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Nancy Glenn Griesinger

Statistics professor Nancy L. Glenn was born in Charleston, South Carolina. After graduating from high school, Glenn attended the University of South Carolina where she earned her B.S. degree in mathematics in 1987 and a second B.S. degree in statistics in 1995. Glenn earned her Ph.D. degree in statistics from Rice University in Houston, Texas, in 2002, becoming the first African American to do so. Her doctoral thesis was about robust empirical likelihood, which is a statistical method of estimating a quantitative value. In 2002, Glenn worked as a postdoctoral research associate with the National Security Agency.

After completing her studies, Glenn became an assistant professor in the Department of Statistics at the University of South Carolina. In 2006, she conducted research in the fields of nonparametric statistics and bioinformatics, and contributed the findings to several academic research journals. One article examined the statistical patterns of cancer cell lines and another investigated the future implications of data analysis in evolutionary genomics, which is the study of how the DNA structure in organisms changes during evolution. Glenn remained at the University of South Carolina until 2007, when she was hired as an assistant professor in the Department of Mathematical Sciences at Texas Southern University (TSU) in Houston, Texas.

In 2008, Glenn served as the lead investigator on a research grant from the National Institutes of Health. The research develops her nonparametric spirometry reference values. In 2011, she served as the co-investigator of a research project funded by the National Aeronautics Space Administration for the Bio-nanotechnology and Environmental Research Center in the Biology Department at TSU. Glenn also developed a course at TSU that prepares science, technology, engineering, and mathematics students for graduate schools in the sciences.

Throughout her career, Glenn published many important scientific articles, and participated in several activities outside of her academic requirements. She once was the Houston representative to the American Statistical Association and served as a reviewer for several statistical publications, including the Journal of the American Statistical Association and the Journal of Probability and Statistical Science . In her role as an educator, she teaches and mentors many undergraduate and graduate students in science-related fields. Glenn works in Houston, Texas.

Nancy L. Glenn was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on [08/16/2012].

Accession Number

A2012.191

Sex

Female

Interview Date

8/16/2012

Last Name

Glenn Griesinger

Maker Category
Marital Status

Divorced

Middle Name

L.

Occupation
Schools

Rice University

University of South Carolina

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Nancy

Birth City, State, Country

Charleston

HM ID

GLE02

Favorite Season

Christmas

State

South Carolina

Favorite Vacation Destination

None

Favorite Quote

Bible quotes

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Texas

Birth Date

1/26/1965

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Houston

Country

United States

Favorite Food

None

Short Description

Statistician Nancy Glenn Griesinger (1965 - )

Employment

Texas Southern University

University of South Carolina

Rice University

Midlands Technical College

Southwestern College

Favorite Color

Black

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Nancy Glenn's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Nancy Glenn's lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Nancy Glenn describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Nancy Glenn describes her maternal grandfather and her mother's life in South Carolina

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Nancy Glenn describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Nancy Glenn talks about her father's West African ancestry

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Nancy Glenn talks about her late father, Henry Deas

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Nancy Glenn describes how her parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Nancy Glenn describes her parents' personalities and who she takes after

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Nancy Glenn talks about her siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Nancy Glenn describes her childhood in Charleston

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Nancy Glenn describes the sights and sounds and smells of growing up

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Nancy Glenn describes segregation in Charleston, South Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Nancy Glenn describes her teenage years in school in McClellanville

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Nancy Glenn talks about the 1974 integration of schools is McClellanville

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Nancy Glenn describes her experience in high school

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Nancy Glenn describes racism in post-segregated Charleston

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Nancy Glenn describes her experience in church

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Nancy Glenn describes her extra-curricular activities in Lincoln High School

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Nancy Glenn talks about the influence of her high school guidance counselor

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Nancy Glenn talks about her high school honors and the lack of role models

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Nancy Glenn describes her decision and experience attending the University of South Carolina

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Nancy Glenn describes her math classes and the mentorship that she received at the University of South Carolina

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Nancy Glenn contrasts the amenities at the University of South Carolina with those during her childhood in McClellanville

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Nancy Glenn describes her decision to pursue a Ph.D. in statistics

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Nancy Glenn describes her experience and mentorship at Rice University

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Nancy Glenn discusses her Ph.D. dissertation in the area of empirical likelihood

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Nancy Glenn talks about the Conference of African American Researchers in Mathematical Sciences (CARMS)

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Nancy Glenn describes meeting Art Owen and editing his book on empirical likelihood

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Nancy Glenn describes her decision to return to the University of South Carolina as a faculty member

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Nancy Glenn describes racial discrimination at the University of South Carolina

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Nancy Glenn describes her productivity at the University of South Carolina

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Nancy Glenn describes her most significant research publications in applied statistics and in biological sciences

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Nancy Glenn describes her departure from the University of South Carolina

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Nancy Glenn describes her son's relationship with her family

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Nancy Glenn describes her own and her husband's experience as a mixed-race couple in South Carolina

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Nancy Glenn describes her decision to join the math department at Texas Southern University

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Nancy Glenn describes her experience at Texas Southern University

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Nancy Glenn describes her research on spirometry reference values for Hispanic Americans

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Nancy Glenn talks about the history of Texas Southern University and its math department

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Nancy Glenn describes her experience at Texas Southern University

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Nancy Glenn describes her hopes and concerns for the young African American community

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Nancy Glenn reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Nancy Glenn talks about her son

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Nancy Glenn talks about why she wears a burka

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Nancy Glenn talks about how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Nancy Glenn describes her photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$5

DAStory

6$1

DATitle
Nancy Glenn describes her experience and mentorship at Rice University
Nancy Glenn describes her research on spirometry reference values for Hispanic Americans
Transcript
Okay, all right, so what was the experience like at Rice [University]?$$Rice was wonderful. It was a very supportive environment. Rice has always been very progressive, even when--even when women--years ago when women were not accepted in science and math institutes, Rice was one of the first universities to do that. So it was a very open-minded liberal place. Professors were supportive, I was in a great support group, it was a wonderful experience.$$Okay. All right, now, who was your advisor?$$David Scott.$$And is there anyone at Rice that you would consider like a mentor or someone that--$$My mentor--well, all of my professors were really mentors at Rice; Dave W. Scott, Dr. Scott, Dr. Catherine Ensor, Dr. Cox; they were all mentors, very supportive people, and they treated me like everyone else. My--one of my--also one of my other mentors was Dr. Richard Tapia. He, he headed the organization called 'AGEP' Advisors for Graduate Education and the Professoriate. So I was supported through AGEP, which was a national foundation grant my entire time at Rice University. And Dr. Richard Tapia was a computational and applied math [CAM] professor. Many of my friends were in the, what we called the CAM Department. Most of my friends were in the CAM Department.$$I've heard Dr. Richard Tapia's name before in these interviews. I can't remember where now, but I've heard it before.$$He received a--several awards, not only for his profession, but also for outreach and adversity. One of those rewards was from President Clinton for, for graduating the most African Americans in math and science in a particular year. So Rice graduated four one year, and Rice is a small school of four in Ph.D.s, that is. That's one of the awards that he got--rewards that he got.$$Okay. So, when did you earn your Ph.D. from Rice?$$2002.$$Okay. All right. Okay. So you were like a TA [teaching assistant] there at Rice, I mean--$$I worked in the lab, a grader. For the most part, Rice did not allow the students to be TAs.$$Okay.$$Parents did not like that. But we could be graders and work in a lab, things like that, the computer lab.$Okay. Now, in 2011, the findings from your collaborative research with Vanessa M. Brown are published in the Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health in an article entitled 'Nonparametric Spirometry Reference Values for Hispanic Americans'. Now can you kind of explain what that's about.$$Before I did the research with spirometry reference values, it had been nothing specifically for Hispanic Americans. No research done in that area. Not on a national scale. So the way that the reference values are used is to gage lung function, and the data that I received was from the National Institutes of Health [NIH]. And in order to get some type of reference, range reference value, the National Institutes of Health used healthy individuals. But the individuals that this was based on was either white or black. And since ethnicity is major factor in determining lung function, the readings that were given for Hispanic Americans for example a Mexican American went in and did some type of lung function test to check for breathing to see if they have asthma, something like that, it would have been typically based on other whites, which could give erroneous results. So what I did was I used empirical likelihood function to devise a confidence interval for reference values, based just on data from Hispanic Americans. And the reason why I used Hispanic Americans is that's the phrase that's used by the National Institutes of Health. So in their data, they initially tried to sample all Hispanic Americans, Mexican Americans, Cubans and Puerto Ricans, and so forth, but because Mexicans were the large population, and the other populations were not large enough, the data is really based on the one function of Mexican Americans. And the reason why it was a published paper is because of now there are confidence intervals to let--let others know--to let doctors know, or anybody who use lung-function data what would be a normal range for Hispanic Americans in certain age groups and certain heights and based on gender as well. And that's what that paper focuses on.$$Okay. Now does that--from the rear here, does that satisfy a--I mean is that good, you think? OFF CAMERA VOICE: WHAT WERE THE FINDINGS AND WHAT'S THE APPLICATION USED?$$The finding was a--several different charts that one can use. For example, I had the data divided into strata, based on prior research of what 20 to 30, 30 to 40 gender, and also stratified according to weight. So the likelihood--this is where the likelihood function comes in. What is the most plausible value for the parameter? And, in this case, the parameter is the reference value. So what is the most plausible value for the reference value for that particular strata. That's what that research answered. And not only, what is the most plausible value, what are the bounds that the--the confidence interval bounds; I did 90 and 95 percent confidence intervals for that particular age group and gender for lung function. The way that it's used is when somebody goes into the doctor or (unclear). Your lung function is this, you can tell whether or not they're in the normal range or not, if their--that person's Hispanic or Mexican American.$$Okay. I guess the difference between, let's say, a Puerto Rican and a Mexican American would be, I guess the, I don't know whether it would be numerically, but I guess it would be very different because of the high altitude orientation of Mexican Americans and low altitude orientation of Puerto Ricans. Is that true?$$Well, the National Institutes of Health look mainly at the body, how, the stature of the person more than anything else. There were people who were different, but for the most part, when you look at a particular race, the other person, they're built differently, and that's what they were looking at.$$Okay. I would just think off the cuff, that Mexicans and Puerto Ricans are built differently. This is the ones I've seen.$$Yes. That's at looking at the stature.$$Okay. So, you had to add a note that this study is--applies more to Mexican Americans than to--$$That's why the title was--now that's one of the things that I said and it's--although the data from the NIH--it says Hispanic Americans, the--that was the target population, the population that they actually ended up with, because the sample size requirements was Mexican Americans. I did say that in the paper.$$Okay. So, a doctor would really have to be aware that if he was looking at--for the--if he was really doing some fine tune to the lung capacity of a, you know, a Puerto Rican, he wouldn't be--this data wouldn't be of much use to him, right?$$Right. But, I assume that it would be more use than to--it depends on that stature of the person--more use than a European American or to an African American.$$Okay.$$But it is focused just on Mexican Americans, and the way that this is different from other methods that the devise of spirometry reference values is that most of the other methods used parametric techniques. So they make assumptions about the data, about normality of the data, the reference value data, and things like that, but I did not make those assumptions in the paper. I based it all on the empirical aspects, the empirical data (unclear) data base.$$

Lillian Lambert

Small business executive Lillian Lincoln Lambert was born on May 12, 1940 in Ballsville, Virginia to Willie D. Hobson, a farmer and Arnetha B. Hobson, a school teacher and homemaker. Lambert graduated from Pocahontas High School in Powhatan, Virginia in 1958. Her mother, a college graduate, urged Lambert to pursue an advanced degree, but she wanted to move to New York City instead. She worked as a maid on Fifth Avenue, a typist at Macy’s Department Store and a travelling saleswoman. Lambert then moved to Washington, D.C. in 1961, where she worked for the federal government as a typist in the Veteran Affairs Division and later with the Peace Corps while going to school at the District of Columbia Teacher’s College (now the University of the District of Columbia). In 1962, Lambert enrolled as a full-time student at Howard University at the age of twenty-two. Under the mentorship of Professor H. Naylor Fitzhugh, she majored in Business Administration and applied to Harvard Business School. Lambert graduated from Howard University in 1966 with her B.A. degree in business administration and started Harvard Business School in 1967. At Harvard Business School, she worked with four other black students to increase the number of African American enrollments and in 1968, they founded the African American Student Union. Lambert graduated in 1969 and was the first African American woman to receive her M.B.A. degree from Harvard Business School.

Lambert was then hired at the Sterling Institute in Washington, D.C. and later as a manager at the National Bankers Association. In 1972, Lambert joined Ferris & Company as a stockbroker. In 1973, she began teaching at Bowie State College and became the executive vice president of Unified Services, a janitorial services company. Then in 1976, Lambert left Unified Services to start her own janitorial company, Centennial One, Inc. Starting in her garage, she grew Centennial into a business with more than 1,200 employees and $20 million in sales. In 2001, Lambert sold her company and in 2002, she became president of LilCo Enterprises. She now serves as a coach, consultant and public speaker.

Lambert is the recipient of numerous awards including the Small Business Person of the Year for the State of Maryland in 1981 and the Harvard Business School Alumni Achievement Award in 2003, the school’s highest honor for its alumni. She has served on the board of visitors for Virginia Commonwealth University, the board of regents for the University System of Maryland, the board of directors for the African American Alumni Association of Harvard Business School and committee vice chair for the Manasota Chapter of the Association for the Study of African American Life and History. Lambert is married to John Anthony Lambert, Sr. and has two adult daughters, Darnetha and Tasha.

Lillian Lincoln Lambert was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on February 9, 2012.

Accession Number

A2012.018

Sex

Female

Interview Date

2/9/2012

Last Name

Lambert

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Lincoln

Schools

Pocahontas Middle

Harvard Business School

Howard University

Speakers Bureau

Yes

Speakers Bureau Availability

Any

First Name

Lillian

Birth City, State, Country

Powhatan

HM ID

LAM03

Speakers Bureau Preferred Audience

Any

Speakers Bureau Honorarium

Yes - $1,000 - $5,000

Favorite Season

Spring

Speaker Bureau Notes

Preferred Audience: Youth, womens groups, business groups, education institutions.

State

Virginia

Favorite Vacation Destination

None

Favorite Quote

Defeat Is Not An Option.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Virginia

Birth Date

5/12/1940

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Richmond

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Ice Cream

Short Description

Business chief executive Lillian Lambert (1940 - ) was the first African American woman to graduate with her M.B.A. degree from Harvard Business School and went on to found her own company, Centennial One, Inc.

Employment

LilCo Enterprises

Centennial One, Inc.

Unified Services

Bowie State University

Favorite Color

Blue, Red

DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Lillian Lambert's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Lillian Lambert lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Lillian Lambert describes her mother's family history

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Lillian Lambert talks about her mother

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Lillian Lambert talks about her father's family history

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Lillian Lambert talks about her father

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Lillian Lambert describes how her parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Lillian Lambert talks about her family's property in Ballsville, Virginia

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Lillian Lambert considers her likeness to her parents

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Lillian Lambert lists her siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Lillian Lambert remembers nearly being crushed by a falling tree

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Lillian Lambert talks about the schools she attended in Ballsville, Virginia

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Lillian Lambert remembers her neighbors in Ballsville, Virginia

Tape: 1 Story: 14 - Lillian Lambert describes the sights, sounds, and smells of growing up in Ballsville, Virginia

Tape: 1 Story: 15 - Lillian Lambert describes her childhood home in Ballsville, Virginia

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Lillian Lambert describes family conflicts over the value of education

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Lillian Lambert talks about her family's attitudes towards money

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Lillian Lambert talks about her schooling and extracurricular activities

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Lillian Lambert talks about her childhood church, Mt.Pero Baptist Church

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Lillian Lambert describes race relations in Ballsville, Virginia during her childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Lillian Lambert recalls watching boxing with her father and listening to stories told outside the local store

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Lillian Lambert describes working as a nanny in Riverhead, New York, as a teenager

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Lillian Lambert talks about attending Pocahontas High School in Powhatan County, Virgina

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Lillian Lambert describes her high school aspirations

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Lillian Lambert describes her time living in New York City

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Lillian Lambert explains her move to Washington, D.C.

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Lillian Lambert describes working at the Veteran's Administration in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Lillian Lambert talks about her decision to enroll at Howard University in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Lillian Lambert describes how she financed her education at Howard University in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Lillian Lambert talks about her mentor, H. Naylor Fitzhugh

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Lillian Lambert talks about her time at Howard University in Washington, D.C. as a commuter student

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Lillian Lambert talks about her college extracurricular activities and reflects on being a nontraditional student

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Lillian Lambert recalls professors from Howard University in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Lillian Lambert recalls her various jobs during the summers in college

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Lillian Lambert describes her admission to Harvard Business School

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Lillian Lambert talks about the lack of African Americans at Harvard Business School from the 1930s to 1960s

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Lillian Lambert describes her efforts to have Harvard Business School enroll more black students

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Lillian Lambert describes her efforts to recruit black students at Harvard Business School in Boston, Massachusetts

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Lillian Lambert reflects on Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.'s assassination and its possible effect on diversity at Harvard Business School

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Lillian Lambert recalls her professors from Harvard Business School in Cambridge, Massachusetts

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Lillian Lambert recalls her time at Harvard Business School in Boston, Massachusetts

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Lillian Lambert talks about a business school project for American Express

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Lillian Lambert talks about working at the Sterling Institute after earning her M.B.A. from Harvard Business School in Boston, Massachusetts

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Lillian Lambert reflects on being the first black woman to graduate from Harvard Business School in Boston, Massachusetts

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Lillian Lambert talks about working at the Sterling Institute and the National Bankers Association

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Lillian Lambert describes working as a stockbroker and as a consultant for a janitorial company

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Lillian Lambert talks about teaching and consulting while pregnant and her work for Unified Services full time

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Lillian Lambert talks about being fired from Unified Services and starting her own business, Centennial One, Inc.

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Lillian Lambert talks about her committee work and her contracts awarded in the 1970s, including a government contract through the SBA's 8(A) Program

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Lillian Lambert describes her commercial cleaning business, Centennial One, Inc.

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Lillian Lambert talks about her largest contracts and financial losses

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Lillian Lambert recalls winning the Small Business Person of the Year Award in 1981

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Lillian Lambert considers President Nixon's role in the creation of the Small Business Administration

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Lillian Lambert talks about her mother's death

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Lillian Lambert talks about her first husband's involvement in her business

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Lillian Lambert talks about her second marriage

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Lillian Lambert talks about her involvement with the Harvard Business School African American Alumni Association in Boston, Massachusetts

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Lillian Lambert talks about the success of her business, Centennial One, Inc.

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Lillian Lambert talks about selling Centennial One, Inc. in 2001

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Lillian Lambert talks about starting LilCo Enterprises and working as a realtor

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Lillian Lambert talks about writing her book, 'A Road to Someplace Better'

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Lillian Lambert reflects on how her life has changed since her childhood in Ballsville, Virginia

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Lillian Lambert reflects her interactions with the people in Ballsville, Virginia

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Lillian Lambert describes her volunteer activities

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Lillian Lambert talks about her student talks

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Lillian Lambert describes her mentoring relationships

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Lillian Lambert describes her hopes and concerns for African American communities

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Lillian Lambert talks about the racism shown HistoryMaker Barack Obama

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Lillian Lambert talks about discrimination in her business dealings

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Lillian Lambert considers what she might have done differently

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Lillian Lambert considers her legacy

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Lillian Lambert talks about serving on the board of regents at the University System of Maryland and Virginia Commonwealth University

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Lillian Lambert talks about her marriage to John Lambert

Tape: 7 Story: 9 - Lillian Lambert describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 7 Story: 10 - Lillian Lambert narrates her photographs

The Honorable Charles Z. Smith

Retired Justice of the Washington Supreme Court and prosecutor for the United States Department of Justice, Charles Zellender Smith was born on February 23, 1927, in Lakeland, Florida. Son of John R. Smith, Sr., a Cuban immigrant, and Eva Love Smith, he attended school in Franklin, North Carolina at age three, Washington Park School in Lakeland and Hungerford School in Maitland, Florida. Mentored by Dr. William H. Gray, Jr., President of Florida A&M College, he served as Gray’s administrative assistant. From 1945 to 1946, Smith served in the United States Army as a court reporter. He later joined the Gray family in Philadelphia attending Temple University, where he earned his B.S. degree in 1952. Smith then moved to Seattle, Washington, where he entered the University of Washington Law School. He was one of four minority students in a class of 120. He was the only African American or person of color in the graduating class. While in law school, Smith met Hawaii-born Eleanor Martinez, whom he married in 1955.

After graduating from law school, Smith served as a law clerk for Supreme Court Justice Matthew W. Hill. From 1956 to 1960, he served as a Deputy Prosecuting Attorney for King County. In 1961, Smith was recruited by U.S. Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy to join his staff. Smith’s assistance was sought by the Attorney General in investigating mismanagement of the Central States Teamsters Pension Fund. He led a team conducting grand juries around the country, culminating in indictment and successful prosecution of James R. Hoffa and five business men for mail fraud and wire fraud in the Northern District of Illinois in 1964.

In 1965, Smith returned to Seattle where he became the first African American or person of color to become a judge in the State of Washington, being appointed as Judge of the Seattle Municipal Court. In 1966, again as a “first,” he was appointed to the King County Superior Court and subsequently reelected unopposed until he left the court in 1973. Also, in 1973, Smith was appointed Professor of Law and Associate Dean at the University of Washington Law School where he served until his retirement in 1986. Later in 1973 Smith was commissioned in the United States Marine Corps Reserve where he served in the Judge Advocate Division as a military judge until his retirement as a Lieutenant Colonel in 1986.

Smith served as President of the American Baptist Churches, USA in 1976 and 1977 and participated with the National Inter-religious Task Force on Soviet Jewry. He served as a delegate to Task Force follow-up conferences in Rome, Italy, Belgrade, Yugoslavia and Madrid, Spain.

On July 18, 1988, Smith became the first African American or person of color to serve on the Washington Supreme Court. He served three terms retiring in 2002. In 1999, he was appointed by President William J. Clinton to the U.S. Commission on International Religious Freedom, created by Congress to monitor the status of freedom of thought, conscience and belief abroad. In 2001, the Student Bar Association at the University of Washington Law School established the Charles Z. Smith Public Service Scholarship. He received the Distinguished Service Award from the National Center for State Courts in 2004 and was honored by Pioneer Human Services in Seattle with naming of one of its low cost housing properties as the Chares Z. Smith House.

Smith lived in Seattle, Washington with his wife, Eleanor Martinez. The couple had four adult children and six grandchildren.

Accession Number

A2007.308

Sex

Male

Interview Date

6/3/2008 |and| 6/4/2008 |and| 10/27/2007

Last Name

Smith

Middle Name

Z.

Schools

Washington Park School

Robert Hungerford Industrial School

Temple University

Florida Memorial University

Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University

Washington University School of Law

National Judicial College

Naval Justice School

First Name

Charles

Birth City, State, Country

Lakeland

HM ID

SMI21

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Florida

Favorite Vacation Destination

Hawaii

Favorite Quote

Truth, Justice And Freedom.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Washington

Birth Date

2/23/1927

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Seattle

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Chocolate

Death Date

8/28/2016

Short Description

Federal government appointee, law professor, and state supreme court judge The Honorable Charles Z. Smith (1927 - 2016 ) was the first African American to serve on the State of Washington's Supreme Court. In addition to holding this Washington Supreme Court position from 1988 until his retirement in 2002, Justice Smith was also known for serving on the staff of U.S. Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy, and being appointed to the U.S. Commission on International Religious Freedom by President William J. Clinton.

Employment

Municipal Court of Seattle

Washington Supreme Court

U.S. Army

King County Prosecuting Attorney's Office

U.S. Department of Justice

King County Superior Court

University of Washington School of Law

U.S. Marine Corps

Favorite Color

Orange

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of The Honorable Charles Z. Smith's interview, session 1

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith describes his mother's family background, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith describes his mother's family background, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith describes the race relations in Franklin, North Carolina

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith talks about his mother's formal education

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith talks about his mother's move to Lakeland, Florida

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith describes his father's family background

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith talks about the origin of his father's name

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith recalls how his parents met

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith describes his parents' personalities and who he takes after

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith talks about his father's education

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith recalls his early education

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith describes his early musical interests

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith talks about his sisters' radio show on WLAK Radio in Lakeland, Florida

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith recalls attending Robert Hungerford Normal and Industrial School in Eatonville, Florida

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith remembers meeting William H. Gray, Jr.

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith describes his decision to study law

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith talks about his academic accomplishments

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith remembers enlisting in the U.S. Army

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith describes his experiences in the U.S. Army

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith talks about his discharge from the U.S. Army

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith talks about why he moved to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith recalls his study of group dynamics at Temple University in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith remembers applying for law school

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith talks about his admittance to the University of Washington School of Law

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith describes his experiences in Olympia, Washington

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith recalls meeting his wife, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith recalls meeting his wife, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith describes his position as a deputy prosecuting attorney in King County, Washington

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith talks about Washington's criminal justice system

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith remembers prosecuting drug related cases

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith describes his experiences with racial discrimination

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith recalls being recruited by Robert F. Kennedy

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith talks about Dave Beck and the International Brotherhood of Teamsters

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith describes the feud between Robert F. Kennedy and Jimmy Hoffa

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith describes the reasoning behind Jimmy Hoffa's pardon

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith recalls the Jimmy Hoffa case he tried in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith describes the tensions between J. Edgar Hoover and Robert F. Kennedy

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith remembers J. Edgar Hoover

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith recalls his appointment to the Municipal Court of Seattle

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith describes his role in decriminalizing public intoxication, pt. 1

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith describes his role in decriminalizing public intoxication, pt. 2

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith recalls his appointment to the King County Superior Court

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith remembers a murder case he presided over in the King County Superior Court, pt. 1

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith remembers a murder case he presided over in the King County Superior Court, pt. 2

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith describes the sentencing criteria in the State of Washington

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith recalls his cases while serving on the King County Superior Court

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith talks about Seattle's discriminatory housing practices, pt. 1

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith talks about Seattle's discriminatory housing practices, pt. 2

Tape: 7 Story: 9 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith recalls his further judicial studies and education

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith describes his judicial appointment in the U.S. Marine Corps

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith remembers one of his U.S. Marine Corps cases

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith talks about the differences between civilian and military courts

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith describes his teaching schedule at the University of Washington School of Law

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith talks about the University District Defender Services clinical program

Tape: 8 Story: 6 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith describes his work as a commentator on KOMO Radio and KOMO-TV

Tape: 8 Story: 7 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith recalls his television segments on KOMO-TV in Seattle, Washington

Tape: 8 Story: 8 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith describes his work on the Juvenile Justice Standards Commission

Tape: 9 Story: 1 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith talks about the enforcement of constitutional rights for juveniles

Tape: 9 Story: 2 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith describes the juvenile courts in the State of Washington

Tape: 9 Story: 3 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith recalls one of his juvenile court cases

Tape: 9 Story: 4 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith shares his stance on incarceration

Tape: 9 Story: 5 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith talks about Gary Ridgway's trial

Tape: 9 Story: 6 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith remembers one of his King County Superior Court cases

Tape: 10 Story: 1 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith describes the American Baptist Churches USA

Tape: 10 Story: 2 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith talks about the memberships of Baptist churches in Seattle, Washington

Tape: 10 Story: 3 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith describes the National Interreligious Task Force on Soviet Jewry

Tape: 10 Story: 4 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith recalls his involvement with various Washington task forces

Tape: 10 Story: 5 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith remembers his appointment to the Washington Supreme Court

Tape: 10 Story: 6 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith recalls his tenure on the Washington Supreme Court

Tape: 11 Story: 1 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith describes his experiences with discrimination in the Washington Supreme Court, pt. 1

Tape: 11 Story: 2 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith describes his experiences with discrimination in the Washington Supreme Court, pt. 2

Tape: 11 Story: 3 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith talks about his colleagues at the Washington Supreme Court

Tape: 11 Story: 4 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith remembers the executive committee of the Washington Supreme Court

Tape: 11 Story: 5 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith reflects upon his status in the Washington Supreme Court

Tape: 11 Story: 6 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith talks about the civil rights leaders in Seattle, Washington

Tape: 11 Story: 7 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith recalls the World Trade Organization Ministerial Conference protests

Tape: 12 Story: 1 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith reflects upon his judicial career

Tape: 12 Story: 2 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith talks about the importance of community programs

Tape: 12 Story: 3 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 12 Story: 4 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith talks about his family

Tape: 12 Story: 5 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith describes how he would like to be remembered

DASession

2$2

DATape

8$10

DAStory

8$6

DATitle
The Honorable Charles Z. Smith describes his work on the Juvenile Justice Standards Commission
The Honorable Charles Z. Smith recalls his tenure on the Washington Supreme Court
Transcript
Seventy-three [1973], you also served as co-chairperson of the Juvenile Justice Standards commission [IJA/ABA Joint Commission on Juvenile Justice Standards]. Now, that's, that sounds very important and, with the juvenile court over a hundred--we were talking about it before we started--$$Yeah.$$--doing this interview.$$Well, my background had included service in the juvenile court. When I was on the King County Superior Court, I was assigned on rotation to the juvenile court. So I had a background in juvenile courts. The American Bar Association and the Institute of Judicial Administration [New York, New York] had foundation grants to conduct an extensive study on juvenile practices. And I was initially a member of the commission, and through a transition of changes, I became co-chairperson of the, of the commission in the last five years of its existence. But we conducted studies. We hired researchers to do studies, but we had meetings of lawyers--the commission consisted of lawyers, judges, psychiatrists, social workers. And we would have a meeting somewhere around the country every three months. And all of this was, you know, developed and cataloged, and over a period of about--that started in '73 [1973]. Nineteen seventy-eight [1978] we published thirty-seven volumes of books on juvenile court practices. It was initially published by Ballinger Publishing [Ballinger Publishing Company] in Boston [Massachusetts]. And it was circulated throughout the country. And the Ballinger company was going to destroy the printing plates and the American Bar Association purchased the printing plates. So back in those days, we had printing plates. So it has been republishing, and since 1978, there is a current version of those juvenile justice standards, thirty-seven volumes. I, I pulled off the shelf a copy of it to give you some idea of what the volumes were like. But it's not necessary for this particular interview, but after it, I'll show you what it amounted to. But they sort of set the tone for creating a new approach to the treatment of juveniles and particularly, after a case called In re Gault [In re Gault, 1967], G-A-U-L-T where the United States Court of Appeals in the District of Columbia [U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit] had a ruling that indicated that juveniles are entitled to constitutional rights. And up until that time, juveniles were not entitled to constitutional rights. And in the Gault case, very simply, Gerald Gault was charged with disorderly conduct for making an obscene telephone call to a neighbor woman. He was charged with a felony in Arizona. He went before the judge, and the judge says, you don't need to deny it. I know you did it. You're guilty and sentenced him to detention in the juvenile system until he reached the age of twenty-one years. And Gerald Gault then was sixteen years old. That case was appealed by a volunteer lawyer who took it all the way to the United States Supreme Court, and they ended up saying that juveniles had a constitutional right. And that changed the tone of juvenile courts throughout the country. And so the Juvenile Justice Standards commission was sort of using the Gault case as a platform for saying we have to do things differently now than we have been doing it in the past. And so that's what the Juvenile Justice Standards commission was, and we completed our work in 1978, published our materials and the commission itself went out of existence.$So what were the highlights of your term on the supreme court of the State of Washington [Washington Supreme Court]? And I don't know if that's the best way to ask it, but what happened there? What were the significant events, I guess, for you?$$Well, the--it's, again, an interesting thing. I was on the court for fourteen years, and I wrote 350 opinions. And the most--and I cannot remember any particular one. You know, if someone called one to my attention, I would remember, but the collegiality on the court, we have nine justices on the supreme court, and you either get along with them or you don't get along with them because everything is done by group. All opinions are based upon the consensus of the group, so that even though I might write an opinion, and I recommend it to the others, they have to vote on it. And if I write an opinion and we take a vote on it, if I get five votes, then that becomes the court's opinion. But if I don't get five votes, it shifts. And it's not my opinion anymore. But the--it's sort of like, I guess, a fencing game. It's parry right, parry left, and you touche and you (laughter), you win your point by scoring. And with a supreme court such as ours and most supreme courts operate in the same way, it's a matter of intellectually convincing your colleagues of a position that you take on a particular case. Our cases are preassigned. And so at the beginning of a term, I knew, which cases were assigned to me, but they weren't assigned to me because of background. They're randomly assigned. Someone in the clerk's office pulls a, literally pulls a name out of a hat and says, this goes to Smith [HistoryMaker Charles Z. Smith], this goes to this person, this goes to that person, so that at the beginning of a term, I would get my assigned cases. So I had two judicial clerks, law clerks who worked with me doing the research, reading everything relating to the case, the briefs and other documents and things like that. Then I would prepare a presentence report, which was distributed to the other judges prior to the hearing. And then we would have the hearing where the lawyers would appear. And then we would go into recess to consider a case based upon the prehearing memorandum, prepared by the judge responsible for the case and the arguments presented by counsel. And then a recommendation is made for a result, and then the vote is taken. The chief justice presides over those meetings. So that's the way it would go. I found that, that experience was a good experience. I had some non-good experiences on the supreme court, but it had nothing to do with the routine process. And I have threatened to write a book called 'The Dark Side of the Temple,' and the Temple of Justice [Olympia, Washington] is where our supreme court is located. And the word dark has many meanings. I'm not white. Therefore, I am dark. As the junior justice on the court, I was assigned the worst courtroom, worst chambers in the building, next to the helicopter pad, and little things would happen. And then there was a cabal, C-A-B-A-L, against me from five of the nine justices, the chief justice and four of the others on a committee that ostensibly was based on seniority. And I had seniority over two of the people (laughter) in the group. But they were making decisions that affected me, and, and I chose not to make an issue of it while I was on the court and decided after I retired I would write a book. But I haven't had the time, energy nor inclination to begin writing the book yet. But when I write the book, I will tell of the negative experiences I had on the court. But--and they had nothing to do with race, which is very interesting. And I think it had to do with, one, my credentials, and two, my arrogance. I, I never took a second seat to anyone from an intellectual standpoint, and nobody on the court had my credentials. The highest ranking [U.S.] military person on our court was a first lieutenant in the Second World War [World War II, WWII]. And none of them had been law professors, and I was a full tenured law professor (laughter). And so I came to the court with a lot of credentials. My international activities, all those other things were unique in the sense that compared to other members on the court, who were provincial. And so these things created an atmosphere of resentment against me.

Joseph Gomer

Retired United States Air Force Major Joseph Philip Gomer served as a fighter pilot with World War II's famed Tuskegee Airmen. Gomer was born on June 20, 1920 in Iowa Falls, Iowa. From the time he was a small boy, he dreamed of flying airplanes.

Gomer and his brother attended school in a town where there were never more than three black families. The only black in his class, Gomer graduated from Iowa Falls High School with honors in 1938. He completed two years of study at Ellsworth College in Iowa Falls, where he took a class in flight instruction. When he enlisted in the Army in 1942, Gomer signed up for pilots' training. His previous flying experience at Ellsworth qualified him to be sent to Tuskegee Army Air Field in Alabama to participate in President Roosevelt's new program to train black pilots. Gomer received his wings in May of 1943. He was assigned as a Second Lieutenant to the segregated 332 Fighter Group and sent to Ramitrella, Italy, to join the 301st Fighter Squadron.

The 332 Fighter Group served as escorts for the 15th Air Force, running bombing missions in Germany. Engaging German fighters and attacking enemy positions, they fulfilled their mission to perfection-never losing a bomber to the enemy. The white bomber pilots called their guardians the "Red Tailed Angels" after the distinctive markings on their planes. Many of these white bomber pilots did not know that their guardians were black. In Italy, the Red Tails flew over 1,500 sorties, downing 111 enemy aircraft and sinking one German destroyer as 66 black pilots were killed in action. Joseph Gomer shared a tent with three other airmen, but within eight months all of them were killed, leaving him the sole survivor. He crash-landed a P-39, lost his canopy, and was bullet ridden in a P-47, but fought with skill and valor in over 68 sorties with the enemy. Fighting racism as well as the Germans, Gomer remained with the Air Force after the war and was still in service on July 26, 1948, when President Truman signed Executive Order 9981 integrating the United States Armed Forces.

After retiring from the Air Force, Gomer worked for the United States Forestry Service where he earned meritorious recognition for his work in providing equal opportunities for minorities. He currently lives with his wife, Elizabeth, in Duluth, Minnesota. He volunteers in the schools and at church and keeps the name of the Tuskegee Airmen alive.

Gomer passed away on October 10, 2013.

Accession Number

A2002.140

Sex

Male

Interview Date

8/12/2002

Last Name

Gomer

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Occupation
Schools

Iowa Falls High School

Alden High School

Ellsworth Community College

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Joseph

Birth City, State, Country

Iowa Falls

HM ID

GOM01

Favorite Season

Spring

Sponsor

Knight Foundation

State

Iowa

Favorite Vacation Destination

Birch Lake, Minnesota

Favorite Quote

Once you've been shot at by real bullets, pop guns don't bother you.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Minnesota

Birth Date

6/20/1920

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Minneapolis/St. Paul

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Fish

Death Date

10/10/2013

Short Description

Tuskegee airman Joseph Gomer (1920 - 2013 ) was a fighter pilot in 99th Pursuit Squadron of the Tuskegee Airmen.

Employment

United States Army Air Corps

United States Forestry Service

Wright Aircraft

Main Sponsor
Favorite Color

Blue, Brown

DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Joseph Gomer's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Joseph Gomer lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Joseph Gomer describes his parents' family histories

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Joseph Gomer describes the sights, smells, and sounds of his childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Joseph Gomer talks about his father

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Joseph Gomer describes his childhood in Iowa Falls, Iowa

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Joseph Gomer talks about his parents and his early education

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Joseph Gomer talks about his grade school years

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Joseph Gomer describes his high school years

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Joseph Gomer talks about his experience at Ellsworth Junior College

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Joseph Gomer talks about his effort to enlist in the war

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Joseph Gomer talks about racial discrimination at Ellsworth Junior College

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Joseph Gomer describes his journey to Tuskegee, Alabama

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Joseph Gomer talks about pre-flight training in Tuskegee, Alabama under instructors like Daniel "Chappie" James, Jr.

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Joseph Gomer describes the P-40 aircraft

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Joseph Gomer talks about the U.S. Army's resistance toward deploying black pilots and a training accident

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Joseph Gomer talks about being sent into combat under Benjamin O. Davis, Jr.

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Joseph Gomer talks about running strafing missions

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Joseph Gomer shares a story about being caught alone in enemy territory

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Joseph Gomer explains the origin of the Red Tail Angels

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Joseph Gomer talks about being grounded and the emotional toll of war

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Joseph Gomer talks about V-mail and a near death experience

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Joseph Gomer describes the psychological trauma of war and his return to the United States

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Joseph Gomer talks about racial discrimination on his return trip to the States

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Joseph Gomer talks about working as a training instructor, leaving the military, and reenlisting

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Joseph Gomer describes the integration of the Armed Forces

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Joseph Gomer talks about integrating Langley Air Force Base and the Korean War

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Joseph Gomer describes the legacy the Tuskegee Airmen created for African Americans including HistoryMakers Guion Bluford and Colin Powell

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Joseph Gomer talks about Tuskegee Airmen, Inc.

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Joseph Gomer talks about life in Duluth, Minnesota and his work in the U.S. Forest Service

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Joseph Gomer reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Joseph Gomer talks about how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Joseph Gomer narrates his photographs, pt.1

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Joseph Gomer narrates his photographs, pt.2