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Ron Adams

Printmaker Ron Adams is a former commercial printmaker and current independent artist who has taught at several universities and collaborated with artists such as John Biggers and Judy Chicago. He was born on June 25, 1934, in Detroit, Michigan to Laura and William Adams. Adams took classes at numerous art schools throughout the late 1950s and the 1960s, including Los Angeles Trade Technical College, Manual Arts Adult Night School, Los Angeles City College, UCLA and the University of Mexico. These classes gave him a broad base of experience in technical skills such as drafting, technical illustration, lithography, and engraving, as well as the more standard drawing and painting. He received a certificate of trade proficiency from Otis College of Art and Design in 1963.

Adams used his technical expertise to become a successful commercial printer. In 1968, while studying at the University of Mexico, Adams designed the poster, murals, and motif for the Olympic Stadium in Mexico City. Upon his return to the United States, Adams went to work at the prestigious Gemini G.E.L. printing workshop in Los Angeles, where he quickly moved from the position of assistant printer to that of master printer. In 1973, he left Gemini to work as a master printer for Editions Press in San Francisco. A year later, Adams moved to Santa Fe, New Mexico to found his own printing company, Hand Graphics Ltd. While there, he also worked as a guest instructor in the printmaking department of the University of Texas in El Paso in 1981, and chaired the Santa Fe Committee for Low-Cost Studio Space for Artists in 1985. Adams sold Hand Graphics Ltd. in 1987 and retired from commercial printing to focus on producing his own artwork. He has since served as artist-in-residence at Hampton University in Virginia in 1989 and at Tougaloo Art Colony in Mississippi in 2002.

Adams has been featured in exhibitions at the Museum of Fine Arts in Santa Fe, Loyola Marymount University in Los Angeles, the Frist Center for the Visual Arts in Nashville, the Vanderbilt University Fine Arts Gallery in Nashville, and the University of New Mexico Art Museum in Albuquerque, among others. His work was included in a travelling exhibition of prints and drawings sent to the USSR by the US State Department in 1966. Pieces by Adams appear in the collections of such noted museums as the California Afro-American Museum in Los Angeles, the National Museum of American Art in Washington, D.C., and the Bronx Museum in the Bronx, as well as in the Library of Congress in Washington, D.C.

Accession Number

A2010.081

Sex

Male

Interview Date

7/13/2010

Last Name

Adams

Maker Category
Marital Status

Single

Schools

Northwestern High School

Sampson Elementary School

Los Angeles Trade Technical College

Otis College of Art and Design

University of California, Los Angeles

Academy of San Carlos

Search Occupation Category
Speakers Bureau

Yes

Speakers Bureau Availability

Any

First Name

Ron

Birth City, State, Country

Detroit

HM ID

ADA10

Speakers Bureau Preferred Audience

Any

Speakers Bureau Honorarium

No

Favorite Season

Summer

Speaker Bureau Notes

Preferred Audience: Any

State

Michigan

Favorite Vacation Destination

Central America

Favorite Quote

For A Long Life, Keep Your Mouth Shut And Your Bowels Open.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Birth Date

6/25/1934

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Atlanta

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Salmon, Poultry, Soul Food, Mexican Food

Short Description

Printmaker and graphic designer Ron Adams (1934 - ) worked as a fine art printmaker at the Gemini G.E.L. studio, where he printed the works of artists like Robert Rauschenberg. He also created his own lithographic prints and collaborated with John T. Biggers and Charles Wilbert White.

Employment

Mission Appliance Service

Hughes Aircraft Company

Litton Industries, Inc.

Gemini G.E.L. LLC

Hand Graphics LLC

Editions Press

University of Texas at El Paso

Hampton University

Memphis College of Art

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Ron Adams' interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Ron Adams lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Ron Adams remembers his mother's profession and personality

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Ron Adams talks about his maternal grandmother, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Ron Adams talks about his maternal grandmother, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Ron Adams remembers his father's personality and profession

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Ron Adams describes his paternal grandfather's family background, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Ron Adams describes his paternal grandfather's family background, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Ron Adams describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Ron Adams talks about his neighborhood in Detroit, Michigan, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Ron Adams remembers his childhood pastimes

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Ron Adams talks about his neighborhood in Detroit, Michigan, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Ron Adams remembers his extracurricular activities

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Ron Adams talks about his early interest in drawing

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Ron Adams describes his experiences at Northwestern High School in Detroit, Michigan

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Ron Adams talks about his move to California

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Ron Adams remembers meeting his first wife

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Ron Adams recalls how he came to be a technical illustrator

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Ron Adams describes the technical illustration program at the Los Angeles Trade Technical College

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Ron Adams describes his career as a technical illustrator in Los Angeles, California

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Ron Adams describes his decision to attend the Otis Art Institute in Los Angeles, California

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Ron Adams remembers his professors at the Otis Art Institute in Los Angeles, California

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Ron Adams recalls the cultural movements of the 1960s and 1970s

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Ron Adams talks about his reasons for moving to Mexico City, Mexico

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Ron Adams remembers his arrival in Mexico City, Mexico

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Ron Adams describes the process of lithography

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Ron Adams describes the processes of etching and engraving

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Ron Adams recalls how he came to work at Gemini G.E.L. LLC in Los Angeles, California

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Ron Adams describes how he became the graphic designer for the 1968 Summer Olympics

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Ron Adams talks about the Tlatelolco massacre in Mexico City, Mexico

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Ron Adams talks about his involvement in the protest movements of the 1960s

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Ron Adams describes his work at Gemini G.E.L. LLC in Los Angeles, California

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Ron Adams describes the role of a master printer

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Ron Adams talks about the difference between fine art prints and commercial prints

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Ron Adams talks about printer's proofs and artist's proofs

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Ron Adams describes his decision to open a printing studio in Santa Fe, New Mexico

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Ron Adams talks about the Hand Graphics LLC studio in Santa Fe, New Mexico

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Ron Adams remembers working with Charles Wilbert White

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Ron Adams talks about the process of publishing a print

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Ron Adams recalls his guest lectures

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Ron Adams recalls meeting his third wife

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Ron Adams talks about his artist residencies

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Ron Adams describes his family's impressions of his career

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Ron Adams talks about his print, 'Blackburn'

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Ron Adams describes his print, 'Profile in Blue'

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Ron Adams remembers his relationship with the High Museum of Art in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Ron Adams describes his decision to move to Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Ron Adams describes his hobbies

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Ron Adams talks about the arts community in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Ron Adams reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Ron Adams shares his advice to aspiring artists

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Ron Adams reflects upon his life

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Ron Adams narrates his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$5

DAStory

4$1

DATitle
Ron Adams describes his work at Gemini G.E.L. LLC in Los Angeles, California
Ron Adams remembers working with Charles Wilbert White
Transcript
So now, let's go back to 1969 through '73 [1973], and talk to me more about your work at Gemini G.E.L. [Gemini G.E.L. LLC, Los Angeles, California].$$Oh that was, it was a wonderful experience for me because I had to learn the very basics in printmaking, but not very, to the extent that they did it at Gemini G.E.L., because I mean most of the artists that were there were a lot of New York [New York] blue chip artists. And there's a lot of various positive things that happened there, experienced. I met a lot of wonderful friends that we're still in contact today on a monthly or weekly basis, a lot of the guys I worked with then. They worked the hell out of you, because I mean I remember one instance, for instance we were working with, shortly after they did the moon walk on the moon, we were working with Bob Rauschenberg [Robert Rauschenberg], and they had this project that they were gonna do a series of the moon thing ['Stoned Moon,' Robert Rauschenberg]. He was invited to NASA [National Aeronautics and Space Administration] to witness this, and so I don't know, they were gonna do this big sweep or something of his regarding the Americans landing on the moon. Now the fact is, is by us making prints, the more images he would turn out, the more money they would make. So, it was one of those things, we would go in there, work started at eight o'clock, you got off for lunch at ten, and about four o'clock in the afternoon the boss would come by and say, "What do you guys want for dinner?" That means you're gonna be there to do some overtime. Okay about eight o'clock he'd come by and ask you how you like your bacon and eggs. (Laughter) You know you're gonna be there to sunrise. And then you get up, "Now you guys go home, be back in about three hours or four hours and come back to work." And that went on for about a couple of--two or three weeks. But, from this, the advantage of working there, all the work that we worked on we would get one of the printer's proofs, and a lot of people are, like I saw a lot of guys are still living off--some of those prints are worth thousands and thousands of dollars. But, when I moved to New Mexico I sold most of mine; I wish I hadn't. And you know I mean everything from Andy Warhol to just, I mean all of these big names. And you know I had all that stuff under my bed, you know, because we would get one of everything. And they treated us, I mean if you had a hurt hand or something, they would send you to the top doctors in Beverly Hills [California]. And then when they, they actually--one of the highlights, they decided that they were gonna have it showed, the Museum of Modern Art in New York. And they said, "What we're gonna do is fly the whole shop there, the janitors and all. The only thing we request is you guys have a good time." So that was one of those experiences where, I mean I got an opportunity to meet all kind of movie stars, celebrities, and everything. And working in there, I mean there were all these people like coming in there, and one of the guys used to hang out with us, name was Michael Crichton. He was a big star. He wrote 'The Andromeda Strain.' He has done--he's a young guy and he's very wealthy. He's about 6'8" and I heard about a year or two he died, and he wasn't that old a guy either. And he was one of these guys, when he was twenty-one years old he was a doctor and all that. But, he's already from family with money. Anyway, they flew the whole shop there and the only thing they want for you to do is just have a good time and that was about it and they was gonna pay, flew the whole shop there with pay, paid you for a week, you know.$Now, you were there [Hand Graphics LLC, Santa Fe, New Mexico] for seventeen years.$$Um-hm.$$I know there's gotta be some stories about some of the artists that you worked with or--$$Um-hm, oh yeah.$$--or some of the pieces that you know are worth a lot of money or something. Tell me what, tell me, give me a story.$$Well, I think one to me it was--I felt very good about the fact that Charles White [Charles Wilbert White] had sought me out to do a print for him during the bicentennial of the U.S., and it's, it's a matter of he and his dealer, Ben Horowitz [Benjamin Horowitz], flew out to Los- to Santa Fe [New Mexico] for me to do this particular print with Charles White, because he was going to be in a nationally traveling show and he was the only--it was an Afro American show, he was the only living artist to be in there. So, he says, "Well, if it's an all Afro American show I will get it--." And Los Angeles County Museum [Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Los Angeles, California] wanted to do a print to help pay for this, so he decided if it's gonna be an all Afro American show, I'm gonna get an Afro American printer to print it. Okay, well he flew out to New Mexico and for some reason--Bob Blackburn [Robert Blackburn] is much more well known than I am. But, why he came there rather than New York [New York] I don't know. Bob Blackburn didn't have the set up that I had because Bob Blackburn's studio [Robert Blackburn Printmaking Workshop] was for, more or less it's a learning place and that sort of thing and mine was set up on much more professional level than--so they flew out there and, in order for Charlie to do the print with me. And the fact is the first time I had ever won any competition, Charles White happened to be the judge out of the first competition I ever won a piece in, and I had known him in Los Angeles [California] before he had came to New Mexico. So, he and his dealer, Ben Horowitz, flew out there and by Santa Fe being seven thousand feet, and Charles White only had one lung, it is very difficult for him to breathe there. So, we had to postpone that, but I always had wanted to work with Charlie. And so about a year or two later, I decided I would do something with him and, but he could not come to Santa Fe. So, what I decided to do was one of those big litho stones--you see where that television is sitting there, that's, on that flat stone that's a big stone, about the size of that table. I took and drove the stone out to his house from New Mexico to Los Angeles, Pasadena [California], where he was living and set it up in his studio. And then I left my truck there and flew back to New Mexico, and a couple of months later he called me to tell me he had completed the drawing on the stone, then I drove back to California, and another friend of mine was working for an artist that I also had worked with, Sam Francis, a pretty well know artist. He had a printmaking studio out in Santa Monica [The Litho Shop, Inc., Santa Monica, California]. So, I proofed the print up just to see what it looks like in front of Charlie, hey here's what we got, here's the corrections or whatever you have to make, so we can discuss it while he was there--visually. So, he approved it and then I drove the stone all the way back to New Mexico and that's where we printed the edition of that particular stone. And then he and I continued to work together, and he had gotten ill at that particular time, so I was taking him some little etching, some plates and he says to me, "Ron [HistoryMaker Ron Adams], look if you can't--," because it's my own business, he said, "well, if you can't afford to publish these you don't have to, you know." I said, "No, hell no, as long as you feel like drawing, hey I'm, I'm your man, you know you do all you want." So, those were, he was, he did four of these little plates and he called me, because I was sending them back and forth through the mail these small etching plates, and he says he made the corrections and he called me and told me, "Ron, I'm sending these plates back next week." I said, "Okay," and I waited two or three weeks, and I didn't receive them and his wife [Frances Barrett White] called me and said, "Charlie passed this week." So, I never saw, took about a year to hand those up, you know before I got the prints and printed those. Those were his last etchings and engravings, you know.$$Do you know the, remember the name of the piece, the first piece that you did? Was there a name for the, the, the print?$$Charles White?$$Yes.$$Oh, 'Sounds of Silence' [sic. 'Sound of Silence']. It was a lithograph. It's on that, over there, the cover is on that book over there if you wanna see that, 'Sounds of Silence.'

Floyd Norman

Animator and script writer Floyd Norman was born on June 22, 1935 in Santa Barbara, California. He began producing animated films while he was still in high school. Early in his career, Norman worked with Bill Woggon on the animated comic book series, Archie. In the 1960s, Norman attended the Art Center School in Pasadena, California, majoring in illustration. After only two years of study, Norman was hired at Walt Disney Studios. He started working as an animator on the film, Sleeping Beauty and was promoted to the story department. Under Walt Disney’s personal supervision, Norman worked on the story sequence for scenes in the animated film, The Jungle Book.

Norman met fellow African American animation artist Leo Sullivan right after Sullivan graduated from college and began searching for employment. The two animators realized that they had similar interests and started working with each other on various animated films. Sullivan wrote and directed a short cartoon on the story of Christopher Columbus and later, the two produced an elaborate animated fantasy tale. Norman’s and Sullivan’s films helped Sullivan earn his first professional job in the animation industry. In the mid-1960s, Norman left Walt Disney Studios, and alongside Sullivan, founded Vignette Films, Inc. where they produced six animated films on the subject of black history. In the 1970s, Norman wrote and produced animated segments for Sesame Street, Villa Alegre and dozens of other educational films. In addition, Norman supervised the animation layout at Hanna-Barbera Productions and storyboarded several shows including The Flintstones, The Smurfs and Scooby Doo. In the 1980s, Norman returned to Disney and wrote the syndicated Mickey Mouse comic strip. Norman also worked on feature length animated films such as The Hunchback of Notre Dame, Mulan and Toy Story 2.

In 1999, Norman and Leo Sullivan created a multicultural internet site, www.Afrokids.com, designed to present a variety of African American images to children. At the Annie Awards in 2003, Norman won the Winsor McKay Lifetime Achievement Award.

Floyd Norman was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on November 5, 2007.

Accession Number

A2007.321

Sex

Male

Interview Date

11/5/2007

Last Name

Norman

Occupation
Organizations
Schools

Santa Barbara Senior High School

Santa Barbara Junior High School

Art Center College of Design

Lincoln School

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Floyd

Birth City, State, Country

Santa Barbara

HM ID

NOR03

Favorite Season

Fall

State

California

Favorite Vacation Destination

Beaches

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

California

Birth Date

6/22/1935

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Los Angeles

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Chili, Cornbread

Short Description

Animator and scriptwriter Floyd Norman (1935 - ) worked for Walt Disney Studios on Sleeping Beauty, The Hunchback of Notre Dame and Mulan. He also worked for Hanna-Barbera Productions as an animator on the Scooby Doo and Smurfs programs.

Employment

Walt Disney Animation Studios

Hanna-Barbera Productions

Bill Woggon

Pixar Animation Studios

Disney Publishing Worldwide

Sesame Street/PBS

Vignette Films, Inc.

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Floyd Norman's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Floyd Norman lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Floyd Norman describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Floyd Norman describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Floyd Norman describes his maternal grandparents

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Floyd Norman describes his earliest childhood memories

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Floyd Norman lists his siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Floyd Norman describes his neighborhood in Santa Barbara, California

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Floyd Norman describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Floyd Norman remembers the Lincoln School in Santa Barbara, California

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Floyd Norman describes his early interest in art

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Floyd Norman describes his religious upbringing

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Floyd Norman describes his family's musical talents

Tape: 1 Story: 14 - Floyd Norman remembers Santa Barbara Junior High School in Santa Barbara, California

Tape: 1 Story: 15 - Floyd Norman describes his early cartoon art

Tape: 1 Story: 16 - Floyd Norman remembers Santa Barbara High School in Santa Barbara, California

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Floyd Norman recalls his mentors at Santa Barbara High School

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Floyd Norman describes his assistantship with Bill Woggon, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Floyd Norman describes his assistantship with Bill Woggon, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Floyd Norman describes his role as the cartoonist for his school newspaper

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Floyd Norman describes his extracurricular activities during high school

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Floyd Norman recalls interviewing at the Walt Disney Studios in Burbank, California

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Floyd Norman remembers the Art Center School in Pasadena, California

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Floyd Norman remembers race relations in Los Angeles, California

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Floyd Norman describes his apprenticeship at the Walt Disney Studios

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Floyd Norman remembers seeing Walt Disney for the first time, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Floyd Norman remembers seeing Walt Disney for the first time, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Floyd Norman describes his personal life

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Floyd Norman describes his transition from animation to storyboarding

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Floyd Norman reflects upon the absence of artists of color at Walt Disney Studios

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Floyd Norman describes the story department at the Walt Disney Studios

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Floyd Norman remembers filming the Watts riots in Los Angeles, California

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Floyd Norman recalls the lack of diversity in the media

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Floyd Norman remembers Walt Disney

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Floyd Norman remembers the opening of Disneyland in Anaheim, California

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Floyd Norman describes his work on 'The Jungle Book'

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Floyd Norman recall serving in the U.S. Army during the Korean War

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Floyd Norman remembers Walt Disney's death

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Floyd Norman remembers founding Vignette Films, Inc.

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Floyd Norman recalls meeting his first wife

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Floyd Norman describes the dissolution of Vignette Films, Inc.

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Floyd Norman describes his work for Hanna-Barbera Productions, Inc. and 'Sesame Street'

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Floyd Norman reflects upon the changes in children's television programs

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Floyd Norman recalls being honored by the Black Filmmakers Hall of Fame, Inc.

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Floyd Norman describes his return to the Walt Disney Studios

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Floyd Norman describes his position as a story artist at Walt Disney Studios

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Floyd Norman reflects upon the lack of people of color in animation

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Floyd Norman describes his work with Pixar Animation Studios

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Floyd Norman talks about creating the Afrokids website

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Floyd Norman describes his work on 'Wild Life' and 'Curious George'

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Floyd Norman describes his awards

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Floyd Norman reflects upon his career at Walt Disney Studios

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Floyd Norman reflects upon his life, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Floyd Norman shares his advice for aspiring animators

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Floyd Norman reflects upon his life, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 11 - Floyd Norman describes how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 5 Story: 12 - Floyd Norman describes his hopes for the African American community

Tape: 5 Story: 13 - Floyd Norman reflects upon the importance of history

Tape: 5 Story: 14 - Floyd Norman shows his Disney Legends award

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$3

DAStory

2$7

DATitle
Floyd Norman describes his assistantship with Bill Woggon, pt. 1
Floyd Norman recalls the lack of diversity in the media
Transcript
Now during the, your high school years, there's a name that comes up, Bill Woggon.$$Bill Woggon, right.$$Tell us about that experience. Now you're in--still in high school [Santa Barbara High School, Santa Barbara, California] when this association with him begins?$$This ties into high school very much. My biology teacher, Jacob Turner [ph.], played golf out at the Montecito Country Club [Santa Barbara, California] every Wednesday with a gentleman named Bill Woggon. And Bill Woggon, as it turns out, was a cartoonist. Lived out in Mission Canyon [California], and had a ranch that he named Woggon Wheels Ranch (laughter). That's a wacky name. And Mr. Turner said, "You know what? There's a kid in my science class who's never paying attention to his studies. He's always drawing cartoons." And Bill Woggon said, "Well, you know, you ought to send him out to see me. I can, perhaps I can use him as an assistant." So that was my introduction to Bill Woggon, it came through my, my science teacher in high school. So, one afternoon I drove out to Mission Canyon to the Woggon Wheels Ranch to meet this gentlemen, Bill Woggon. And sure enough, he gave me a job while still in high school as his assistant.$$What grade would you have been in at this point?$$Probably the eleventh grade, probably a junior in high school.$$Now, what is Bill Woggon known for?$$Bill Woggon worked for Archie Comics [Archie Comic Publications, Inc.]. Back, back in the 1950s, Archie Comics was very big. They did 'Wilbur' ['Wilbur Comics'] and as well as the 'Archie Comics,' and they had a few other titles, I just can't remember now. But one title they published was 'Katy Keene,' "Katy Keene, the fashion queen," and that was a comic book that was drawn and written by Bill Woggon. And one of the things that was unique about 'Katy Keene' was it was interactive. You know, for its day, it was an interactive comic book. That is, Bill allowed his readers to participate. He let the girls send in fashion designs for Katy's wardrobe. And then Bill and his artists would take those designs drawn by the children and incorporate those designs into the comic stories and give the kids credit. The boys were not left out. The boys could design cars, airplanes, whatever, you know. And so the boys had a chance to jump in and do their thing as well, and then they would get a credit in the comic book. Well, it just thrilled them. Because imagine as a kid designing something, and then seeing your name in print and knowing that kids all over the U.S., you know, have seen your design and your name in, in a comic book.$$Now, let's re-visit your science teacher. Do you think teachers had a knack back in the day of realizing, okay, maybe he won't be a chemist.$$(Laughter) Right (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) But I do see that he has--do you think that was a trend that happened during those times, where they could see--$$Oh, very much so. I think that the teachers when I was going to high school were much more involved in their individual students, number one, because the classes were smaller. So, each student would get more personal attention. So therefore my science teacher, Mr. Turner, certainly recognized that even though I might not be a science wiz, (laughter) I apparently had some talent in another area. And then he brought that to the attention of Bill. So, you know, that's just the way things worked in those days.$Are you starting to feel or see anything different at Disney [Walt Disney Studios, Burbank, California] when you're going there? Or are you seeing that they're out of touch? What are you seeing now? Because they're asking you what's going on (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) Yeah, yeah, well--$$Are they starting to see things a little bit different now?$$Well, Disney, because they did exist in their own little world--and they were not all that different from the rest of the Hollywood studios. Keep in mind, this is Hollywood in the 1960s. The way things were at Disney was pretty much the way things were at Warner Brothers [Warner Bros. Entertainment, Inc.], or 20th Century Fox [Twentieth Century Fox Film Corporation], or at MGM [Metro Goldwyn Mayer Inc.; Metro Goldwyn Mayer Studios Inc.]. They were simply--you didn't have that diversity in the media. I mean, how many African Americans did you see on television in the 1960s? Or Latinos? Or Asians? You just didn't see them. For some reason, diversity was not a priority in America in the 1960s, until they were kind of like hit in the face with it when the cities began to catch fire. And people began to look up and say, "What's happening? And why is this happening?" They didn't have a clue; they didn't have a clue. And I said, "Well, there're certain people, certain segments of your society who feels like they're cut out. Feels like they're not getting their piece of the pie, and they're getting upset about it." They're getting so upset, I watched them light a Molotov cocktail and throw it through a shop window. Now that rage, you can't justify it, because I don't justify anybody burning down somebody's property, but that rage came from someplace. It came from a lot of angry people, a lot of people who felt they were shut out of the American dream. Now, I was lucky. I was kind of like living the American dream out there at the Walt Disney Studio. But a lot of people wasn't, you know, they weren't as fortunate as I was.$$Now, where were you living in Los Angeles [California] at that point?$$I was living in Los Angeles. I was living on 28th Street in the Adams district [West Adams] of Los Angeles. And we were largely untouched by the riots, although they were only blocks away, you know, they weren't that far away. I mean if you wanted to, you could probably walk down the street to Western Avenue a few blocks south and you might be in the thick of it. So, they weren't that far away. They were getting close, and the people in L.A. were getting nervous. They were getting nervous; they didn't know where this thing was going to end.

Glenn Tunstull

Glenn Tunstull was born one of four children on July 29, 1950 in Flushing, New York. Tunstull developed a passion for art at an early age, after witnessing his Uncle Leroy sketching a portrait of his parents. Tunstull’s family moved across the country when he was young, from New York to Louisville, Kentucky finally settling in Detroit, Michigan, where Tunstull attended Cass Technical High School and graduated in 1968 with a concentration in commercial art.

Tunstull won a scholarship to Parsons, the New School of Design. He attended the school for two years before working for various pattern companies. By 1970, Tunstull was illustrating for Vogue magazine and was hired as the first African American illustrator at Women’s Wear Daily. Having built a name in the industry, Tunstull augmented his day work with freelance projects for major designers and department stores.

In 1975, at the age of twenty-five, Tunstull moved to Morocco and shortly thereafter, to Europe, where he worked in Paris and Milan. While working abroad Tunstull created fashion illustrations for the Hermes and Kenzo design houses and for fashion publications that included Marie Claire and Votre Beauté. Tunstull himself was featured in Italian Vogue for his work with WWD and Silvano Malto; he returned to the United States in 1977.

In 1979, Tunstull returned to New York City and began working for a variety of publications, including GQ magazine and The New York Times. In the 1990s, Tunstull began teaching fashion art at the Fashion Institute of Technology, and model drawing classes at his alma mater, the Parson’s School of Design. In 1994, Tunstull served as the keynote speaker at the Society of Illustrators Museum for the Best of Fashion and Beauty Illustration Exhibition.

In 1996, Tunstull shifted his career focus to watercolor landscapes depicting scenes inspired by his travels, particularly trips to Brazil, Jamaica, Australia, and Martha’s Vineyard, where he hosted an annual showing of his artwork. In 1997, Tunstull illustrated Kai: A Big Decision, a children’s book by Sharon Shavers Gayle. In 2000, Tunstull again made a shift in his artistic approach, continuing to work in landscapes but using oil paints, expanding his ability to portray different moods.

Accession Number

A2007.261

Sex

Male

Interview Date

9/13/2007

Last Name

Tunstull

Maker Category
Organizations
Schools

Cass Technical High School

Boynton Elementary-Middle School

Winterhalter Elementary School

Parsons School of Design

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Glenn

Birth City, State, Country

New York

HM ID

TUN01

Favorite Season

Summer

State

New York

Favorite Vacation Destination

Brazil

Favorite Quote

Stay In The Moment.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Birth Date

7/29/1950

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Albany

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Italian Food, Soul Food

Short Description

Fashion illustrator and painter Glenn Tunstull (1950 - ) was an illustrator for Vogue, Women's Wear Daily, Marie Claire and Votre Meaute, and exhibited his landscape paintings worldwide.

Employment

Simplicity Pattern Company

Vogue Patterns

Lord and Taylor

Women's Wear Daily

Fashion Institute of Technology

Parsons School of Design

Pratt Institute

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:5564,174:10700,330:14231,383:15622,399:20651,480:21186,485:22684,510:33860,591:45032,780:45626,792:46154,801:50287,825:53570,862:54128,872:57192,880:59280,916:59568,921:60144,932:61584,963:64536,1027:64824,1032:69144,1144:69936,1158:70800,1174:71160,1182:72312,1205:72960,1215:74688,1253:75336,1264:75984,1274:76272,1279:90250,1411:90690,1416:92552,1432:93917,1452:97063,1481:97953,1527:104390,1601:121870,1824:122254,1865:124174,1896:126094,1921:126862,1931:127534,1940:132547,1970:133129,1977:135516,1997:135971,2004:141024,2060:141825,2077:142448,2085:146614,2140:147230,2149:148990,2176:155775,2266:161882,2320:162412,2326:165680,2374:169446,2420:170000,2425$0,0:10782,128:11342,134:13470,164:17658,188:18042,193:33324,415:37748,498:38064,503:38617,510:40987,551:41540,558:42093,570:42646,577:51086,640:52682,666:53690,682:56462,734:62190,756:62743,765:63059,770:65558,800:66110,810:66386,815:67145,831:70250,902:70595,908:71630,926:72320,939:72665,945:78530,1075:82208,1090:89100,1192:89452,1202:98370,1251:107640,1324:108096,1333:108780,1344:109844,1365:110908,1395:112428,1413:113644,1437:119585,1496:121961,1539:127024,1586:127783,1604:128128,1610:128542,1617:129991,1665:137280,1775:137760,1782:157356,2001:157818,2011:158126,2016:158511,2022:159127,2033:160051,2051:160359,2056:162053,2092:163131,2120:163439,2125:165680,2147
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Glenn Tunstull's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Glenn Tunstull lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Glenn Tunstull describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Glenn Tunstull remembers the Kentucky Derby

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Glenn Tunstull describes his parents' occupations

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Glenn Tunstull describes his mother

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Glenn Tunstull describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Glenn Tunstull describes his upbringing in Detroit, Michigan

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Glenn Tunstull remembers the influence of Motown in Detroit, Michigan

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Glenn Tunstull describes the auto industry in Detroit, Michigan

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Glenn Tunstull recalls the previous generation's response to the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Glenn Tunstull describes his home life

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Glenn Tunstull remembers the pastimes of his youth

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Glenn Tunstull describes the sights and sounds of his childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Glenn Tunstull recalls his early education

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Glenn Tunstull remembers his early interest in drawing

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Glenn Tunstull recalls his aspiration to become a fashion illustrator

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Glenn Tunstull describes his first course in fashion illustration

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Glenn Tunstull remembers Cass Technical High School in Detroit, Michigan

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Glenn Tunstull remembers his early interest in fashion

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Glenn Tunstull recalls applying to the Parsons School of Design in New York City

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Glenn Tunstull remembers the Parsons School of Design

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Glenn Tunstull talks about fashion design and illustration

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Glenn Tunstull recalls his interview at the Simplicity Pattern Company, Inc.

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Glenn Tunstull recalls leaving the Parsons School of Design

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Glenn Tunstull describes the fashion industry of his early career

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Glenn Tunstull remembers his introduction to the pattern industry

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Glenn Tunstull describes his work as a colorist for Vogue Patterns

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Glenn Tunstull talks about the pattern industry

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Glenn Tunstull recalls his transition to Women's Wear Daily

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Glenn Tunstull describes the Women's Wear Daily trade publication

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Glenn Tunstull recalls the rise of fashion photography

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Glenn Tunstull remembers illustrating Women's Wear Daily

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Glenn Tunstull describes his lifestyle in New York City

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Glenn Tunstull reflects upon his career at Women's Wear Daily

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Glenn Tunstull remembers moving to Europe

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Glenn Tunstull remembers his travels to Liberia

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Glenn Tunstull remembers his experiences in Italy

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Glenn Tunstull describes his career in France

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Glenn Tunstull remembers Carol LaBrie

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Glenn Tunstull remembers meeting James Baldwin

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Glenn Tunstull talks about Toyce Anderson

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Glenn Tunstull remembers his nostalgia for African American culture

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Glenn Tunstull describes his return to the United States

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Glenn Tunstull describes his transition to teaching

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Glenn Tunstull remembers his guests in New York City

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Glenn Tunstull describes his teaching career

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Glenn Tunstull talks about his students

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Glenn Tunstull recalls being honored by Fashion Outreach

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Glenn Tunstull recalls his address to the Society of Illustrators

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Glenn Tunstull recalls his transition to painting

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Glenn Tunstull describes his decision to show his paintings

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Glenn Tunstull talks about his partner, Joe Steele

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Glenn Tunstull lists the collectors of his art

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Glenn Tunstull talks about his friendship with Robert C. Hayden

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Glenn Tunstull describes his painting technique

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Glenn Tunstull describes his commissioned artwork

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Glenn Tunstull talks about his children's book illustrations

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Glenn Tunstull reflects upon the field of fashion illustration

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Glenn Tunstull reflects upon his legacy

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$4

DAStory

5$2

DATitle
Glenn Tunstull recalls his interview at the Simplicity Pattern Company, Inc.
Glenn Tunstull recalls his transition to Women's Wear Daily
Transcript
How long was the program at Parsons [Parsons School of Design, New York, New York]?$$It was a three-year program, of which I only did two years.$$And why did you only do two years? What did you end up (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) I got a job.$$Where'd you work?$$Simplicity Patterns [Simplicity Pattern Company, Inc.] was my first job. My neighbor across the hall--there was a campaign at the time and it said, during that period, and it said, "I got my job through The New York Times." And so this--my friend across the hall, her name was Linda Merritt [ph.], came to me one day and said, "Here's a--I was looking through the ads in New York Times, and here's a job for--looking for a sketcher at Simplicity Patterns." So, I went to the interview. And I always tell the story to my students because when I left Pa- Parsons and I didn't go back for the following year, I created a whole different portfolio from what I had developed in class. It wasn't enough for me to just show what I had done in class 'cause then your work looks like everyone else because you're solving the same problems that everyone else was. So, I created a whole 'nother portfolio. And then, I thought I was gonna be something like an illustrator or work for a toy company or something like that. That's the kind of things I was interviewing for. And, so I got to this job interview, and the guy says to me, his name was John Young [ph.], he said, "We like your work. We want to see how you work in our format." They had a certain size format and--which was like eight and a half by eleven [inches] and I drew large at the time. So, I said, "Okay." And then he took me to the side and he says, "If you really want this job, you'll do two." Well, I did three, and I got the job. That has always stayed with me, and I always share that with students. You have to show an effort above and beyond what's expected for--of you for people to take you seriously, or to get that you really want it. That's as much a part of it as being qualified. 'Cause there were other people that were equally qualified, I assume. So, I got this job. I now teach with the first person that I worked with there. Her name is Josephine Vargas, and we both teach at Parsons, the same type of class, and she's li- 'cause I consider her my longest known professional colleague, and we have a very good relationship. And I worked there for about a year.$How long did you stay at Vogue Patterns, and what did you do next?$$I was there about two years at Vogue Patterns. The--it was funny thing. I had gotten that job because in my effort to find another job when I was at Simplicity [Simplicity Pattern Company, Inc.], I went on a series of interviews and I met these women that said to--at this company that said to me, "We can't use what you're doing, but we have a friend that does what you're doing. His name is Stephen Cervantes and we know him from home," which was like Salt Lake City [Utah]--or Kansas City, sorry Kansas City. He was an illustrator for Women's Wear Daily. So, they said, "Here's his number, call him up and tell him, you know, to--we said come see you." So I went to see him. And this was like walking through a portal. He became my best friend. He was already an illustrator at Women's Wear Daily, introduced me to all the other illustrators, and then told me about another friend of his that worked at Vogue Patterns, which led to my going on a interview there, which led to my getting that job there. In the course of, of working at Vogue Patterns, I became very friendly with the artists at Women's Wear. We just were like all hangout buddies. So, as a result, when they had a, a position available at Women's Wear, I knew about it. And, this was wonderful, because they were so supportive of me, the artists that worked there already, and part of my thing was, you want a new job? You do a new portfolio, so they helped me put together my portfolio. Stephen was--had a habit of posing for all the artists 'cause he could affect these poses and move, just stuff like that. He just had that about him and he had long hair and you could draw him like a woman. So, he posed for me for an entire portfolio. So, when I submitted it to the art director, there must've been, I would imagine thousands of artists who wanted that job, and I got it. And I would've probably done the job for no money, but they wound up paying me more money than I was accustomed to and more money than I definitely was getting from Vogue Patterns, and my life changed in an instant.

R. Gregory Christie

Illustrator and freelance artist Richard Gregory Christie was born on July 26, 1971 in Plainfield, New Jersey to Ludra V. St. Amant Christie and Gerard Adoltus Christie. Raised by his mother, a Louisiana Creole, and his father, a Jamaican pharmacist, Christie was raised in the Scotch Plains community of Plainfield near the Jerseyland Resort. He attended St. Bartholomew the Apostle Elementary School where he demonstrated a talent for art early on. In 1985, Christie worked for Commercial Art and Supply while he attended Fanwood High School. Graduating in 1989, he enrolled in New York City’s School for Visual Arts (SVA). His first illustration was published by the Star Ledger in the summer of 1990. In 1993, Christie graduated from SVA with his B.F.A. degree.

In 1994, Christie illustrated the album cover of Justice System’s Summer in the City. Soon, his work graced the covers of jazz labels from all over the world, including Joe Sample’s Old Places Old Faces Warner Brothers, 1996; George Benson’s A Song for my Brother Giant Step Records, 1997; and Coltrane The Complete 1961 Village Vanguard Recordings GRP Impulse, 1997. Christie’s’ illustrations also appeared in numerous publications in Europe, Asia and America. In 1996, he illustrated Lucille Clifton’s The Palm of My Heart; Poetry by African American Children. The book won a Coretta Scott King Award honor from the American Library Association and a Reading Magic Award from Parenting magazine.

Christie has illustrated the biographies of many other significant historical and cultural figures, including Richard Wright, Langston Hughes, and Sojourner Truth. In 2006, he won a Coretta Scott King Award honor for Brothers in Hope ; The Story of the Lost Boys of Sudan, and for illustrating Only Passing Through: The Story of Sojourner Truth.
Currently, Christie is a regular contributor to The New Yorker magazine.

Accession Number

A2007.140

Sex

Male

Interview Date

4/16/2007

Last Name

Christie

Maker Category
Middle Name

Gregory

Occupation
Organizations
Schools

Fanwood High School

St. Bartholomew the Apostle Elementary School

School of Visual Arts

Search Occupation Category
First Name

R.

Birth City, State, Country

Plainfield

HM ID

CHR03

Favorite Season

Summer

State

New Jersey

Favorite Vacation Destination

Sweden

Favorite Quote

Walk Lightly With A Big Stick.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Birth Date

7/26/1971

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Atlanta

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Lentil Soup

Short Description

Illustrator R. Gregory Christie (1971 - ) has created illustrations and graphic artwork for record labels, books, and magazines. He received the Coretta Scott King Award honor for his work for 'Brothers in Hope: The Story of the Lost Boys of Sudan' and for illustrating 'Only Passing Through: The Story of Sojourner Truth.'

Employment

Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum

Favorite Color

Black

Timing Pairs
0,0:10228,182:13098,251:16293,271:21325,323:23089,366:23341,371:29452,552:33659,599:34061,606:34530,614:40430,675:41258,689:42270,705:47054,772:53550,885:54170,899:54418,904:54790,912:59586,1039:64378,1146:65919,1185:69075,1199:70650,1229:70950,1234:75225,1339:75750,1347:76125,1353:83052,1447:94885,1654:103694,1749:104618,1777:105146,1796:108182,1879:110624,1943:117450,1985:118314,2000:119826,2036:120114,2042:121194,2059:132101,2223:140232,2372:141464,2401:143260,2410:143708,2418:152392,2581:152966,2589:153376,2596:154360,2610:154688,2615:155180,2623:158132,2675:158624,2687:163198,2707:165277,2763:168553,2864:170443,2909:171766,2940:177212,2968:177620,2975:178300,2989:183332,3101:184284,3129:188296,3235:188636,3241:194350,3286:195120,3292$0,0:1668,56:9120,313:9606,321:10335,331:21056,453:22016,471:22528,480:25961,510:26497,521:29311,588:29579,594:32996,673:33264,682:33733,692:34068,698:35542,729:40201,785:40670,793:42546,843:43082,856:43350,861:48174,1084:59210,1204:59722,1213:59978,1229:61130,1256:63434,1334:64266,1352:65738,1383:66186,1397:71024,1463:71542,1472:72356,1489:73836,1523:75686,1567:82095,1653:86312,1716:89840,1815:92730,1883:93360,1893:94830,1947:98330,2030:99730,2068:100010,2073:100290,2091:100990,2103:102600,2133:103090,2143:107940,2168:108423,2181:108906,2196:109320,2203:109734,2211:115185,2328:118359,2445:119325,2467:125459,2518:125751,2524:126116,2530:126554,2537:129774,2559:136125,2665:141512,2734:141777,2740:142201,2762:142678,2773:145890,2794:146694,2812:149508,2879:149910,2886:151250,2912:152255,2962:153595,3013:154332,3028:158550,3052:160379,3122:160851,3131:167782,3269:168097,3275:168475,3286:168727,3291:171430,3308:171898,3321:174472,3396:177046,3473:180946,3562:182506,3606:187010,3645:191012,3735:193358,3799:199820,3937:202196,4010:204860,4081:205508,4091:206876,4113:209150,4120
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of R. Gregory Christie's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - R. Gregory Christie lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - R. Gregory Christie describes his mother's family background, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - R. Gregory Christie describes his mother's family background, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - R. Gregory Christie talks about his mother

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - R. Gregory Christie describes his father's family background, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - R. Gregory Christie describes his father's family background, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - R. Gregory Christie talks about his father

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - R. Gregory Christie talks about the religious composition of Maryland

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - R. Gregory Christie talks about his father's decision to pursue a career in pharmacy

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - R. Gregory Christie talks about his family's interest in art

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - R. Gregory Christie describes the sights, sounds and smells of growing up in Scotch Plains, New Jersey

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - R. Gregory Christie talks about growing up in Scotch Plains, New Jersey

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - R. Gregory Christie talks about confronting racism while growing up in Scotch Plains New Jersey, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - R. Gregory Christie talks about confronting racism while growing up in Scotch Plains New Jersey, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - R. Gregory Christie talks about his educational experiences

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - R. Gregory Christie talks about his and his father's musical interests

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - R. Gregory Christie recalls being raised Catholic and interactions with extended family

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - R. Gregory Christie describes his childhood interests

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - R. Gregory Christie talks about his early interest in art

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - R. Gregory Christie talks about his elementary education at St. Bartholomew Academy in Scotch Plains, New Jersey

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - R. Gregory Christie describes the area in which he grew up in New Jersey

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - R. Gregory Christie describes his interests and activities while growing up in Scotch Plains, New Jersey

Tape: 2 Story: 13 - R. Gregory Christie recalls his experiences at Scotch Plains Fanwood High School in Scotch Plains, New Jersey

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - R. Gregory Christie considers the impact of his high school friendships on his outlook

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - R. Gregory Christie talks about his membership in the Scotch Plains Fanwood Arts Association

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - R. Gregory Christie talks about being a finalist for the Governor's Award in Arts Education in New Jersey

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - R. Gregory Christie explains his decision to attend School of Visual Arts in New York, New York

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - R. Gregory Christie talks about his friendships forged during his early years in New York, New York

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - R. Gregory Christie talks about his work with the Star-Ledger in Newark, New Jersey

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - R. Gregory Christie describes his employment trajectory at the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum in New York, New York

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - R. Gregory Christie describes his experiences at the School of Visual Arts in New York, New York

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - R. Gregory Christie talks about his decision to enter the commercial art world after graduating from School of Visual Arts in New York, New York

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - R. Gregory Christie expounds on the entertainment value of art and assessing artistic merit

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - R. Gregory Christie recalls his art shows at Nell's nightclub in New York, New York

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - 04:07:05:20R. Gregory Christie describes the recent homogenization of the art world in New York, New York

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - R. Gregory Christie reflects upon developing ethics and values as a young adult

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - R. Gregory Christie reflects upon forming friendships with people from a variety of different backgrounds

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - R. Gregory Christie describes creating an album cover for Zapp

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - R. Gregory Christie recalls developing his own style and learning how to illustrate children's books

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - R. Gregory Christie shares his perspective on celebrity artists

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - R. Gregory Christie talks about the impetus for his work as a freelance artist

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - R. Gregory Christie talks about the impact of his mother's death

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - R. Gregory Christie describes his artistic process and learning certain techniques

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - R. Gregory Christie talks about the transition from commercial to fine art

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - R. Gregory Christie talks about what he's gained from illustrating children's books

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - R. Gregory Christie describes the process of creating the children's book 'The Palm of my Heart: Poetry by African American Children'

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - R. Gregory Christie talks about collaborations between authors and illustrators

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - R. Gregory Christie talks about being represented by an agent

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - R. Gregory Christie explains how he came to represent himself as an artist

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - R. Gregory Christie reflects upon the importance of learning about history while also focusing on living in the present

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - R. Gregory Christie describes live painting

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - R. Gregory Christie reflects upon the value of art, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - R. Gregory Christie reflects upon the value of art, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - R. Gregory Christie talks about working with acrylic and gouache in his artwork

Tape: 5 Story: 11 - R. Gregory Christie talks about his mural for the Sun Valley Center for the Arts in Ketchum, Idaho

Tape: 5 Story: 12 - R. Gregory Christie describes his hopes for the African American community

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - R. Gregory Christie reflects upon his life

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - R. Gregory Christie talks about the effects of being removed from his family

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - R. Gregory Christie narrates his paintings, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - R. Gregory Christie narrates his paintings, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - R. Gregory Christie narrates his paintings, pt. 3

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$4

DAStory

9$1

DATitle
R. Gregory Christie talks about his early interest in art
R. Gregory Christie recalls his art shows at Nell's nightclub in New York, New York
Transcript
What was your subject matter when you drew, you know? Were you inspired by stuff you saw on TV, or--$$No, I was mainly inspired, I'd say in the beginning by comic books: 'Conan the Barbarian,' 'Heavy Metal,' these kind of things. So, I used to draw people with swords, make flipbooks where you actually would draw on the edge of a book and just kind of flip it on each page so that it starts to move. You start from the end of the story, and then you build up to the beginning. And then at the end, you can flip it, like how they used to do all the cartoons. So, I mean I used to work that way, mainly working with gory stuff, things you would expect a boy to draw, like sharks eating people, and war zones and guns and shooting and--$$I don't know, I'm not surprised that stuff was popular amongst--the youth today are doing the same thing.$$(Laughter) So, I mean that's where it started. And then after a while, like, getting into eighth grade [at St. Bartholomew Academy, Scotch Plains, New Jersey] I had--teachers really start to single me out and, wow, you know, you're really good. You've got to keep--you know, become an artist, and this and that. And I remember one guy that was, his name was--I just remember his name because of the--his name was Ponce de Leon [ph.]. He was from Spain, and this guy was apparently like a college level teacher, but he was doing something that his daughter--her name was Jamina [ph.]--she went to school with me. She came a bit later. She was pretty cool, I mean like really nice and everything. And her family came from Spain and all that, I think. But he was like really exuberant, and he was really like going on about a painting I was doing because he had, he started like an afterschool type program. Like, he actually wanted the kids to come in, you know, a little bit after, and do some painting courses. And we did a still life, and I still have the still life. But he really was saying how I really have a command of the materials, you know, and he really encouraged me. Like, almost every art teacher really told me to pursue art. So, I mean, that's where I spent a lot of my time. A lot of my time I spent painting.$$So, so did you--when did you actually start painting? What age were you when you actually started using paint?$$Twelve.$$Okay.$$Using professional stuff.$$Okay.$$But when I was a kid, I always worked with color and markers, colored pencil. See, I used to--I don't--people a lot of times tell me I'm lucky, you know. And I tell them always the same thing that I'm lucky in the sense of knowing exactly what I want to do on this planet. From being--from birth, I knew what I wanted to do, like, at an early age. And the point is, when I went to the art store, I went there so much that they gave me a job eventually. They just--I mean when I came of age, "When do you want to start?" So I started--you know, they saw my face so much getting different supplies. And I tell every artist this: that no school teaches you to paint, you teach yourself to paint. You have to sit at a table or sit in a room and just work with the materials and find out how it's going to react. And if you can do that, then you can start to learn about theories and other people's solutions. But find your own voice first.$I think we're at the point where we can talk about your first children's book ['The Palm of My Heart: Poetry by African American Children'].$$Um-hm.$$Yeah. So, tell us about that. How did that come about? Now, you were working as a commercial artist--$$You could--no.$$--doing freelancing--$$This is a really, really, important aspect of what I've done career-wise.$$Okay.$$When I came to New York [New York], I saw the system set up. I saw the way things are, and I realized that I have to go with my own approach. Because the way--this, the way I'm saying, it's like, it's kind of like, what happened when I first got to New York, I didn't know anybody. I got here from New Jersey, a small town called Scotch Plains, New Jersey. I got to New York and, you know, it was like a culture shock in a way, because as a kid I didn't really, like, go out that much; I drew a lot. The weekends were spent at home, I was with my mom [Ludria St. Amant Christie]. My brothers [Gerard Thaddeus Christie and Corneilus Marshall Christie] used to go out a lot, and I'd be home drawing and watching TV. So, being social is something I had to learn; I had to learn, you know. I would say fifteen years ago, I wouldn't even be able to talk to you and really get everything out the way I'm trying. And I'm doing the best I can now, but I'm just saying, it's something I had to learn. The same way that people have to learn to draw if they want to pursue it, I have to learn to communicate with words. So, you know, it would be like we were doing this interview with just sketch pads, and you draw something and I answer it back from the sketch. You can do that, then you understand how it is for me, you know. So, the first thing that happened when I got to New York was I took the slides that I used to get into art school [School of Visual Arts, New York, New York], and I went to a nightclub called Nell's [New York, New York]. And I showed the manager, and he said, "Oh man, we could do slideshows, you know." And I asked him about it, so I started showing my art each week while people were there, like Thursday nights when the place was packed. I would show my work, and it became a hit. People were so shocked to see art, in a nightclub, you know, but it was an upscale place with like Louis XVI furniture. You'd have stockbrokers, and you'd have kids from the Bronx [New York, New York], you know, and it was really good. It was two levels, one with live music and one down at the bottom. And eventually, like, other people started to, you know, like it, and then they made me in charge of curating slideshows, you know. And then I got be a part of a party called Funky Buddha, you know. And you know, I actually had a guest list, you know, and I started to like incorporate the world I'm in with this nightlife world, that I'm, you know, learning about. And I'd invite people like Thomas Krens, like, the director of the [Solomon R. Guggenheim] Museum [New York, New York]. I invited him to the parties, and I invited people I knew. Like, you know, working in a museum, I'd got in contact with a lot of European people. I worked in the checkrooms, so I met people, and I'd invite them. If you don't have anywhere to go tonight, I'll put you on the guest list. So, what happened is when people would come to the party, they'd be getting out of limousines, and you know. And Thomas Krens would call. One time he called and said, "Oh," you know, "what time is the party tonight?" And "I'm the director of, you know, the Guggenheim." So the people, you know, these are kids throwing a party, and they're impressed. They're like "How do you know Thomas Krens?"$$Now the Funky Buddha is a club?$$Funky Buddha was a party at Nell's.$$Okay.$$And it went on for several years. And everyone that was throwing the party--$$So, a certain night or something they would have Funky Buddha?$$Wednesday nights. I think it was Tuesday, and it was probably Wednesday, if I remember. I've got all the flyers and all that stuff; I've kept like a record of it. But it's an important part of like how I do things.

Ayoka Chenzira

Ayoka Chenzira was born on November 8, 1953, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania to Paul and Bernice Wilson. Chenzira was reared by her mother who owned a beauty parlor in the building where they lived in north Philadelphia. Pennsylvania. Chenzira played the cello, field hockey and studied ballet for a number of years. She attended private boarding school during high school. After graduation, she attended The College of New Rochelle in Westchester, New York, where she studied film and photography. Chenzira received her M.A degree in education from Columbia University and her B.F.A. degree in film production from New York University, where her thesis piece was Syvilla: They Dance to her Drum, a short film that documented the African American concert dancer, Syvilla Fort, who was her dance teacher.

As the chair of the department of media and communication arts at the City College of New York, Chenzira managed programs in advertising, public relations, journalism, film and video. She also co-created the City College of New York’s first M.F.A in media arts production graduate program.

Chenzira is a prolific film artist whose works include features, performance art, documentaries, experimental productions and animation. In fact, she is considered the first African American female animator. In 2002, Chenzira was invited to serve as the first William and Camille Cosby Endowed Professor in the Arts at Spelman College in Atlanta, Georgia, where she is creator and director of the Digital Moving Image Salon (DMIS) and teaches a year long research and production course. She also created and served as co-director of Oral Narratives and Digital Technology, a joint venture between Spelman College and the Durham Institute of Technology (DIT), where she designed and taught workshops primarily for Zulu students at DIT.

Chenzira lives in Atlanta, Georgia, and has one adult daughter.

Accession Number

A2006.156

Sex

Female

Interview Date

12/10/2006

Last Name

Chenzira

Maker Category
Schools

Gesu School

Stephen Girard School

Philadelphia High School for Girls

Lourdesmont School

New York University

Teachers College, Columbia University

Georgia Institute of Technology

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Ayoka

Birth City, State, Country

Philadelphia

HM ID

CHE04

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Pennsylvania

Favorite Vacation Destination

Amalfi Coast

Favorite Quote

That's What I'm Talking About.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Birth Date

11/8/1953

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Atlanta

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Sushi, Tuna Fish Sandwiches

Short Description

Animator, communications professor, film professor, and film director Ayoka Chenzira (1953 - ) created the first Master of Fine Arts degree program at the City College of New York, and is the William and Camille Cosby Endowed Professor in the Arts at Spelman College.

Employment

‘Syvilla: They Dance to Her Drum’

Hair Piece: A Film for Nappy-Headed People

On Becoming a Woman: Mothers and Daughters Talking to Each Other

Secret Sounds Screaming: The Sexual Abuse of Children

The Lure and The Lore

Zajota and the Boogie Spirit

Red Carnelian Films

The City College of New York

Alma's Rainbow

In The Rivers of Mercy Angst

Sentry at the Gate: The Comedy of Jane Galvin Lewis

Snowfire

Flying Over Purgatory

Spelman College

Favorite Color

Burnt Orange

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Ayoka Chenzira's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Ayoka Chenzira lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Ayoka Chenzira describes her father's background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Ayoka Chenzira describes her mother's family background, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Ayoka Chenzira describes her mother's family background, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Ayoka Chenzira describes her mother

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Ayoka Chenzira recalls growing up in a diverse apartment in North Philadelphia

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Ayoka Chenzira describes her mother's apartment in North Philadelphia

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Ayoka Chenzira describes her earliest childhood memories

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Ayoka Chenzira describes Thanksgiving celebrations with her family

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Ayoka Chenzira describes the sights, sounds and smells of her childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Ayoka Chenzira describes her childhood games and activities

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Ayoka Chenzira describes the demographics of Philadelphia's Gesu School

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Ayoka Chenzira remembers buying stockings for her First Communion

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Ayoka Chenzira describes the nuns at Philadelphia's Gesu School

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Ayoka Chenzira remembers an accident on the playground

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Ayoka Chenzira describes her interest in Catholic rituals

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Ayoka Chenzira describes her childhood personality and her mother's parenting

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Ayoka Chenzira describes her mother's emphasis on healthy meals

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Ayoka Chenzira describes her outdoor and cultural activities as a child

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Ayoka Chenzira recalls a lesson about racism

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Ayoka Chenzira describes her ballet lessons

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Ayoka Chenzira remembers Philadelphia's Jewish community

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Ayoka Chenzira recalls transferring to Steven Girard Elementary School

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Ayoka Chenzira describes her experiences at Steven Girard Elementary School

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Ayoka Chenzira recalls her community's reaction to President John Fitzgerald Kennedy's death

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Ayoka Chenzira recalls how her artistic interest emerged at Philadelphia High School for Girls

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Ayoka Chenzira describes her high school experiences

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Ayoka Chenzira recalls developing her artistic identity at Lourdesmont School

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Ayoka Chenzira recalls her experiences at Lourdesmont School

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Ayoka Chenzira remembers her decision to study filmmaking

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Ayoka Chenzira reflects upon Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr.'s assassination

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Ayoka Chenzira describes her perception of President John Fitzgerald Kennedy

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Ayoka Chenzira shares her opinion of Malcom X as a young woman

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Ayoka Chenzira recalls attending The College of New Rochelle in New York

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Ayoka Chenzira describes film education at New York University

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Ayoka Chenzira describes her artistic influences

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Ayoka Chenzira recalls her film professors, Peter Glushanok and Haig Manoogian

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Ayoka Chenzira recalls learning animation to create her film, 'Hair Piece'

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Ayoka Chenzira describes her decision to attend Columbia University's Teachers College

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Ayoka Chenzira describes her documentary, 'Syvilla: They Dance to Her Drum'

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Ayoka Chenzira recalls working as a video editor to fund her films

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Ayoka Chenzira describes her daughter and late husband

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Ayoka Chenzira recalls learning animation and working with Byllye Avery

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Ayoka Chenzira talks about her film, 'Hair Piece,' pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Ayoka Chenzira talks about her film, 'Hair Piece,' pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Ayoka Chenzira reflects upon African American women's hair trends

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Ayoka Chenzira describes the negative response to her film, 'Hair Piece'

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Ayoka Chenzira explains why she does not consider herself the first African American woman animator

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Ayoka Chenzira describes her film, 'Secret Sounds Screaming: The Sexual Abuse of Children'

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Ayoka Chenzira talks about her film, 'The Lure and The Lore'

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Ayoka Chenzira talks about her film, 'Zajota and the Boogie Spirit'

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Ayoka Chenzira describes her film company, Red Carnelian Films

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Ayoka Chenzira describes her international film projects and her teaching career

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Ayoka Chenzira talks about her film, 'Alma's Rainbow'

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Ayoka Chenzira talks about her film, 'In The Rivers of Mercy Angst'

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Ayoka Chenzira talks about two of her short films

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Ayoka Chenzira talks about her interactive film project, 'Her,' with her daughter

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Ayoka Chenzira talks about her stage play, 'Flying Over Purgatory,' pt. 1

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Ayoka Chenzira talks about her stage play, 'Flying Over Purgatory,' pt. 2

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Ayoka Chenzira describes the courses she teaches at Spelman College

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Ayoka Chenzira talks about her professional and personal goals

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Ayoka Chenzira reflects upon her life

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Ayoka Chenzira describes her concerns for the African American community

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Ayoka Chenzira shares her advice to aspiring filmmakers

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Ayoka Chenzira shares a message for future generations

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Ayoka Chenzira talks about her admiration for African American filmmakers

Tape: 7 Story: 9 - Ayoka Chenzira reflects upon her legacy and how she would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$6

DAStory

9$8

DATitle
Ayoka Chenzira recalls developing her artistic identity at Lourdesmont School
Ayoka Chenzira talks about her interactive film project, 'Her,' with her daughter
Transcript
The teachers at the school, once again, was there any teachers who, that you looked up to, or wanted to emulate?$$Well, let's see, I went to Girls High [Philadelphia High School for Girls, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania] for two years, and then I didn't want to go there anymore. I was in some ways bored, struggling to grow up and find my grounding in that I was growing up with a single parent who was very opinionated, very structured, could be dogmatic in some ways, and there was a lot of tension in the house. And I just said I don't want to do this, so I went away to boarding school [Lourdesmont School, Clarks Summit, Pennsylvania] for the last two years in upstate Pennsylvania. And it was in many ways a saving grace, because I had a kind of freedom and space that I had not imagined before. And I began to study things that I would not ordinarily be exposed to. So, for example, I was taking courses in anthropology, which were--at one point, I thought that I wanted to be an anthropologist. I wanted to be an anthropologist. I was taking early psychology and sociology courses in high school, I was starting to explore speaking French and Italian, and it was like the world was opening up to me in a very different way. And I was getting a lot more comfortable in my skin, because I was also around other young women who felt as though they were the fish out of water, as well. So it was a--it was an interesting community. Yeah.$$So in this, in this particular school, you start to explore the different things that you are coming to yourself. Okay. Becoming--and you had already decided that the arts was gonna be a part of your life, what role did the arts--I understand what you're saying about the classes that you took, sociology, but where were--$$Where did the arts fit in? I discovered that I really like to do things with my hands. And that doing things with my hands seemed to trigger information for me in terms of being able to put pieces of puzzles together, in, in terms of life, in terms of other people's lives, in terms of just figuring out some things. So I learned--there was a young woman who taught me how to knit and crochet, and it was, it was like doing hours and hours of meditation, it was wonderful. I got to the point where I could do it and not even think about it, and, you know, make very interesting things. But I think, more importantly, than the things that I was making, my mind got a chance to work things out. Both this movement with my hands and physicalizing something, there was a sense of comfort and peace that came to me in a way that I had not known before. And so if I was angry or upset about something, if I began to work with my hands, with knitting and crocheting, the feeling would go away, it would dissipate. The same thing if I was working on painting, or working on sculpture, or I played guitar for a while. These things, I began to become more aware of the impact that creating something had on my own psyche.$And 'Her'?$$'Her.'$$Tell me about it.$$'Her' is in post-production right now, I'm really excited about 'Her.' 'Her' was produced by my daughter Haj [Haj Chenzira-Pinnock], and her business partner Niaja [ph.]. They have started a company and they said, "Would you write and produce--write and direct something for us." I said, "Sure." We talked about all of the things that it could be and what it ended up being was a science fiction meets social commentary. Basically, you have this black woman who lives in another universe and she's a computer generated image, and her world is all computer generated. We worked with a wonderful artist here, William Hudson. And this character, her body is made up of images of women all over her body. That's--and she's out riding her star and she begins to see cracks in the universe, and she hears this cacophony of sound coming from Earth, and she realizes that these awful sounds are causing these fissures and cracks in her world. And she gets the approval from the old women in her community, and she jumps through this black hole and morphs into a human being and lands on Earth. And she basically discovers what, what the problem is, why she's hearing these voices yell and scream, and it has to do with these three iconic figures who represent a particular kind of male patriarchy that is from the personal level to the political level eroding away women's rights, and she deals with them to heal the universe.$$Wow.$$So that will be finished this month, and they did a, they did a really good producing job.$$That's great. And your daughter also played in some of your films, right?$$Yeah, she was in 'Alma's Rainbow,' and she was also in, 'In The Rivers of Mercy Angst.' So she's grown up to be a filmmaker.$$Like her mother.

James Hiram Malone

Versatile, prolific, retired graphic artist, cartoonist, writer and painter, James Hiram Malone is the founder and director of Laughing Trees, Inc., a non-profit, volunteer oriented organization operated out of his office, studio, and gallery/home in Atlanta, Georgia. Born on March 24, 1930 at the onset of the depression in Winterville, Georgia to Ralph and Sarah Lena Echols Malone, his father (Malone Sr.) in 1932, moved the family to Atlanta’s Buttermilk Bottom with hopes of attaining a better life for Malone and his older brother, Ralph, Jr. With encouragement from his mother and an elementary school teacher, Malone began to express himself visually at an early age. The earliest exhibition occurred during his junior year in high school. During his senior year, his paintings won him international recognition and a scholarship to attend Morehouse College where he majored in art.

Malone tried to attend “White” Atlanta’s High School of Art but was denied admission. Instead, he joined the U.S. Army, and his military career spanned over a nine-year period. Malone became the first person of color to hold the Fort Jackson post of Art Coordinator NCO and an instructor of the 3431 Army Services Unit Craft Shop. Later, he became the U.S. Army Chief Illustrator in the Special Services Division.

Malone left the military and demanded entrance again into Atlanta’s High School art program. Barred the second time, Atlanta’s High School offered him a voucher to attend an art school up north. At Detroit’s Center for Creative Studies Art and Design College, he earned his Associate of Arts degree. He worked for a variety of companies— always the first and only black in the art department. His employment ranged from a one room small agency’s one-man team to an over four acre K-Mart International Headquarters with a team of hundreds. Before leaving Michigan, for Atlanta, he spearheaded fundraising for the landmark African American History Museum; recorded the 1967 riots in paintings, cartoons and writings; created Michigan Chronicle Newspaper’s cartoon, “Brother,” and “I’m Dreaming of Colored Christmas” greeting cards.

Malone was hired by the Atlanta Journal Constitution as an advertising graphic artist, then promoted to senior graphic designer. He created the cartoon panel “Malone’s Atlanta”, and a literacy guide, (Say) “Simply Apply Yourself”. He organized employees’ Martin Luther King, Jr.’s parade celebration, and gave community students motivational lectures.

Among the books Malone has authored are Brother, No Job Dad and Grandma Sarah’s Closet. His publications include the Ralph Syndicated Comic Strip and the Living Longer Comic Strip. He has written lyrics for the songs, “Homeless Hope” and “Willie Lives in the Street” to bring attention to the plight of the homeless and “Talk to Your Child” to encourage parents’ participation in the lives of their children. His poetry is in the book Word Up. Two of his paintings Faith Moves Mountains and Down Yonder serve as a background for the movie Snow Dogs. His cartoons are published in numerous publications.

Malone is an avid community activist, lobbyist, volunteer for Hosea’s Feed the Hungry and Homeless Program and a columnist for the crusading newspaper, Street Beat. He is CEO of Grove Park Arts Alliance and Neighborhood Association; Board Member of Keep Atlanta Beautiful; past President of the International Black Writers Association; Local 22, Member of the Southern Poverty Law Center of Alabama and the RepoHistory Association; the Buttermilk Bottom Project; past chairman, The Atlanta Project Clusters, promoting local neighborhood’s self reliance.

Malone, The Eldest African American Living Native Son of Contemporary Visual Arts in Atlanta, in 2005, organized and curated, “Homecoming: 20th Century African American Masters Art Exhibition” at the City Gallery East, Atlanta, Georgia, featuring twenty-two artists, was sponsored by the Bureau of Cultural Affairs and Laughing Trees, Inc. An ongoing exhibition of Malone’s artwork is at Teaching Museum South, Hapeville, Georgia.

Malone was divorced and was the father of two sons, Andrew Ralph and Matthew Martin, who reside in Michigan. He passed away on April 9, 2011 in Atlanta.

Accession Number

A2005.256

Sex

Male

Interview Date

12/7/2005 |and| 12/19/2005

Last Name

Malone

Maker Category
Middle Name

Hiram

Organizations
Schools

David T. Howard Elementary School

Edmund Asa Ware Elementary School

Booker T. Washington High School

Morehouse College

College of Creative Studies

Search Occupation Category
First Name

James

Birth City, State, Country

Winterville

HM ID

MAL03

Favorite Season

All Seasons

State

Georgia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Atlanta, Georgia

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Birth Date

3/24/1930

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Atlanta

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Barbecue (Chicken)

Death Date

4/9/2011

Short Description

Cartoonist and graphic designer James Hiram Malone (1930 - 2011 ) was a retired graphic artist, cartoonist, writer and painter, and founder and director of Laughing Trees, Inc., a non-profit, volunteer oriented organization. Malone was an avid community activist, lobbyist, volunteer for Hosea's Feed the Hungry and Homeless Program and a columnist for the crusading newspaper, Street Beat.

Employment

U.S. Army

Better Brochures and Catalogues

Federal Department Store

Laughing Trees, Inc.

Atlanta Journal Constitution and Cox Enterprises, Inc.

Montgomery Ward

Favorite Color

Green

Timing Pairs
0,0:2160,77:3420,102:13320,355:13680,360:46319,741:56787,878:70640,993:70956,1073:71509,1207:88940,1328:89248,1333:89710,1340:94822,1410:110305,1597:131630,1876:138854,1982:145200,2126$70,0:1324,34:2776,71:7346,120:10514,228:53570,688:58490,785:61360,841:62426,858:63410,879:77725,1081:78817,1095:79636,1106:80546,1117:91264,1249:97094,1318:97534,1324:112778,1524:113134,1529:113579,1560:114291,1569:118652,1632:120076,1649:120432,1654:120877,1660:129735,1743:130358,1753:132672,1796:135431,1832:135787,1837:147504,1912:148485,1925:150229,1944:152082,1966:158118,1997:175998,2200:184542,2264:184918,2269:188584,2318:192532,2371:201650,2439:223936,2692:225070,2702
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of James Hiram Malone's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - James Hiram Malone lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - James Hiram Malone describes his mother's personality and family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - James Hiram Malone describes his father's personality and family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - James Hiram Malone describes his grandparents' family backgrounds

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - James Hiram Malone describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - James Hiram Malone describes the Atlanta neighborhood of Buttermilk Bottom

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - James Hiram Malone describes Sanctified churches

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - James Hiram Malone remembers Buttermilk Bottom's juke joints and sense of community

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - James Hiram Malone describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - James Hiram Malone recalls how the Ku Klux Klan assailed Buttermilk Bottom

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - James Hiram Malone recalls the vendors that would visit his neighborhood

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - James Hiram Malone describes the Buttermilk Bottom community and its fate

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - James Hiram Malone remembers Atlanta's David T. Howard Elementary School

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - James Hiram Malone remembers lunch at David T. Howard Elementary School

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - James Hiram Malone recalls the elementary schools he attended in Atlanta

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - James Hiram Malone recalls a fight in his later elementary school years

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - James Hiram Malone recalls moving out of Buttermilk Bottom

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - James Hiram Malone remembers going to the movies as a child in Atlanta

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - James Hiram Malone recalls seeing movies at Atlanta's segregated theaters

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - James Hiram Malone describes University Homes in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - James Hiram Malone describes his early art exhibitions

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - James Hiram Malone describes his extracurricular activities at Booker T. Washington High School

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - James Hiram Malone recalls his teenage experiences of racial discrimination

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - James Hiram Malone describes his decision to attend Morehouse College

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - James Hiram Malone describes Morehouse College in the late 1940s and 1950s

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - James Hiram Malone describes changes at Spelman College and Morehouse College

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - James Hiram Malone recalls enlisting in the U.S. Army

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - James Hiram Malone explains his decision to leave Morehouse College

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - James Hiram Malone describes his placement in the U.S. Army

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - James Hiram Malone recalls the desegregation of the U.S. Army

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - James Hiram Malone describes the gallery he established at Fort Jackson

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - James Hiram Malone explains the purpose of the art gallery at Fort Jackson

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - James Hiram Malone recalls defying segregation in Myrtle Beach, South Carolina

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - James Hiram Malone describes his experience of racial discrimination at Fort Jackson

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - James Hiram Malone reflects upon what he learned in the U.S. Army

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - James Hiram Malone describes his role as chief illustrator in the U.S. Army

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - James Hiram Malone recalls helping to solve a burglary case in Fayetteville, North Carolina

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - James Hiram Malone recalls the military bases where he was stationed

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - James Hiram Malone recalls his success as an illustrator while serving in the U.S. Army

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - James Hiram Malone talks about his first collection of poetry

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - James Hiram Malone remembers the deaths of his brother and mother

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - James Hiram Malone recalls deciding to attend the Detroit Society of Arts and Crafts

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - James Hiram Malone describes his role at Better Brochures and Catalogues, Inc.

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - James Hiram Malone describes his work at Detroit's Federal Department Stores

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - James Hiram Malone remembers the 1967 Detroit riots

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - James Hiram Malone describes his involvement in Detroit's art organizations

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - James Hiram Malone recalls his graphic design career in Detroit, Michigan

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - James Hiram Malone describes his work in Atlanta and his book, 'No-Job Dad'

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - James Hiram Malone describes his poetry and books

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - James Hiram Malone describes his activism in Atlanta, Georgia, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - James Hiram Malone describes his activism in Atlanta, Georgia, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - James Hiram Malone describes his work with The Atlanta Project

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - James Hiram Malone talks about his father's remarriage and death

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - James Hiram Malone describes his art and activism after retirement

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - James Hiram Malone describes Laughing Tree, Inc.

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - James Hiram Malone reflects upon his life

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - James Hiram Malone shares advice for young artists

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - James Hiram Malone describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - James Hiram Malone describes how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - James Hiram Malone reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - James Hiram Malone narrates his photographs, pt. 1

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - James Hiram Malone narrates his photographs, pt. 2

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - James Hiram Malone narrates his photographs, pt. 3

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$7

DAStory

9$1

DATitle
James Hiram Malone recalls enlisting in the U.S. Army
James Hiram Malone describes Laughing Tree, Inc.
Transcript
After Morehouse [Morehouse College, Atlanta, Georgia], you joined the [U.S.] Army, and where were you stationed?$$Fort Jackson, South Carolina [Fort Jackson, Columbia, South Carolina]. Fort Jackson and that's (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) And where was--$$That's--huh?$$Okay, go on.$$Fort Jackson, South Carolina. It was, it was interesting. But, but what happened is--the interesting thing was when I applied for it. You know, they have what they call these recruiters, and when I, when I went there, I--well, reason why I went there--or what I can say of the job market, but I knew they were going to draft me anyway, you know. I had to go anyway, so I, so I, so I volunteered and went. And so when I got there, the recruiters--they were asking me some questions, you know. I was gonna show 'em my portfolio to--you know, I was thinking that if I show 'em my portfolio that they would be kind of compassionate or sympathetic, know what I was interested in or give 'em my bio, and all that kind of stuff. Boy, what you know. They asked me, "Are you--," you know, they saw that--they wondered why I was a, a member of the NAACP [National Association for the Advancement of Colored People], and all that kind of thing, they wondering am I a troublemaker, you know, and it, it kind of shocked me and, and, in fact, they, they didn't want to--you know, didn't want me to--they, they was ready to turn me down, you know? And then they, they had a little huddle together--the two, two, two recruiters, and then they, you know, let me go, you know--let me--okayed me. They were gonna turn me down because of my, my portfolio like I had. They thought that--you know, back then, they would--they, they'd, they'd do that. And I, I didn't--I was shocked, but I wanted--really wanted to go so I, I had my chance then to, to not go to service (laughter). God, and I didn't, didn't do it, I could of, I could of stayed out, and they would have--and then they would ask me why, and they said, "Well, I'm, I'm, I'm part--I'm a member of the NAACP," so, so that's what happened (laughter). Now, seriously that's what happened--$Tell us some more of the projects that you have been involved in since leaving the Atlanta Journal-Constitution.$$Well, what happens, I have done, when I left there, there was so many things to do, but I was interested in doing something locally here in District 3 [Atlanta, Georgia] in my neighborhood, and so one day I was mowing my lawn out here, and I said, "Well, sheesh, you know, I get tired a mowing this lawn," so I, I started--looked at the trees and I said, "Hm, you know, those trees, we could do something with those." So what I did, I timidly, embarrassingly, or whatever you wanna call it, put some paint on the trees, you know, just touched it up a little bit. And, and then I, I decided to do some more on it. I said, "Well, I wanna put these trees to work--I wanna decorate these trees." So, I, I painted the trees, and then after I did that, I said, "Well, what I'm gonna call the trees?" So I called 'em laughing trees. And I did this in 1997. Now, I have what we call a Laughing Trees Incorporation [Laughing Trees, Inc.]. I am the CEO, it's a non-profit organization, mission of preserving open spaces and creating indoor/outdoor art projects. It was created and governed and, you know, staffed by completely volunteered people, and I'm gonna--later gonna plan classes and so forth for the local people here, and especially low-income individuals in the area, and I just wanna give them--this is my greeting card to everybody who drive by, walk by, or whatever, bike by, to see and to, you know, give them a greeting card--constant greeting card. And then I--since this been on the Internet, I received some invitations from other people, they wanted--they was interested in this project, so nationally I received word, and also internationally, people have asked me about this, and they want to do the same thing, so that's been gratifying, that's been. That's, that's great.$$Now, some of your artworks have been used in backdrops for movies and--$$Oh, yeah, my, my work is on the Internet and the, and the, a company, the Winterdance Corporation [sic.] in Vancouver [Canada], saw my, my--saw the artwork, and they was sort of interesting because they wanted to do the backdrop, or the background for, for movie houses, and so they, they selected two of my paintings and I sent them the images, and they used them in the movie called 'Snow Dogs,' which came out in 2002. It was, it was--it, it starred Cuba Gooding [Cuba Gooding, Jr.], he was the star in the movie, and it was, the, the, the, the paintings was called 'Down Yonder,' [ph.] and 'Faith Moves Mountains' [ph.]. And it, it worked out good, too. They, they used the images, but I kept the original paintings.

Elizabeth Catlett

Acclaimed printer maker and sculptor Elizabeth Catlett was born on April 15, 1915, in Washington, D.C. Growing up with grandparents who had been slaves, she was very aware of the injustices against black women. She attended Lucretia Mott Elementary School, Dunbar High School and then Howard University School of Art where she graduated cum laude in 1936. After she became the first student to earn an MFA degree in sculpture from the University of Iowa in 1940, she studied ceramics at the Art Institute of Chicago and later in New York she studied lithography at the Art Students League.

In 1946, Catlett accepted an invitation to work in Mexico City’s Taller de Grafica Popular, a collective graphic arts and mural workshop. There she cultivated the theme for her work, the African American woman. In 1947, she produced her first major show “I am a Negro Woman,” a series of sculptures, prints, and paintings through a Julius Rosenwald Foundation fellowship, which toured black women’s colleges in the South. That same year she married Mexican painter Francisco Mora. A lively community of artists surrounded her and Mora, including Diego Rivera and his wife Frida Kahlo. From 1958 through 1976, she directed the sculpture department at the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico.

In 1993, Catlett received her first New York City exhibition since 1971 and in 1998 the Neuberger Museum of Art in Purchase, New York honored her with a fifty year retrospective. Her paintings and sculptures were in the collections of the Metropolitan Museum, in New York, the Baltimore Museum of Art and the New Orleans Museum of Art.

Catlett passed away on April 4, 2012 at age 96.

Accession Number

A2005.170

Sex

Female

Interview Date

7/26/2005 |and| 7/27/2005

Last Name

Catlett

Maker Category
Organizations
Schools

Paul Laurence Dunbar High School

Lucretia Mott Elementary School

University of Iowa

School of the Art Institute of Chicago

Art Students League of New York

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Elizabeth

Birth City, State, Country

Washington

HM ID

CAT02

Favorite Season

Fall, Winter

Sponsor

Dianne and Louis Carr

State

District of Columbia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Cruises

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Mexico

Birth Date

4/15/1915

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Mexico City

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Watermelon

Death Date

4/2/2012

Short Description

Printmaker, art professor, and sculptor Elizabeth Catlett (1915 - 2012 ) was an acclaimed visual artist known for her works that explore African American themes. She was especially well-known for her depictions of a mother and child motif, both in two and three dimensions. Catlett spent much of her life in Mexico, where she directed the sculpture department at the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico for nearly twenty years.

Employment

Escuela Nacional de Artes Plásticas

George Washington Carver School

Main Sponsor
Favorite Color

Blue

DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Elizabeth Catlett

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Elizabeth Catlett's favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Elizabeth Catlett talks about her mother's background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Elizabeth Catlett talks about her father's background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Elizabeh Catlett remembers her ancestors

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Elizabeth Catlett recalls her childhood in Washington D.C. in the 1920s

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Elizabeth Catlett reminisces on summers in North Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Elizabeth Catlett describes her extended family in Lincolnton, North Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Elizabeth Catlett shares childhood holiday memories

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Elizabeth Catlett remembers Lucretia Mott elementary school in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Elizabeth Catlett recalls the Washington D.C. neighborhood of her youth

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Elizabeth Catlett remembers role models from elementary and high school

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Elizabeth Catlett explains her family's thriftiness

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Elizabeth Catlett details her transition into college

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Elizabeth Catlett recalls her high school involvement in swimming

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Elizabeth Catlett describes her early desire to pursue art

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Elizabeth Catlett recalls her uncle's troubled life

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Elizabeth Catlett reminisces about her brother's life and early death

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Elizabeth Catlett remembers her relationship with her brother

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Elizabeth Catlett comments on role models of her youth

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Elizabeth Catlett describes the great personality differences between her sister Sara and herself

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Elizabeth Catlett reflects on her sister's life

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Elizabeth Catlett describes life in Washington D.C. in the 1920s

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Elizabeth Catlett discusses key memories from Paul Laurence Dunbar High School, Washington D.C.

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Elizabeth Catlett comments on her study of black history

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Elizabeth Catlett details her experiences as an undergraduate in Howard University's art department

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Elizabeth Catlett describes color-consiousness in Delta Sigma Theta sorority

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Elizabeth Catlett dispels myths of Lois Mailou Jones influence on her art

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Elizabeth Catlett describes campus life at Howard University on the cusp of WWII

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Elizabeth Catlett discusses her scholarly pursuits at Howard University

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Elizabeth Catlett remembers studying under E. Franklin Frazier

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Elizabeth Catlett describes a menial job she held after college

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Elizabeth Catlett explains her involvement in protesting racial inequality in black teachers pay

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Elizabeth Catlett gives reasons she wanted to leave Durham, North Carolina, part I

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Elizabeth Catlett describes why she left Durham, North Carolina, part II

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Elizabeth Catlett details her successes as a teacher

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Elizabeth Catlett explains her decision to attend University of Iowa

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Elizabeth Catlett reminsces about graduate life at the University of Iowa

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Elizabeth Catlett remembers her artistic influences at University of Iowa

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Elizabeth Catlett discuses her battles against a racist administrator at the University of Iowa

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Elizabeth Catlett recalls her most influential teacher, Grant Wood

Evangeline Montgomery

Curator, printmaker, and mixed media artist Evangeline "EJ" Montgomery was born on May 2, 1933, in New York. Her mother, Carmelite Thompson, was a homemaker and her father, Oliver Thompson was a Baptist minister. She discovered her artistic talents when she received her first oil painting set at the age of fourteen. After her parents separated, Montgomery and her mother moved to Harlem in New York, New York. In 1951, Montgomery earned her high school diploma from Seward Park High School in lower Manhattan, where she was a cheerleader, a member of the swim and basketball teams and a member of student government.

From 1951 until 1954, she worked at statuaries, painting the faces on dolls and religious statues. In 1955, Montgomery moved to Los Angeles with her husband and worked for Thomas Usher, an African American jewelry designer. She received her B.F.A. degree from the California College of Arts and Crafts (now California College of the Arts) in 1969 and she worked as an independent curator to museums, university galleries and art centers where she organized exhibits. In 1971, she served as the curator for the Rainbow Sign Gallery in Berkeley, California before becoming an exhibition specialist for the American Association for State and Local History in Nashville, Tennessee and coordinating eight national workshops on “Interpreting the Humanities through Museum Exhibits.” She also organized national exhibit workshops for the Association of African American Museums. In 1983, Montgomery began her career with the United States State Department as a program development officer for the Arts America Program, specializing in American exhibitions touring abroad. In this capacity, she developed and implemented successful American fine art programs in the United States and throughout the world. In her own art career, Montgomery is noted for her metal work, especially her metal ancestral boxes which were inspired by the Chinese incense boxes her mother used for praying. Her colorful lithographs have also garnered her attention, being prominently displayed in exhibitions funded by the United States government.

In 1997, she was diagnosed with Parkinson's disease which has made it difficult for Montgomery to work with metal. However, she has not let the diagnosis limit her artistic vision, instead shifting her focus to printmaking, lithographs, and the digital arts. In 2005, Blacks In Government (BIG) began the Evangeline J. Montgomery Scholarship Program, to encourage and fund artists who are interested in working in government to spread the influence of the arts.

Evangeline "EJ" Montgomery was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on December 13, 2004.

Accession Number

A2004.258

Sex

Female

Interview Date

12/13/2004

Last Name

Montgomery

Maker Category
Marital Status

Divorced

Schools

Seward Park High School

Los Angeles City College

California College of the Arts

California State University, Los Angeles

University of California, Berkeley

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Evangeline

Birth City, State, Country

New York

HM ID

MON03

Favorite Season

April

State

New York

Favorite Vacation Destination

Northern California

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

5/2/1933

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Salmon

Short Description

Printmaker, curator, and mixed media artist Evangeline Montgomery (1933 - ) began her career as an arts administrator in San Francisco, California and since then, has worked tirelessly to create opportunities to showcase African American artists.

Employment

Oakland Museum of California

American Association for State and Local History

United States Information Agency

United States Department of State

Favorite Color

Yellow

Timing Pairs
0,0:2680,25:3130,31:9070,104:9790,112:10510,121:12040,144:12760,154:13120,159:19596,170:20289,179:20685,188:26476,251:27586,275:28548,291:32027,352:32774,361:33936,385:34434,393:36094,421:36924,432:38833,461:39829,476:40493,481:41074,489:45335,527:47960,570:48335,577:51335,634:56696,673:57788,692:58698,706:60660,715:68140,790:68460,795:75810,896:76530,908:79730,927:81630,945:83333,955:84640,962:93192,1052:93504,1057:94050,1065:99588,1164:100446,1177:100758,1182:101070,1187:108870,1231:110865,1254:113900,1277:114494,1287:119670,1361:120125,1369:134130,1480:134614,1485:138938,1538:149610,1625$0,0:230,21:1030,31:9738,87:33490,263:36370,300:38463,336:56983,514:57409,522:57835,529:58474,544:58829,550:59823,569:63545,619:63920,625:64445,634:72602,699:85338,820:89999,834:90711,845:91423,854:93381,877:94004,885:102320,959:106850,1033:111160,1098:111484,1103:112132,1115:114826,1138:115239,1147:115534,1153:117770,1169:121726,1204:131810,1293:132370,1303:145580,1388:158314,1488:159286,1498:165273,1558:176636,1638:176932,1643:177302,1649:178116,1663:178782,1673:189738,1800:198700,1915:201786,1934:202482,1943:205147,1974:215196,2036:216060,2047:217692,2079:222340,2102:230710,2170:232990,2191:236790,2218:238450,2239
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Evangeline Montgomery's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Evangeline Montgomery lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Evangeline Montgomery describes her mother's background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Evangeline Montgomery talks about her father's background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Evangeline Montgomery talks about being adopted

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Evangeline Montgomery talks about meeting Mary McLeod Bethune

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Evangeline Montgomery describes her home life as a child

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Evangeline Montgomery describes memorable communities in which she grew up

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Evangeline Montgomery describes the sights, sounds and smells of growing up

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Evangeline Montgomery talks about her elementary school interests and aspirations

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Evangeline Montgomery describes her experience growing up as the daughter of a Baptist minister

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Evangeline Montgomery describes her childhood activities

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Evangeline Montgomery talks about her move to New York, New York after her parents' divorce

Tape: 1 Story: 14 - Evangeline Montgomery talks about her junior high school experiences at P.S. 43 in New York, New York

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Evangeline Montgomery talks about her experiences at Seward Park High School in New York, New York, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Evangeline Montgomery talks about her experiences at Seward Park High School in New York, New York, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Evangeline Montgomery talks about relocating to Massachusetts with her mother after graduating from high school

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Evangeline Montgomery talks about her employment in the art industry after graduating from high school

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Evangeline Montgomery talks about her work in the jewelry field before attending Los Angeles City College in Los Angeles, California

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Evangeline Montgomery describes the process for designing jewelry with enamel

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Evangeline Montgomery describes her studio art experiences in Los Angeles, California

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Evangeline Montgomery talks about being dissuaded from teaching art

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Evangeline Montgomery talks about her impressions of art in Nigeria

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Evangeline Montgomery describes her experience of art exhibitions during the black studies movement

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Evangeline Montgomery talks about coordinating an exhibition on Sargent Claude Johnson's life and art

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Evangeline Montgomery reflects upon the impact of African American art in California during the black studies movement

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Evangeline Montgomery talks about curating African American ethnic art and at the Rainbow Sign Gallery in Berkeley and the Oakland Museum of California

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Evangeline Montgomery talks about her work for the American Association for State and Local History in Nashville, Tennessee

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Evangeline Montgomery talks about working with the Association of African American Museums

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Evangeline Montgomery describes the impetus for creating metal ancestral boxes

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Evangeline Montgomery describes how she came to work for the U.S. Information Agency as its program development officer for exhibitions

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Evangeline Montgomery talks about notable African American artists with whom she worked

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Evangeline Montgomery describes her process for working in lithography

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Evangeline Montgomery talks about the impact of technology on visual art processes and mediums

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Evangeline Montgomery talks about challenges faced by African American artists

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Evangeline Montgomery talks about her visual art and metal pieces

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Evangeline Montgomery talks about the challenges she faces as an artist with Parkinson's disease

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Evangeline Montgomery talks about her Blacks in Government scholarship fund, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Evangeline Montgomery talks about opportunities for African American artists

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Evangeline Montgomery talks about the demand for African American artwork

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Evangeline Montgomery talks about her Blacks in Government scholarship fund, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Evangeline Montgomery reflects upon the importance of the arts

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Evangeline Montgomery reflects upon her experiences as an artist and art administrator

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Evangeline Montgomery describes her hopes for the African American community

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Evangeline Montgomery talks about inspirational artists

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Evangeline Montgomery reflects upon her artwork and artistic mediums

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - Evangeline Montgomery describes her hopes for curating a book art installation in the future

Tape: 4 Story: 12 - Evangeline Montgomery reflects upon her life and legacy

Tape: 4 Story: 13 - Evangeline Montgomery shares advice for pursuing a career as an artist

Tape: 4 Story: 14 - Evangeline Montgomery talks about her role as art commissioner in San Francisco, California

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$3

DAStory

12$4

DATitle
Evangeline Montgomery reflects upon the impact of African American art in California during the black studies movement
Evangeline Montgomery describes the impetus for creating metal ancestral boxes
Transcript
And at the time when the black studies explosion was taking place, what impact do you think that had on African American artists?$$Well, it was great for them because it began to open new doors for them. For instance, I did exhibitions. I organized exhibitions for all the colleges in and around the [San Francisco] Bay Area [California] and some in Southern California even. I was able to bring artists from Southern California into exhibitions in Northern California. I also decided that if I was asked to do a show in a university setting or something like that, that I would try to get an artist from outside of the area as a guest artist as part of the show. For instance, I did an exhibition at Stanford University [Stanford, California] on printmaking. And I invited an artist from Boston [Massachusetts], Calvin Burnett, who is a famous printmaker, and had a dozen of his pieces as part of the show, so that I as introducing a new name, new style, someone who had reached heights in, in that particular medium.$$And were you finding that only African Americans were interested in African American artists?$$No, in California it was truly accepted by everybody in that they came to see. And if, if coordinated in the right way, the, lot of publicity and whatnot, everybody came to see. Now, whether in museums and whatnot, you're not necessarily selling works of art. So--$$You're just showing them.$$Just showing and giving people a history, and a background, and also offering an opportunity to look at abstract work, to look at images of themselves, to look at quality art, new technology, things like that.$Tell us a little bit about the ancestral boxes that you create out of metal.$$Well, my mother [Carmelite Thompson] had an incense burner, and it's a Chinese little vessel. And she used to write notes, and when she prayed over them and thought about them, if the experience that she wanted to happen came to pass in a favorable manner, then she would burn the note. I knew that she was using this incense burner for something. But, and I had seen her place things in it, but I had never looked in it, ever. And when my mother died, the, the first thing I did was to open that incense burner, lift the cover off, and there were two notes placing me in God's hands. Now, I was an adult, but I was divorcing and you know, had problems of my own and whatnot. So she, she was still thinking about me even in her sickest moments. And when I was thinking about an object to, to make, I first made incense burners. And there are three of those incense burners from the first set that I made in the collection of the Oakland Museum in California [Oakland Museum of California, Oakland, California]. Then they turned into box shapes, and I began to think about ancestral worship and whatnot and I had seen containers in Africa knew that they make, use them for various things.$$How, how did you make your first ancestral box?$$They're all made out of wax originally, and then they are cast using a method that Africans use a lot.$$What's the method?$$Well, forming them in, in some sort of container situation in a mold, and then burning out the wax, and then pouring in hot molting metal into your mold shape and casting.$$And--$$And I, I feel these boxes are for something precious. They could be used as incense burners whether they're a box or whatnot. But they also could hold like your wedding ring, your tooth, all your baby teeth and, or anything, something.$$How, how big are they usually?$$They're fairly small, two by two, three by three.$$When did you make your first one?$$Sixty-nine [1969].$$What do you keep in yours?$$I don't keep anything in mine (laughter). I just have them. And I recently sold some of the earlier ones. They have been included in exhibitions over the years, and are recorded in several publications.

Morrie Turner

Morris Turner was born on December 11, 1923, in Oakland, California, but prefers going by the name Morrie. He attended Cole Elementary and McClymonds High Schools in Oakland and graduated from Berkeley High School in June of 1942.

Turner began drawing caricatures in the fifth grade. In high school, he expanded to creating cartoons. He joined the Army-Air Force following high school graduation, and while on guard duty, he drew cartoons. His work was noticed and he was hired by Stars and Stripes to draw a series, "Rail Head," based on his own war experiences. Following the war, he created community affairs publications for the Oakland Police Department while free-lancing cartoons to national publications. Baker's Helper, a baking industry publication, was the first to buy one of his cartoons for $5.00.

Turner had had no formal art training and sought the advice and encouragement of other professional cartoonists. When he began questioning why there were no minorities in cartoons, his mentor, Charles Schultz of Peanuts fame, suggested he create one. In the early 1960s he created a series Dinky Fellas that evolved into Wee Pals, a world without prejudice celebrating ethnic differences. In 1965, the series became the first multi-ethnic cartoon syndicated in the United States. Wee Pals appears in over 100 newspapers worldwide. On Sundays an additional panel is included called Soul Corner detailing the life of a famous person belonging to an ethnic minority.

Turner has written several children's books including The Illustrated Biography of Martin Luther King, Jr. Turner has been honored by the Cartoonist Society in 2000 when he was presented their Sparky Award, has been inducted into the California Public Education Hall of Fame and was recognized by Children's Fairyland in Oakland. He is the subject of a film called Keeping the Faith with Morrie. Bill Keene so admired Turner's work that he added a young black boy to his Family Circle series named Morrie.

Turner passed away on January 25, 2014, as a widower with one son and several grandchildren. He had lived in the same house that his father purchased in 1945.

Accession Number

A2004.041

Sex

Male

Interview Date

4/6/2004

Last Name

Turner

Maker Category
Marital Status

Widower

Occupation
Organizations
Schools

Cole Elementary School

McClymonds High School

Berkeley High School

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Morrie

Birth City, State, Country

Oakland

HM ID

TUR01

Favorite Season

Summer

State

California

Favorite Vacation Destination

None

Favorite Quote

Keep the faith.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

California

Birth Date

12/11/1923

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Bay Area/San Francisco

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Meatloaf

Death Date

1/25/2014

Short Description

Cartoonist Morrie Turner (1923 - 2014 ) created Wee Pals, the first multi-ethnic syndicated cartoon strip in the United States. Turner also wrote several children's books including, "The Illustrated Biography of Martin Luther King, Jr."

Employment

Oakland Police Department

Favorite Color

Turquoise

DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Morrie Turner interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Morrie Turner lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Morrie Turner remembers his mother and father

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Morrie Turner recalls his grandmother

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Morrie Turner describes his siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Morrie Turner details his extended family

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Morrie Turner shares childhood memories

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Morrie Turner recalls growing up in 1920s Oakland

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Morrie Turner discusses his parents' occupations

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Morrie Turner recounts his childhood recreations

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Morrie Turner remembers a childhood friend

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Morrie Turner reflects on other childhood recreations

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Morrie Turner shares his school experiences

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Morrie Turner relates his childhood fears

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Morrie Turner describes himself as a less than stellar student

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Morrie Turner details how he started cartooning

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Morrie Turner recalls his high school extracurriculars

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Morrie Turner recounts moving from Oakland to Berkeley, California

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Morrie Turner discusses the lack of opportunities for black artists

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Morrie Turner reflects on his childhood job and occupational choices

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Morrie Turner remembers his military service and his first cartoon

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Morrie Turner recalls his first cartoon strip, 'Railhead'

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Morrie Turner details how he syndicated the first integrated cartoon

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Morrie Turner describes the first integrated cartoon, 'Dinky Fellows'

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Morrie Turner remembers the first cartoon panels that he sold

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Morrie Turner explains how he learned cartooning

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Morrie Turner recounts his trip to Vietnam to entertain troops

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Morrie Turner discusses nicknames in the Army

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Morrie Turner recalls his cartoons for Ebony

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Morrie Turner talks about the success of 'Wee Pals'

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Morrie Turner shares some negative responses to his strip

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Morrie Turner explains how he started 'Soul Circle'

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Morrie Turner describes the creative process behind his comic strip 'Wee Pals'

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Morrie Turner lists some of his other projects

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Morrie Turner reflects on his film about Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Morrie Turner recalls working with Fred Rogers

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Morrie Turner contemplates writing books and other media projects

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Morrie Turner remembers his wife's struggle with Alzheimer's

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Morrie Turner expresses his concern for youth and the black community

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Morrie Turner reflects on his happiest moments

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Morrie Turner discusses his attitude towards his work

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Morrie Turner wishes his father could see his work

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Morrie Turner ponders his legacy

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Morrie Turner shares some advice to youth

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - Photo - Morrie Turner's father and mother, Berkeley, California, ca. 1950s

Tape: 6 Story: 11 - Photo - Morrie Turner with his siblings and mother, ca. 1930s

Tape: 6 Story: 12 - Photo - Morrie Turner's kindergarten class, Oakland, California, not dated

Tape: 6 Story: 13 - Photo - Morrie Turner and others in the Army Air Force, ca. 1944

Tape: 6 Story: 14 - Photo - Morrie Turner and his wife, Leatha, Berkeley, California, ca. 1940s

Tape: 6 Story: 15 - Photo - Morrie Turner, ca. 1940

Tape: 6 Story: 16 - Photo - Morrie Turner, promotion photograph, not dated

Tape: 6 Story: 17 - Photo - Morrie Turner Day, Oakland, California, ca. 1966

Tape: 6 Story: 18 - Photo - Dick Gregory, ca. 1960s

Tape: 6 Story: 19 - Photo - Morrie Turner with Bill Keane, 2003

Tape: 6 Story: 20 - Photo - Morrie Turner, Washington, D.C., ca. 1976

Tape: 6 Story: 21 - Photo - Morrie Turner with children, not dated

Lou Stovall

World-renowned printmaker and artist Lou Stovall has helped build a thriving artistic community in the nation's capital. Born in Athens, Georgia, on January 1, 1937, Stovall grew up in Springfield, Massachusetts, before founding a printmaking company, Workshop, Inc.

After graduating from high school in 1962, Stovall moved to Washington, D.C. He earned a B.F.A. from Howard University in 1965. While there, Stovall was influenced by his teachers to give back to his community and to share his wisdom with young artists. In 1968, Stovall started Workshop, Inc. as a small, active studio concerned mainly with community posters. Under Stovall's leadership, Workshop, Inc. has evolved into a professional and highly respected printmaking facility.

A master printmaker by trade, Stovall has been commissioned to print works from a number of artists. His passion, however, remained drawing. Stovall has produced drawings and prints for several special occasions. One of his best-known works, "Breathing Hope," was commissioned for the inauguration of Howard University President H. Patrick Swygert. In 1982, First Lady Nancy Reagan asked Stovall to design the Independence Day invitation for the White House. Washington Mayor Marion Barry commissioned Stovall in 1986 to create "American Beauty Rose" for the city's host committee for the 1988 Democratic National Convention. Stovall's prints and drawings have found homes in several public and private collections around the world.

Stovall's efforts to build a community of artists in Washington extended beyond the opening of his studio. Stovall has provided apprenticeships to several young artists in the city. In 2001, he served as a juror for the Howard University Student Art Exhibition.

Accession Number

A2003.236

Sex

Male

Interview Date

9/27/2003

Last Name

Stovall

Maker Category
Marital Status

Divorced

Occupation
Organizations
Schools

Hooker Elementary School

Chestnut Junior High School

Springfield Technical Community College

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Lou

Birth City, State, Country

Athens

HM ID

STO02

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Georgia

Favorite Vacation Destination

None

Favorite Quote

Do everything as if it's the last thing that you're going to be doing

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

1/1/1937

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Cake (Pound)

Short Description

Printmaker Lou Stovall (1937 - ) started Workshop, Inc. as a small, active studio concerned mainly with community posters. Under Stovall's leadership, Workshop, Inc. has evolved into a professional and highly respected printmaking facility. One of his best-known works, "Breathing Hope," was commissioned for the inauguration of Howard University President H. Patrick Swygert.

Employment

Workshop, Inc.

Favorite Color

None

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating for Lou Stovall interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Lou Stovall lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Lou Stovall gives background information on his mother and father

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Lou Stovall talks about his father's side of the family

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Lou Stovall expresses disinterest in family history

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Lou Stovall talks about his father

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Lou Stovall talks about his mother

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Lou Stovall describes his family, their values, and their education

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Lou Stovall describes his father's sacrifices

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Lou Stovall describes his childhood and his early crafts

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Lou Stovall describes his early art and writing

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Lou Stovall reflect on narrative art and his father's ghost stories

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Lou Stovall talks about his early education and artistic aspirations

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Lou Stovall describes himself as a high school and college student

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Lou Stovall describes the racial climate of his childhood community

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Lou Stovall describes the high schools in Springfield

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Lou Stovall talks about his high school art teachers

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Lou Stovall comments on teachers' racial makeup

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Lou Stovall describes his college aspirations

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Lou Stovall describes his early career and marriage

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Lou Stovall describes his muses

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Lou Stovall describes his ex-wife and children

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Lou Stovall describes his childhood studio

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Lou Stovall talks about his mentors

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Lou Stovall recalls the changes in 1950s America

Tape: 2 Story: 13 - Lou Stovall talks about the role of art in protests

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Lou Stovall discusses going to jail in the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Lou Stovall talks about his participation in the 1963 March on Washington

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Lou Stovall describes his experience at Howard University

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Lou Stovall talks about his plans for graduate school

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Lou Stovall discusses how his career got started

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Lou Stovall talks about his furniture

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Lou Stovall discusses his silk screening process

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Lou Stovall discusses his artistic influences and inspiration

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Lou Stovall explains why he paints birds

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Lou Stovall discusses his art and spiritual orientation

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Lou Stovall explains his color schemes

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Lou Stovall discusses cleanliness and order in the studio

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Lou Stovall discusses his writing

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Lou Stovall discusses his retrospective exhibition

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Lou Stovall explains the creative process of silk-screening

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Lou Stovall illustrates the use of history in the creative process

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Lou Stovall discusses his concerns about African American vernacular language

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Lou Stovall discusses the problems with African American vernacular language

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Lou Stovall talks about meeting George Meany

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Lou Stovall describes his relationship with Jacob Lawrence

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Lou Stovall talks about the downside of fame

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Lou Stovall discusses how he wants to be remembered

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Lou Stovall discusses his regrets

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Lou Stovall gives his advice for young artists

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$3

DAStory

10$5

DATitle
Lou Stovall describes his childhood studio
Lou Stovall discusses how his career got started
Transcript
There were a couple of friends who hung out at my studio, because that was another thing my mother [Irene Brightwell] did. She made sure that, that I had a studio at a time that I really needed a studio. And it was a room that was--I wrote a poem about it--suspended between the first and second floor. We could only reach it from the back of the kitchen, the back stairs. Or coming down from the third floor. You know, there was a little winding, you know, it was a big house. At that particular time houses in Springfield, Mass [Massachusetts]--you would have a house that was like five or six rooms on each floor. And one was called the first floor, you know, right apartment or house; and then the second floor. They weren't like duplexes here where houses split in half and you have all the levels. (Clears throat) You would only have the one level. But through an agreement that she made with my uncle who owned the other half of the house, that I would have that particular room. That would be my room, and that room became my studio. So my friends were welcome to come night and day. You know, they would come in quietly and we would hang out. And we would listen to music, you know. I had the, the biggest speaker around. And so we played Thelonious Monk and Miles Davis, and the Modern Jazz Quartet, and Dave Brubeck [jazz musicians]. And, you know, it was a life. And then I had my pictures on the walls, and put album covers on the ceiling, you know. It was, it was great. And then we would go on long walks, you know, and sometimes we'd play chess. We'd play chess for sometimes two or three nights in a row without ever going to bed, you know, after we all finished our work at the various places where we worked. And we'd play chess. And I read also, well at a early age I started reading philosophy. And so I continued reading philosophy.$So what did you do next, I mean, what was your option?$$Well, I decided that I would talk to the guy that I was working for, Harvey Botkin, and maybe work for a year or two for him, and then go to another graduate school. Well, it turns out that in 1967, this is two years after I graduated, there was a exhibition at DuPont Circle [Washington, D.C. neighborhood] that I was invited to be part of. And during the course of that exhibition, we show--we sold prints and posters and had, you know, added to it, did silkscreen demonstrations and so on, and just made a wonderful thing. And I realized that I didn't need graduate school at that point, that it would have been nice to have it, you know, because that's what we, we do. You know, you take your, all your credentials and that becomes, you know, who you are, you know. Well, my credi--credentials were all working credentials. So at a certain point, I was invited to, to this man's house who said, "Tell me what you'd like to do. I'm impressed already with what you do." And that thing that I was, had done was to--the, the part of the exhibition that I did, was to sort of reshape the way that you enter a new gallery and the experience that you would have, that kind of thing. So he wanted to know about me. I wanted to know why he wanted to see me. And he said why he was interested, you know, the dynamics of art that makes people go outside the box to create something. And so I had done that. And he offered me a grant if I could write a proposal on what I wanted to do. And he said, "Do you know how to write a proposal?" And I says, "Well, yeah, of course, I do. I'll write a proposal and have it back for you, you know, in a couple of days." And the proposal I sent, gave, gave him back was that for a certain amount of money, I could build a studio, have at least two different people who I would teach to print and could have a bunch of people around us, and that the idea was anyone who learned from us, would have to teach one of the other young, younger people. And he said, "Fine, done. How much will that cost?" I said, "Well, it's right there, $10,000." And he gave it to me, you know, ten thousand dollars just to--giving, is like giving you $100,000 today.$$That was some big--a lot of money in those days.$$Right, yeah, so I established my studio. And the guy that I had been working for, Harvey Botkin, allowed me to use his shop, you know, to build some of the stuff that I needed because I wanted to build my own silkscreen table, which is still there after all these years, and use his vehicle, you know, to pick up my stuff. It was, you know, he was a great, he was a great friend, you know, but I also worked very, very hard for him. And his way of paying back to me was to be as helpful as he could be. And one of the things that he said was, he didn't want to just have a comp--another competitor out there, especially not me because I was his chief foreman. And I said, "Well, I'm not gonna be your competitor. What I want to do is fine art printing. I'm not interested in the commercial work. I'll send it to you, you know." So that's what I did. I sent him the commercial work, and I did the fine art until people got used to the fact that I was a real silkscreen printmaking facility and not a commercial shop. Yeah.$$And so you've done that ever since basically.$$Um-hum.