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The Honorable Vanessa D. Gilmore

United States District Judge Vanessa Gilmore was born in October of 1956 in St. Albans, New York. In 1977, Gilmore received her B.A. degree in textiles and marketing from Hampton University, and in 1981, she earned her J.D. degree from the University of Houston Law Center.

Upon graduation, Gilmore began a thirteen-year career at the Houston law firm of Vickery, Kilbride, Gilmore & Vickery, where she specialized in civil litigation. In 1984, she was also hired as an adjunct professor at the University of Houston College of Law. Under Texas Governor Ann Richards, Gilmore became the first African American to be appointed to the Texas Department of Commerce Policy Board. She served as chairperson of that board until 1994, when President Bill Clinton appointed her as a federal judge on the United States District Court for the Southern District of Texas. At the time, Gilmore was the youngest sitting federal judge in the United States. In 2005, she presided over the high-profile Enron Broadband trial.

In 2008, Gilmore published her first book, A Boy Named Rocky: A Coloring Book for the Children of Incarcerated Parents, and has become a frequent speaker on issues related to these children and their families. In 2010, she released You Can’t Make This Up: Tales from a Judicial Diva, a humorous look at her life on and off the bench. Her next book, a fiction novel entitled Saving The Dream, was published in 2012. In 2014, she released Lynn’s Angels: The True Story of E. Lynn Harris and the Women Who Loved Him.

Gilmore is a sought after lecturer and speaker and has published noteworthy opinions on patients’ rights, the first amendment and copyright and patent law. She has served on the boards and advisory boards of a number of charitable organizations including the Houston Zoo, San Jacinto Girl Scouts, Spaulding for Children and Habitat for Humanity. Gilmore also serves on the board of trustees for Hampton University and on the board of Inprint, a literary arts organization. She is the recipient of numerous civic awards for community service and is a member of the Links, Inc. and Jack & Jill of America, Houston Chapter.

Gilmore lives in Houston, Texas with her son.

Vanessa Gilmore was interviewed byThe HistoryMakers on May 6, 2014.

Accession Number

A2014.131

Sex

Female

Interview Date

5/6/2014

Last Name

Gilmore

Maker Category
Marital Status

Single

Middle Name

Diane

Schools

Hampton University

University of Houston

Speakers Bureau

Yes

Speakers Bureau Availability

Any

First Name

Vanessa

Birth City, State, Country

St. Albans

HM ID

GIL09

Speakers Bureau Preferred Audience

Any

Speakers Bureau Honorarium

No

Speaker Bureau Notes

Judge Gilmore would like to address audiences about incarcerated parents, adoption, legal issues, or pursuing a judicial career.

State

New York

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Texas

Birth Date

10/26/1956

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Houston

Country

United States

Short Description

Federal district court judge The Honorable Vanessa D. Gilmore (1956 - ) was appointed to serve as a federal judge on the United States District Court for the Southern District of Texas in 1994, becoming the youngest federal judge in the United States at the time. She was the author of four books: A Boy Named Rocky: A Coloring Book for the Children of Incarcerated Parents; You Can’t Make This Up: Tales from a Judicial Diva; Saving The Dream; and Lynn’s Angels: The True Story of E. Lynn Harris and the Women Who Loved Him.

Employment

Vickery, Kilbride, Gilmore & Vickery

University of Houston College of Law

United States District Court for the Southern District of Texas

B. B. De Laine

Educator Brumit Belton De Laine or B.B. De Laine was born on October 1, 1937 in Columbia, South Carolina to Mattie Belton De Laine, a teacher, and Joseph Armstrong De Laine, a minister, teacher, and community activist. De Laine attended segregated elementary schools, and during his childhood, his father spearheaded a civil rights protest against the segregated school and transportation systems in Clarendon County, South Carolina. As a youth, De Laine witnessed the protests and social tensions that led to the Briggs v. Elliott school desegregation case that was eventually bundled with Brown v. Board of Education. Following the U.S. Supreme Court decision, De Laine witnessed widespread vandalism and terror perpetrated by the Ku Klux Klan. He witnessed the burning of his father’s church and the escape of his family to New York City.

De Laine graduated from Carver Public High School in 1955. He attended Howard University for one half of a year and then transferred to Johnson C. Smith University where he got involved in and was one of three primary organizers of the lunch counter sit-in demonstrations in Charlotte, North Carolina. He earned his B.A. degree in psychology and economics from Johnson C. Smith University in 1960.

De Laine accepted a job as a bus driver in New York City. In 1964, he graduated from New York University with a master’s degree in safety, and in 1965, De Laine began teaching in the Chappaqua, New York schools. The following academic year, De Laine moved back to North Carolina with his wife, Edith Strickland De Laine, and three children where he accepted a teaching position in the Charlotte-Mecklenburg School System at Garinger High School in 1965. De Laine was the first African American teacher at Garinger High School. In 1969, De Laine became Director of Driver Education for the Charlotte-Mecklenburg School System. In 1977, De Laine completed a sixth year certificate from the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, earning him advanced certification in school administration. After more than thirty years in the Charlotte-Mecklenburg School System, De Laine retired in 1996. Soon after, he joined the Board of Directors for the Swann Fellowship.

De Laine resides in Charlotte, where he serves on the Board of Directors for the Briggs-DeLaine-Pearson Foundation.

De Laine was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on June 21, 2007.

B.B. De Laine passed away on June 14, 2012.

Accession Number

A2007.183

Sex

Male

Interview Date

6/21/2007

Last Name

De Laine

Maker Category
Schools

Scotts Branch High School

Liberty Hill Elementary School

Carver High School

Allen University

Johnson C. Smith University

New York University

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Howard University

First Name

B.B.

Birth City, State, Country

Columbia

HM ID

DEL08

Favorite Season

Spring

State

South Carolina

Favorite Vacation Destination

None

Favorite Quote

Tell A Person To Go To Hell In Such A Way That They'll Enjoy The Trip.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

North Carolina

Birth Date

10/1/1937

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Charlotte

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Ice Cream

Death Date

6/14/2012

Short Description

High school administrator B. B. De Laine (1937 - 2012 ) spent more than thirty years working for the Charlotte-Mecklenburg Schools.

Employment

New York City Human Resources Administration

Garinger High School

Charlotte-Mecklenburg Schools

New York City Transit Authority

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of B. B. De Laine's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - B. B. De Laine lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - B. B. De Laine describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - B. B. De Laine describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - B. B. De Laine talks about his homes in South Carolina

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - B. B. De Laine describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - B. B. De Laine lists his siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - B. B. De Laine describes his upbringing in Summerton, South Carolina

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - B. B. De Laine remembers traveling with his father

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - B. B. De Laine describes his father's discipline

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - B. B. De Laine describes his childhood pastimes

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - B. B. De Laine remembers the Liberty Hill School in Summerton, South Carolina

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - B. B. De Laine remembers his maternal grandmother

Tape: 1 Story: 14 - B. B. De Laine recalls the Scotts Branch School in Summerton, South Carolina

Tape: 1 Story: 15 - B. B. De Laine remembers segregation in Summerton, South Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - B. B. De Laine describes the segregated movie theaters in South Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - B. B. De Laine recalls the segregated restaurants in Summerton, South Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - B. B. De Laine remembers the lynchings in Summerton, South Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - B. B. De Laine describes his father's activism

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - B. B. De Laine recalls the transportation available to black students in Clarendon County, South Carolina, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - B. B. De Laine remembers the family of Levi Pearson

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - B. B. De Laine recalls the transportation available to black students in Clarendon County, South Carolina, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - B. B. De Laine describes the white community of Summerton, South Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - B. B. De Laine describes his father's values

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - B. B. De Laine describes the case of Pearson v. Board of Education

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - B. B. De Laine describes his father's role in the community

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - B. B. De Laine talks about the inequalities of school segregation

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - B. B. De Laine remembers Carver High School in Lake City, South Carolina

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - B. B. De Laine recalls the results of the Briggs v. Elliott case, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - B. B. De Laine describes his father's reaction to Brown v. Board of Education

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - B. B. De Laine describes the results of the Briggs v. Elliott case, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - B. B. De Laine recalls his decision to attend Allen University in Columbia, South Carolina

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - B. B. De Laine recalls his decision not to attend a private high school

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - B. B. De Laine describes the white reprisals against his father

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - B. B. De Laine remembers attending Howard University in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - B. B. De Laine remembers leaving Howard University

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - B. B. De Laine describes segregation in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - B. B. De Laine recalls his start at Johnson C. Smith University in Charlotte, North Carolina

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - B. B. De Laine describes Johnson C. Smith University in Charlotte, North Carolina

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - B. B. De Laine recalls his start as a civil rights leader in Charlotte, North Carolina

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - B. B. De Laine talks about his father's influence

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - B. B. De Laine describes the student sit-ins in Charlotte, North Carolina

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - B. B. De Laine describes the results of the student protest movement in Charlotte, North Carolina

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - B. B. De Laine shares his protest philosophy

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - B. B. De Laine recalls working for the welfare department in New York City

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - B. B. De Laine remembers meeting and marrying his wife

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - B. B. De Laine remembers his graduate studies at New York University

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - B. B. De Laine describes race relations at New York University

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - B. B. De Laine talks about his civil rights activities

Tape: 4 Story: 12 - B. B. De Laine describes his children

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - B. B. De Laine describes how he became an educator

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - B. B. De Laine describes his position at Garinger High School in Charlotte, North Carolina

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - B. B. De Laine remembers Principal Ed Sanders

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - B. B. De Laine recalls a white parent's reaction to school integration

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - B. B. De Laine recalls a prejudiced coworker at Garinger High School

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - B. B. De Laine describes the changes in Charlotte, North Carolina

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - B. B. De Laine describes his religious involvement

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - B. B. De Laine describes his role at the Education Center in Charlotte, North Carolina

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - B. B. De Laine remembers the leadership of Charlotte, North Carolina

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - B. B. De Laine recalls the white protests against busing

Tape: 5 Story: 11 - B. B. De Laine describes the school busing process in Charlotte, North Carolina

Tape: 5 Story: 12 - B. B. De Laine remembers the death of his father

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - B. B. De Laine reflects upon his father's accomplishments

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - B. B. De Laine recalls earning a certification in school administration

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - B. B. De Laine remembers the busing crisis in Boston, Massachusetts

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - B. B. De Laine describes the resegregation of the Charlotte-Mecklenburg Schools

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - B. B. De Laine describes his retirement

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - B. B. De Laine remembers the death of his mother

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - B. B. De Laine reflects upon his father's legacy

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - B. B. De Laine reflects upon his family's legacy

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - B. B. De Laine narrates his photographs with his brother, Joseph A. De Laine, Jr.

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$4

DAStory

2$4

DATitle
B. B. De Laine recalls the results of the Briggs v. Elliott case, pt. 1
B. B. De Laine describes the student sit-ins in Charlotte, North Carolina
Transcript
What year did you graduate from high school?$$Nineteen fifty-five [1955].$$And how were race relations at that time?$$Still very much segregated. The 1954 [U.S.] Supreme Court decision in Brown [Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 1954] was--came down at the end of my junior year. The second decision in Brown, the one that required the schools to desegregate with all deliberate speed, came down either the day before I graduated or the day after, I don't remember which it was, but it was one day separation there. So, it were still segregated. There were no whites in South Carolina, to speak of, that even would entertain the thought of integrated schools at that time. But, because of the Briggs case, we did have the new high school. That was a part of the equalization effort that the State of South Carolina went into to try to stave off the integration issue.$$So this was one of the concessions in the Briggs v. Elliott case and your father [Joseph A. De Laine, Sr.] was instrumental in that case, and Thurgood Marshall argued the case?$$Right.$$One of the concessions to avoid seg- desegregation was to build the high school you attended, Carver public high school [Carver High School] in Lake City [South Carolina]?$$Right. In--in the district court hearings, the state conceded that the schools were not equal and that the governor had proposed, and it was rushed through to get a $75 million bond to equalize schools. The bulk of that money went to equalizing black schools. But there were some white schools that were brought up to standards also. And in 1952, I think it is--was, a new school was built in Summerton [South Carolina] and transportation provided for black students. Lake City, they were not as far behind so it took a little longer to get a school there. When we went to Lake City, they had--the elementary building was a cinderblock building. I think it had central heat in it also and then they had another brick building, that was the high school wing. Those--both of those buildings were not too old as schools went during that time because it had not been too very long that the high school--that the school, a black school had burned in Lake City and that's when the cinderblock building was built.$$Tell me about the burning of that school, when did that happen?$$I--I'm not sure what happen--what year that was. But, I don't think it had been fifteen years. In fact, it probably wasn't that long because some of the people I know that said they were in school at that time would not have been in school fifteen years back. But--$$You were alive when this happened?$$Yeah, I didn't know anything about that because it was before we moved to Lake City. But when we got there, they did have a building that had indoor restrooms, and they had central heat. Did not have a cafeteria. But it--it was--it was a pretty nice building as far as black folk were concerned. And--$$This was the 1952--$$This was 19--$$--construction?$$No, this was 1950 and in Lake City, the new school did not come until 1953. So it was about a year after--ni- yeah, the end of 1953, '54 [1954] school year we moved into the new building.$$Was there a sense that your father was part of this movement, a big part of this movement?$$Yeah. People knew where or why the schools were being built. Now in other parts of the state I'm not sure that they were as aware of why they were getting new buildings, as they were in the Clarendon County [South Carolina] area.$$How many buildings? How many new schools, colored schools?$$All over the state. Yeah, I don't know how many, but I know all over the state they were built.$$And this all began in Clarendon County?$$Right. In fact, I spoke at a school in Aiken County [South Carolina] about three years go and one--they--the school where I was speaking had been a black school and it was one that came from the bond issue. And the staff there, the principal and the teachers didn't know until I told them that that was a part of the state's program to equalize the schools.$So what were race relations like in Charlotte [North Carolina] at the time, at the time of the sit-ins?$$Things were still segregated, but Charlotte was much more moderate than most southern towns. I think that's good and bad because Charlotte has always tried to keep the lid on problems and resolve them before they get the negative press that some other places have gotten. But then after they get the initial problem resolved, I don't think Charlotte has stuck with it to get the root causes corrected. And because of that, I think some of the issues that we are still struggling with now are still here and they could've been resolved in my opinion. But during the lunch counter demonstrations, the City of Charlotte, the official policy was, that if we did not val- if we as the demonstrators did not violate any city ordinances they would not hassle us. Now if some individual policeman did underhanded things, but that was not the official policy of the city. And we did not have the violence that other towns experienced during the sit-ins.$$Now which restaurants, stores did you target as activists?$$All of them downtown.$$Name a few?$$Kress [S.H. Kress and Co.]--Kress, Woolworth [F.W. Woolworth Company], Grants [W.T. Grant Co.], Ivy's [J.B. Ivey and Company], Belk's. Ivy's is a department store, you would probably have called that the most upstale- upscale store we had. Belk's is still in existence, Ivy's is--that was a family owned store that's not in existence now. But we--you could not eat anywhere downtown except one place, and that was a little stand known as Tanner's [Tanner's Snack Bar]. And if you remember Harry Golden's vertical integration theory, that's why he came up with that because Tanner's had no seats. You could go in and buy--they specialized in orange juice but you could get a hotdog and some delicious orange juice. And they were not segregated, because they didn't have any seats. You just stand up and eat it.$$It was white owned?$$It was white owned. But all of the other downtown eateries we targeted and they closed for the duration of the sit-in.$$And what, what did you do exactly as activists?$$Initially, when Charles Jones and the other student, Heyward Davenport, he lives in New York now. Charles Jones is here in Charlotte. When they came and asked me about joining that was a Sunday night. We had a mass meeting Monday night and we started the demonstrations Tuesday morning.$$Was this SNCC [Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee] or SCLC [Southern Christian Leadership Conference]?$$SNCC was organized--during that year Charles was active in the organization of SNCC. But basically that was a student movement. We--once we got started there were some adults who, you know, provided guidance. There were some who would come by and assist with transportation. There were people sending donations to cover bail if--should we need it.$$And you would, boycott? What did you do?$$We--we went into the restaurants and once we took a seat generally they closed. Because it had already started in Greensboro [North Carolina] so they had a little idea of what they were gonna do. And they would close and we would keep them closed.$$They wouldn't throw you out?$$No, there were always policeman around. We picketed, we would get students get the counters full and we had pickets outside. Initially, we started off with the largest number, I believe, at that time. The Levine Museum [Levine Museum of the New South, Charlotte, North Carolina] here said we started with over two hundred students. And that's probably right. Because without the school's permission I took the bus and transported students and I made about three trips initially with fifty to sixty kids on the bus. And then there were the students who walked. Some caught rides. Some rode the city bus downtown. But we started with Kress, Woolworth and Grants. Those were five and ten cent stores. And once we closed those, then we moved onto Ivy's and Belk's, and the other stores downtown.

Valerie Richardson Jackson

Valerie Richardson Jackson, host of Atlanta, Georgia’s, public radio station WABE’s Between the Lines, a series of conversations with some of today’s brightest and most notable writers and thinkers, and former First Lady of Atlanta as wife of the first African American mayor of Atlanta, Maynard Holbrook Jackson, Jr, was born April 3, 1949 in Richmond, Virginia. Raised by parents Cora Ruth Feggins Richardson and Charles Hoover Richardson, Jackson integrated the high school she attended in Richmond and went on to major in business management at Virginia Commonwealth University. Jackson earned her M.B.A. degree from the Wharton School at the University of Pennsylvania; after graduating in 1973, she worked as an advertising executive at Grey Advertising in New York City, and as Regional Marketing Supervisor for TWA’s corporate headquarters in New York.

Jackson met Maynard Jackson at a party hosted by Roberta Flack in 1976. In 1977, during Maynard Jackson’s second of three terms as Mayor of Atlanta, the couple was married; they had two children, Valerie-Amanda and Alexandra. During her twelve years as First Lady of Atlanta, Jackson served as Special Advisor to the Mayor’s Office of Economic Development, helping to bring the 1988 Democratic National Convention and the 1996 Olympic Games to Atlanta. Maynard Jackson’s last term in office ended in 1993, but both Jacksons remained active in civic life as Maynard Jackson was considering a bid for the U.S. Senate in 2002. Jackson husband died at age 65 of a heart attack on June 23, 2003, while on a business trip to Washington, D.C.

As host of Between the Lines, Valerie Richardson Jackson interviewed such notable individuals as Hillary Clinton, Sidney Poitier, former President Jimmy Carter, Cornell West, Ayanla Vanzant, and Deepak Chopra. Jackson served as chair of Jackmont Hospitality, Inc., and as president of Jackson Securities, Inc. In addition to her executive and radio activities, Jackson worked with civic boards and organizations as a motivational speaker, and volunteered on numerous civic boards and organizations, including the Maynard Jackson Youth Foundation; Habitat for Humanity; Leadership Atlanta; the Northwest Georgia Girl Scout Council; and the Alliance for a New Humanity.

Accession Number

A2005.148

Sex

Female

Interview Date

6/23/2005 |and| 12/16/2012

Last Name

Jackson

Maker Category
Marital Status

Widow

Middle Name

Richardson

Occupation
Schools

Henrico High

Virginia Commonwealth University

School of Medicine

Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania

Woodville Elementary School

Whitcomb Court Elementary School

First Name

Valerie

Birth City, State, Country

Richmond

HM ID

RIC09

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Virginia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Buford, South Carolina

Favorite Quote

Do Second Level Thinking.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Birth Date

4/3/1949

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Atlanta

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Lobster

Short Description

Civic leader Valerie Richardson Jackson (1949 - ) was the widow of former Atlanta mayor Maynard Jackson, and the host of Between the Lines, a radio interview show on Atlanta, Georgia’s, public radio station WABE.

Employment

Grey Advertising Group

Trans World Airlines

City of Atlanta

Georgia Public Broadcasting

Public Broadcasting Atlanta

Jackmont Hospitality, Inc.

Jackson Securities

Favorite Color

Green

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Valerie Richardson Jackson's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Valerie Richardson Jackson lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Valerie Richardson Jackson describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Valerie Richardson Jackson recalls her experience integrating her high school

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Valerie Richardson Jackson describes her maternal family being light skinned

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Valerie Richardson Jackson recalls an interview with Patricia J. Williams

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Valerie Richardson Jackson recalls her mother working at a white bank

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Valerie Richardson Jackson describes her parents' education

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Valerie Richardson Jackson describes her father's family history

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Valerie Richardson Jackson describes how her parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Valerie Richardson Jackson describes her parents' personalities

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Valerie Richardson Jackson recalls growing up with seven siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Valerie Richardson Jackson describes her earliest childhood memory

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Valerie Richardson Jackson recalls finding relics of the Confederacy

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Valerie Richardson Jackson describes the sights, smells and sounds of growing up

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Valerie Richardson Jackson recalls music and church during her childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Valerie Richardson Jackson recalls being molested as a young girl

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Valerie Richardson Jackson describes her childhood interests and activities

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Valerie Richardson Jackson describes her personality as a young girl

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Valerie Richardson Jackson recalls her elementary school experience

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Valerie Richardson Jackson describes her aptitude for learning

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Valerie Richardson Jackson recalls her experience in high school

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Valerie Richardson Jackson recalls integrating Richmond's Henrico High School

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Valerie Richardson Jackson recalls being hired as a telephone operator

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Valerie Richardson Jackson recalls her prom at Henrico High School

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Valerie Richardson Jackson recalls winning the Miss Warrior Contest

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Valerie Richardson Jackson describes her experience in college

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Valerie Richardson Jackson recalls Dr. Martin Luther King's assassination

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Valerie Richardson Jackson describes being hired at Neighborhood Youth Corps

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Valerie Richardson Jackson reflects upon the Neighborhood Youth Corps

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Valerie Richardson Jackson reflects upon her family's slogans

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Valerie Richardson Jackson describes her admission to the Wharton School

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Valerie Richardson Jackson describes her experience at the Wharton School

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Valerie Richardson Jackson describes her position at Grey Group in New York City

Tape: 3 Story: 12 - Valerie Richardson Jackson describes how she met Maynard Jackson

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Valerie Richardson Jackson describes meeting Maynard Jackson in 1976

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Valerie Richardson Jackson describes her courtship with Maynard Jackson

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Valerie Richardson Jackson describes her role as First Lady of Atlanta

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Valerie Richardson Jackson recalls Charles, Prince of Wales' visit to Atlanta

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Valerie Richardson Jackson recalls her family's challenges during her husband's mayoralty

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Valerie Richardson Jackson recalls her involvement in Atlanta's 1996 Summer Olympics

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Valerie Richardson Jackson describes the Maynard Jackson Youth Foundation, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Valerie Richardson Jackson describes the Maynard Jackson Youth Foundation, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Valerie Richardson Jackson recalls her first impressions of Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Slating of Valerie Richardson Jackson's interview, session 2

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Valerie Richardson Jackson recalls her wedding to Atlanta Mayor Maynard Jackson

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Valerie Richardson Jackson recalls the construction on Atlanta's international airport terminal

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Valerie Richardson Jackson recalls Atlanta Mayor Maynard Jackson's popularity

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Valerie Richardson Jackson describes Atlanta after Maynard Jackson became mayor

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Valerie Richardson Jackson recalls Mayor Ivan Allen, Jr. of Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Valerie Richardson Jackson recalls the establishment of Turner Broadcasting

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Valerie Richardson Jackson recalls Atlanta's bid for the 1996 Summer Olympics

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Valerie Richardson Jackson describes her role as First Lady of Atlanta

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Valerie Richardson Jackson recalls the Atlanta Child Murders

Tape: 5 Story: 11 - Valerie Richardson Jackson recalls Atlanta's airport construction

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Valerie Richardson Jackson describes Maynard Jackson's salesmanship

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Valerie Richardson Jackson reflects upon the preservation of The King Center

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Valerie Richardson Jackson recalls HistoryMaker Andrew Young as mayor of Atlanta

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Valerie Richardson Jackson recalls Maynard Jackson's run for a second mayoral term

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Valerie Richardson Jackson reflects upon Maynard Jackson's legacy

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Valerie Richardson Jackson reflects upon minorities being scared of using their power

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Valerie Richardson Jackson reflects upon Maynard Jackson's third mayoral term

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Valerie Richardson Jackson reflects upon her time as first lady of Atlanta

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Valerie Richardson Jackson describes Atlanta as the "cradle of civil rights"

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Valerie Richardson Jackson recalls Mayor Maynard Jackson's heart surgery

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Valerie Richardson Jackson recalls the 1996 Summer Olympic Games in Atlanta

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Valerie Richardson Jackson describes her career in television broadcasting

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Valerie Richardson Jackson describes her career in radio broadcasting

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Valerie Richardson Jackson recalls her radio show, 'Between the Lines'

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Valerie Richardson Jackson describes her commitment to leadership training

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Valerie Richardson Jackson describes choosing guests for 'Between the Lines'

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Valerie Richardson Jackson describes her volunteer activities

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Valerie Richardson Jackson describes Jackmont Hospitality, Inc.

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Valerie Richardson Jackson recalls Maynard Jackson's bid for the U.S. Senate

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Valerie Richardson Jackson describes her husband, Maynard Jackson

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - Valerie Richardson Jackson talks about her family

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - Valerie Richardson Jackson describes her hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 8 Story: 6 - Valerie Richardson Jackson describes her hopes for Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 8 Story: 7 - Valerie Richardson Jackson reflects upon President Barack Obama's election

Tape: 8 Story: 8 - Valerie Richardson Jackson reflects upon her life

Tape: 8 Story: 9 - Valerie Richardson Jackson reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 8 Story: 10 - Valerie Richardson Jackson recalls her parents and siblings

Tape: 8 Story: 11 - Valerie Richardson Jackson describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 9 Story: 1 - Valerie Richardson Jackson narrates her photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$4

DAStory

12$8

DATitle
Valerie Richardson Jackson describes how she met Maynard Jackson
Valerie Richardson Jackson describes the Maynard Jackson Youth Foundation, pt. 2
Transcript
(Simultaneous) Yeah, so how did you meet him [Maynard Jackson]? Yeah.$$I met Maynard at Roberta Flack's house in New York City [New York, New York]. Roberta was a mutual friend of ours. A great friend that worked with me in, in the advertising area, he and I were both friends of Roberta, and he called me one day and said, "Hey look, Valerie [HistoryMaker Valerie Richardson Jackson], Roberta's having a brunch for Maynard Jackson and we think you should come." You know, "Why don't you come and meet him." And so I'm like, you know, I knew who Maynard Jackson was, of course, but I was like, "Oh, you know--." He says, "Oh come on, Valerie, come and meet him." I said, "Well, I don't know, I've got to do this, I've got to do that." He says, "Look, I want you to meet Maynard Jackson." He said, "He's the kind of man you need, and you're the kind of woman he needs." And I said, "What are you talking about?" I said, "What are you talking about?" He said, "Well these guys that you're running around with aren't worth your time." And he said, "You're the kind of woman that Maynard Jackson needs." And I said, "Well, what are you talking about? Isn't he married?" And he says, "Oh, no, not anymore." I said, "What?" And he said, "Oh come on Valerie." He said, "[HistoryMaker] Quincy Jones will be there." I said, "Okay," (laughter). So, to this day, Quincy Jones laughs and jokes with us and says, "Well Maynard, if I hadn't been there, she wouldn't even have come to meet you," you know. But I did come and I did meet him and we did hit it off; and I think he was very impressed to meet, you know, a Wharton woman, you know, a black Wharton woman, right. And, of course, I was very impressed with him. And it was almost as if things were in divine order because when I was at Wharton [Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania] working on my M.B.A., Maynard was elected for the first time as mayor [of Atlanta, Georgia]--in 1972 he was elected mayor for the first time. So Ebony magazine had done this four or five page spread on Maynard Jackson, "Brilliant young attorney, youngest mayor of any major American city," you know, yada yada yada. So I'm reading the paper, I mean the magazine article, and I'm about halfway through it and I just stop and I l- just look up and I say to myself, "Now that's the kind of man I want to marry." I said, "I want to marry a Maynard Jackson."$We [Maynard Jackson Youth Foundation, Atlanta, Georgia] talk to them [students] about public speaking, about public demeanor, about public manners, about things like not chewing gum in public. We have etiquette classes where we'll bring them in and sit them in front of a full table set with six pieces of silverware and all the different glasses and so forth. Teach them how to use the silverware and then we always take them to lunch. We could take them to Paschal's [Paschal's Restaurant, Atlanta, Georgia]. We can take them to The Varsity [Atlanta, Georgia] or we can take them to a five-star hotel and see what they've learned about their etiquette and if they pull out the chair for the ladies, and so forth and open the doors, because we still teach all that. All of that old fashioned stuff, we think, is still crucial to the success of a person and it's the nuances that really make the difference. Chris Tucker came to the house for a surprise, for them, for the Christmas party, the comedian, Chris Tucker of 'Rush Hour' fame. He's a friend of ours and so I asked him to come by and say a few words to the kids. Well, the week before I had talked to the kids about chewing gum and how one should not chew in public and that the origin of chewing gum is really from the indigenous people who would pull gum from a tree, put it in their mouth and chew it to clean their teeth and then discard it. And so I said to them, you wouldn't brush your teeth in public, so why chew chewing gum if you're sitting on a dais or if you're speaking in public or, I said it's okay if you're doing sports and that kind of thing but if you're in a, you know, a public setting, then you really, you know, should not chew chewing gum, at least not where people can tell that you're chewing chewing gum. Okay, so, Chris Tucker comes over and Chris Tucker's chewing chewing gum. I mean, Chris is really chewing his chewing gum, right. At least five kids came up to me and said, "Ms. Jackson [HistoryMaker Valerie Richardson Jackson], you need to talk to Chris Tucker about his chewing gum." So I know they're listening, thank God, right, and that's what it's all about. I used to wonder, for ten years, how does Maynard [Maynard Jackson] get up every Saturday, every other Saturday and go down there after working all week and doing everything, how does he do it? And then when I started doing it, I found out, it's because of the children. They give us the energy. They give us the spirit. They give us the motivation to keep coming, to keep sharing with them because they really are the future. They really are the future.

Lois Martin

Educator and civic activist Lois Martin was born on September 23, 1928 in Boca Raton, Florida to Sallie and Jasper Dolphus. Originally from Georgia, Martin’s family relocated to Boca Raton several years before she was born. She is the youngest of seven children. After graduating in 1946 from Carver High School in Delray Beach, Florida, Martin went on to earn her A.A. degree in 1948 from Florida Normal College and her B.S. degree from Florida A&M College in 1950 before beginning to pursue graduate studies at Boston College.

Martin returned to Boca Raton in 1950 and taught math for nearly forty years at Carver High School, Booker T. Washington High School and Carver Middle School.

In addition to her career as an educator, Martin had always been an active member of her community. For several years, she acted as secretary to the Parks and Recreation Advisory Board and later served as the vice chairman for the Housing Authority. Since retiring from teaching in 1988, Martin has participated in a number of organizations: she has been a contributor to Habitat for Humanity since 1991, sat on Boca Raton’s Historic Preservation Board since 2001, and has held the offices of vice chairman of the Pearl City Blue Ribbon Committee and treasurer for the Martin Luther King Memorial Committee. She has also served as a Sunday School teacher and treasurer for the Ebenezer Baptist Church. The Lois Martin Community Center serves the underprivileged communities of Boca Raton with a variety of services for children and teens, including tutoring and after school programs.

Martin is the mother of one son, Edward.

Lois Martin was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on April 17, 2002.

Accession Number

A2002.061

Sex

Female

Interview Date

4/17/2002

Last Name

Martin

Maker Category
Schools

Carver High School

Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University

Florida Memorial University

Boston College

Speakers Bureau

No

First Name

Lois

Birth City, State, Country

Boca Raton

HM ID

MAR03

Favorite Season

Fall

Sponsor

Knight Foundation

State

Florida

Favorite Vacation Destination

Israel

Favorite Quote

And we know that in all things God works for the good of those who love him, who have been called according to his purpose. - Romans 8:28

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Florida

Birth Date

9/23/1928

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Tallahassee

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Casserole (Eggplant)

Short Description

Civic activist and high school math teacher Lois Martin (1928 - ) taught math for nearly forty years at Carver High School, Booker T. Washington High School and Carver Middle School. Today, the Lois Martin Community Center serves the underprivileged communities of Boca Raton with a variety of services for children and teens.

Employment

Booker T. Washington High School

Carver Middle School

Carver High School

Main Sponsor
Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Lois Martin's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Lois Martin lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Lois Martin talks about her parents' family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Lois Martin describes her maternal grandparents and paternal grandfather

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Lois Martin recounts how her parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Lois Martin describes her mother's personality

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Lois Martin talks about her relationship with her mother

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Lois Martin describes her father's experiences as a sharecropper and their relationship

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Lois Martin talks about her earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Lois Martin describes the tight-knit community in Pearl City, Florida

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Lois Martin details the history of the black community in Pearl City, Florida

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Lois Martin describes her childhood personality and her father's favoritism toward her niece

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Lois Martin talks about her parents' lack of educational opportunities

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Lois Martin talks about attending Pearl City Elementary School, Roadman Elementary School, and Carver High School

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Lois Martin talks about her high school teachers

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Lois Martin describes how her commute to Carver High School limited her participation in after-school activities

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Lois Martin talks about the role of teachers in her community

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Lois Martin talks about how her academic achievements improved her relationship with her father

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Lois Martin describes the sights, sounds and smells of her childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Lois Martin talks about the importance of Ebenezer Missionary Baptist Church to the Pearl City community in Boca Raton, Florida

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Lois Martin talks about her church activities

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Lois Martin talks about the church activities she participated in as a child

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Lois Martin reflects on how her Christian faith helped her to endure segregation

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Lois Martin describes personal encounters with police brutality and segregation

Tape: 2 Story: 13 - Lois Martin talks about the factors that influenced her views on segregation

Tape: 2 Story: 14 - Lois Martin talks about her parents' reluctance to fight for civil rights violations

Tape: 2 Story: 15 - Lois Martin remembers having to use outdated books in high school

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Lois Martin talks about standing up to police misconduct in Pearl City, Boca Raton, Florida

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Lois Martin talks about becoming the salutatorian of Carver High School in 1946

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Lois Martin talks about college tuition and her decision to transfer to Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University after two years at Florida Normal College

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Lois Martin describes unpleasant memories from Florida Normal College in St. Augustine, Florida

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Lois Martin talks about her decision to go to Florida Agricultural & Mechanical University [FAMU] in Tallahassee, Florida

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Lois Martin describes her resolve to succeed as a math major

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Lois Martin talks about finding a job to pay her college tuition

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Lois Martin reflects upon her decision to major in math as a woman

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Lois Martin talks about how she became a math teacher at Carver High School in Delray Beach, Florida

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Lois Martin talks about graduate work at Boston College in Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Lois Martin remembers her first years of teaching at Carver High School in Delray Beach, Florida

Tape: 3 Story: 12 - Lois Martin describes the delayed effect of Brown v. Board of Education

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Lois Martin talks about inequity in schools and winning a lawsuit for equal pay led by C. Spencer Pompey and Thurgood Marshall

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Lois Martin describes how she prepared her students for future opportunities

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Lois Martin describes the integration of Booker T. Washington High School in Montgomery, Alabama, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Lois Martin describes the integration of Booker T. Washington High School in Montgomery, Alabama, pt.2

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Lois Martin talks about how economic competition between black and white business owners in Montgomery, Alabama improved customer service

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Lois Martin talks about the day Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. was assassinated in 1968

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Lois Martin reflects on the process of integrating Carver High School in Delray Beach, Florida in 1970

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Lois Martin describes the friction between black and white teachers after the integration of Carver High School in Delray Beach, Florida

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Lois Martin talks about her volunteer work in Boca Raton, Florida

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Lois Martin talks about her work in the Boca Raton Housing Authority and her commitment to the Pearl City community in Boca Raton, Florida

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Lois Martin describes her work on Habitat for Humanity's selection committee

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Lois Martin talks about her work at the Historic Preservation Board and her role in designating Pearl City as a historic district in Boca Raton, Florida

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Lois Martin talks about her work at The Haven, the Lois Martin Community Center, and Ebenezer Missionary Baptist church

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Lois Martin explains how her spirit of determination is driven by her Christian faith

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Lois Martin talks about her dedication to her students

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Lois Martin reflects upon how broken homes impact the education system in America

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Lois Martin shares her hopes for the black community

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Lois Martin explains why prayer needs to be put back in public schools

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Lois Martin talks about her legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Lois Martin describes her photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

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DAStory

12$8

DATitle
Lois Martin describes personal encounters with police brutality and segregation
Lois Martin describes the friction between black and white teachers after the integration of Carver High School in Delray Beach, Florida
Transcript
Do you have any specific stories or instances where you had face-to-face situations of segregation, society here in Boca [Boca Raton, Florida] as a child or Pearl City [Boca Raton, Florida]?$$During the time when [Police] Chief [Hugh] 'Brownie'[Brown] they call it, was the [police] chief of Pearl [City], of Boca Raton. He was the chief for many, many years. They were looking for a black man that had a rifle or whatever. Anyway, he ran across my brother hunting I guess about eight miles from here out in the woods and he had a rifle. He didn't ask him any questions. He just beat him to a pulp almost. And then finally he came up and he said, "Who--what is your name?" And he told them the name. "So why you didn't tell me that before? Cause I know you're Jasper's [Dolphus] son." He said "You never asked me or gave me a chance to say anything." So he brought him home. And he said--didn't say I'm sorry, but he said, "I brought your son in and if he had spoke out earlier, he wouldn't be in the shape he's in." And I looked at the situation and I said, "You know, one day you're going to have to reap what you sow." And my mother [Sallie Dolphus] says, "Don't say anything," you know, cause she was afraid because he was the [police] chief. But I told him, I said and my mother said go, go, go, get back out of here, whatever. So anyway that was one situation. I had a situation happen to me down in Fort Lauderdale [Florida]. I went down to shop at Fort Lauderdale; that was one of the places we used to go to shop, Fort Lauderdale or West Palm Beach [Florida] cause you didn't have any stores, dress stores or what have you, around here [Pearl City]. And I was in the ten cent store there and I had to go to the bathroom. And I looked up, white only, women, white only. I walked right in. So one of the cashiers run in behind me. She says, "You can't come in here." I said, "Wait till I finish." So when I finished, I came out, she had gone out and she had gotten the manager and he came to the door. And he said--was at the door when I came out. He said to me, "Can't you read?" I said, "Read, read what?" He says, "That sign up there says 'white women only.'" I said, "I didn't know we had any white women in these United States. I see some of you look a little flush in the face, but it's not white." So anyway the other girl was with me say, "Hey, you know, don't push it now." So anyway he told the lady, say, "Well she's out already so we can't do anything about it." So he says, "Get on out the store," so I left. But I got time for the most part. There was a parking lot to the north of that dime store where we used to park the old car if we came in a car. And usually if you had to go to the bathroom, just go around the side of one of those cars in the parking lot, you know. But that particular time I decided that I'm going to go right in here, and I did.$And your experiences with it.$$Right.$$With the teachers and having an integrated staff and everything like that. Do you think that was a more positive situation than it was when it was the separate situation?$$It was. But on the other hand, some of the teachers thought that they too were a little bit better than some of us. And you had problems there sometimes in connection with them. Or you might have had someone that was over you that was not quail--that was under qualified and you're overqualified and they're over you. And so you have friction sometimes. I give you an example. They hired a lady--they gave her a title and she had to check the lesson plans of the teachers and make a report and whatever. So when she came to Carver, she said to me, she says, "I don't know any math. And I need your help. I want you to teach me how to check the lesson plans and all, and what's needed and something about the goals and all of this." So I did, I taught her. The next year I turned in a lesson plan to her. She had all these red marks on there. So I went to her and I had quadratic equation on there. I said, "What equation is this?" She said, "You know I don't know any math, I don't know what that is." I said, "And how did you put these red marks out here on my paper?" She said, "Well I had to show some indication that I at least checked it." I said, "But you didn't check it, you just put some red marks down." I said, "Now I tell you what. You find yourself some whiteout and get every red mark out of my lesson plan book. Then turn it back to me." I said, "And the next person you hear from will be the principal." I went to the principal. I said, "Well I, I said I didn't know what was coming up," I said, "but the Lord prepared me for this." I said, "I have individualized my textbook that I'm using. And because the kids are gonna be on all kind of levels, I cannot do lesson plans. I can give you my scope what I'm doing. I can give you the booklet of where they're going next and everything else and all of that. But just a lesson plan for this week I can't do it." I said, "And I thank God that I have it all ready and here it is. And I will not be doing anymore lesson plan." And that's when I stopped doing lesson plan because of those red marks in my lesson plan book. And she didn't know anything about quadratic formula that she was markin' up.$$So you had more difficulties dealing with white staff members than with children.$$Children, no problem.