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John E. Oxendine

Media executive and entrepreneur John Edward Oxendine was born on January 20, 1943 in New York City, New York. He graduated from the Bronx High School of Science in 1959 and then received his B.A. degree in political science and sociology from Hunter College in 1965. Oxendine went on to serve in the U.S. Marine Corps from 1967 to 1973, and, in 1971, earned his M.B.A. degree from Harvard University’s Graduate School of Business, where he was awarded the John Hay Whitney Fellowship.

Oxendine worked first as a teacher for the New York City Board of Education, and then as a management advisor for the Bedford-Stuyvesant Restoration Corporation. In 1971, he became a management consultant for Fry Consultants in San Francisco, California, and in 1972, was hired as a senior associate by Korn Ferry Associates in Los Angeles, California. From 1974 to 1979, Oxendine worked as an assistant manager at the First National Bank of Chicago, and from 1979 to 1981, served as assistant chief in the Finance Assistant Division of the Federal Savings and Loan Insurance Corporation. Then, in 1981, Oxendine was named president and chief executive officer of Broadcast Capital Fund, Inc., a venture capital organization that provided assistance to minority controlled communications businesses.

In 1987, Oxendine founded and became chairman and chief executive officer of Blackstar Communications, Inc., a company that acquired, owned and operated commercial television stations. He then formed Blackstar, LLC with Fox Broadcasting in 1994, and purchased Broadcast Capital, Inc. in 1999. Oxendine went on to serve as chairman, president and CEO of both Blackstar, LLC and Broadcast Capital, Inc.

Oxendine served as interim CEO and a member of the board of directors of Equity Media Holdings Corporation from June 2008 until January of 2009. He also served on the boards of Paxson Communications Corporation; Lockhart Companies, Inc.; Medlantic Healthcare Group; Family and Child Services of Washington, D.C.; the Interracial Council for Business Opportunity; the Minority Media and Telecommunications Council; the Monterey Institute of International Studies; the National Capitol Area YMCA; HSN, Inc.; Black Student Fund; the Palm Beach International Film Festival; Adopt-A-Classroom; and the Palm Beach County Film and Television Institute. In addition, he has authored several articles on venture capital and media investing that have been published in the Bar Association Law Journal, Duke University Law Review, Journal of Minority Business Finance, and Sound Management.

Oxendine was inducted into the Hunter College Alumni Hall of Fame in 1987 and the Minority Media and Telecommunications Council Hall of Fame in 2001. He lives in Boca Raton, Florida.

John E. Oxendine was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on September 9, 2014.

Accession Number

A2014.207

Sex

Male

Interview Date

9/9/2014

Last Name

Oxendine

Maker Category
Marital Status

Single

Middle Name

Edward

Occupation
Schools

P.S. 46 Arthur Tappan School

Jhs 123 James M Kiernan

Bronx High School of Science

Hunter College

Harvard Business School

Search Occupation Category
First Name

John

Birth City, State, Country

Harlem

HM ID

OXE01

Favorite Season

Spring

State

New York

Favorite Vacation Destination

Florida

Favorite Quote

It Ain't Easy Being Green

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Florida

Birth Date

1/20/1943

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Boca Raton

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Pizza

Short Description

Media executive and entrepreneur John E. Oxendine (1943 - ) was founder, president and CEO of Blackstar, LLC, and owner, chairman and CEO of Broadcast Capital, Inc.

Employment

Blackstar

Broadcap

Federal Home Loan Bank

First National Bank of Chicago

Korn Ferry

Fry Consultants

Bedford-Stuyvesant Restoration

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of John E. Oxendine's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - John E. Oxendine lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - John E. Oxendine describes his mother's family background, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - John E. Oxendine describes his mother's family background, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - John E. Oxendine describes his father's family background, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - John E. Oxendine describes his father's family background, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - John E. Oxendine describes how his parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - John E. Oxendine describes his parents' personalities and who he takes after

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - John E. Oxendine describes his older brother, James Oxendine

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - John E. Oxendine recalls his childhood with his twin sister

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - John E. Oxendine describes his two younger siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - John E. Oxendine describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - John E. Oxendine describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - John E. Oxendine describes New York City's Harlem community, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - John E. Oxendine describes New York City's Harlem community, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - John E. Oxendine talks about skipping the fifth grade

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - John E. Oxendine describes his experiences at P.S. 46 in New York City

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - John E. Oxendine describes his involvement in New York City's Sportsmen gang, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - John E. Oxendine describes his involvement in New York City's Sportsmen gang, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - John E. Oxendine describes the role of religion in his family

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - John E. Oxendine describes the role of television and movies during his childhood

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - John E. Oxendine describes The Bronx High School of Science in New York City

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - John E. Oxendine describes his childhood in Harlem

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - John E. Oxendine recalls his enrollment at New York City's Hunter College

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - John E. Oxendine describes his coursework at Hunter College

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - John E. Oxendine describes his jobs upon dropping out of college

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - John E. Oxendine reflects upon his decision to return to college

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - John E. Oxendine remembers studying political science at Hunter College

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - John E. Oxendine describes his involvement in the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - John E. Oxendine recalls his Peace Corps training in Albuquerque, New Mexico

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - John E. Oxendine describes his time in Chile with the Peace Corps

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - John E. Oxendine describes his reasons for leaving the Peace Corps

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - John E. Oxendine describes his decision to join the U.S. Marine Corps

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - John E. Oxendine describes his U.S. Marine Corps training at the Marine Corps Recruit Depot Parris Island

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - John E. Oxendine remembers the 20th Interrogation and Translation Team, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - John E. Oxendine remembers the 20th Interrogation and Translation Team, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - John E. Oxendine recalls interviewing for a position at the Federal Bureau of Investigation

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - John E. Oxendine recalls joining the Bedford-Stuyvesant Restoration Corporation

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - John E. Oxendine describes his role at Bedford-Stuyvesant Restoration Corporation

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - John E. Oxendine describes his experiences at the Harvard Business School

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - John E. Oxendine describes his position at Federal Savings and Loan Insurance Corporation

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - John E. Oxendine recalls his mentor at Harvard Business School

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - John E. Oxendine reflects upon image of African American entrepreneurs

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - John E. Oxendine describes his corporate apprenticeships

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - John E. Oxendine remembers joining Broadcast Capital Fund Inc.

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - John E. Oxendine talks about the Minority Tax Certificate Program

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - John E. Oxendine describes his experiences at Broadcast Capital Fund Inc.

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - John E. Oxendine reflects upon his investments in media properties

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - John E. Oxendine reflects upon the impact of Broadcast Capital Fund Inc.

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - John E. Oxendine describes his decision to found Blackstar Communications Inc.

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - John E. Oxendine recalls buying his first two stations for Blackstar Communications Inc.

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - John E. Oxendine describes the stations acquired by Blackstar Communications Inc.

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - John E. Oxendine recalls his purchase of Broadcast Capital Fund Inc.

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - John E. Oxendine remembers the financial collapse of 2008

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - John E. Oxendine reflects upon the future of black entrepreneurs in media

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - John E. Oxendine reflects upon his career choices

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - John E. Oxendine describes his positions at Fry Consultants Inc. and Korn Ferry

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - John E. Oxendine shares his plans for the future

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - John E. Oxendine describes his business philosophy

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - John E. Oxendine describes his hopes and concerns in relation to African American access to media

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - John E. Oxendine shares his thoughts on the sale of BET

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - John E. Oxendine reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 8 Story: 6 - John E. Oxendine talks about his children

Tape: 8 Story: 7 - John E. Oxendine describes his organizational involvement

Tape: 8 Story: 8 - John E. Oxendine describes how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 8 Story: 9 - John E. Oxendine narrates his photographs, pt. 1

Tape: 8 Story: 10 - John E. Oxendine narrates his photographs, pt. 2

DASession

1$1

DATape

5$7

DAStory

7$2

DATitle
John E. Oxendine describes his experiences at the Harvard Business School
John E. Oxendine recalls buying his first two stations for Blackstar Communications Inc.
Transcript
I want to go to Harvard [Harvard Business School, Boston, Massachusetts] now. Who was, what was your, what was your reaction at Harvard? Who was there? Who were the, how many African Americans were involved in the M.B.A. program at Harvard when you got there and, you know?$$Well it was the beginning of us being at Harvard in any big numbers. I think there were seven hundred and fifty in a class at Harvard. I was the Class of '71 [1971]. I mean, you got there in '69 [1969], two years we graduate in '71 [1971]. So there's Section A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, I was in Section I, one of ten and I suspect out of the seven-fifty, maybe we had thirty or forty blacks and a good percentage of us graduated but it was an extraordinary experience because it was brand new. Yeah, when you first arrived there, instead of having one drink at a cocktail party, they gave you three. Wait a minute, you know. We didn't have to do the reverse, you know. We weren't invited at all and now we're over-invited, you know, and I think, and the attitude was, even among, I think, the faculty, we'll give them a gentleman C and that's it and we're going like, eh, you know what? We are the bell curve, most of us are probably okay, some of us are very bright and some of us are at the end. So our grades ought to reflect that. Don't, we're not looking for a gentleman grade C, and so that had to be changed, you know. Those of us who don't belong and others, those who are doing great, let us know, and those who are in the middle, let us know but don't--$$Just so you think, there's a preconceived notion--$$Yeah.$$--that you're all the same?$$Yeah, so that changed over the years.$$Okay.$$And I was fortunate enough to work for Larry Fouraker [Lawrence E. Fouraker], a Texan, dean of the school of business, took me under his wing. He was a mentor, too, and when he invited me up there, "Well young man, how you going to, where you going to sleep because we're pretty much full in terms of enrollment." I said, "Well in the Marines [U.S. Marine Corps], sir, I could sleep anywhere," and I really meant that. So he liked that, and he kind of took me on his own, he made me his bartender. So whenever there were any events where he had deans of all the schools come, I'd be tending bar, with a couple of other people, and I'd throw the football with his son and I'd get there early and stay late. When you go, "So John [HistoryMaker John E. Oxendine], what you think about today," (laughter) he'd be asking me all these questions. It was almost like 'The Butler,' I swear (laughter), I mean, because he didn't need me as his bartender, you know. He didn't need me to stay late but, but he meant to me, you know, and he was always a great guy. I felt very fortunate and I would ask him to speak to certain events that we had, the, you know, African American Student Union, stuff like that.$$So did the African American students form the student union?$$Um-hm.$$I've heard about that before and--$$Yeah, but sometimes we got a little bit too militant, I'm going like, you know what? You guys are going to have to be a little bit more respectful of Dean Fouraker. Now I'm going to get him to come here but this is not a time for you to be saying, "Yeah, right on brother and I want to," you know, give a plaque for this one for making the discus. Why do we, you know, you got, we got to honor the dean for even coming here, doing this. We can party later on our own, we don't need that here, but this is an opportunity, so it was a whole learning experience. And then, you know, the second year we started to boycott, you know, well that was the first year we decided. We were supposed to take, we played this game and there were like, as I said, ten classes, ten sections, and it'd be like thirty students to a section and so we created an all-black corporation to go against all the rest. We came out number two, though, out of all of them, and the dean's going like, "John, I don't know, man, you changed, you guys are changing things up here, I mean, this is really crazy, you know." The few blacks that are in Section A should stay in Section A, B, B and C, but we did make a difference. He said, "You don't have to do this, man, because your grades are good enough that even if you didn't take a final exam, you're going to be okay," but some of these people, if you mess up, you're not getting your M.B.A. So it was an extraordinary experience and now that I think about it, Dean Larry Foraker was, you know, one of the great mentors I had.$Now the first one, let's, let's start with the first one and just, just walk us through what happened with the first station.$$Okay, two stations (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) How you got it.$$Okay, Bud Paxson [Lowell "Bud" Paxson] had some television stations. He had one in Portland, Oregon, was really, then he wanted to sell it to me for five million [dollars] and he had another one, right up the street from here, WMOD [sic. WBSF-TV; WOTF-TV, Melbourne, Florida], that he wanted to sell for five million dollars. And I think he owned WMOD and he had the ability to, or he was, he could assign the other one in the Portland area to me. So we started a company called Blackstar [Blackstar Communications Inc.] and I started Blackstar and I said, let's name it after Marcus Garvey's steamship lines [Black Star Line] 'cause that's what we did to take us to freedom, even though it came out of New York [New York] port and sank, I liked the symbolism. So this is going to take me to freedom, and Don Thurston [Donald Thurston] said to me, "John [HistoryMaker John E. Oxendine], it's always good to have, row your own boat. You can go on a cruise ship, fantastic, got a lot of fun, the problem is that when the cruise is over, you've got to go home but if you row your own boat, you meet somebody you like, you stay and you say to the big, who are those people, bye, how you going to get home?" I said, "Well, it'll take me a little longer but I'll get there when I get there." Well, I like to paddle my own canoe and so this was a chance to paddle my own canoe and I thought that Marcus Garvey was showing us that with a big boat that sank. So, I put up $55,000 and he put up $45,000. I had 55 percent of the company, he had 45 [percent] and said, "What are we going to do now?" He said, "Well I'm going to put $5 million in as preferred stock, we got common stock, preferred stock is like common stock but it's preferred, it gets paid first. Preferred stock, 5 million at 14 percent, that's 700,000 a year, hm. If you get 10 television stations, only 70,000 per station, 10 times 70,000, so let's shoot to get 10 television stations but I'm going to give you this preferred stock, that's what you're going to pay me plus my 5 million back." "Okay, let me," I didn't like that number, 14 percent and I changed it eventually down to about 9 but I wanted to get in the game. So we had a company, 55, 45, I had 55, he had 45, we had 5 million. Then he said, "You need to get $5 million, 'cause this first $5 million I will buy, you can buy, the company will buy 1 of my stations but you need another 5," so, I said, "Why? Where am I going to get $5 million?" He said, "Go borrow it." "And why would they even lend me 5 million?" I said--he said, "Well 'cause, you're going to have $5 million that you own in one station and if they lend you 5, you can buy another. The bank will have 2 stations, 10 million bucks [dollars], and they only put up 5 million, and I, Bud Paxson, will give you a loan, I will give you an affiliation agreement for 5 years at X number of dollars that will cover your debt service, operations, et cetera." "Let's dance, that's a good deal." I went to the bank and I said, "Banker, could I have 5 million." They said, "Why would I want to give you 5 million?" And I told them the story, he said, "Okay." So I closed on one in '88 [1988] and shortly after the second one and then in '89 [1989], there was an opportunity to get one in Ann Arbor [Michigan]. The first two, WMOD, made that WBSF for Florida, Channel 43, and those in Daytona Beach [Florida] really covers Orlando [Florida], which is a bigger market. And then the one I got in Oregon was for $5 million. That was, you got a--that's a K, KBSP [KBSP-TV; KPXG-TV, Salem, Oregon], for Portland, for 5 million. I didn't think either one of them was worth 5 million when I looked at it but when I got the affiliation agreement from Bud, then it made it all right.

Robert Bullard

Environmental activist and sociologist Robert Bullard was born on December 21, 1946, in Elba, Alabama, to Myrtle and Nehemiah Bullard. He was the fourth of five children. Growing up in Alabama during the 1950s, Bullard experienced the effects of a segregated community. After graduating from high school, Bullard went on to attend the Alabama Agricultural and Mechanical University. He received his B.A. degree in history and government with a minor in sociology in 1968. He continued his education at Atlanta University, where he earned his M.S. degree in sociology in 1972. During his graduate studies, Bullard started his work in urban planning and went on to complete his Ph.D. program at Iowa State University in 1976.

After receiving his Ph.D. degree, Bullard moved to Texas to teach at Texas Southern University. It was in Texas that Bullard met his future wife, Linda McKeever. In 1978, Bullard was asked by Linda to collect data for a lawsuit, Bean v. Southwestern Waste Corporation she had filed in federal court involving the placement of garbage facilities in mostly black Houston neighborhoods. This was the first lawsuit that charged environmental discrimination using federal civil rights laws. This inspired Bullard to learn more about careers in the environmental field. After Texas, Bullard taught at universities in Tennessee and California before returning to his alma-mater, Clark Atlanta University, where he was named the Edmund Asa Ware Distinguished Professor of Sociology and the Director of the Environmental Justice Resource Center at Clark Atlanta University. In this position, Bullard was able to do research and actively pursue the issue of environmental justice.

Bullard has been a pioneer in the field of environmental justice. Among his many accomplishments, Bullard helped to organize the 1991 National People of Color Environmental Leadership Summit, the first meeting of its kind where various minority groups could discuss the problems associated with environmental justice. Just a few years later, he was instrumental in President Clinton’s signing of Executive Order 12898, the first legal document that defined the need for environmental justice in the United States. For his continued research on contemporary cases of environmental justice and his active presence in the community, Bullard has been called the “Father of Environmental Justice.” Bullard has delivered many presentations and he has written over fifteen books detailing his research and perspectives on environmental policy. A selection of his works include: Dumping in Dixie: Race, Class, and Environmental Quality, Confronting Environmental Racism: Voices from the Grassroots and Race, Place, and Environmental Justice after Hurricane Katrina.

Among the many awards that Bullard has received is the American Sociological Association's William Foote Whyte Distinguished Career Award in 2007. He was also named one of Newsweek’s thirteen “Environmental Leaders of the Century,” in 2008.

Robert Bullard was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on April 12, 2011.

Accession Number

A2011.020

Sex

Male

Archival Photo 1
Interview Date

4/12/2011

Last Name

Bullard

Maker Category
Marital Status

Divorced

Middle Name

D

Schools

Alabama A&M University

Clark Atlanta University

Iowa State University

Mulberry Heights Elementary School

Mulberry Heights High School

Archival Photo 2
First Name

Robert

Birth City, State, Country

Elba

HM ID

BUL02

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Alabama

Favorite Vacation Destination

Caribbean

Favorite Quote

And justice for all.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Texas

Birth Date

12/21/1946

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Houston

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Chicken

Short Description

Environmental activist and sociologist Robert Bullard (1946 - ) became director of the Environmental Justice Resource Center at Clark-Atlanta University in 1994. He is often considered the “Father of Environmental Justice."

Employment

United States Marine Corps

City of Des Moines

Texas Southern University

University of California, Riverside

Clark Atlanta University

Environmental Justice Resource Center

Favorite Color

Green

DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Robert Bullard's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Robert Bullard shares his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Robert Bullard talks about his mother's family history

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Robert Bullard recalls his mother's childhood neighborhood

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Robert Bullard talks about his mother's education and her career aspirations

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Robert Bullard discusses his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Robert Bullard talks about his family's land in Elba, Alabama, part 1

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Robert Bullard talks about his family's land in Elba, Alabama, part 2

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Robert Bullard talks about his family's land in Elba, Alabama, part 3

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Robert Bullard discusses his father's family background and career aspirations

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Robert Bullard talks about his parents and siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Robert Bullard describes his childhood in Elba, Alabama

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Robert Bullard describes the sense of ownership in Elba, Alabama, his childhood community

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Robert Bullard describes his elementary school and high school

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Robert Bullard talks about his favorite school teachers

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Robert Bullard talks about his childhood activities and interests

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Robert Bullard remembers his father's interest in the news

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Robert Bullard shares his perspective on the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Robert Bullard discusses the conditions of his segregated high school

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Robert Bullard describes his black high school teachers

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Robert Bullard remembers his high school principal

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Robert Bullard recalls his high school extracurricular activities

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Robert Bullard recalls his high school aspirations

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Robert Bullard describes his decision to attend Alabama Agricultural and Mechanical University

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Robert Bullard recalls his experiences at Alabama Agricultural and Mechanical University

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Robert Bullard relates the lack of involvement of Alabama Agricultural and Mechanical University in the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Robert Bullard remembers the Black Power Movement

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Robert Bullard describes the reaction of students at Alabama A&M University to the assassination of Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Robert Bullard talks about being drafted into the United States Marine Corps

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Robert Bullard talks about serving in the United States Marine Corps during the Vietnam War

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Robert Bullard discusses his decision to pursue graduate studies at Atlanta University

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Robert Bullard recalls what drew him to Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Robert Bullard talks about his mentors at Atlanta University

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Robert Bullard reflects on the legacy of W.E.B. Du Bois in sociology

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Robert Bullard discusses his decision to study sociology at Iowa State University

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Robert Bullard discusses his graduate dissertation at the University of Iowa

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Robert Bullard describes his career at Texas Southern University

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Robert Bullard talks about his book, "Invisible Houston"

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Robert Bullard discusses the black communities of Houston, Texas

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Robert Bullard talks about landfills in black neighborhoods in Houston, part 1

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Robert Bullard talks about landfills in black neighborhoods in Houston, part 1

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Robert Bullard explains the relevance of his work in both civil rights and environmental protection

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Robert Bullard discusses the impact of his work in Houston, Texas

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Robert Bullard discusses his teaching positions at the University of California

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Robert Bullard talks about his book, "Dumping in Dixie"

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Robert Bullard discusses the First National People of Color Environmental Leadership Summit in 1991

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Robert Bullard describes the environmental justice movement

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Robert Bullard talks about environmental justice and the black community

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Robert Bullard discusses the need to fight cases of environmental injustice

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Robert Bullard discuses the National Environmental Justice Advisory Council

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Robert Bullard talks about creating the Environmental Justice Resource Center at Clark-Atlanta University

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Robert Bullard emphasizes the connection between health and the environment

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Robert Bullard describes working with other environmental groups

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Robert Bullard compares the effects of different political administrations on environmental justice

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Robert Bullard shares his plans for his future

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Robert Bullard reflects on his legacy

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Robert Bullard discusses the status of his family members

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Robert Bullard describes how he would like to be remembered

Fred Hunter

Newspaper manager Frederick Fenton Hunter was born on June 15, 1936 in Asheville, North Carolina to Marjorie and Ray Hunter. Hunter’s parents divorced, and the family moved to Evanston, Illinois when he was eight. Hunter was an outstanding athlete at Evanston Township High School, where he graduated in 1954. He then enlisted in the U.S. Marine Corps, where he spent three years, mostly stationed in Southern California. After his discharge, he enrolled in Illinois State University, a teaching college in Normal, Illinois. He earned his B.A. degree in social science with a minor in Spanish in 1962.

Hunter took a job teaching in the Chicago Public School System until he began work as a sales representative for the American Oil Company (Amoco) in 1965. In 1969, Hunter was able to secure his own Amoco filling station, which became very successful.

Looking for a new career path, Hunter earned his M.A. degree in public administration at Roosevelt University in Chicago. Because government jobs during the Reagan Administration of the 1980s were slim, he began working part-time as a newspaper deliveryman for The Chicago Tribune. Hunter’s ethic for hard work was noticed by his superiors, and he was offered a full-time position as a district manager for Evanston and Skokie, Illinois. Over the next few years, Hunter climbed up the managerial ladder, reaching the level of department head in 1990. Eventually, Hunter was promoted to Tribune Corporate Headquarters as the first Director of Diversity Management in 1996, a position he retired from four years later. Hunter mentored dozens of minority employees at The Chicago Tribune and now lives with his wife in South Carolina.

Frederick Hunter was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on April 24, 2007.

Accession Number

A2007.157

Sex

Male

Interview Date

4/24/2007

Last Name

Hunter

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Occupation
Organizations
Schools

Evanston Township High School

Nichols Middle School

Wilbur Wright College

Saint Mary's School

Hill Street School

Illinois State University

Roosevelt University

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Fred

Birth City, State, Country

Asheville

HM ID

HUN06

Favorite Season

Spring

State

North Carolina

Favorite Vacation Destination

San Diego, California

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Illinois

Birth Date

6/15/1936

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Chicago

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Fried Chicken

Short Description

Newspaper manager Fred Hunter (1936 - ) was the former director of diversity management for the Tribune Company.

Employment

Tribune Company

Chicago Public Schools

Standard Oil of Indiana; Amoco Corporation

Chicago Tribune

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:20946,267:21684,280:22176,288:22668,295:27293,337:41785,554:43910,588:50007,670:73525,1034:74375,1055:87054,1307:116252,1641:122076,1703:122986,1714:126910,1768:133910,1823:150121,1982:150516,1988:151069,2004:158458,2090:164355,2179:167204,2224:171439,2376:182316,2457:182776,2470:208944,2766:225510,2903:225845,2909:228190,2952:237786,3090:240710,3095:244020,3144$0,0:8640,328:17240,539:23560,670:33700,791:41937,884:43731,914:45732,980:50258,1052:57804,1162:58092,1167:60000,1184:61240,1231:76904,1413:84576,1499:88854,1627:95082,1661:106598,1775:115448,1899:117464,1963:122400,2001:127860,2127:132839,2203:144695,2438:157716,2613:163410,2716:192168,3052:235620,3497
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Fred Hunter's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Fred Hunter lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Fred Hunter describes his mother's family background, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Fred Hunter describes his mother's family background, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Fred Hunter describe the wealth disparity in Asheville, North Carolina

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Fred Hunter describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Fred Hunter describes his father's personality and early occupations

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Fred Hunter describes his father's U.S. military career

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Fred Hunter describes how his parents met

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Fred Hunter remembers his father's later life

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Fred Hunter describes his parents' personalities and who he takes after

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Fred Hunter describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Fred Hunter remembers shopping at department stores in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Fred Hunter describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Fred Hunter recalls the influence of Jackie Robinson's baseball career

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Fred Hunter remembers the black football players at Evanston Township High School in Evanston, Illinois

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Fred Hunter describes the prominent African American families in Evanston, Illinois

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Fred Hunter recalls the Hill Street School in Asheville, North Carolina

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Fred Hunter describes his mother's reasons for enrolling him at St. Mary's School in Evanston, Illinois

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Fred Hunter describes his experiences at St. Mary's School

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Fred Hunter remembers Nichols Junior High School in Evanston, Illinois

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Fred Hunter recalls the start of the Korean War

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Fred Hunter describes his football career at Evanston Township High School

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Fred Hunter talks about his religious upbringing

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Fred Hunter remembers the music and entertainment of his childhood

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Fred Hunter describes his decision to enlist in the U.S. Marine Corps

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Fred Hunter remembers his time in the U.S. Marine Corps

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Fred Hunter describes his decision to become a teacher

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Fred Hunter describes his experiences at Illinois State Normal University in Normal, Illinois

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Fred Hunter recalls his teaching career in the Chicago Public Schools

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Fred Hunter describes his decision to work for Standard Oil of Indiana

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Fred Hunter remembers the riots of 1968 in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Fred Hunter recalls how he acquired a service station from Standard Oil of Indiana

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Fred Hunter reflects upon the benefits of business ownership

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Fred Hunter recalls how he came to work for the Tribune Company

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Fred Hunter describes his career at the Tribune Company

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Fred Hunter shares his advice to businesspeople of color

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Fred Hunter remembers his mentorship of younger employees at the Tribune Company

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Fred Hunter talks about his retirement from the Tribune Company

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Fred Hunter describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Fred Hunter reflects upon his life

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Fred Hunter reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Fred Hunter talks about his wife and sons

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Fred Hunter describes how he would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$4

DAStory

4$6

DATitle
Fred Hunter remembers shopping at department stores in Chicago, Illinois
Fred Hunter remembers the riots of 1968 in Chicago, Illinois
Transcript
But what I remember is--have you ever been to Evanston [Illinois]? Okay, back then there was an old Wieboldt's store [Wieboldt Stores, Chicago, Illinois], Wieboldt's department store, and my mom [Marjorie Rosemond Hunter], my brother's a year older than me so I'm in third grade, he's in fourth grade okay? She took off 'cause she was a domestic, she had two or three jobs. One of the things she did was domestic, one of the things she did was she was an elevator operator part time in Evanshire Hotel. It's out in Evanston [Illinois]. She took off from work one day and showed us how to catch the bus from where we were living, got us registered in St. Mary's Catholic school [St. Mary's School, Evanston, Illinois], showed us how to take the bus and get back home, okay, and it was September of 1944 and she bought us some heavy coats and some clothes, 'cause she obviously couldn't--had to leave everything we had down there, she couldn't--okay, and she says, "I'm only taking off one day to show you guys what you need to do. You guys have got to pay attention and you've got to do it, but if you behave yourselves, come out of the Wieboldt's store and you don't clown too much, we'll go across here to the Woolworths store [F.W. Woolworth Company]," which is right across from Wieboldt's, five and ten store, "and we'll get a soda, an ice cream soda." Oh, yeah, hell yeah we'll behave for an ice cream soda but, and she took us and after we got through with Wieboldt's and she took us into the Woolworths to get the sodas. She told us to sit down at the counter, she had to restrain us. There's no way in our minds we could sit down at that counter because we came from you know? I mean she had to physically restrain us and make us sit there because in our mind there was no way we could sit down at that counter and have a soda, you know, it's 1944 in Evanston, and I think about that so often because when my wife [Leila Hunter] and I got married in '61 [1961], I think the first time I had gone back south, I went down in '86 [1986] to bury my mother-in-law. I didn't go back 'til like '96 [1996], because I was working two and three jobs and hustling and trying to pay bills 'cause I had two other boys soon after that. So I'm trying to be a father and provider you know, so my wife went and took the kids [Stuart Hunter, Aubrey Hunter and Kenyon Hunter] down every year but I never went back. The first time I went back and had any time to spend there it was like '96 [1996] and I was just absolutely blown away and it still does a thing with my head to have white folks say, "Yes sir," and "No sir" because I was eight years old and I remember that's not what you were called in 1944 (laughter), that's not what you--believe me. Yes, sir and no, sir and thank you and however genuine or not it is, it just--I contrast that in my mind to that September 1944 thing where my brother and I were being constrained by my mom so that we would sit there and partake of what we--you know and so if you ask for a signature moment as a kid, that's probably the signature moment for me was that incident in the--at the dime store.$$Okay.$$Yeah.$I was the representative [for Standard Oil of Indiana; BP Corporation North America Inc.]--that was my sales territory where the riots started. I was on the corner of Madison [Street] and Kedzie [Avenue], right down the street from Marshall High School [John Marshall Metropolitan High School, Chicago, Illinois] when the riots broke out, but that was my sales territory.$$Now that was in 1968?$$That's '68 [1968] (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) Right after Dr. King [Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.] was killed April 4, '68 [1968].$$That was '68 [1968]. Right.$$What--$$I was standing right there on the corner of Madison and Kedzie.$$Now what did you see, I mean what?$$(Makes noise) And people looting and running and shooting and shouting and yelling and pulling folks out of cars, whites that were driving through they were pulling 'em out of car and beating 'em and, and I left there and I went down to twenty- to 22nd [Street] and St. Louis [Avenue] 'cause they had a station down there and I called into the office and they said, "Get the hell outta there, forget about that territory go home." And I left 22nd and St. Louis 'cause it was exploding down there and I went over I had a station at Warren [Boulevard] and Western [Avenue] which is one block north of Madison around on Western, just north of and all the way down all you could see was looting, TVs, clothes. Madison was--at that point in time I had two of the busiest stretches in the City of Chicago [Illinois] in terms of commercial business in my territory. There was on the corner of Madison and Western, there was the corner of Pulaski [Road] and Washington [Boulevard]. Retail--I also had Roosevelt Road, but I didn't get down that far and all you could see was looting, yelling and screaming, shooting and beatings, that's all you could see. So I made it to Western and Warren and from there I went straight north on Western and got the hell out of there, I didn't come back for a week. And when we came back there was just nothing but devastation.$$And they actually set the stations on fire, they--?$$No they didn't set any stations they were just looting, the worst thing you saw was looting, just yelling, screaming, running and looting.$$Now how, how did you first hear about Dr. King being killed. Do you remember when you first found out (simultaneous)?$$(Simultaneous) I heard it right there, that's where I heard it, right there on the--there's a restaurant at Madison and Kedzie and I was in there, that's when I heard about it.$$How did you feel about it?$$I, I was surprised he lasted as long as he did, because when I first learned about him, I remember my buddies and I were saying this guy is either a saint or a fool. This is like '62 [1962], '63 [1963] something like that and if he's a saint he's not gonna last very long. We were surprised he lasted 'til '68 [1968]. Said the things he's espousing especially when he really became anti-Vietnam [Vietnam War], said things he's espousing they're gonna get him. I mean that's in our, my immediate circle that was the feeling, they're gonna get him and when he lasted 'til '68 [1968] they said, "Damn, we might be wrong, he might--he may actually get outta this," and because it had started to (gesture), you know it started to (gesture), it started to--by '68 [1968], but in essence we just said hey that guy's talking about--the things he's talking about can't last, that's, that's not what (laughter), that's not the mindset of the powers that be.

Samuel C. Thompson, Jr.

Tax lawyer Samuel Coleman Thompson, Jr. was born on October 25, 1943 in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. Thompson and his family can trace their lineage to the 1600s. After Thompson and his family moved to the industrial town of Steelton, Pennsylvania in 1948, he graduated from Steelton High School in 1961. Thompson then received his B.S. degree from West Chester University in Pennsylvania and his M.A. degree from the University of Pennsylvania’s prestigious Wharton School and Graduate School of Economics in 1969.

Between Thompson’s first and second years of law school at the University of Pennsylvania, he was drafted into the Vietnam War, where he served for three years. During Thompson’s tenure, he rose to the rank of Captain, serving as Commanding Officer of Headquarters Company and received the Navy Commendation Medal. After returning to the United States, Thompson received his J.D. degree from the University of Pennsylvania Law School and began working as a legal writing instructor.

Between 1971 and 1972, Thompson worked briefly for Davis Polk & Wardwell in New York. Shortly thereafter, he earned his L.L.M. degree in taxation from New York University while working as an assistant and associate professor of law at Northwestern University. In 1976, Thompson published his first book, Pension Reform: How to Comply with ERISA, and served as an attorney advisor in the Office of Tax Legislative Counsel and International Tax Counsel for the U.S. Treasury Department.

In 1977, Thompson joined the faculty at the University of Virginia School of Law until 1981. He then served as the partner-in-charge of the tax department at the law firm of Schiff Hardin & Waite in Chicago, Illinois until 1990, when he joined the UCLA Law School faculty. There, Thompson taught courses on mergers and acquisitions and corporate taxation.

In 1994, Thompson left UCLA’s Law School to become the Dean of the University of Miami School of Law. During his tenure, Thompson created the Center for the Study of Mergers and Acquisitions and transferred it to the UCLA School of Law when he moved back to California in 2003. There, Thompson established the school’s first two endowed chairs, the Center for Ethics & Public Service and the Children and Youth Law Clinic.

Thompson published numerous books throughout his professional career including Federal Income Taxation of Domestic and Foreign Business Transactions, An Examination of the Effect of Recent Legislation on Commodity Tax Straddles and Investment Tax Credit: Alternative to the President’s Flawed Dividend Plan, Financed by ETI Repeal (Extraterritorial Income Exclusion).

Thompson was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on April 17, 2007.

Accession Number

A2007.145

Sex

Male

Interview Date

4/17/2007

Last Name

Thompson

Maker Category
Middle Name

C.

Schools

Hygienic School

Steelton-Highspire High School

University of Pennsylvania

West Chester University

Millersville University

Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania

First Name

Samuel

Birth City, State, Country

Harrisburg

HM ID

THO14

Favorite Season

Fall, Spring

State

Pennsylvania

Favorite Vacation Destination

St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands

Favorite Quote

Let's Roll.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Pennsylvania

Birth Date

10/25/1943

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

State College

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Swordfish

Short Description

Academic administrator, tax lawyer, and law professor Samuel C. Thompson, Jr. (1943 - ) served as the partner-in-charge of the tax department at the law firm of Schiff Hardin & Waite in Chicago, Illinois. He taught law classes at the University of Virginia, UCLA and served as dean of the University of Miami School of Law.

Employment

Devereux Foundation

School District of Philadelphia

Philadelphia Department of Human Services

Davis, Polk & Wardwell, LLP

Northwestern University (Evanston, Ill.). School of Law

University of Virginia

University of California, Los Angeles

United Sates Department of The Treasury

University of Miami

South Africa. Ministry of Finance

Favorite Color

Yellow

Timing Pairs
0,0:14027,236:17513,310:20916,391:27773,479:31012,545:33777,583:34567,595:40097,684:40808,695:41519,711:52290,842:57866,926:72296,1103:73388,1127:77600,1261:78692,1288:84220,1334$0,0:1096,13:1670,22:2572,33:7328,90:7738,97:9542,123:23747,240:24328,249:25573,276:28063,345:31051,383:31715,394:45038,540:45500,547:46732,560:47117,566:47964,573:50197,609:50505,614:50813,620:51198,626:51660,631:61901,794:62286,800:78170,1125:83942,1275:96090,1476:104690,1612:116952,1814:127092,2036:141913,2172:146772,2259:152618,2343:160166,2505:176212,2658:187143,2857:202816,2936:203362,2944:206482,2987:209056,3025:209602,3033:211708,3087:217012,3201:226900,3280:231660,3328:233970,3372:234600,3384:235020,3395:239420,3454
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Samuel C. Thompson, Jr.'s interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Samuel C. Thompson, Jr. lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Samuel C. Thompson, Jr. shares his parents' dates and places of birth

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Samuel C. Thompson, Jr. describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Samuel C. Thompson, Jr. describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Samuel C. Thompson, Jr. describes how his parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Samuel C. Thompson, Jr. lists his siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Samuel C. Thompson, Jr. describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Samuel C. Thompson, Jr. describes his parents' occupations

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Samuel C. Thompson, Jr. describes his experiences at the Hygienic School in Steelton, Pennsylvania

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Samuel C. Thompson, Jr. describes his experiences at Steelton-Highspire High School in Steelton, Pennsylvania

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Samuel C. Thompson, Jr. describes his undergraduate college experiences

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Samuel C. Thompson, Jr. recalls his decision to attend the University of Pennsylvania Law School in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Samuel C. Thompson, Jr. describes the University of Pennsylvania Law School

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Samuel C. Thompson, Jr. remembers his peers at the University of Pennsylvania Law School

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Samuel C. Thompson, Jr. describes his service in the U.S. Marine Corps during the Vietnam War

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Samuel C. Thompson, Jr. recalls the Wharton School at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Samuel C. Thompson, Jr. talks about his senior thesis at the Wharton School

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Samuel C. Thompson, Jr. describes how he came to teach at the Northwestern University Pritzker School of Law

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Samuel C. Thompson, Jr. talks about his interest in mergers and acquisitions

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Samuel C. Thompson, Jr. remembers teaching at the Northwestern University School of Law in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Samuel C. Thompson, Jr. describes his roles in education and government

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Samuel C. Thompson, Jr. reflects upon his experiences of discrimination

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Samuel C. Thompson, Jr. talks about his fellow African American law school deans

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Samuel C. Thompson, Jr. describes his role at Schiff Hardin and Waite

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Samuel C. Thompson, Jr. describes his political involvement

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Samuel C. Thompson, Jr. lists his publications

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Samuel C. Thompson, Jr. describes the Center for the Study of Mergers and Acquisitions

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Samuel C. Thompson, Jr. describes his role at the South African National Treasury

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Samuel C. Thompson, Jr. recalls his civil rights activities the South

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Samuel C. Thompson, Jr. recalls organizing the NAACP chapter at West Chester State College

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Samuel C. Thompson, Jr. reflects upon his accomplishments

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Samuel C. Thompson, Jr. remembers Wayne McCoy

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Samuel C. Thompson, Jr. reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Samuel C. Thompson, Jr. talks about his family

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Samuel C. Thompson, Jr. describes his tenure as dean of the University of Miami School of Law, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Samuel C. Thompson, Jr. describes his tenure as dean of the University of Miami School of Law, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Samuel C. Thompson, Jr. describes his career at the South African National Treasury

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Samuel C. Thompson, Jr. recalls his departure from the University of Miami School of Law

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Samuel C. Thompson, Jr. reflects upon affirmative action, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Samuel C. Thompson, Jr. reflects upon affirmative action, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Samuel C. Thompson, Jr. remembers writing for the National Black Law Journal

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Samuel C. Thompson, Jr. narrates his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$4

DAStory

11$1

DATitle
Samuel C. Thompson, Jr. describes his role at the South African National Treasury
Samuel C. Thompson, Jr. recalls his civil rights activities the South
Transcript
Let me ask you about the--you was a consultant to South African president Nelson Mandela at one time?$$Well, I was, I was a consultant to the South African treasury department [National Treasury].$$Okay.$$I, I didn't work directly with Nelson Mandela, but I, but I worked with the, I worked in the Ministry of Finance--$$Okay.$$--for a, for a little over a year, the Ministry of Finance and also the South African Revenue Service--$$Okay.$$--for, for a little over a year.$$And, basically, what you did in just a few words.$$Yeah, I was the tax policy advisor to the, to the, to the Ministry of Finance, and then to the, to the South African Revenue Service. And I helped them with a project to modernize their income tax. And we, we, for example, they, during that time, adopted what's known as a capital gains tax. They did not tax capital gains prior to that time, and they moved to what's known as a worldwide, a modified worldwide system of taxing foreign income, as opposed to the system that they, they previously had, which was a, which was a basically, basically something called a territorial system that did not tax income earned by South Africans out of South Africa, outside of South Africa (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) Okay.$$And, and I, those were sort of the principal things I worked on when I was in South Africa.$You've had a long and successful career, and I'm sure you must be very, very proud of it. What I wanted to ask--if there's anything that I may have overlooked in this interview that we could cover at this point?$$Yeah, you know, one of the things I suppose I would mention is that (laughter), I was talking to my wife [Becky Sue Thompson] about this the other day. When I was in law school, my first year of law school, I went with two other people--a white guy and a black lady, down to Mississippi during Christmastime to work on a civil rights project in a place called Leland, Mississippi, a place called tent city, where some sharecroppers had left their sharecropping jobs to work in this, to work in this, to, to work in this--I mean, to, to build a new life for themselves. And we were going down from the University of Pennsylvania [University of Pennsylvania Law School, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania] to help them put up this, this community center. So, we went down and to, to work with them. You know, it was the height of the Civil Rights Movement. My parents [Emmitt Nickens Thompson and Samuel C. Thompson, Sr.] didn't want me to go. They were, you know, frightened.$$Right. What year was this?$$This was in 1965.$$All right.$$This was in December of 1965. They didn't want me to go because of the, you know, fear for what, what might happen.$$Right.$$And I remember as we, as we, we drove, we were driving down to Mississippi. And we stopped--I think, it was in Nashville, Tennessee. And the, we stayed in a black area in a black hotel. And the, you know, the, the, the lady, the black lady didn't have anything romantically to do with either the white guy or myself. But when we stopped in this hotel in, in, in Nashville, they made me and the white lady--me and the black lady--stay in a room. And they put the white lady--put the white guy in another room by himself. And they said, "Now, you, you can be in there, but she can get up, and go into his room after," (laughter), "after we check you in," or something like that. I thought that was awfully funny (laughter). But, but it, you know, when, I remember distinctly when we were, how we felt when we crossed the border into Mississippi, you know, the fear we felt.$$Apprehension then--$$Here, we, you know, a white guy and two--and a black lady and a black man--going to Jackson, Mississippi, or Green- we're going to Greenville, Mississippi, going to stay in Greenville, working on this project, in Leland, Mississippi. We were, we were frightened, we were intimidated.$$Right.$$And I, I was just telling my wife, I was more intimidated driving into Mississippi than I was going to my first assignment in Vietnam as a Marine [U.S. Marine Corps]. And it's, it, it, it--those, those, you know, the people of Mississippi, who, who, who built that system of intimidation, you know, were, were, were doing something very evil.$$Right.$$And it was, and, and, and to do that to people in, in, in, in their own country is just sickening. And, and for, for the federal government to have permitted it to happen is even, is even worse.$$Right, right. I would certainly, certainly--$$So, you know, that's, you know, I, I, just drawing the comparison between, you know, driving, for, for an American citizen to be more frightened driving into Mississippi, than he is going into Vietnam in a combat situation in Vietnam, is just, it's just, you know, it shouldn't be.$$It should, should not be.