human Heredity and Health in Africa (H3Africa) initiative and his work with cyber classrooms - part one

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Robert Dottin describes his involvement in the Human Heredity and Health in Africa (H3Africa) initiative and his work with cyber classrooms - part two

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Robert Dottin shares his views on the politics of science and the debate on evolution

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Robert Dottin shares his views on climate change and evolution

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Robert Dottin talks about his role in establishing a collaborative network within the City University of New York and with other local universities

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Robert Dottin describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community, and discusses the need for minorities in STEM

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Robert Dottin reflects upon his career and his contributions towards science

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Robert Dottin reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Robert Dottin talks about his children

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Robert Dottin talks about how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Robert Dottin describes his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

6$4

DAStory

1$5

DATitle
Robert Dottin describes his involvement in the Human Heredity and Health in Africa (H3Africa) initiative and his work with cyber classrooms - part one
Robert Dottin describes his research on signal transduction in Dictyostelium discoideum
Transcript
Well you just mentioned before we ended the last session about the H3Africa [The Human Heredity and Health in Africa initiative] project, Francis Collins [American physician-geneticist noted for his discoveries of disease genes and his leadership of the Human Genome Project (HGP); currently serves as the director of the National Institutes of Health (NIH)].$$Um-hmm.$$So you want to elaborate some more about that?$$Well I mean that project arose because I had been teaching a bioinformatics course, introductory bioinformatics which I teach and I had been collaborating with people in Mississippi, several universities in Mississippi and Michigan on working on trying to build a cyber classroom where they could study something called visual analytics, which is a way of representing a lot of data in a visual way so that you can see changes. A pie chart is a visual analytic tool because even if it's based on millions of people, you know, you can have different colors to represent different groups or whatever, people who are tall or short or weigh within a particular weight and that kind of thing and you can show changes over time with these kinds of things. So, visual analytics is something that's really very important for large datasets and for representing them in a way that's easily understood. And there were grants given by the National Science Foundation [NSF] to a guy, colleague whose name is Rafael Zupe [ph.] and he has--he got a group of us together to work on this. And so, he's Nigerian and there were, and this collaboration involved people who were Chinese, whites, and all kinds from all these different universities. And this project was a pilot project and we started with him and we again provided some of the videoconferencing tools for people to work together and also we built a module which shows how you can look at evolution and teach evolution in a way online without being there and have these visual color schemes and heat maps to show differences in species across, as the evolution goes on for a particular protein. And so we built this environment and we got to know each other you know and so on and he knew what we had been doing here with Weill Cornell [Medical College, New York] and this clinical and translational research project now. So when the people in Nigeria wanted to have someone who might be able to help them with collaboration that's what they did. They called up, they asked us to come over. So Carlos, whom you met, and I went over, we did workshops there, we got people to understand the value in the technology and how it might work and it's you know, it's ongoing there. There's a meeting coming up with people in Nairobi [Kenya] and other parts of Africa, different countries now are collaborating and doing scientific collaborations and we're helping them with connecting and some of the bioinformatic things that they will be needing. Now we are not experts in bioinformatics, in genomics and high-throughput sequencing and all these techniques that they might be needing, and they will get those from other places. So our contributions--I mean we understand the projects and so on and so we are helping them in that way. Plus, some of the, two of the students now were identified and are now a part of our course so when we run the course on Saturdays, they come in. We either have the course in here and we have the students here or the students may be at home and they connect with cameras and so on and head pieces, they'll talk into the computers.$$So it's like Skype or something but with (unclear)?$$Sort of, but much more sophisticated because you can share the data and see the data that you're presenting and then talk to each other and they're seeing each other and they you know transmit information, jokes and everything and, but they don't have to come to the same place. So it's an experiment in a way on how that might work in the future. Seems to be working very well and we have of course an electronic classroom where you can put up information, slides and everything and people can work together. And that, so that's what some of them, two of the students from there are taking the course. We also do the videoconferencing for other projects in New York, reaching out to communities from here. This room is a studio and we reach--we get medical doctors and experts to come in and they give talks to people in many different places at the same time, churches and communities and so on. And they come up on the screens and they see each other and they talk about diabetes, hypertension and how to avoid it or they talk about, to people who are senior citizens in homes, how to avoid falls because a large fraction of those people who fall die as a result eventually very quickly because of the broken hips and all these things. So that's another topic. Sometimes we have a yoga person in here who might be getting people in different places to get up from their chairs and do yoga and those kinds of things. So it's prevention is the emphasis there rather than having to take more and more pills and so on. The emphasis there is on prevention. But in any case, with the Africa project it's more bioinformatics and genomics that they're focused on.$What was the most significant finding from your signal transduction research on [Dictyostelium discoideum]?$$Well the signal transduction work I did was done while I was at Johns Hopkins [University, Baltimore, Maryland] and when I came here [Hunter College, New York].$$Okay, so it's coming up?$$It's later, yeah.$$Okay, all right so Johns Hopkins [University, Baltimore, Maryland], when did you go to Johns Hopkins?$$Let's see. I think it was about the end of 1976. I can't remember exactly when but around then.$$And were you doing a post-doc at (unclear)?$$No, I was an assistant professor.$$Okay, you--$$I got a full time job.$$Okay, all right, associate professor of biology?$$Assistant.$$Assistant, okay. I'm sorry some of these are out of chronologic order.$$That's okay.$$I've got to jump around a little bit. Okay, so you were at Johns Hopkins for ten years.$$Yes.$$Yeah, from '76 [1976] to '86 [1986].$$Yes.$$And so what was the focus of your research at Johns Hopkins? I worked on the Dictyostelium [discoideum], that amoeba and that work was again concerned with regulation, gene, genetic control of development and things like that. And I, while I was there I did, I started studying signal transduction which was an important area of the research. Poorly understood at the time but now it's no big deal. The--this organism was a good one to do that experiment and it's--signal transduction has to do with how hormones work because these are molecules that are produced outside of cells and they activate cells to do certain things. And there, there are some hormones that enter the cell because they are hydrophobic. They can go through the membrane, like estrogen or something, and then they activate things inside of the cell, pathways. Tremendous biochemical reactions as you know you can stimulate, produce something in the brain and then all of a sudden it's having an affect in your liver or kidney or something. So those kinds of hormones, like the steroid hormones, that had---a lot of work was coming out on that from Yamamoto and other people on how they may work. But there are other hormones that never enter a cell and they have an effect. And in this organism we're working on, cyclic AMP [Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP, cyclic AMP or 3'-5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate) is a second messenger important in many biological processes. cAMP is derived from adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and used for intracellular signal transduction in many different organisms, conveying the cAMP-dependent pathway] which is a small molecule, but it's charged, so it doesn't enter the cell, was having a profound effect on development of the cell. It changed a lot of things in the cell and allowed them to aggregate and so on. And there were people who were working on the mechanism of getting these cells sticky and aggregate--and what happens very early and one of them was at Hopkins too, Peter Devreotes, and we were looking more at gene expression. And what we found was that we could use the same molecules which were known not to enter cells but to bind on the surface and we found that those things were directly turning on genes, activating them inside the cell and that's what signal trans--well signal transduction means that something is acting on the outside and it's having an effect. Well we showed that it was actually turning on genes and at that time there were very few models where people could--there was a cancer kind of thing where some cell surface molecules were, seemed to be acting on specializing the cells or making them cancerous. But other than that, there was very little known and we took this and we showed that these molecules could bind to molecules on the outside of the cell called receptors and trigger a whole cascade of events. It's like one of these Rube Goldberg [Reuben Garrett Lucius "Rube" Goldberg was an American cartoonist, sculptor, author, engineer and inventor] things where you see the ball hits this and it hits something else and it activates something. And in the end you have the mouse jumps around or whatever. So this whole pathway was very interesting or it still is very interesting. But what we showed is that it activates the genes inside the cell and I would say that's an important, that was an important--and this was one of the few, first few papers on that area. Now there's thousands of papers on that, on how signal transduction works, literally thousands.$$Okay. But that time it was cutting edge?$$Yes.$$Okay.$$But not all the work you do as I pointed out is cutting edge. Sometimes you do stuff it's really mundane. The stuff I did at MIT [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts], it was published in a great journal [Cell] but in terms of the long term of, I think it you know it was okay but I think the signal transduction is more important and the lamda repressor things are more important.

Andrew Williams

Electrical and computer engineer Andrew B. Williams was born in Junction City, Kansas to parents John M. Williams and Yuson Kim Williams. After receiving his B.S. degree in electrical engineering from the University of Kansas in 1988, Williams worked briefly in engineering. He then enrolled in Marquette University and graduated from there in 1995 with his M.S. degree in electrical and computer engineering. Williams was awarded a GEM doctoral fellowship to attend the University of Kansas where he went on to earn his Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering with an emphasis on artificial intelligence (AI) in 1999. He was the first African American to graduate from the University of Kansas with a Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering.

In 1999, Williams was appointed as an assistant professor in the electrical and computer engineering department at the University of Iowa where he started RAMP-IT, a computer and robotics day camp for underrepresented students. After arriving at Spelman College in 2004 as an assistant professor in the computer and information sciences department, Williams founded the SpelBots, the first African American women’s competitive robotics team to compete in the international RoboCup. In 2005, his team successfully competed in the RoboCup U.S. Open and qualified for the International RoboCup championship in Osaka, Japan. Williams took a sabbatical from Spelman College in 2008 when Apple, Inc. Co-Founder and CEO Steve Jobs appointed him as Apple’s first senior engineering diversity manager. Williams returned to Spelman College from 2010 to 2012 to serve as chair of its computer and information science department. He also served as the primary co-founder on several other projects in order to broaden participation for minorities in STEM education, such as the Advancing Robotics Technology for Societal Impact (ARTSI) alliance, the Advancing Spelman’s Participation in Informatics Research and Education (ASPIRE) project, and the Computer and Robotics for African American Students (CARE) project. Williams’ book, Out of the Box: Building Robots, Transforming Lives (2009), chronicles his work in STEM education. In 2012, Williams was appointed as a tenured full professor and the John P. Raynor, S.J., Distinguished Chair of Electrical & Computer Engineering at Marquette University. He also became the founding director of Marquette University’s Humanoid Engineering & Intelligent Robotics (HEIR) Laboratory.

Williams and his SpelBots have been featured in media publications and outlets such as CNN American Morning, CBS Evening News, Black Enterprise magazine, JET magazine Ebony magazine, the Atlanta Journal Constitution, and the Atlanta Daily World. Not only was Williams individually recognized by Black Money magazine as one of the “50 Most Important African Americans in Technology” in 2010, 2011, and 2012, but he is also received the GEM Consortium Alumni Mentoring Award and the Marquette University Young Engineering Alumni Award. Williams and his wife, Anitra Williams, have three children: John Williams, Adrianna Williams, and Rosa Williams.

Andrew B. Williams was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on April 9, 2013.

Accession Number

A2013.107

Sex

Male

Interview Date

4/6/2013

Last Name

Williams

Maker Category
Middle Name

B.

Occupation
Organizations
Schools

University of Kansas

Marquette University

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Andrew

Birth City, State, Country

Junction City

HM ID

WIL62

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Kansas

Favorite Vacation Destination

Saint Lucia

Favorite Quote

Success is never final. Failure is seldom fatal. It's courage that counts. - Winston Churchill

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Wisconsin

Birth Date

11/10/1964

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Milwaukee

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Bulgogi

Short Description

Electrical engineer Andrew Williams (1964 - ) the first African American to graduate from the University of Kansas with a Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering and founder of the SpelBots, the first African American women’s team to compete in the International RoboCup Championships. He is also the John P. Raynor Distinguished Chair of Electrical & Computer Engineering at Marquette University.

Employment

Marquette University

Spelman College

Apple, Inc.

University of Iowa

University of Kansas

General Electric Company

Allied Signal Aerospace Co.

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Andrew Williams' interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Andrew Williams lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Andrew Williams describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Andrew Williams talks about his mother

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Andrew Williams talks about his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Andrew Williams talks about his paternal grandfather

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Andrew Williams describes his father growing up in the Great Depression

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Andrew Williams details his father's time in the U.S. Army

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Andrew Williams talks about his father's reaction to racism

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Andrew Williams describes how his parents met

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Andrew Williams talks about the difference in age of his parents

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Andrew Williams describes his earliest memory

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Andrew Williams describes his parents' personalities and who he takes after

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Andrew Williams describes his siblings and his parents

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Andrew Williams talks about growing up poor in Junction City, Kansas

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Andrew Williams talks about his childhood interest in engineering

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Andrew Williams talks about the infamy of Junction City, Kansas

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Andrew Williams describes Junction City, Kansas

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Andrew Williams describes the sights, sounds, and smells of his childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Andrew Williams talks about his siblings' education and their support of his education

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Andrew Williams talks about his father's support of his education

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Andrew Williams talks about racism in Kansas

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Andrew Williams talks about joining the Free Methodist Church pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Andrew Williams talks about joining the Free Methodist Church pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Andrew Williams talks about his parents' challenges due to their interracial marriage

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Andrew Williams talks about his elementary school

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Andrew Williams describes his childhood science experiments

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Andrew Williams describes his first experience with computers

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Andrew Williams talks about basketball

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Andrew Williams describes getting his first computer and computer education in high school

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Andrew Williams talks about his interest in engineering

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Andrew Williams describes his decision to attend the University of Kansas

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Andrew Williams talks about his college counseling in high school

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Andrew Williams describes his high school math courses

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Andrew Williams talks about his extracurricular activities in high school

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Andrew Williams describes the lack of college mentoring from his parents

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Andrew Williams recalls visiting the University of Kansas for a weekend during high school

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Andrew Williams talks about the Student Counsel for Recruiting, Motivating, Educating Black Engineers at the University of Kansas

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Andrew Williams describes why it took him five years to graduate from the University of Kansas

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Andrew Williams talks about his mentors at the University of Kansas

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Andrew Williams describes his mission trip to Cochabamba, Bolivia

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Andrew Williams describes working for Allied Signal Aerospace Company

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Andrew Williams describes going to the University of Kansas for graduate school

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Andrew Williams talks about being hired by General Electric and transferring to Marquette University

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Andrew Williams talks about his decision to pursue a doctoral degree

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Andrew Williams describes why he chose the University of Kansas for his doctoral degree

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Andrew Williams talks about the personal challenges he faced during his doctorate education

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Andrew Williams talks about his doctoral dissertation pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Andrew Williams talks about his doctoral dissertation pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Andrew Williams talks about his shift in research from software agents to humanoid robotics

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Andrew Williams describes how he became a professor at the University of Iowa

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Andrew Williams talks about the relationship between science and religion

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Andrew Williams describes his research at the University of Iowa

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Andrew Williams reflects on the influence of his research on the medical field

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Andrew Williams describes leaving the University of Iowa to teach at Spelman College

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Andrew Williams talks about making a Robocup team at Spelman

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Andrew Williams describes qualifying for the Robocup U.S. Open in 2005

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Andrew Williams talks about the Spelman robotics team competing in the 2005 Robocup U.S. Open

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Andrew Williams describes the Spelman robotics team competition in the 2005 International Robocup

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Andrew Williams talks about the Spelman robotics team tying for the championship match in the 2009 International Robocup

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Andrew Williams talks about the goal of Robocup

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Andrew Williams talks about the discrimination the Spelman College robotic team faced in Bremen, Germany

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Andrew Williams describes his involvement in STEM education while at Spelman College

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Andrew Williams talks about the grants and other initiatives he was involved in at Spelman College

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - Andrew Williams describes how he was recruited by Apple

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - Andrew Williams describes being Apple's first Senior Engineering Diversity Manager

Tape: 8 Story: 6 - Andrew Williams talks about his book 'Out of the Box: Building Robots, Transforming Lives'

Tape: 8 Story: 7 - Andrew Williams talks about staying in touch with Steve Jobs

Tape: 8 Story: 8 - Andrew Williams explains why he left Spelman College to become a professor at Marquette University

Tape: 9 Story: 1 - Andrew Williams talks about his research on humanoid robotics pt. 1

Tape: 9 Story: 2 - Andrew Williams talks about his research on humanoid robotics pt. 2

Tape: 9 Story: 3 - Andrew Williams talks about the need for underrepresented engineers

Tape: 9 Story: 4 - Andrew Williams reflects on his legacy

Tape: 9 Story: 5 - Andrew Williams talks about his family

Tape: 9 Story: 6 - Andrew Williams talks about he would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

7$3

DAStory

7$9

DATitle
Andrew Williams talks about the Spelman robotics team tying for the championship match in the 2009 International Robocup
Andrew Williams describes getting his first computer and computer education in high school
Transcript
That was in 2005, right, when you went to the international competition? And how many, I mean how--when are the international competitions? Are they every four years or something or every so many years?$$No, they're every, they're every year. So the next year we went to Bremen, Germany and competed. The next year, 2007, we competed--it was at Georgia Tech [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia], but we just did the, the four legged robot technical challenge. We tied for second in the passing event. And that was a freshman, Whitney O'Banner that was the main contributor on that software. 2008 [2008] we qualified. We had two freshman, Janesa Keels and Jasmine Miller who helped us along with Whitney to qualify for the four legged robot competition in Sugo, China. We ended up not going because of travel concerns. And then the next year in 2009, was the first year that we got the two legged humanoid robots and the league that we competed in was called the standard platform league. They had went from four legged robots where everyone buys their, the same robot and the, the challenge is in programming the AI and so forth in the software. So that year we competed in the Robocup Japan Open and we had five matches against Fukuoka Institute of Technology cause at that time not very many people had the two legged humanoid robots. We were able to get them through a Title Three grant from the government as just part of our--upgrading our computer science curriculum. And we competed against Fukuoka Institute of Technology in Osaka, Japan. Here we are--think it's five years later, or less, and we tied them in the championship match. And it turned out we had to go to a penalty kick shootout and we came this close, this close to beating them. And I don't know what happened, but on the last penalty kick that we had, we thought we were going to make it and one of the judges picked up our robot just before it was about to kick. So we thought that was odd.$$Was that a, a--$$We don't know if that was intentional or not.$$Okay.$$But they said that we ran out of time. But I think what happened is they started the clock too early. So we went to the judges, no, we went to the awards ceremony and you know I heard them calling off the team names and then when they talked about--when it was time for our match, they didn't call our name, you know that we had tied in the championship match. So we were real puzzled and when we went back to the person that organized the, the match for the, you know the humanoid robots. And he, he got upset and raised his voice at me and you know, our social provost for research at the time, Lily McNair was there and the students were there and he's almost like yelling at me. And, and then so we went to the overall organizer and they reluctantly eventually gave us a certificate that said that we tied in the championship match, you know.$$Well what was he yelling about? What was he saying? What was his--$$Well it was, it was interesting because one of the students, Jasmine had been studying Japanese and she said that they were making fun of us. You know the announcer. He was the local organizer. And, but it was in Japanese. And he was saying, you know I don't even really recall what he was saying or if I could understand what he was saying. But it was clearly not appropriate.$$But it was, was his point then that you should not have been able to receive your recognition because you're a African American team of women from the United States?$$Well I don't know that that's why he did it, but it, it--to see women doing things like that--well it's a different culture. So I, I can't tell you exactly why he did that. But it's a, it's a different culture. And then on top of that being African American. And what I told the students was you know, take this is as a learning moment, there's still global racism and sexism and you're trailblazers, you know for young women that are going to come after you. And, and this wasn't the first time, you know, that something like this had happened. When we went to Bremen, Germany to compete. It was around the time the, the soccer World Cup is.$I want to say also about computers was after seeing the computers that my brother used, also his girlfriend, Marian, worked in the, I guess it was called the Computer Building [University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas], I can't remember what it was called. But it had the big mainframe for the campus, and that was the place where you--computer programs were written on punch cards at that mainframe. And people would turn in their punch cards and then they'd run them overnight. And then in little boxes, you know the printout, the results would come on these sheets of paper. But she worked there, so I was, I was fascinated by computers and video games so much so that I started looking to see how I could get my own computer when I was in high school. And my dad, he got laid off, so he got on Social Security. So I think part of my junior year and my senior year I, I got a Social Security check as a dependent of his. So this was enough to buy a computer. So I researched computers, cause there was a magazine called Byte Magazine. And I decided the best one with the, the one with the best graphics and best video games at the time was called Atari. There was Atari 400 and Atari 800, and my first computer that I bought was an Atari 400 and Atari 400 had a flat keyboard, just a membrane, plastic. But I had, had, added onto that a keyboard and one of the reasons why I bought the Atari is they, they had a game called Star Raiders, which was the closest thing to the Star Trek game, but this had really great graphics. So it was like the, the Star Trek game, but with great video graphics, and it would come on a cartridge, a ROM [Read Only Memory] cartridge and you would put it in there.$$What year is this? This is, this is--$$That was probably '82 [1982].$$1982?$$Yeah.$$And you're what, you're in--$$Eleventh grade.$$Eleventh grade.$$Yeah. It was either eleventh grade or my senior year. So and then I, you know, you had the ability to write simple basic programs. And also around that time, it was either my tenth or eleventh grade year, I was put into the gifted program and I think they were just starting to have a gifted program in high school.$$This is at--$$Junction City Senior High School [Junction City, Kansas].$$Okay, okay.$$And all I remember is there was three of us in that class I think. And one was Hispanic and I think the other was a girl. And I remember we had a TRS80 computer. That must have been, thinking that must have been my sophomore year. They had a, a Radio Shack or Tandy TRS80, which some people have called the Trash-80. And we did some computer programs with that and some basic programs. And then our school got some Apple 2es with a little monitors that, you know I guess had the green lettering. And I remember not only doing word processing, but the teacher teaching us how to program. And that must have been around my senior year.$$Now was this a little self-contained Apple?$$No, so that came out later, in '84 [1984], the little self-contained.$$The Apple was.$$The one that was like the little box, the Macintosh. But before that it was just like the keyboard, you know it had the, the main motherboard on it, and then a separate monitor.$$Okay.$$But they were nice looking computers. But I remember Junction City getting those.

Calvin Lowe

Education administrator and physicist Calvin Lowe was born in Roanoke Rapids, Michigan in 1955. After graduating from North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University with his B.S. degree in physics, Lowe enrolled at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) where he earned his M.S. degree in plasma physics in 1979. Upon completing his doctoral thesis, “Optical Properties of Graphite Intercalation Compounds,” Lowe graduated from MIT with his Ph.D. degree in solid state physics in 1983.

Upon graduation, Lowe began teaching as an associate professor of physics at the University of Kentucky. In 1987, Lowe was appointed as an associate professor of physics at Hampton University and was named chair of the department of physics. He left Hampton University in 1992 and moved to Alabama Agricultural and Mechanical State University in Huntsville, Alabama where he served as chair of the department of physics from 1992 to 1995. In 1996, Lowe returned to Hampton University and he served as the vice president of research and dean of the graduate college. In that position, he was instrumental in building an internationally recognized atmospheric-sciences research group. Lowe was named the ninth president of Bowie State University in Bowie, Maryland and served from 2000 to 2006. While at Bowie, Lowe was as a member of the Task Force to Study College Readiness for Disadvantaged and Capable Students. Lowe has also served as the vice president of research and program development at the National Institute for Aerospace. In 2011, Lowe was appointed as the dean of the School of Science at Hampton University.

In addition to serving as faculty and administrator, Lowe served as a member of the board of Directors for the University System of Maryland from 2000 to 2006. He is a member of the American Physical Society, the National Society of Black Physicists and the Association of University Technology Managers. In 2011, Lowe received the Outstanding Achievement Award from the National Aeronautic and Space Administration’s Marshall Space Flight Center.

Lowe lives in Maryland with his wife, Tanya, and their two adult children, Maya and Calvin. His brother, Dr. Walter Lowe, is a professor of physics at Howard University.

Calvin Lowe was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on January 25, 2013.

Accession Number

A2013.072

Sex

Male

Interview Date

2/26/2013

Last Name

Lowe

Marital Status

Married

Organizations
Schools

North Carolina Agricultural & Technical State University

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

First Name

Calvin

Birth City, State, Country

Roakoke Rapids

HM ID

LOW06

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Michigan

Favorite Vacation Destination

None

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Virginia

Birth Date

2/9/1955

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Hampton

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Fish

Short Description

Physicist and education administrator Calvin Lowe (1955 - ) was the former vice president of research and program development at the National Institute for Aerospace and the ninth president of Bowie State University.

Employment

University of Kentucky

Hampton University

Alabama A&M State University

Bowie State University

National Institute of Aerospace

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Calvin Lowe's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Calvin Lowe lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Calvin Lowe describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Calvin Lowe describes his mother's growing up in Roanoke Rapids, North Carolina

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Calvin Lowe describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Calvin Lowe describes his father's interest in tinkering with gadgets and building tools

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Calvin Lowe talks about his father's career as a construction worker

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Calvin Lowe talks about his siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Calvin Lowe talks about his likeness to his parents

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Calvin Lowe talks about growing up in Roanoke Rapids, North Carolina

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Calvin Lowe describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Calvin Lowe talks about his family's pets

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Calvin Lowe describes the sights, smells and sounds of growing up in Roanoke Rapids, North Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Calvin Lowe talks about his first school in Roanoke Rapids, North Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Calvin Lowe talks about his sister attending college at North Carolina College, and the desegregation of schools in North Carolina in the 1960s

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Calvin Lowe describes his experience in elementary school

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Calvin Lowe talks about his exposure to science, television, books and magazines as a child

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Calvin Lowe describes his experience as one of the first African American students to integrate William R. Davie School in Roanoke Rapids

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Calvin Lowe describes his experience at the integrated Northwest High School in Roanoke Rapids, North Carolina

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Calvin Lowe talks about his relationship with his twin brother, Walter Lowe

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Calvin Lowe describes his experience in high school and graduating early

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Calvin Lowe talks about graduating early from high school, and the political events of the 1960s

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Calvin Lowe describes his experience as an undergraduate student at North Carolina A and T State University

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Calvin Lowe talks about his interest in physics at North Carolina A and T State University

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Calvin Lowe describes his decision to pursue his Ph.D. degree in physics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and his experience there

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Calvin Lowe talks about losing interest in physics research while he was at MIT, and his interest in teaching

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Calvin Lowe talks about his brother attending Stanford University, and his mentor, Mildred S. Dresselhaus, at MIT

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Calvin Lowe describes the challenges that he faced as a graduate student at MIT, and his interest in teaching and mentoring

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Calvin Lowe talks about his master's thesis research at MIT

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Calvin Lowe describes his doctoral research at MIT on the optical properties of graphite intercalation compounds

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Calvin Lowe describes the findings of his doctoral dissertation work on graphite intercalation compounds

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Calvin Lowe describes his experience at the University of Kentucky

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Calvin Lowe talks about the University of Kentucky and race relations in Kentucky in the 1980s

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Calvin Lowe talks about meeting his wife and getting married in 1984

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Calvin Lowe talks about his decision to leave the University of Kentucky and join Hampton University's physics faculty - part one

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Calvin Lowe talks about his decision to leave the University of Kentucky and join Hampton University's physics faculty - part two

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Calvin Lowe describes his involvement in establishing Hampton University's Research Center for Optical Physics and a doctoral program in physics

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Calvin Lowe talks about leaving Hampton University in 1992 to become the head of the physics department at Alabama A and M University

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Calvin Lowe talks about his experience as the head of the physics department at Alabama A and M University

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Calvin Lowe describes his role as the dean of the graduate school and vice president of research at Hampton University

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Calvin Lowe talks about becoming the president of Bowie State University

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Calvin Lowe describes his involvement in establishing new buildings at Bowie State University

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Calvin Lowe talks about his involvement in establishing a High Performance Computing (HPC) cluster at Bowie State University

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Calvin Lowe talks about his involvement in strengthening the athletic programs at Bowie State University

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Calvin Lowe talks about his decision to step down from his role as the president of Bowie State University

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Calvin Lowe describes his decision to become the vice president of research and program development at the National Institute of Aerospace

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Calvin Lowe describes his contributions as the vice president of research at the National Institute of Aerospace (NIA)

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Calvin Lowe talks about his son's death in 2010

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Calvin Lowe describes the goals for the future of the School of Science at Hampton University

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Calvin Lowe talks about the marine science program at Hampton University

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Calvin Lowe talks about the computer science program and nanoscience concentration at Hampton University

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Calvin Lowe talks about expanding the Ph.D. programs at Hampton University to facilitate its growth as a research institution

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Calvin Lowe reflects upon his future in academic administration and talks about the balance between research and teaching at universities

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Calvin Lowe reflects upon providing outreach programs and support towards secondary schools

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Calvin Lowe describes his research interest in boron nitride nanotubes

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - Calvin Lowe reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 6 Story: 11 - Calvin Lowe describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community today

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Calvin Lowe reflects upon the future of historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) in the United States

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Calvin Lowe talks about his family

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Calvin Lowe talks about how he would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$5

DAStory

2$3

DATitle
Calvin Lowe describes his experience in high school and graduating early
Calvin Lowe describes his role as the dean of the graduate school and vice president of research at Hampton University
Transcript
So Northwest High School [Roanoke Rapids, North Carolina] now, now what did you, what, what kind of science did you take at Northwest?$$I took chemistry, biology. I think I took physical science. I think it was the, the first course that they taught. I took a course in physics. It was sort of a, a, you know, pretty low level kind of, I mean they really didn't have somebody that do physics, to teach it. So I think the biology teacher also taught physics and she did a good job kind of introducing the subject, but you really couldn't see, see the inner workings of the subject. You know, you just kind of got the tour.$$Okay. Now what about math and how high did they let--did you take calculus in high school?$$(Laughs) No. (Laughs) I didn't take calculus in high school, it wasn't offered. I actually didn't take trig [trigonometry] in high school either, that wasn't offered. I got through the two courses in algebra, courses in geometry. That, that was as far as I, you got to go in math in, in high school when I was there.$$Okay, okay. Now were there any special teachers, you know, or mentors at, at Northwest?$$Nah. I think, you know, my science teacher, Mrs. Clark, you know, was a uh, an excellent teacher. She taught, taught the biology course and, and as much chemistry or physics as was, as was available. You know, she was a, I think a very good teacher, very um--I guess looking back, I mean I think she was, she was inquisitive. She had the scientific, you know, interest in, in things that that got conveyed the students to even, even though we didn't always, you know, didn't get to see the, the real depth of, especially the chemistry or physics subject; but we got to see that in biology; more, more depth. That was her field, her, her major in college. So that, that teacher I remember. Also I remember, actually her, her husband taught um--what do they call it? Um, I guess its social studies or civics--no, not civics. I forgot what they called it, but anyway it was sort of, sort of world civilization kind of history course. You know, you kind of learned about different civilizations and--$$Like world history.$$Yeah, world history. He was very good at that, and I remember as we were preparing for final exams once he, he challenged the class to, to ask him a question from the, from the book that he didn't know. And so he gave, you know, we could, could open our book and you could go through it and ask whatever question and he knew it all. (Laughs) So I, I remember that af--that afternoon. It was very interesting experience there. Also I had a, I guess, in, in ninth grade I guess, had a really good English, English teacher. She taught sort of English literature I guess and so she talked about the, you know, the into Shakespeare and, you know, some plays. She was well versed in all that stuff and, and as we were learning some, I guess it was maybe English literature--it was not the right name of the subject; but, you know, she talked about some of the ancient Greek plays and she would, she would perform a little bit of it and talk about how, how they would perform on stage, and that was a really, really interesting, interesting subject.$$Okay.$$Good teacher.$$Okay. Okay, so, were you involved in sports in high school at all?$$Played football in high school. I guess I played two years.$$And what did you play? What, what position?$$Offensive guard.$$Okay. Okay, so you, you played for two years?$$Yeah, it was some college AV team one year and then played varsity one year. Actually I left high school one year early, so after my junior year I left and went to [North Carolina] A & T [Agricultural and Technical State University, Greensboro, North Carolina].$$And went to where?$$Went to A & T.$$A & T, okay.$$To college.$$Alright.$$Yeah.$$Okay. So how, how did that take place?$$Well, there, there were, we were required to have, you know, a certain number of credits courses or credit hours something in high school to graduate and if you took sort of a full load, you know, a full load (laughs), six, six classes, by the time you got to the end of your sophomore year, you were sort of like promoted to be a senior because you could in principle graduate from high school. The only thing that kept you from doing that is that you were required to take four years of English and so if you; if the summer after your sophomore year you went to summer school and you took English, which--basically junior year English, then in what would have been your junior year, you could actually graduate from, from high school. And so that's what I did. Yeah, so--$$Okay.$And then you came back to Hampton [University, Hampton, Virginia].$$Came back to Hampton.$$So what, what happened? What, what was the cause?$$I went into my office one day and, and my secretary said, "Oh, you got, you had a phone call from President [William] Harvey." I said, "Okay." (Laughs) So I called him and, and he told me that he wanted me to consider a position coming back to Hampton as, had a position as dean of the, of the graduate school and vice president for research. So I said well that sounds interesting (laughs), so, so I came to visit and interviewed with him and, and accepted the offer and we moved, moved back.$$Okay, alright. So, so you're like now Dean of the Graduate School and Vice President of Research--$$Um hm.$$--right? Okay. So what, what were some of your activities here at Hampton?$$Well you now as, as VP [vice president] for research, again I was in the role of trying to help the University secure funding. So I spent a lot of time traveling back and forth to Washington. To graduate school you know being dean of the graduate school is, is a nice job because you don't, you dont have any faculty working for you. (Laughs) The faculty work for the other deans really. So, so I spent a, mainly my time was on building the research program. You know Hampton was, was really in the, in the beginning stages of rapid growth in the science area during that time. Dr. Harvey wanted to really build up the science programs. One of the things that he asked me to do was to really look at whether or not we could make a thrust into atmospheric sciences and again, we were looking at that because of NASA [National Aeronautics and Space Administration] Langley [Research Center]. We had a proximity to NASA Langley. It was something that, that they have a very big presence in and so, you know, we started to explore that and, and (laughs) it was interesting we were, we were able to attract two of their like really world-class scientists to come to Hampton. They, they left, they were actually retired from, from the government, and they became faculty members here at Hampton; they are still here. They, they came to Hampton and they built a really fantastic atmospheric sciences program here at Hampton.$$Who, who are they?$$Jim Russell and Pat McCormick, and Patrick McCormick. So you know they, they were, they were, I guess they were both branch heads at, at NASA. So they were you know up in the leadership of, of the branches that did atmospheric sciences and, and satellite projects and so they have lots of you know really great connections into the field and into people and, and they were, they were exactly the right two folks to capture to come to Hampton. So we created a little, a few bad feelings at Langley (laughs) when we did that. I know we, we beat out a couple of, couple of places like Virginia Tech [Blacksburg, Virginia] and the College of William and Mary [Williamsburg, Virginia] to, to capture these guys and bring them here to Hampton. And you know they are just, just a bang up job in terms of bringing resources and building an atmospheric science program that's, that's you know that's world-class, well-known. You know when you start asking about places that, that places that will do atmospheric science research, Hampton is one of those places that you actually talk about now.$$Okay. Did, did taking on the atmospheric science program require like uh much facility build out or construction?$$Not, not a whole lot, because we were, we were really looking at trying to put into place the, the sort of connection into a research community and, and if you look at atmospheric sciences I mean there are, there are you know you get these, these satellite programs to go up. These satellites are designed to study various parts of the atmosphere and then there is a science team just built around the satellite. The satellites are basically built by, you know, one of the aerospace companies, launched by NASA, run by NASA you know and, and the, the scientists are really users so the data that comes back down the, down the pipe so to speak. So McCormick and Russell gave us a, an entree into that, to that kind of science and the uh, the infrastructure for, for you know getting data. I mean all that stuff is sort of part of NASA, part of the mission of NASA.$$Okay, alright. So, okay, so you were back here at Hampton until 2000. So that's five years--$$Um hm.$$--right?$$Right. Remember I told you about it, (laughs) about every five, six, seven years. (Laughs)

Linda Hayden

Mathematician and research director Linda B. Hayden was born on February 4, 1949 in Portsmouth, Virginia to Linwood Copeland, Sr. and Sarah Vaughn Bailey. She enjoyed math as a child, particularly plotting out functions and determining their characteristics. Hayden attended Portsmouth Public Schools for her elementary and secondary education. After graduating from I. C. Norcom High School in Portsmouth, Hayden attended Virginia State University and went on to graduate from there in 1970 with her B.S. degree in mathematics and physics. In 1972, Hayden received her M.A. degree in mathematics and education from the University of Cincinnati; and, in 1983, she received her M.S. degree in computer science from Old Dominion University. Hayden earned her Ph.D. degree in mathematics and education from American University in 1988. Her doctoral thesis was titled, “The Impact of an Intervention Program for High Ability Minority Students on Rates of High School Graduation, College Enrollment, and Choice of a Quantitative Major.”

Hayden began her teaching career as an assistant professor of mathematics at Kentucky State University in 1972 where she remained until 1976. Hayden then served an an assistant professor at Norfolk State University. In 1980, she was appointed as an associate professor of computer science at Elizabeth City State University (ECSU). While there, Hayden founded, and served as director of, the Center of Excellence in Remote Sensing Education and Research (CERSER). She was promoted to full professor and named as the associate dean of the ECSU School of Mathematics, Science, and Technology in 2002. In addition, Hayden has served as a research fellow at the Department of the Army Training and Doctrine Command, and as a visiting professor at American University and the University of the District of Columbia.

Her research has been published in national and international journals such as, the Proceedings of the National Science Teachers Association and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineer - Geosciences and Remote Sensing Society Joint International Conference Proceedings. Hayden was a founding member of the Eastern North Carolina Chapter of the Geosciences and Remote Sensing Society (GRSS) and subsequently served as president.

Hayden is a recipient of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Professional Achievement Award as well as the U.S. Black Engineer Magazine Emerald Award for Educational Leadership. In 2009, the National Science Foundation presented Hayden with the Presidential Award for Excellence in Science, Mathematics, and Engineering Mentoring, and the National Association for Equal Opportunity in Higher Education presented her with the NOBLE Laureate Award.

Hayden and her husband, Lee V. Hayden Jr., live in Portsmouth, Virginia. They have one son, Kuchumbi Linwood Hayden.

Linda B. Hayden was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on February 25, 2013.

Accession Number

A2013.044

Sex

Female

Interview Date

2/25/2013

Last Name

Hayden

Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Bailey

Occupation
Schools

Virginia State University

University of Cincinnati

Old Dominion University

American University

First Name

Linda

Birth City, State, Country

Portsmouth

HM ID

HAY13

Favorite Season

Fall, Spring

State

Virginia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Beaches

Favorite Quote

Like giving forward.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Virginia

Birth Date

2/4/1949

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Norfolk

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Southern, Creole, Indian Food

Short Description

Mathematician and educator Linda Hayden (1949 - ) is the associate dean of the Elizabeth City State University School of Mathematics, Science and Technology, and the director of the Center of Excellence in Remote Sensing Education and Research.

Employment

Kentucky State University

Norfolk State University

Elizabeth City State University

Center of Excellence in Remote Sensing Education and Research

Favorite Color

Green, Pink

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Linda Hayden's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Linda Hayden lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Linda Hayden describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Linda Hayden describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Linda Hayden talks about her father's barbershop

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Linda Hayden talks about how her parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Linda Hayden talks about her parents and siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Linda Hayden describes her earliest childhood memories

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Linda Hayden describes the sights, sounds and smells of growing up

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Linda Hayden talks about her elementary school experience

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Linda Hayden talks about her high school experience

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Linda Hayden talks about her youth and her interest in mathematical functions

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Linda Hayden talks about her pre-college counseling

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Linda Hayden talks about her decision to attend Virginia State University

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Linda Hayden talks about her peers and professors at Virginia State University

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Linda Hayden talks about her extracurricular interests during college

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Linda Hayden talks about race and political relations in Virginia during the late 1960s

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Linda Hayden talks about moving to Cincinnati, Ohio and her decision to attend the University of Cincinnati

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Linda Hayden talks about her experience at the University of Cincinnati

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Linda Hayden her experience teaching at Kentucky State University

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Linda Hayden talks about meeting her husband

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Linda Hayden talks about her mother's declining health

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Linda Hayden talks about her decision to pursue an M.S. degree in computer science

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Linda Hayden talks about her friend, Joan Langdon, and her decision to pursue her Ph.D. degree

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Linda Hayden talks about her mentor, Mary Gray, and balancing family life with school

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Linda Hayden talks about the Saturday Academy at the University of the District of Columbia

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Linda Hayden talks about the emerging computer science department at Elizabeth City State University

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Linda Hayden talks about establishing technological infrastructure at Elizabeth State University

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Linda Hayden talks about the grant funding for ECSU's computer science program

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Linda Hayden talks about her work with computers and parallel processing

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Linda Hayden talks about the NASA Network Resources and Training Site at ECSU

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Linda Hayden talks about her work with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the University of Cairo

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Linda Hayden talks about the Eastern North Carolina Chapter of the Geosciences Remote Sensing Society

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Linda Hayden talks about her work at Elizabeth City State University

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Linda Hayden talks about the Center for Excellence in Remote Sensing Education and Research

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Linda Hayden talks about receiving the Presidential Award for Excellence in Science, Mathematics and Engineering Mentoring

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Linda Hayden talks about the Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets (CReSIS)

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Linda Hayden talks about her professional awards and activities

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Linda Hayden reflects on her major accomplishments

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Linda Hayden reflects on her life choices

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Linda Hayden talks about her hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Linda Hayden talks about her organizational affiliations

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Linda Hayden talks about women in mathematics

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Linda Hayden talks about how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Linda Hayden describes her photos

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$6

DAStory

1$2

DATitle
Linda Hayden describes the sights, sounds and smells of growing up
Linda Hayden talks about the Center for Excellence in Remote Sensing Education and Research
Transcript
So, you've been talking about--one question we always ask is about the sights and sounds and smells of growing up. And you've really been doing a good job with that already, without me asking you. But, what are some of the sights and sounds and smells?$$Oh, I remember, I remember the dirt outside of my grandmother's house where we used to draw our little hopscotch, and the color of that dirt being a muddy--kind of a brown. There was no grass. It was just, you know, but it was a hard dirt and it was a good thing. We'd draw--you know, all you needed was a nice piece of glass, and you could draw a nice hopscotch with it. And the color of that dirt... Yeah, I remember when I did see, you know, places where there was glass, like in the backyard. She used to have a fig tree. It was really great, because I love figs. And we'd search for four-leaf clovers in the areas where there was grass growing, always happy when we found one, a four-leaf clover. I remember her kitchen--and Saturday--you didn't cook on Sunday. She always cooked on Saturday. And she would make the rolls, and if there was any bread left over, she'd pat it down and put cinnamon and butter over it. And she'd slice an apple very thin, and she'd just lay it on top of the bread, and we'd have that cinnamon bread like for breakfast in the morning. And that smell--oooh, ahhh, brings back some real memories, that smell of cinnamon bread baking. I remember that she cooked on a wood stove, or a coal stove. In the kitchen, there was one in the kitchen. And there was always a coffee pot sitting on the back of the stove. And that coffee would be, they'd make it in the morning and it would just, you know, first thing you'd smell would be the coffee. And they'd drink it all day long. That would be some pretty strong coffee. And to this day, the first thing I do when I get up in the morning is make some coffee. And people in my house don't drink coffee, except for me. So, I make a half a pot, but every single day I make a pot of coffee. It's just sort of my connection to the world, and it's, yeah, it's decaf. So, it's not the caffeine that gives me, you know, the rush or whatever. It's the warmth that's good and the aroma is good. And I just think it is just kind of my link back to that time. Coffee on the stove, I remember. I remember the nights when we would all sleep in that one bed. It was Grandmama and myself and Aunt Vivian, and sometimes Stephanie. And how we would--if you had to get up at night, then there was no indoor plumbing for a long time. So, there was a jar, a jug, that we'd have to use. And then somebody would have to take that out the next day, of course, in the morning. So, I remember that. Smell--I remember the smell of the lotion that Aunt Vivian used to use, that Jergen's lotion, that I thought was just wonderful. I remember the vanilla ice cream, that whenever Vivian's friend used to come over. And there was a living room that nobody got to play in. I mean, we'd come in the front door and we'd go right through the living room. You didn't stop there. Only visitors got to sit in the living room. But whenever her friend would come over, he'd bring ice cream for Grandma. (laughter). And so, I remember that. I remember her, I remember the sound of the man who used to bring ice. He'd come selling ice, big chunks of ice. When she finally got a refrigerator, you got the ice and put it in there to keep stuff warm [does she mean cold?]. And it was the ice pick that we used to use, you know, to chip pieces off, if we wanted a drink. So, that's pretty clear in my memory. And the feel of that coal heat which was so dense, you know, it was really a heavy, heavy, heat in the family room. The sounds when we'd go out and get that coal and bring it in, and the buckets and the wood, the wood had to be cut also to keep us warm. And then we'd all go upstairs and we... at night. Get up--wouldn't nobody would get--Grandma would get up first. And she'd go down and she would, you know, start the stove up and make a pot of coffee. And then a little later, we'd get up and go down and wash up, because there was some warm water, a kettle of water, where we could wash up then. So, that's what I remember from early days. Now, after that, when Dad [Linwood Copeland Bailey] bought the house, they say, people used to say, well, you know, he was cooking with gas, because he didn't have to cook with coal anymore, he cooked with wood. They had, you know, a gas furnace and (laughter) a gas stove to cook on. So, we didn't have to go through that anymore when we moved to 306 Beechdale Road.$$Now, how old were you when you all moved?$$I was about five or six.$$Okay.$$I was school age.$$So, you went to school in the new neighborhood, right?$$Actually, the school was still downtown that I went to. And so, I would ride down to school with him in the morning and go to school. When I got out of school, I'd go to his barbershop and wait until somebody had, you know, the opportunity to take me back home.$$So, that is interesting, to spend a lot of time in a barbershop, with the discussions that--$$Uh huh.$$Did they clean up their conversation...$$Oh, gosh.$$...when you came in?$$I spent a lot of time in the back room (laughter). Yeah.$$Okay. Because they were--I'm the son of a barber, and I know they would do that--$$Are you?$$--and you'd come in the guys would try to talk, they--$$Yeah, they didn't--$$They'd chastise each other for, you know, for--$$They did not talk dirty around me, no. I don't remember any of that.$$But--$$I remember spinning around in that barber chair a lot, though. That was a fun thing to do. Did you do that? (laughter).$$That's right.$Now, in 2002, you became the director of the Center for Excellence in Remote Sensing Education and Research.$$Yeah.$$For CERSER, right?$$Yes.$$Okay.$$CERSER started off as a proposal. It was a proposal that I wrote to NOAA [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration]. They had a solicitation for Centers of Excellence. And the thing is, they wanted the centers to be in institutions where there were, where there was a significant amount of graduate work going on. And we had just been approved for a master's degree program in mathematics, but it didn't start until September. The proposals were due in May or spring. And so, I explained that in the proposal, but it wasn't strong enough to compete with schools like, you know, schools that already had programs well-established. And I tried it one more time with another solicitation for a center, the Center of Excellence for Remote Sensing Education and Research. Although there was a lot of research going on here, there was a lot of integration of that research into education, into these K-12 schools and these other universities, but we didn't have the master's and Ph.D. level programs they were looking for. And so they rejected my proposal. And eventually, I just said, you know what, this idea is bigger than any one proposal. We need to do this, we just need to do this. And so, I was able to get the facility on campus-some--but not all that I needed, but I got some. And over the course of those other small grants--I've been--grants with Navy and NASA [National Aeronautics and Space Administration]--I've been accumulating some indirect costs funds and just kind of using, saving them. And I said this is a good purpose. And so, we used those funds to buy the carpeting and the furniture and the video equipment, and you know, and just set it up. So, we just did it, and we established that center. And you know, Mr. Luther was encouraging me the whole way. And that's how the Center of Excellence in Remote Sensing Education and Research came about. It was first, two proposals that were rejected. And under that umbrella, we are able to engage partnerships that are focused on coastal, marine, and polar science programs. And those partnerships are both educational and research based. Under the umbrella of CERSER there are a number of programs now that operate, and a lot of good research going on in CERSER.

DeAnna Beane

Informal science educator and administrator DeAnna Banks Beane was born on January 25, 1940 in Washington, D.C. She became interested in science and nature as a child. Beane attended Howard University and received her B.S. degree in zoology in 1962. Initially she was interested in medical school, but during temporary science teaching assignment, she discovered the joy of introducing science to young people who lacked access to science-rich opportunities. Committed to a career in education, she went on to earn her M.Ed. degree from Rutgers University in 1973.

Between 1966 and 1971, Beane taught science at schools for pregnant teenage girls in Washington, D.C., Chicago, Illinois, and New Brunswick, New Jersey. From 1971 to 1981, she taught earth science, general science, physical science and gifted/talented classes to middle school students in Plainfield, New Jersey. Returning to Washington, D.C. in 1982, Beane worked extensively on issues of racial equity in education. Beane was employed by the Mid-Atlantic Center for Race Equity (a federally-funded school desegregation assistance center at The American University) from 1983 to 1985 where she became interested in the issues of equity in science education. An extensive review of the literature sparked her particular interest in the role that informal science education could play in helping to level the science playing field for African American, Latino, and American Indian children. In 1985, Beane was appointed education director for the National Urban Coalition where she developed a national program to increase minority community involvement in science and mathematics. She joined the Association of Science and Technology Centers, Inc. (ASTC) in 1991 where she directed the Youth Achievement through Learning, Involvement, Volunteering, and Employment initiative (YouthALIVE!), which brought diversity and youth development programs to more than seventy science and children’s museums around the country. As director of Partnerships for Learning at ASTC from 2001 until retirement in 2006, Beane continued her efforts to increase the diversity of staff and visitors in science museums.

Beane is the author of Mathematics and Science: Critical Filters for the Future of Minority Students, a manual that explores the research on factors influencing non-Asian minority student participation in mathematics and science, and identifies intervention strategies and programs. Her articles on school-community-museum partnerships and museum based pre-employment youth programs and their impact on teenagers have appeared in academic and professional journals such as Journal of Negro Education, Journal of Museum Education, and Dimensions: The Bi-monthly News Journal of the Association of Science and Technology Centers.

DeAnna Banks Beane was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on February 12, 2013.

Accession Number

A2013.020

Sex

Female

Interview Date

2/12/2013

Last Name

Beane

Maker Category
Marital Status

Divorced

Middle Name

Banks

Schools

Theodore Roosevelt Senior High School

Chicago State University

Rutgers University

Search Occupation Category
First Name

DeAnna

Birth City, State, Country

Washington

HM ID

BEA10

Favorite Season

Spring

State

District of Columbia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Anywhere Warm

Favorite Quote

Never doubt what a small group of thoughtful, committed citizens can change the world; indeed, it's the only thing that ever has been successful. -Margaret Mead

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

1/25/1940

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Salmon

Short Description

Informal science educator DeAnna Beane (1940 - ) was director of Youth ALIVE! (Youth Achievement through Learning, Involvement, Volunteering and Employment) at the Association of Science and Technology Centers, Inc.

Employment

Association of Science - Technology Centers (ASTC)

Delete

National Urban Coalition

Mid-Atlantic Center for Race Equity

InterAmerica Research

Plainfield Public Schools

Favorite Color

All Colors

Timing Pairs
0,0:4381,79:5801,103:6156,109:6724,120:7008,125:12650,179:12974,186:13730,203:14324,216:14702,229:15134,238:18140,277:22481,312:25407,367:27974,385:28202,390:29456,433:29798,442:30368,455:30824,464:31508,478:32135,490:34220,500:34810,513:35105,519:35577,528:40092,610:40376,615:40873,621:41441,629:42222,641:42577,647:45520,676:45820,681:47320,711:48070,723:53590,784:54148,791:57650,836:58000,843:59470,870:60520,888:61920,918:62200,923:62480,928:63250,941:64370,965:64860,976:66260,1002:70845,1030:71201,1035:71824,1043:72803,1063:73248,1069:76007,1114:77075,1127:78054,1139:78588,1147:79656,1160:80190,1167:80546,1172:81169,1181:87322,1229:87826,1237:88186,1243:90058,1276:90418,1282:91138,1294:91930,1308:92938,1331:93370,1338:96969,1355:97739,1366:98278,1375:98586,1380:100203,1414:100896,1425:101204,1430:104684,1453:107940,1501:109770,1511:115060,1571:116116,1579:116380,1584:118612,1603:119622,1614:120935,1629:129000,1713:129264,1718:129726,1726:132453,1743:133181,1755:133818,1764:134819,1781:136184,1801:137003,1811:137367,1816:137731,1821:141960,1831:149962,1921:150286,1926:150934,1937:151906,1950:154514,1973:165486,2081:165734,2086:172461,2168:172803,2180:173259,2190:179176,2256:180734,2272:184858,2278:192690,2391:192946,2396:193522,2413:206340,2499:211070,2532:215270,2569:216460,2584:217225,2595:218755,2623:219520,2633:226840,2670:227610,2678:228490,2687:229590,2700:230030,2705:232990,2716:234628,2744:234880,2749:235132,2754:235825,2767:236266,2776:237022,2792:238975,2832:239416,2840:239920,2850:240361,2859:241243,2876:241621,2883:241936,2889:242440,2898:242881,2907:245560,2917:246208,2928:246694,2935:253265,3017:254195,3031:255032,3041:257078,3063:263831,3110:268106,3137:268434,3142:270156,3172:274994,3255:275568,3260:276224,3269:277946,3298:278520,3306:283546,3344:284788,3367:285064,3372:287686,3423:288376,3435:291326,3453:291710,3458:292766,3472:293534,3481:294494,3494:295070,3501:304788,3602:305568,3613:306660,3629:306972,3634:307752,3648:308688,3662:309000,3667:309780,3678:310482,3689:310794,3694:311652,3707:312198,3715:312588,3721:316624,3737:316840,3742:317434,3754:317650,3759:318600,3771$0,0:2800,33:3339,44:3878,49:4802,142:8762,158:11751,179:12290,187:15174,201:16539,219:18996,255:19815,267:25745,310:26658,325:36726,453:37836,471:39464,497:48376,552:49465,562:52660,586:53980,597:54750,605:56770,619:57344,628:58820,643:59084,648:59414,654:60206,669:64046,705:64522,713:64930,726:65338,734:66834,767:67310,775:67854,784:70846,843:71322,851:81259,1019:81654,1025:84577,1074:92214,1099:93586,1118:94370,1127:99716,1215:100076,1221:100508,1229:100940,1236:101444,1250:101876,1257:102308,1265:104972,1353:119434,1543:120556,1556:128090,1627:140000,1800:141386,1835:141827,1844:147026,1858:148130,1877:148498,1882:149326,1896:151597,1908:158164,1999:158710,2007:164060,2078:164415,2085:164912,2093:166048,2113:169030,2181:169740,2193:170095,2199:174172,2227:176620,2261:177103,2269:177931,2285:178759,2300:179449,2318:180070,2329:183920,2349:186672,2368:186968,2373:189262,2453:189780,2462:190150,2468:190594,2475:192962,2511:193332,2517:197560,2536:198308,2551:198716,2558:202052,2588:206120,2639:216380,2724:216730,2730:217080,2736:220720,2805:221700,2828:222190,2836:222890,2850:226810,2977:236623,3015:237496,3027:239740,3033:240036,3038:240924,3056:245937,3093:246909,3108:247557,3117:249848,3144:258700,3227:259820,3242:260460,3251:272236,3406:277081,3428:278313,3468:278929,3482:280546,3508:282394,3535:285936,3598:294780,3675:295120,3680:296055,3695:297330,3712:297840,3720:305780,3934:306270,3942:345890,4569:346790,4584:348140,4616:348770,4660:353900,4721:358324,4742:367170,4857:368210,4873:368850,4882:372000,4910:376184,4966:376944,4977:384380,5032:384600,5037:386641,5048:387990,5056:388536,5065:389394,5081:393790,5126:399078,5172:399526,5180:399974,5188:400614,5199:401830,5233:402278,5241:402790,5251:407612,5290:408386,5300:418242,5412:418869,5427:420636,5466:421149,5477:425409,5535:429432,5576:432762,5638:433576,5654:434760,5670:436166,5689:436462,5694:437942,5734:442390,5773:442950,5781:443350,5787:445910,5824:446790,5838:447510,5856:451550,5881:455640,5982:456249,5991:461070,6031:461550,6040:462210,6053:472766,6181:473732,6199:479800,6258:483695,6312:484263,6322:484831,6331:485115,6336:485399,6341:486180,6355:487032,6370:491120,6383:491645,6391:493445,6427:496370,6495:497195,6510:497945,6525:499145,6547:509367,6611:517110,6710:518046,6739:518410,6747:521180,6792:526240,6918
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of DeAnna Beane's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - DeAnna Beane lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - DeAnna Beane describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - DeAnna Beane describes her mother's growing up in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - DeAnna Beane describes her grandmother's and her mother's education and career in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - DeAnna Beane talks about Howard University and her first encounter with its president, Mordecai Johnson

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - DeAnna Beane discusses perceptions of beauty amongst African Americans while she was at Howard University

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - DeAnna Beane describes her father's family background

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - DeAnna Beane describes her father's education

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - DeAnna Beane talks about how her parents met at Howard University, and their long marriage

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - DeAnna Beane describes her father's career as an educator

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - DeAnna Beane describes her parents' personalities and who she takes after

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - DeAnna Beane talks about her siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - DeAnna Beane describes her earliest childhood memory

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - DeAnna Beane describes her memories of growing up in Washington, D.C. during World War II

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - DeAnna Beane describes the sights, sounds and smells of growing up in Washington, District of Columbia

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - DeAnna Beane talks about attending Asbury United Methodist Church in Washington, District of Columbia

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - DeAnna Beane talks about his interests as a child

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - DeAnna Beane recalls the U.S. Supreme Court passing the Brown versus Board of Education decision

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - DeAnna Beane talks about her experience in elementary school, and the importance of parents being involved in their children's education

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - DeAnna Beane talks about her exposure to science in elementary school

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - DeAnna Beane talks about segregation in Washington, District of Columbia, while she was growing up

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - DeAnna Beane talks about attending the Jones-Haywood School of Dance in Washington, District of Columbia

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - DeAnna Beane describes her experience in middle school

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - DeAnna Beane talks about her introduction to science in middle school and her experience at science fairs in Washington, District of Columbia

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - DeAnna Beane describes her experience in a newly-integrated high school in Washington, D.C. - part one

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - DeAnna Beane describes her experience in a newly-integrated high school in Washington, D.C. - part two

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - DeAnna Beane talks about the influence of her biology teacher in high school

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - DeAnna Beane talks about the desegregation of schools in the 1950s and reflects upon her experience in a newly-integrated high school

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - DeAnna Beane describes her decision to attend Howard University

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - DeAnna Beane describes her experience at Howard University

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - DeAnna Beane talks about Howard University and HistoryMaker Lloyd Ferguson

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - DeAnna Beane talks about studying zoology at Howard University

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - DeAnna Beane describes her reasons for to not applying to medical school

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - DeAnna Beane talks about her introduction to teaching science

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - DeAnna Beane talks about her involvement in the Civil Rights Movement in Arlington, Virginia in the 1960s

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - DeAnna Beane describes her involvement in social activism in Arlington, Virginia and Chicago, Illinois, and taking education courses in Chicago

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - DeAnna Beane talks about earning her master's degree in urban education at Rutger's University

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - DeAnna Beane describes her involvement in community organizing, and the skills that she learned during her master's degree in urban education

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - DeAnna Beane talks about teaching at a middle school in New Jersey, her separation from her husband and working as a science writer and researcher

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - DeAnna Beane talks about her work with the Mid-Atlantic Center for Race Equity

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - DeAnna Beane talks about her publication entitled, 'Mathematics and science: Critical filters for the future of minority students'

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - DeAnna Beane talks about the applications of her publication, 'Mathematics and science: Critical filters for the future of minority students'

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - DeAnna Beane describes her work as the director of the 'Say YES to a Youngster's Future' program at the National Urban Coalition

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - DeAnna Beane describes her work as the director of the 'YouthALIVE!' program at the Association of Science-Technology Centers (ASTC) - part one

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - DeAnna Beane describes her work as the director of the 'YouthALIVE!' program at the Association of Science-Technology Centers (ASTC) - part two

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - DeAnna Beane describes the success of the 'YouthALIVE!' program implemented by the Association of Science-Technology Centers (ASTC) - part one

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - DeAnna Beane describes the success of the 'YouthALIVE!' program implemented by the Association of Science-Technology Centers (ASTC) - part two

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - DeAnna Beane describes her contribution as the director of Partnerships for Learning at the Association of Science-Technology Centers (ASTC)

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - DeAnna Beane describes the concept of "object-based learning"

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - DeAnna Beane talks about youth programs at science centers and museums across the United States - part one

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - DeAnna Beane talks about youth programs at science centers and museums across the United States - part two

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - DeAnna Beane talks about her life after retiring from the Association of Science-Technology Centers in 2006

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - DeAnna Beane reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - DeAnna Beane reflects upon her career

Tape: 8 Story: 6 - DeAnna Beane describes her hopes and concerns for the African American community today

Tape: 8 Story: 7 - DeAnna Beane talks about her family

Tape: 8 Story: 8 - DeAnna Beane reflects upon generating community-wide awareness about the importance of STEM education

Tape: 9 Story: 1 - DeAnna Beane talks about how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 9 Story: 2 - DeAnna Beane describes her photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

6$4

DAStory

6$2

DATitle
DeAnna Beane talks about her publication entitled, 'Mathematics and science: Critical filters for the future of minority students'
DeAnna Beane talks about her introduction to science in middle school and her experience at science fairs in Washington, District of Columbia
Transcript
When I finally got it all together, I had voluminous notes. I sorted them out into affective factors, which have to do with feelings and cognitive factors, which have to do with what's happening in the classroom in terms of the learning experience. And some of the affective factors involved attitudes towards science. And I based this on what I could find in the research. And at that time, I don't know what it's like now, but this was based on the National Assessment of Educational Progress, that was the first national assessment that was done in science. It was at the end of the 'up's [1970s]. At that time, African American or black children ex--at a young age, nine years old, expressed a higher interest in science than their white counterparts. Well who knew that? Nobody would know. So as I found these things out, then I thought it would be really important to help teachers know that because it gave them something to build on. So the whole idea about attitudes in science, the kids liked math even though they weren't excelling in it, at least they had a positive attitude toward it. The influence of significant others, parents, the impact that parents, teachers, peers, siblings can have on a child's feeling about themselves as a science student, their interest in science, very much influenced by the people around you. The people who serve as role models. The whole idea of seeing people who look like you who are doing science. That's another one of those affective factors. Persistence, the ability to hang in there and not give up. When it gets hard and you don't understand something, not getting frustrated and saying can't do it. I learned about--in preparing, in doing that work, I learned about an area called locus of control. And to this day I am still wrestling with that concept. Whether I have an internal child or whether I have an internal locus of control whereby I feel that I can determine my fate, I can change the outcomes of things. Or I have an external locus of control whereby you did that to me. You didn't give me this opportunity. You didn't let me do this. Or I need you to tell me what to do. I need you to solve the problem for me. So this whole issue of locus of control to me is still a central issue that needs better understanding. And we need tools for addressing it. But it was one--for me it was one of the most important of the factors that dealt with the affective or emotional component. Another one was, which affected my work thereafter, was prior experiences. If you've had no experiences in science to build on and you get into a chemistry class, you know but the research was showing that our kids did not have sufficient prior experiences to really take full advantage of what was going on in the classroom. By prior experiences, we're talking about the kinds of experiences that middle class children take for granted. They go to summer camps. They go to museums, they go to zoos, botanical gardens. They have all of these science enriching experiences as a norm from early childhood on up. And our kids were missing those things. And that helped shaped you know my, my career thereafter, those, a lot of those factors. The cognitive factors had to do with academic deficiencies, had to do with teacher expectations. You know what kinds of attitudes did teachers come into the classrooms with? What did they expect of children of color? Had to do with teachings, or learning styles as we talked earlier. Had to do with how teachers felt about science. We're all looking at--I'm only looking at elementary schools and the fact that it was a challenge for many elementary schools to have teachers who enjoyed doing science and who were comfortable with mathematics.$We did not have a strong science program at that time [at Banneker Junior High School, Washington, District of Columbia]. We didn't have any equipment and I remember the day our science teacher put a microscope on the front desk and said get in line and come up and take a look. It was mind blowing. It was wonderful. He could see I was hooked. And he later asked me, told me he wanted me to talk to my father [Howard Percell Banks] and ask him to help me prepare a project for the city-wide science fair. And we did that and then so that was my excursion into a broader world of people who enjoyed science.$$Now what was your project?$$That first project was on landscaping a home. It, it did not reflect what I later came to appreciate about, you know, what science projects needed to do, but it did well in the science fair, so--for seventh grade.$$Now were you competing city-wide against all the students?$$City-wide, city-wide, yes.$$I mean and the white ones too?$$Yeah, yeah. So the science fair was my first excursion outside of my warm cocoon of the black community. The fair was held in the gym of American University [Washington, D.C.], which was in a part of town I didn't know existed. That first year my father took me. The second year my parents [Howard Percell Banks and Buena Vista Marie Williams] allowed me to take public transportation. So on the bus I got to the bureau, and the National Bureau of Standards used to be here in town. I got to pass the National Bureau of Standards, it was just amazing. As a result of my years of participation, one year I did a project--we had visited Grand Canyon, which is really impressive. So one year I did a project of a cross-section of Grand Canyon which clearly with my father's help because I wasn't getting the help at school, but it brought me into the world of geology. And then when I got to high school my, my project was different. I had a, a really good biology teacher and she you know, encouraged me to just explore something I wanted to know more about. But those years in junior high with a teacher who's field was not science, and I don't think he really loved science. I think he was assigned to teach science. But he opened the door for me to participate in the science fairs and I was elected to the Washington Junior Academy of Sciences. And as a academy member for some reason it seemed to have been on the governing board or something, I don't even know how those things happen. But I was exposed to other young people who enjoyed science and it wasn't seen as weird, you know to do that.$$Now were, were your interests, do you think your interests were considered weird by your peers in those days?$$No, not weird. I don't think they were weird. I mean one of my peers was Gertrude Branson, whose father was head of the physics department at Howard [University, Washington, District of Columbia].$$That's Herman Branson.$$Herman Branson, so and Gertrude died this past summer. But not all the, not all the kids in our group were into science fair projects. But having each other and going to those meetings made it kind of, you know, special. And then seeing, seeing kids who were very serious. One young woman who always won the national prize, had terrible allergies, so she did all of her projects on research, on allergies. Which is just astounding to me. I didn't have any of that in my world, so--$$With the allergies or any--the whole--$$I didn't have the, the concept of you can pick a problem and work on it and study it and try to understand it and get to the core and make recommendations, come up with hypotheses and reach conclusions and you know, that kind of dogged determination to solve a problem in an area of science was a new experience for me. So the science fair was broadening and participating cause once you're a member of the Junior Academy, then you had to help put on the sci--the city-wide science fair so you had to help set up, hostess, all the--those kinds of activities.$$So let me just, okay now, now being--your proximity to Howard put you in touch with--you said your best friend's father, Dr. Herman Branson [physicist and chemist who worked on the alpha helix protein structure] who's a scientist and he became the president of Central State [University, Wilberforce, Ohio] later on and some other things.$$Right of Lincoln [University, Chester County, Pennsylvania].$$Central too, he was president of Central State in Ohio.$$Okay.$$That's why I know him.$$Okay, okay.$$But he--so you got a lot of, you got like the Howard Medical School over there, you got like physics department over there and chemistry department over--did, I mean so black scientists were in the community. Were you aware of, of--$$No, no, not only that. I mean it's interesting you, you ask that question because I began--I mean yesterday I was thinking about what did I know about careers? I knew nothing about careers. I knew nothing about what people did with science. I, I mean I went all through high school not knowing what you could do and my thought was I'll become a doctor. I'll be a pediatrician. It wasn't until I was probably halfway through college or three quarters of the way through college before it occurred to me you might be able to do something else with this, you know. You have this--but it, it took a lot. It was probably my senior year before I found that there was something I enjoyed doing enough right within the science itself to pursue it. But that was pretty, pretty late in the--$$Okay.$$And also we didn't have any--unlike now where you have bridge programs, you have programs in the summer that are science rich. The only thing I had was the [Washington] Junior Academy [of Sciences]. And the Junior Academy would arrange for us to visit science rich places in the summer. I saw my first cadaver on a, on a trip to--was it GW's [George Washington University, Washington, District of Columbia] Medical School with the Washington Junior Academy of Sciences. Franklin Institute in Philadelphia, they took us on a trip there and where they have a--they still have it, an icon. It's a giant model of the heart that you can walk through and feel the beats and go through the, the various segments of the heart, auricles and ventricles. So I would say probably more than anything, the Junior Academy served as my support system. But I didn't have any, any mentors in science per se.$$So you were able to get involved in the Junior Academy because of the teacher at Banneker?$$Because of the science fair.$$Science fair, okay.$$I had--I got awards for two of my projects and so that then meant I guess you're invited to join the academy or something like--or maybe the teacher recommended, I don't know. Fortunately, the teacher had great faith in me.$$Okay, this is the one at Banneker [Junior High School, Washington, D.C.], right?$$At Banneker.

William Davis

Research chemist and chemistry professor William C. Davis was born on August 22, 1926 in Waycross Georgia to parents Kenice and Laura Jane Davis. In 1941, Davis moved to New York City to live with his brother, Ossie Davis, and attend college. Following graduation from Dwight High School in 1945, Davis attended City College of New York and New York University before enrolling at Talladega College in Florida. Davis left school and briefly served as second lieutenant of engineers in the Korean War. Returning to Talladega College after the War, Davis earned his B.S. degree in chemistry in 1956. Davis went on to earn his M.S. degree in organic chemistry from Tuskegee Institute in 1958 and his Ph.D. degree in biochemistry from the University of Idaho in 1965.

Upon graduation, Davis was appointed research director at Physicians Medical Laboratories. As director, Davis is credited with discoveries leading to or improving numerous amenities, among them the potato chip, the instant mashed potato, soft serve ice cream, and the organic glue that holds together wood-chip and particle board. Davis’ research has been public in academic journals such as, Journal of Medical Technology and European Journal of Pharmacology. From 1974 to 1975, Davis continued research as a visiting scientist at the George Hyman Research Institute in Washington, D.C.; and again between 1976 and 1982 when he was a research associate at the University of Texas Health Science Center. Davis was named full professor of chemistry at St. Philip's College in 1995. In addition he served as chair of the Natural Sciences Department and director of Renewable Energy. When Davis retired in August 2009, he was named professor emeritus of the natural science department; and, the science building at St. Philip's College was named in his honor.

Davis professional and academic affiliations include the American Chemical Society, the Health Physicist Society, the Society of Nuclear Medicine, and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. His is a recipient of Tuskegee Institute’s George Washington Carver Fellowship, the U.S. Armed Force’s Purple Heart Medal, and was inducted to the Texas Hall of Fame in 2000.

Davis and his wife, Ocia, live in San Antonio, Texas. They have two children: Mark Alan and Cheryl Elise.

William C. Davis was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on February 1, 2013.

Accession Number

A2013.029

Sex

Male

Interview Date

1/30/2013 |and| 2/1/2013

Last Name

Davis

Maker Category
Marital Status

Divorced

Middle Name

Conan

Schools

Tuskegee University

Talladega College

City College of New York

Dwight High School, Manhattan

Dasher High School

Search Occupation Category
First Name

William

Birth City, State, Country

Waycross

HM ID

DAV28

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Georgia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Waycross, Georgia

Favorite Quote

You never could tell what thoughts and actions would do in bringing you hate or love. For thoughts of things will have wings and they will travel like a carrier dove. Each thing must creates it's kind as it travels over the track to bring back whatever is left out of your mind.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Texas

Birth Date

8/22/1926

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

San Antonio

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Rice, Chicken, Green Beans

Short Description

Chemist and chemistry professor William Davis (1926 - ) is professor emeritus of the natural science department at St. Philip's College.

Employment

St. Phillips College

Immutech, Inc.

University of Texas Health Science Center

College of Naturopathy

Warner Pacific College

United Medical Laboratories

University of Washington

Favorite Color

Brown

DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of William Davis' interview - part one

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - William Davis lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - William Davis talks about his mother's family background, part 1

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - William Davis talks about his mother's family background, part 2

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - William Davis talks about his mother's growing up

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - William Davis talks about his mother's interests and educational aspirations

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - William Davis talks about his father's family background - part one

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - William Davis talks about his father's family background - part two

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - William Davis talks about his father and his business relationship with Alex Sessoms

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - William Davis talks about his father's education and his grandfather's religious affiliation

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - William Davis talks about how his parents met

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - William Davis talks about his parents and his siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - William Davis talks about his brother and his father's influence, part 1

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - William Davis talks about his brother and his father's influence, part 2

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - William Davis talks about his father's social beliefs

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - William Davis talks about his siblings

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - William Davis describes his earliest childhood memories

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - William Davis talks about his childhood home in Georgia and remembers his Ethiopian family's visits

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - William Davis describes the sights, sounds and smells of growing up

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - William Davis talks about his father's business and his attitude towards white people

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - William Davis talks about Fonza Curry's involvement in a plot to kill his father, Kince Davis - part one

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - William Davis talks about Fonza Curry's involvement in a plot to kill his father, Kince Davis - part two

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - William Davis talks about the schools that he and his siblings attended

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - William Davis talks about his grammar school teachers, music, and his principal

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - William Davis talks about his childhood fascination with his father's profession as an herbalist

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - William Davis talks about his favorite grade school teachers

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - William Davis talks about his performance in grade school

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - William Davis talks about why his high school ended at grade eleven

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - William Davis talks about visiting the Tuskegee Institute

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - William Davis talks about meeting George Washington Carver and his father's interests in plants

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - William Davis talks about his father's cars, Henry Ford, and traveling to Tuskegee, Alabama

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - William Davis talks about his science instruction at Dasher High School

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - William Davis talks about his decision to finish high school in New York and his brother, Ossie Davis' interest in the theatre

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - William Davis talks about his academics and his overall experience at Dwight High School

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - William Davis talks about his mentor, Jake Fishman, and his interest in the relationship between science, religion and philosophy

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - William Davis talks about his teachers at the City College of New York and his decision to transfer to Talladega College

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - William Davis talks about his experience at Talladega College and being drafted into the U.S. Army

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - William Davis talks about his interest in music, his appreciation of Albert Schweitzer, and his experience in Germany

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - William Davis talks about his experience in the U.S. Army and his interest in music

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - William Davis reflects on his experience at Talladega College

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - William Davis talks about his academics and his professors at Talladega College

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - William Davis talks about his mentor, Dr. Clarence T. Mason

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - William Davis talks about one of his peers' views on space colonization

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - William Davis talks about his research and his decision to continue his graduate studies in Idaho, part 1

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - William Davis talks about his research and his decision to continue his graduate studies in Idaho, part 2

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - William Davis talks about his journey from Alabama to Idaho

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - William Davis talks about traveling through Utah and his attempt to visit the Mormon Tabernacle

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - William Davis talks about his journey to Washington State University

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - William Davis talks about his experience in Idaho

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - William Davis talks about his research at Washington State University - part one

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - William Davis talks about his research at Washington State University - part two

Tape: 8 Story: 6 - William Davis talks about the research philosophy of scientists

Tape: 9 Story: 1 - Slating of William Davis' interview - part two

Tape: 9 Story: 2 - William Davis talks about the space colonization theory and Dr. Wernher von Braun

Tape: 9 Story: 3 - William Davis talks about meeting Albert Schweitzer and his interest in playing the organ

Tape: 9 Story: 4 - William Davis talks about his doctoral research on potatoes

Tape: 9 Story: 5 - William Davis talks about his clinical research at a mail-order laboratory with Dr. Roy M. Chatters

Tape: 9 Story: 6 - William Davis talks about how he became a health physicist and nuclear chemist

Tape: 9 Story: 7 - William Davis talks about his certification in medical technology and his publication on blood tests

Tape: 10 Story: 1 - William Davis talks about the controversy regarding the clinical research at United Medical Labs

Tape: 10 Story: 2 - William Davis talks about the establishment of the Albina Healthcare Center, and his work with the Black Panthers

Tape: 10 Story: 3 - William Davis talks about his professional activities - part one

Tape: 10 Story: 4 - William Davis talks about health care providers

Tape: 10 Story: 5 - William Davis talks about his professional activities - part two

Tape: 11 Story: 1 - William Davis talks about working with Dr. Lehman

Tape: 11 Story: 2 - William Davis talks about working with Dr. Lehman in the hospital setting

Tape: 11 Story: 3 - William Davis talks about his interest in teaching and how he was introduced to St. Philips College

Tape: 11 Story: 4 - William Davis talks about his research on the psychoactive drug, Valium

Tape: 11 Story: 5 - William Davis talks about his professional activities, part 3

Tape: 11 Story: 6 - William Davis talks about St. Philips College

Tape: 11 Story: 7 - William Davis talks about the demographics of St. Philips College

Tape: 12 Story: 1 - William Davis talks about the Penta Water Company

Tape: 12 Story: 2 - William Davis talks about the molecular theory and processing of the Penta Water

Tape: 12 Story: 3 - William Davis talks about the unique chemical properties of kinetic water

Tape: 12 Story: 4 - William Davis talks about presenting his research to the community

Tape: 12 Story: 5 - William Davis explains the processes of osmosis, osmotic pressure, and isotonicity

Tape: 12 Story: 6 - William Davis talks about the benefits of kinetic water and the tendencies of nature

Tape: 13 Story: 1 - William Davis talks about nature, and considers the implications of Hurricane Sandy not destroying churches

Tape: 13 Story: 2 - William Davis talks about having a building named in his honor at St. Philips College

Tape: 13 Story: 3 - William Davis describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 13 Story: 4 - William Davis reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 13 Story: 5 - William Davis talks about his family

Tape: 13 Story: 6 - William Davis reflects upon his life choices and talks about his musical interests

Tape: 13 Story: 7 - William Davis talks about how he would like to be remembered

Walter A. Hill

Agricultural engineer Walter A. Hill was born on August 9, 1946 in New Brunswick, New Jersey. His mother was a school teacher, and his father, a minister of the African Methodist Episcopal Church. Hill’s high academic performance in high school earned him a scholarship to attend Lake Forest College in Illinois, where he received his B.S. degree in chemistry in 1968. He continued his studies on a Ford Foundation fellowship at the University of Chicago, where he received his M.A. degree in chemistry in 1970. Hill went on to earn his M.S. in soil chemistry at the University of Arizona in 1973, and his Ph.D. degree in agronomy and environmental chemistry from the University of Illinois College of Agriculture in 1978.

Upon receiving his M.A. degree, Hill spent several years teaching chemistry and general science in the Chicago Public School system. Following the completion of his Ph.D. degree, Hill moved to Alabama to teach soil science at Tuskegee Institute (now Tuskegee University). There, he encouraged his students to engage in research projects, and, in 1980, his teaching was honored when he was named a Danforth Associate. Hill has served in several positions at Tuskegee, including director of 1890 Land Grant Research and Extension Programs, the George Washington Carver Agricultural Experiment Station, founder and director of the Carver Integrative Sustainability Center and project director of the Wal-Mart Foundation-sponsored Sustainable Agriculture Consortium for Historically Disadvantaged Farmers. In 2012, Hill was appointed dean of the College of Agriculture, Environment & Nutrition Sciences at Tuskegee University.

Hill has authored journal articles, books and academic conference proceedings on plant-environment relationships for sustainable agriculture and advanced life support systems, and on small and historically disadvantaged farmer and rural community development at. In 2008, he served as the co-editor of Access & Equity Issues in Agricultural & Rural Development. Hill has also been active in the local farming community. He is founder and co-leader of the Alabama Agricultural Land Grant Alliance, and the Black Belt Family Farm Fruit & Vegetable Marketing and Innovation Center. In 2001, he received an honorary doctorate from Lake Forest College.

Walter Andrew Hill was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on December 15, 2012.

Accession Number

A2012.248

Sex

Male

Interview Date

12/15/2012

Last Name

Hill

Maker Category
Middle Name

A

Schools

University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign

University of Arizona School of Law

University of Chicago

Lake Forest College

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Walter

Birth City, State, Country

New Brunswick

HM ID

HIL15

Favorite Season

All Seasons Except Winter

State

New Jersey

Favorite Vacation Destination

Jamaica

Favorite Quote

To God be the glory.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Alabama

Birth Date

8/9/1946

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Tuskegee

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Sweet Potatoes, Greens

Short Description

Agricultural engineer Walter A. Hill (1946 - ) is the dean of the College of Agriculture, Environment & Nutrition Sciences at Tuskegee University.

Employment

Tuskegee University

Favorite Color

Beige, Brown

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Walter A. Hill's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Walter A. Hill lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Walter A. Hill describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Walter A. Hill describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Walter A. Hill talks about his father's family and his ministry

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Walter A. Hill talks about his father's growing up and education

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Walter A. Hill talks about how his parents met

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Walter A. Hill describes his parents' personalities and who he takes after

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Walter A. Hill talks about his siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Walter A. Hill describes his earliest childhood memories

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Walter A. Hill describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Walter A. Hill talks about his interest in sports

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Walter A. Hill talks about his interest in science growing up

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Walter A. Hill talks about his high school teachers

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Walter A. Hill talks about his extracurricular activities

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Walter A. Hill talks about growing up in North Little Rock, Arkansas

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Walter A. Hill talks about his decision to attend Lake Forest College

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Walter A. Hill talks about his experience at Lake Forest College

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Walter A. Hill talks about the assassination of Martin Luther King Jr.

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Walter A. Hill talks about his experience at the University of Chicago

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Walter A. Hill talks about the importance of groups

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Walter A. Hill talks about his experience teaching in Chicago

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Walter A. Hill talks about his developing interest in agriculture

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Walter A. Hill talks about his experience at the University of Arizona

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Walter A. Hill talks about his mentors at the University of Arizona

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Walter A. Hill talks about his decision to pursue his Ph.D. degree at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Walter A. Hill talks about his decision to join the faculty at Tuskegee University

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Walter A. Hill talks about his experience at Tuskegee University

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Walter A. Hill talks about Tuskegee University's science funding

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Walter A. Hill talks about Tuskegee University's department of agriculture

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Walter A. Hill talks about George Washington Carver's impact on the agriculture department

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Walter A. Hill talks about his research with sweet potatoes - part one

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Walter A. Hill talks about his research with sweet potatoes - part two

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Walter A. Hill talks about the politics of farming - part one

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Walter A. Hill talks about the politics of farming - part two

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Walter A. Hill talks about the politics of farming - part three

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Walter A. Hill talks about the politics of farming - part four

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Walter A. Hill talks about his students at Tuskegee University

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Walter A. Hill talks about his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Walter A. Hill talks about his volunteer activities

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Walter A. Hill talks about the Southern Food Systems Education Consortium

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Walter A. Hill talks about his graduate students

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Walter A. Hill reflects upon his career

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Walter A. Hill reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Walter A. Hill talks about his family

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Walter A. Hill talks about how he would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

6$6

DAStory

1$4

DATitle
Walter A. Hill talks about the politics of farming - part one
Walter A. Hill talks about the politics of farming - part four
Transcript
Well, once we succeeded with sweet potato, that's a sugar crop that became the key sugar crop, because out of that you can sweeten your products. And we didn't have sugar cane and other crops there. Now was the oil crop. And peanut had the possibility because they had dwarf varieties that wouldn't take up a lot of volume if we could get the yield, etc., so we took on peanuts for NASA [National Aeronautics and Space Administration], and we were very successful. We had to learn peanuts peg, just like sweet potato grows underground, you had to figure out how to trigger that root. Well, we had to figure out how to get the peanuts to peg then they form the nut, you know. So, that again, took a lot of creativity in terms of the mesh and how we had to do the physical design, so we did a lot of trial and error, and we came up with a system that worked. So, we--not only did we develop a system for sweet potato, but we developed a system for peanuts. We got very good yields out of that. So that's published work also. So those are our two major contributions then NASA went to herbal crops. Where can we go in the next space flight that can go right now? We still are stocking with food, so we did several different plants and have published now in the different herbal crops and some of our team has done that work. And right in the middle of that is when NASA started closing down. But what we've done, we kept the work going. If we have a chance we could take you out to our growth chambers to show you how we kept that. And if you think about it, you're providing not only the nutrition but the light, and you're supplying the atmosphere, so you have a closed environment, so that allows you to measure any variables you want. So we have a beautiful system for thinking, even globally, where we might be in changing the environmental system and dealing with any kind of plant. And so we decided to keep that capability and keep looking for opportunities to use that expertise as we go on. We have an extensive set of green houses and growth chambers to do this kind of work. Where we're shifting to now, it's good to do science, it's great to do great work that has an impact, and of course science and technology has a big impact on our economy. Our challenge became, the one that Carver could not finish, during Carver's time, even though he developed the jesup wagon--and along with Thomas Campbell and the others, helped to start the cooperative extension system, which would go out in the communities, help the farmers, learn how to grow better and produce a market and take care of the land, and this kind of thing, because of segregation, because of slavery, segregation, Jim Crowism and general oppression, stealing of land and all that whole history that cuts across the whole south, Carver was never--when he wrote to Booker T., he said, "I'm coming to help our people"; he put that in two letters. You'll go back and you'll see the reason why I'm coming is to help our people. And you think about what he did for peanuts, yeah, he helped the peanut industry survive, but if you look at the number of black farmers growing peanuts, it's hardly any. There was a politics in terms of who could grow the peanuts and who could have the quotas, so all that came into it.$I think my whole life kind of set me up to get back into those rural communities so those young people could see where if they worked the land, smart about it, they can actually develop some very good businesses. We're looking for multimillion dollar businesses that can be sustainable. And our role in the University is to be their research arm, just like a new product is developed where competitors come in, you got to keep adding to that, you know, innovating, get that new product. So, now the role for Carver's university for the HBCUs for our science, our best brains, not just do research that ends up going up where those already making all the money take that and make more, just put it in the generic pool and then those who have the resources take it and move with it. But you have a conscious connection of your best science minds trying to work and use nano technology, use biotechnology, use irrigation technology, use computer technology, use all of our expertise in engineering, etc., etc., to actually help build a community, and then keep it viable and tie directly to prepare the young people. I could show you slides of once we got this business rolling, the young men and young women were there. You didn't have to go ask them to come, how can I help, they're getting in there to put labels on packaging, they're getting in there helping to move boxes, they're getting in there, all this is great, hey, can I--how can I get more involved in this, you know. Parents are talking good, public is good, even--I'll just say this, the legislature of Alabama, which again, we're trying to get our one-to-one match, which someday we'll get that and it's some great people there who have helped us in the past, they came up with two million dollars to build a processing packaging facility for these farmers and the ground will be broken for that next year, and then right outside of Selma, there will be a major packaging and staging plant for distribution of these crop. So that shows you, if our legislature will see that economic piece to invest in that, they'll invest more in the future and the return will be great to all of the citizens of Alabama. So I applaud those legislatures who took the leadership and did that, thank you very, very much.$$Okay.$$Sorry about that.$$This is in Selma [Alabama]? Is there any particular representative that's really been an advocate for you?$$Yeah. I'm thinking about the current politics.$$Okay. All right. Yes, sir.$$I was screening as I talked, but there are definitely some.$$Yes.$$I want to make sure I say all of the names at once so I get it right. So that will be another thing I'll give you.$$Okay. All right, we won't sweat you on that then.

Andrew Humphrey

Meteorologist Andrew Humphrey was born in Silver Spring, Maryland. As a child, he loved sports, math and science. His early fascination with weather caused him to earn his B.S.E. in meteorology from the University of Michigan in Ann, Arbor in 1992. He then went on to receive his M.S. degree in meteorology in February 1995 from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Under the supervision of Dr. Kerry A. Emanuel, his masters’ thesis entitled “The Behavior of the Total Mass of the Atmosphere” examined a one hundred year behavior period (1890-1990) of the total mass of the atmosphere. He concluded that the total atmospheric mass decreased over this time period.

In 1995, he started his career as a meteorologist at the local NBC affiliate WRC-TV in Washington, D.C. He also worked in Maryland as a research scientist with the Biosphere and Planetary Sciences branches of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and at the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration’s National Center for Environmental Protection. In 1996, he worked for NBC and CNBC Europe covering weather throughout Europe and North Africa. In 2000, he joined local Fox affiliate WUPW-TV in Toledo, Ohio as their chief meteorologist and served as a freelance meteorologist for CNN and CNNI in Atlanta, Georgia. In 2002, he became a meteorologist and reporter for WDIV-TV (NBC) in Detroit.

In addition to his work in meteorology, Humphrey holds numerous awards and distinctions. He received the Community Service Award from the National Association for Black Journalists (NABJ) in 2000. The Detroit City Council awarded him with the 2006 Spirit of Detroit Award for his community service. In 2009, he won an Emmy for weather anchoring from the Michigan Chapter of the National Chapter of the National Academy of Television Arts and Sciences. While at WDIV (NBC) in Detroit, he received the American Meteorological Society (AMS) Certified Broadcast Meteorologist distinction. Humphrey also earned certification in Motion Picture Production by the Motion Picture Institute of Michigan.

He was the founder and co-chairs the Digital Journalism Task Force of the National Association of Black Journalists (NABJ); is Past President of NABJ’s Detroit chapter and Board Member of FIRST (Robotics) in Michigan and the Detroit Science Center; and was an active leader and team member of the Alumni Association of the University of Michigan’s Alumni Leadership Council, the Charles H. Wright African American History Museum and Cranbrook Institute of Science.

Andrew Humphrey was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on October 25, 2012.

Accession Number

A2012.183

Sex

Male

Interview Date

10/25/2012

Last Name

Humphrey

Maker Category
Occupation
Organizations
Schools

University of Michigan

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Andrew

Birth City, State, Country

Silver Spring

HM ID

HUM04

Favorite Season

All Seasons

Sponsor

National Science Foundation

State

Maryland

Favorite Vacation Destination

National Parks

Favorite Quote

Have a wonderful day. This is your day to make a difference.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Michigan

Birth Date

9/22/1970

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Detroit

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Spaghetti, Cookies (Chocolate Chip), Ice Cream (Chocolate)

Short Description

Meteorologist Andrew Humphrey (1970 - ) is an Emmy-award winning meteorologist and reporter for WDIV-TV (NBC) in Detroit, Michigan.

Employment

WRC TV

NBC

WTTG TV

CNN

WUPW-TC (Fox)

WDIV TV

Main Sponsor
Main Sponsor URL
Favorite Color

Blue, Purple

Timing Pairs
0,0:2193,25:3483,42:3999,47:6966,63:14610,233:16014,261:16794,276:18510,310:19134,319:24250,367:25600,405:25800,410:26650,419:26850,424:27550,442:27750,447:28250,465:28800,480:29200,489:29450,495:29750,502:32100,573:32450,585:34250,631:34700,641:35100,650:35350,656:35600,662:39728,679:41352,708:41642,714:43727,740:44069,745:44696,762:46463,866:46862,874:47318,887:48173,905:48572,917:48857,925:49883,952:50282,960:50909,974:51764,1001:52391,1016:53246,1037:54215,1058:54728,1069:55184,1079:55697,1091:56153,1101:56381,1106:57521,1132:58148,1153:64424,1202:64739,1208:65936,1244:66377,1253:66944,1270:68834,1297:69527,1310:70094,1322:70535,1330:71858,1354:72488,1366:75561,1379:75805,1384:76171,1391:77025,1409:79221,1457:80014,1472:81948,1482:82412,1496:82702,1505:83398,1521:83804,1530:84036,1535:85022,1555:85660,1568:86530,1594:86936,1602:87400,1611:87922,1617:88212,1623:88618,1637:89024,1646:89372,1653:93268,1675:93604,1683:93940,1690:98088,1754:98704,1763:100692,1780:100920,1785:101832,1807:102288,1816:102858,1828:103086,1833:104283,1858:104796,1870:105594,1892:105822,1897:106050,1904:106734,1921:107247,1933:107646,1942:108102,1952:108330,1957:108558,1962:109584,1982:110040,1993:110496,2003:110895,2012:112206,2048:112434,2053:112662,2058:118250,2069:119515,2108:119955,2117:121275,2144:121660,2152:121880,2159:122100,2164:123475,2207:124630,2240:126780,2248$0,0:637,11:7270,99:7760,108:8950,129:10280,165:10840,175:11120,180:12310,211:12940,221:14480,257:17210,315:20820,322:24477,399:24822,405:25443,410:26202,423:26961,434:27858,448:28617,466:28893,471:29376,478:30066,489:31239,511:31998,531:33999,577:34965,599:39385,634:40880,669:41400,679:41790,688:42440,702:42895,708:43350,716:44910,747:45170,755:45625,763:45885,771:46470,781:46795,787:47185,794:47900,811:49655,839:50110,852:50565,864:51020,872:51995,880:54670,897:55190,908:56230,937:56685,945:58050,971:58440,980:59285,1000:59545,1005:59935,1012:62274,1025:65638,1116:66334,1131:67146,1156:67436,1162:68712,1194:69176,1203:69698,1219:70104,1228:70510,1237:71148,1251:73520,1260:73770,1266:74220,1277:74470,1283:74820,1291:75220,1300:75770,1316:76520,1331:76720,1339:77020,1347:77820,1367:79170,1399:80270,1420:80570,1444:81870,1482:82220,1491:82770,1505:83220,1517:83820,1533:84020,1538:84320,1546:84620,1554:85320,1568:85670,1577:90260,1597:90524,1602:91184,1619:91844,1635:92372,1644:93164,1658:94616,1696:95210,1706:95606,1713:98470,1748:98950,1757:100270,1793:100810,1803:101590,1817:102370,1827:102670,1833:103510,1849:103990,1858:104230,1863:105130,1886:106210,1908:106450,1913:107170,1929:107530,1936:107950,1945:110170,1996:110770,2010:111190,2018:112690,2061:113110,2070:113830,2083:114070,2088:114370,2094:115150,2110:115630,2121:116050,2130:116590,2141:122464,2173:125160,2222:125484,2229:125754,2236:126456,2252:126942,2262:129048,2314:129264,2319:130668,2352:131262,2367:131694,2377:134988,2475:135474,2485:135744,2491:143376,2592:146228,2656:147902,2690:148398,2699:149390,2721:149948,2731:150444,2740:151002,2751:151436,2760:152552,2784:155218,2855:155466,2860:156768,2894:157698,2917:157946,2922:158504,2932:159558,2956:159868,2962:160736,2976:161418,2990:162968,3020:163464,3029:163960,3039:171730,3064:172054,3069:172945,3081:173269,3086:174322,3097:174889,3106:175213,3112:175537,3127:175861,3132:176428,3141:177157,3152:178615,3184:179263,3193:179587,3198:180883,3220:181612,3231:183232,3261:183556,3266:184123,3274:186391,3320:186715,3325:190235,3352:190650,3358:191065,3364:191646,3374:192227,3383:193057,3394:194800,3415:195132,3420:197290,3447:198286,3462:200112,3497:201191,3518:201606,3524:206788,3569:207104,3574:208368,3596:209316,3616:210027,3629:210343,3634:217260,3747:218070,3758:219528,3782:220662,3800:220986,3805:225282,3846:225872,3859:226167,3866:226403,3872:227052,3887:227288,3892:228704,3933:230946,3987:231536,4000:231831,4006:232185,4014:232421,4019:232834,4029:233188,4037:233601,4046:233896,4052:235017,4084:235312,4090:235607,4097:241260,4150:242172,4173:242571,4181:242913,4188:243711,4205:246048,4274:246333,4280:246960,4296:247644,4310:248271,4322:248556,4328:249069,4342:249297,4347:255434,4418:256679,4432:261244,4517:261991,4528:262489,4535:263236,4544:263734,4552:264564,4567:268700,4605
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Andrew Humphrey's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Andrew Humphrey lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Andrew Humphrey describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Andrew Humphrey talks about his mother's life in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Andrew Humphrey describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Andrew Humphrey talks about his father growing up in North Carolina

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Andrew Humphrey talks about his parents and about dance

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Andrew Humphrey talks about being raised in an interracial family

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Andrew Humphrey talks about his parents' personalities and who he takes after

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Andrew Humphrey talks about his earliest childhood memories

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Andrew Humphrey describes the sights and sounds and smells of growing up

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Andrew Humphrey talks about life in the Maryland and Washington, District of Columbia region

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Andrew Humphrey talks about his love of football

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Andrew Humphrey talks about growing up as an only child

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Andrew Humphrey talks about his early school days

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Andrew Humphrey talks about his childhood interest in science, math and meteorology

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Andrew Humphrey talks about what influenced him during his teenage years

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Andrew Humphrey remembers the increasing presence of African Americans in the media during his formative years

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Andrew Humphrey describes his decision to become a meteorologist

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Andrew Humphrey describes the social and political climate of the 1980s

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Andrew Humphrey talks about Doug Williams, the first African American quarterback to win the Super Bowl

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Andrew Humphrey talks about his early interest in meteorology

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Andrew Humphrey talks about studying at the University of Michigan

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Andrew Humphrey talks about the anti-affirmative action legislation, Proposition Two

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Andrew Humphrey talks about the Multicultural Engineering Program Office at the University of Michigan

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Andrew Humphrey talks about his college experience and remembers the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Andrew Humphrey talks about his decision to go to Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Andrew Humphrey discusses his thesis, 'The Behavior of Total Mass of the Atmosphere'

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Andrew Humphrey describes his experience with students at Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Andrew Humphrey describes his introduction to broadcast meteorology

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Andrew Humphrey describes a typical day as a television meteorologist

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Andrew Humphrey talks about weather patterns and global warming

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Andrew Humphrey discusses the economic and political lessons of Hurricane Katrina

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$4

DAStory

2$6

DATitle
Andrew Humphrey describes his decision to become a meteorologist
Andrew Humphrey describes a typical day as a television meteorologist
Transcript
Okay, okay. Now did--so when you were in high school, did you have a vocation in mind?$$A vocation?$$Right.$$What do you mean?$$I mean what did you aspire to be when you finished college, you know.$$My first love was football, so I wanted to be a football--my first love was football, so I wanted to be a pro football player. And I didn't think about anything else really until, really until the end of high school. Just before the end of high school when I got beat up on the football field enough times and got hit in the head a lot and got pushed backward instead of pushing the other guy backward. So that's when I started seriously thinking about other things. And the thing that got my mind going about that was simply had to do with really it was in preparation for the PSAT [Preliminary Scholastic Aptitude Test] and the SATs [Scholastic Aptitude Test] because they had the question on there what do you want to major in and there was no, nothing there for pro football, so that's when I really started thinking huh, let me look at this list of majors and simply go down it and check off what interests me and whatever doesn't interest me, just don't check it. And meteorology was one of those things that I checked. Now I loved math and science. I knew that, so also check marked mathematics, some of the science disciplines, especially physics and engineering, some social sciences, not too much in the way of history but some things like psychology and sociology because I had heard of them but didn't know too much about them so I was intrigued at least. But that's when I started thinking about other things that I could be once I became an adult. And then it wasn't really until--and that's, that's generally been my mode when it comes to making different life decisions. Basically thinking broadly and then focusing in on one or at least a few things and then going with that. Because once you focus in on that one thing you open that door, and that just opens up a whole new world of options for you that you can narrow down once again. So that's essentially--that's sort of the thinking process or decision making process that I went through when it came to okay, figuring out what it is I wanted to do when I grew up.$Okay. Now somewhere in the interim you attended the Motion Picture Institute of Michigan, right?$$That was actually afterwards, when I was already--that was when I first got back here to Detroit [Michigan] and southeast Michigan.$$Okay, all right so we'll freeze that one.$$Sure.$$And we'll go--but let me ask you this. That summer when you interned with Bob Ryan, you got a chance to see for the first time what, what a television meteorologist does.$$Right.$$So what does a television meteorologist do? We know what we see on television, but what do you--what, what's the preparation and what, what is your day like?$$Okay. The preparation is--well for me, I can speak for myself. What I do now being weekday morning and noon meteorologist here at Channel Four in Detroit. Every single morning I get up between two and 2:30 in the morning, get here at the station between three and 3:30. When I get here, I'm looking at all the weather information in my viewing area, at least in my viewing area that's happened the previous twenty-four hours before I got there. So I can see okay, what type of weather is occurring now, what type of weather did occur immediately, and then I look at computer models to get a sense of what may happen in the future. After looking at these various computer models, I get a sense of okay, this is what my weather forecast is going to be. So I write down a description of okay, what type of weather is going on now, what type of weather is going to happen in the future, and that gives me a good base of what to actually talk about on television. At the same time, if there's anything that's going on nationally or internationally like when we get into hurricane season like now, looking if there are any tropical storms or if there are any tropical storms or hurricanes or other, or other sort of tornado activity that might be headed in our direction. I look at that also and see if that's going to affect us. Or even if it's not going to affect us directly, our viewing audience no matter where it is, might have friends, relatives or some other interest in the area where that bad weather is happening.$$Okay. For instance today we've got Hurricane Sandy [2012] I think.$$That's right, today we've got Hurricane Sandy, which has already moved over Jamaica, moving over eastern Cuba and headed over the Atlantic. But there's a question of where it will go. It will probably stay along the Carolina coastline, but everyone's concerned about whether it will turn to the west and hit either New York or New England. And regardless of where it goes, it still has an indirect weather, indirect--regardless of where Sandy goes, it still has an indirect impact on Detroit and southeast Michigan because it causes a virtual log jamb in the skies. I mean it's going to get colder and it's going to get cloudier over Michigan, over southeast Michigan this weekend. Well if that hurricane stays off the coast, it might actually jamb things up and keep us cold or chilly for an extended period of time.$$Okay. So, so how much preparation goes into a--in terms of time, goes into a--$$Well when the weather is good, generally good, it can be anywhere from fifteen to forty-five minutes is good. I get into, I get into work between three and 3:30. The first time I go on TV is just after 4:00 a.m. during the Early Today Show, and then our local news starts at 4:30. And even before then at 4:26 I do a little weather update. So normally I have all my stuff, I have all my ducks lined up by 4:15, 4:20. So yeah generally a good fifteen to forty-five minutes I can get a good weather cast together.$$Okay and you do how many, how many broadcasts a day?$$Boy, last count when I last counted, this is on television because now we have the Internet, so I do that also. When I last counted the number of weather hits that I have, it's got to be over twenty. It's got to be somewhere in the neighborhood of twenty-five or thirty because it's at least two or three times a half hour, and then we have the Today Show and there are at least two times when I break in there, and then there's an update at 10:30, sometimes there can be another update depending on the season, and then we have the noon show and there are at least two or three updates, two or three weather appearances there also. So all that adds up to at least twenty-five or thirty.$$Okay, all right. And, and therefore the duration of a, of a segment is--$$It can be a short--some of them can be as short as fifteen or twenty seconds, some of them can be as long as two and a half, three minutes.

Keith Jackson

Physicist Keith Hunter Jackson was born on September 24, 1953 in Columbus, Ohio to Gloria and Russell Jackson. He earned two B.S. degrees, one in physics from Morehouse College and one in electrical engineering from the Georgia Institute of Technology. Jackson then moved to California where he obtained his M.S. and Ph.D. degrees from Stanford University in 1979 and 1982, respectively.

After obtaining his graduate degrees, Jackson began working for Hewlett Packard Laboratories. He became a member of the Gate Dielectric group and developed techniques to create thin nitride films on silicon layers. In 1983, he served as a professor at Howard University, working in the Solid State Electronics group. Beginning in 1988, Jackson worked for Rockwell International (now Boeing) in the Rocketdyne division where under the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) program he performed research on diamond thin films, high powered chemical and Free Electron Lasers (FEL) and water-cooled optics. In 1992, Jackson began working for the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory as associate director of the Center for X-Ray Optics (CXRO). His research interests were in the Extreme Ultra-Violet (EVU) lithography, x-ray lithography, electroplating and injection molding. EUV lithography is the technology, which is used to build billions of nano-sized devices for use in computers and cell phones. X-ray lithography and molding is used to build micro-sized mechanical devices like micropumps, and tiny mirrors for large screen projection TV’s. In 2005, Jackson became Vice President of Research and Professor of Physics at Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University (FAMU). On January 4th 2010, Jackson moved to Baltimore, Maryland and joined the faculty of Morgan State University as Chair of the Department of Physics.

Jackson served as president of the National Society of Black Physicists (NSBP) from 2001 to 2006. He is also a fellow of the National Society of Black Physicists and the African Scientific Institute. In 2004, Jackson was selected as one of the 50 Most Important African Americans in Technology by U.S. Black Engineer and Information Technology. In addition to his published papers, Jackson has written pieces on minority physicists including “Utilization of African American Physicists in the Science & Engineering Workforce” and “The Status of the African American Physicist in the Department of Energy National Laboratories.”

Accession Number

A2012.140

Sex

Male

Interview Date

7/16/2012 |and| 9/10/2012

Last Name

Jackson

Middle Name

H.

Schools

Morehouse College

Georgia Institute of Technology

Stanford University

First Name

Keith

Birth City, State, Country

Columbus

HM ID

JAC29

Favorite Season

April

State

Ohio

Favorite Vacation Destination

Paris, France

Favorite Quote

In Physics, We Don't Teach You What To Think. We Teach You How To Think.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Maryland

Birth Date

9/24/1953

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Baltimore

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Oranges

Short Description

Physicist and physics professor Keith Jackson (1953 - ) served as president of the National Society of Black Physicists, vice president of research at Florida A&M University and chair of the Department of Physics at Morgan State University.

Employment

Morgan State University

Florida A&M University

Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

National Association for Equal Opportunity in Higher Education (NAFEO)

Rockwell International

Howard University

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:3061,17:9810,94:11378,114:16740,216:17000,221:17780,237:18430,249:18820,257:27626,365:29054,392:29474,398:30062,406:30398,442:36856,500:38896,556:39916,574:40392,582:40664,594:41412,611:44655,623:45795,638:46555,648:51970,700:53566,726:56606,772:60068,793:60396,798:61544,813:72450,943:74375,990:83376,1118:95408,1272:96928,1298:100810,1330:107894,1410:108531,1418:109805,1446:111261,1466:113536,1499:116472,1574:117816,1595:120588,1631:120924,1636:121260,1641:122436,1651:123612,1668:124284,1677:132293,1779:133163,1790:141328,1886:142316,1902:143988,1932:144292,1937:144672,1943:145128,1951:146268,1970:154688,2053:156272,2070:157328,2083:157680,2088:160340,2107:160824,2112:173365,2237:174392,2258:174708,2263:176130,2286:180336,2313:184970,2417:219910,2711:225212,2769:225547,2775:225949,2783:235268,2932:235924,2943:236416,2950:237400,2963:249104,3136:252050,3154:253250,3180:263219,3333:266385,3364:268085,3404:268850,3415:271740,3471:272165,3492:280620,3596:281222,3606:284240,3638$0,0:6800,46:7640,69:10440,134:10930,143:15489,196:19080,414:42926,623:43448,634:43680,639:43912,644:44724,660:45014,666:45478,676:45710,681:65772,918:69910,946:70480,953:70955,960:84053,1157:84589,1166:96010,1333:98676,1364:101160,1385:101835,1397:102210,1403:103860,1433:105060,1453:107985,1564:108435,1571:108810,1577:114628,1606:121240,1623:138126,1852:138506,1858:146666,2021:146994,2026:147814,2040:148306,2047:155018,2132:162103,2224:162933,2236:163763,2247:164178,2253:169624,2304:170121,2313:173188,2339:184056,2417:188243,2493:192804,2578:195084,2594:195464,2600:203630,2704:204518,2733:220164,2914:223700,2927:226594,2968:227026,2977:228800,2986:231270,3005:232073,3020:239925,3097:240520,3105:240945,3114:241880,3130:251898,3206:252570,3214:253722,3229:254202,3235:260118,3297:260545,3306:266610,3387:271275,3459:276160,3481:280386,3535:281074,3544:284586,3592:291430,3655:300048,3772:303084,3815:306304,3874:311095,3904:323886,4034:324318,4047:324822,4056:327630,4122:327918,4127:331206,4136:332436,4152:333502,4167:338175,4209:338745,4216:342437,4253:343018,4265:346255,4319:353230,4387:357390,4414:359070,4434:374536,4637:379645,4688:385951,4788:386473,4796:388996,4843:390214,4868:395037,4916:396205,4936:405130,5028:417200,5143
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Keith Jackson's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Keith Jackson lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Keith Jackson describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Keith Jackson describes his mother's experience growing up in Columbus, Ohio

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Keith Jackson talks about his mother attending Ohio State University

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Keith Jackson describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Keith Jackson describes his father's service in the U.S. Air Force and his experience at Harvard Law School in the 1950s

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Keith Jackson describes his father's death in 1957

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Keith Jackson describes how his parents met and got married

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Keith Jackson describes his parents' personalities and who he takes after

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Keith Jackson recalls his memories of his father

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Keith Jackson talks about his brother, and describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Keith Jackson describes the sights, smells and sounds of growing up in Columbus, Ohio

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Keith Jackson describes segregation in Columbus, Ohio, in the 1950s and 1960s

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Keith Jackson describes his experience in school

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Keith Jackson describes his interest in comic books and Estes model rockets

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Keith Jackson describes his childhood perception of the space race

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Keith Jackson talks about his secular upbringing

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Keith Jackson talks about his brother, David Jackson, and his childhood interest in slot cars

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Keith Jackson describes how slot cars work

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Keith Jackson talks about his technical problem-solving skills as a teenager - part one

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Keith Jackson talks about his technical problem-solving skills as a teenager - part two

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Keith Jackson describes his experience attending Champion Junior High School and Bishop Hartley Catholic School

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Keith Jackson describes his mother's reasons for sending him to Bishop Hartley Catholic School

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Keith Jackson describes his experience at Bishop Hartley Catholic School in Columbus, Ohio

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Keith Jackson describes his experience at Eastmoor High School in Columbus, Ohio - part one

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Keith Jackson describes his experience at Eastmoor High School in Columbus, Ohio - part two

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Keith Jackson talks about the activism of Dr. Charles O. Ross at Ohio State University

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Keith Jackson talks about applying to colleges in the 1970s

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Keith Jackson describes his decision to attend Morehouse College to major in physics

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Keith Jackson describes his experience at Morehouse College

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Keith Jackson talks about Carl Spight's role in improving the physics department at Morehouse College - part one

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Keith Jackson talks about Carl Spight's role in improving the physics department at Morehouse College - part two

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Keith Jackson describes his experience at Morehouse College - part one

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Keith Jackson describes his experience at Morehouse College - part two

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Keith Jackson talks about the physics department at Morehouse College

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Keith Jackson talks about his foundational education in physics at Morehouse College

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Keith Jackson talks about black professional societies in the 1970s, and the trends regarding black scientists at the time

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Keith Jackson discusses science education at historically black colleges and universities - part one

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Keith Jackson discusses science education at historically black colleges and universities - part two

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Keith Jackson discusses the importance of a foundational education for physics and engineering students

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Keith Jackson discusses recent discoveries and trends in the physical sciences and technology

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Keith Jackson describes the Higgs boson and the implications of its discovery - part one

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Keith Jackson describes the Higgs boson and the implications of its discovery - part two

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Keith Jackson describes his experience as a graduate student at Stanford University - part one

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Keith Jackson describes his experience as a graduate student at Stanford University - part two

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Keith Jackson describes his decision to work at Stanford University's Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Keith Jackson describes his doctoral research at Stanford University's Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory - part one

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Keith Jackson describes his doctoral research at Stanford University's Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory - part two

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - Keith Jackson describes his doctoral research at Stanford University's Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory - part three

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - Keith Jackson talks about the dangers of working with lasers

Tape: 9 Story: 1 - Keith Jackson describes his decision to join the department of electrical engineering at Howard University

Tape: 9 Story: 2 - Keith Jackson describes his decision to leave Howard University and accept a position at Rocketdyne

Tape: 9 Story: 3 - Keith Jackson describes his work on the free electron laser at Rocketdyne

Tape: 9 Story: 4 - Keith Jackson describes his work on diamond thin films at Rocketdyne - part one

Tape: 9 Story: 5 - Keith Jackson describes his work on diamond thin films at Rocketdyne - part two

Tape: 9 Story: 6 - Keith Jackson describes his work on the application of Rocketdyne's water-cooler mirrors in the synchrotron radiation community

Tape: 10 Story: 1 - Keith Jackson describes the importance of finding the correct match in employment

Tape: 10 Story: 2 - Keith Jackson describes his decision to join Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in 1992 - part one

Tape: 10 Story: 3 - Keith Jackson describes his decision to join Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in 1992 - part two

Tape: 10 Story: 4 - Keith Jackson describes the concept of Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography

Tape: 10 Story: 5 - Keith Jackson describes his work on Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

Tape: 11 Story: 1 - Keith Jackson discusses the futuristic projects at Rockwell International's Advance Programs division

Tape: 11 Story: 2 - Keith Jackson describes his involvement with the National Society of Black Physicists (NSBP) - part one

Tape: 11 Story: 3 - Keith Jackson describes his involvement with the National Society of Black Physicists (NSBP) - part two

Tape: 11 Story: 4 - Keith Jackson discusses the lack of African American professional physicists at laboratories funded by the Department of Energy - part one

Tape: 11 Story: 5 - Keith Jackson discusses the lack of African American professional physicists at laboratories funded by the Department of Energy - part two

Tape: 11 Story: 6 - Keith Jackson talks about what it takes to become a successful physicist

Tape: 12 Story: 1 - Keith Jackson talks about the shortage of African American scientists in management and research roles

Tape: 12 Story: 2 - Keith Jackson talks about the African American scientists employed at Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory

Tape: 12 Story: 3 - Keith Jackson describes his involvement with the National Association for Equal Opportunity in Higher Education (NAEOHE) - part one

Tape: 12 Story: 4 - Keith Jackson describes his involvement with the National Association for Equal Opportunity in Higher Education (NAEOHE) - part two

Tape: 12 Story: 5 - Keith Jackson describes his decision to become a professor of physics at Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University

Tape: 12 Story: 6 - Keith Jackson describes his experience working at Florida A&M University, and the nature of the U.S. federal granting process

Tape: 13 Story: 1 - Keith Jackson describes the mismanagement of research funds at Florida A&M University in the early 2000s - part one

Tape: 13 Story: 2 - Keith Jackson describes the mismanagement of research funds at Florida A&M University in the early 2000s - part two

Tape: 13 Story: 3 - Keith Jackson describes the state of research funding at Florida A&M University

Tape: 13 Story: 4 - Keith Jackson describes his involvement in securing research funding for Florida A&M University - part one

Tape: 13 Story: 5 - Keith Jackson describes his involvement in securing research funding for Florida A&M University - part two

Tape: 13 Story: 6 - Keith Jackson describes his involvement in securing research funding for Florida A&M University - part three

Tape: 14 Story: 1 - Keith Jackson describes his experience at Florida A&M University

Tape: 14 Story: 2 - Keith Jackson describes his decision to leave Florida A&M University

Tape: 14 Story: 3 - Keith Jackson describes the challenges to science education at HBCUs - part one

Tape: 14 Story: 4 - Keith Jackson describes the challenges to science education at HBCUs - part two

Tape: 14 Story: 5 - Keith Jackson describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community today

Tape: 14 Story: 6 - Keith Jackson reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 15 Story: 1 - Keith Jackson reflects upon his career choices

Tape: 15 Story: 2 - Keith Jackson talks about his family

Tape: 15 Story: 3 - Keith Jackson talks about how he would like to be remembered

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Keith Jackson describes his work on the application of Rocketdyne's water-cooler mirrors in the synchrotron radiation community
Keith Jackson describes his doctoral research at Stanford University's Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory - part three
Transcript
About this time, there was, I made a reintroduction to the synchrotron light source community because we had, the company [Rocketdyne; rocket engine design and production company] had a contract or thought that they were competing for a contract to build a large free-electron laser. And this was a half billion dollar contract. A lot of effort went into it, and eventually, the [U.S.] Air Force decided that they weren't gonna go for it. They weren't gonna build this huge free electron laser to take out satellites because they didn't believe--I mean take out missiles because they didn't believe it would work, which left us with a number of technologies. One was the, one was, had to do with particle accelerators and magnetic structures called undulators that go around them. And it also left us with a division that built cooled mirrors, water-cooled mirrors, okay.$$What--okay.$$So you'd have a water-cooled mirror for the laser. That way you'd be able to keep the temperature rise at the surface, and the optics wouldn't distort and the laser would keep running. Now, the trouble is, when you looked at this, well, who else needed these kinds of technologies, you know? Who, who could, who had the pocketbook to pay for this and the technical need. And I argued within the company that the synchrotron radiations community needed these kinds of optics because the advance photon source at the Argonne National Lab [Illinois] was coming on line, and also the advance light source at Berkeley [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California] was coming on line. And when you looked--these were sources that were built for these small-cap, magnetic insertion devices called undulators. And when you put these undulators into being, they pulled out a tremendous amount of light at x-ray wavelength, at EUV [extreme ultra violet], and x-ray wavelengths. And they would, and when you had optics on there, they would build a tremendous amount, there would be a tremendous amount of thermo loading on the mirrors. And they had various schemes, technologies that they had developed that were, that relied on very exotic cooling techniques. One was a liquid gallium cooled mirrors. So gallium like mercury is a liquid, not quite at room temperature, but add a little bit above. And you have the, you can pump it as you would any liquid, and it has a tremendous thermo-conductivity. And so there was one scheme where you would use this to cool a mirror. Now, I never, the reason I smile is, I never believed that that would work. And the people at the Advanced Photon Source at the time said that something like 90 percent of their mirrors would be these gallium-based things. And this is, and plus, they did not have the technology--they would have to build the mirrors. That's how they, because that's why it was gonna be 90 percent of it so they would have a job for life. But, you know, we had a company, a little company that actually built these mirrors, these water-cooled mirrors. We had prototypes, we had some of the--Rocketdyne solved these technical problems like how you bond these mirrors together, how you actually, you had, we had different types of 'em, some of 'em which had, we called 'em pinFET. That means you stuck little pins in, and then you put it on top, and then you blow water through it. And you can change the size of this pin. You could change the concentration of the pins. So we needed something, one area cooler than the other. There were even schemes for being able to use the thermo differences to bend and focus mirrors, which was unheard of at these wavelengths.$But, so anyway, so we engineered an apparatus after we looked at the requirements, okay. So we have to have a window, something that shows us from the storage ring. And so we have to use a thin film metal window. Then the issue was, well, if you vent your chamber, you let it up to air, if there's atmospheric pressure there, it's gonna break through this window. I said, well, we're not, I'm naive and I say, well, we're not gonna let it vent. And they say, well, what we're gonna have is we're gonna have a fine. Anybody who vents their chambers, $10,000. And I said, well, maybe we'll get a thicker window. So I started to look into getting windows thick enough to take atmospheric pressure--and by the way, these foils are about a hundred times thinner than a sheet of aluminum foil. A sheet of aluminum foil is a hundred microns thick. These films, these foils were ten microns thick. Your hair is 125 microns thick. And it soon became clear, well, there's no foil on earth that's gonna be thin enough that I could put in there. So I, then I looked at supported films. And so there's a mesh there, and somehow, this guy miraculously gets aluminum foil on there that's three microns thick. And I say, well, that's still not gonna support this thing if I vent. And so the senior graduate student said--he wants to graduate. And so he's saying, well, we're gonna go back to the first suggestion of not venting the chamber and use the reputation of Dr. [Richard] Zare [Jackson's doctoral thesis advisor] and the desire that they had to get other people using this thing. And so we tried that, once. And this graduate student I was working for was from India. His name is Javed Hus--well, his ancestry is Indian. I don't think he was, I think he was born in the United States. And so we're running an experiment, and he's putting these things in, noxious gases. And I'm saying, well, Javed, you know, we don't really have the equipment to be handling this. And so we're doing that. We're getting some data, and the people come up there and inspect our apparatus. And we complete the experiment, and as I'm taking the thing down 'cause I was the only one authorized to use the crane, all right, the director of operations comes over to me. And I'll never forget, he says, well, Jackson, you're okay, but we don't want this Indian guy here anymore. And you need to go tell Zare. And in the meantime, 'cause I'm thinking, boy, you know, here I gotta go play, I gotta play rat. And in the meantime, he's getting impatient 'cause he wants to graduate. He's been there seven years, and he's not such a great experimentalist, all right. So he's starting an experiment in the lab using a laser and it's a gas laser, and he's got the gas plumb to it. And he got impatient and he didn't hook up the gas properly. So he took a big cylinder--and normally, you have a regulator that drops the pressure, he built an adapter where he was taking the straight pressure from the cylinder, with just some plastic tubing. And it's a low-pressure cylinder, but, no way. And the gas reacted with the plastic, burned away and the gas pours out into the room. The gas is poisonous. The other fifteen members of the group exit, you know, the lab, and they're out on the lawn. I came into the building from the back. I didn't see 'em. I come into the elevator. I go down into the lab. We're in the basement. And I opened the door and it was like a fist struck me from the gas that was in there. Happily, there was a graduate student, no, a post-doc that was there that was there with a gas mask or he made a gas mask. And he helped me back in the elevator, and we got up to the lawn where I was sitting up there coughing away. And after I regained my composure, I conveyed to Dr. Zare what the operations director said, and agreed with him (laughter). He's gotta go, you know. And then he got tremendous flack from the chemistry department and the university for the accident down there. And therefore, I, you know, that's where he worked out another experiment for the student to do, and I got to take over the experiment and, eventually got another assistant; engineered a system, a safety system that would shut two valves to protect the accelerator, sensor mat to go with it, utilized a new species of pump, turbo-molecular pump, to evacuate the chamber, all first for there, initiated collaborations with another scientist, David Shirley, director of Lawrence Berkeley [National] Laboratory [Berkeley, California], to get some experiments going, why this stuff was being built. And then got it, and did the experiment, did it on two gases, well, I did it on three gases, published the thesis on two, CO [carbon monoxide] and N2 [nitrogen] and was, you know, able to demonstrate for one of the first measurements, first that the alignment actually exist, what its value was, how to--the theory for coupling together the angular momentum so that it agrees with the experimental results and published that. That was my thesis. And then took a job in, at Hewett Packard [HP] in the semi-conductor device laboratory.