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Clive Callender

Surgeon and medical professor Clive Callender was born on November 16, 1936 in New York, New York. Callender lived in a foster home and then with his father, until his stepmother had to be hospitalized. His Aunt Ella took him in and began his faith-based life. Through his involvement with Ebenezer Gospel Tabernacle at the age of seven, Callender decided to become a medical missionary. After graduating from Commerce High School, Callender received his B.S. degree in chemistry and physiology from New York City’s Hunter College. He went on to attend Meharry Medical College in Nashville, Tennessee, where he received his M.D. degree in 1963.

Callender completed a series of residencies at Harlem Hospital, Howard University Hospital, Freedmen’s Hospital and Memorial Hospital for Cancer and Allied Disease. In 1968, he returned to Howard University Hospital to become chief resident. The following year, Callender became an instructor at Howard University. In 1970, Callender served as a medical officer at D.C. General Hospital. He was then invited to Nigeria’s Port Harcourt General Hospital at the end of the country’s Biafran Civil War, where for nine months he fulfilled his life’s goal of becoming a medical missionary. In 1971, Callender received a two-year postdoctoral fellowship through the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to study organ transplant medicine. He studied at the University of Minnesota under Dr. John Najaraian and Dr. Richard Simmons. In 1973, Callender was promoted to the rank of assistant professorship at Howard University Hospital’s medical school and founded the Howard University Hospital Transplant Center. He discovered that the greatest obstacle in transplant medicine was the scarcity of donors and he strove to increase the number of African American organ donors. In 1991, he founded the National Minority Organ Tissue Transplant Education Program (MOTTEP). Two years later, MOTTEP received a $1.2 million in funding from NIH’s Office of Research on Minority Health to develop a minority donor strategic plan and implementation in eleven cities. In 1995, the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) awarded National MOTTEP a $5.8 million to expand into fifteen new cities. One year later, Callender was appointed chairman of the Department of Surgery and the first Lasalle D. Lefall, Jr. Professor of Surgery at Howard University College of Medicine.

Callender has served as a spokesperson for organ donation at more than 1000 meetings and is a member of numerous professional societies. He has authored over 125 scientific publications on transplantation. Callender appeared on many national television shows including the Oprah Show, Nightline, CBS Evening News and CNN News. He and his wife Fern, have raised three children: Joseph, Ealena and Arianne.

Clive Callender was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on June 25, 2012.

Accession Number

A2012.146

Sex

Male

Interview Date

6/25/2012

Last Name

Callender

Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

O.

Schools

Commerce High School

Hunter College

Meharry Medical College

First Name

Clive

Birth City, State, Country

New York

HM ID

CAL04

Favorite Season

None

State

New York

Favorite Vacation Destination

None

Favorite Quote

To God Be The Glory.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

11/16/1936

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Chicken, Bananas, Corn

Short Description

Surgeon and medical professor Clive Callender (1936 - ) is an internationally recognized leader in organ donation advocacy and the founder of The National Minority Organ Tissue Transplant Education Program (MOTTEP).

Employment

Howard University Hospital

Howard University

National Institute of Health (NIH)

D.C. General Hospital

Howard University Hospital Kidney and Liver Transplant

Favorite Color

Blue, Lavender, Purple

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Clive Callender's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Clive Callender lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Clive Callender talks about his maternal family history

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Clive Callender talks about his siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Clive Callender talks about paternal family history

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Clive Callender talks about his parents' personalities

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Clive Callender explains why he was raised by his aunt, Ella Waterman

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Clive Callender talks about his religious upbringing

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Clive Callender describes the role his father played in his life during his childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Clive Callender talks about his childhood dream of becoming a medical missionary

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Clive Callender talks about the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood in Harlem, New York

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Clive Callender talks about his grade school years at P.S. 113 in New York, New York

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Clive Callender describes the differences between him and his twin brother

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Clive Callender talks about ethnic distinctions within the African American community

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Clive Callender talks about the honors program he was in at Commerce High School in New York, New York

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Clive Callender talks about being hospitalized for eighteen months with pulmonary tuberculosis

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Clive Callender talks about a mentor he had while hospitalized

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Clive Callender talks about his lung surgery

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Clive Callender talks about how he was not afraid during his illness because of his faith

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Clive Callender talks his role models and uncles, Drs. Vernal and Herbert Cave

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Clive Callender talks about his first year at Hunter College in New York, New York

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Clive Callender talks about enrolling in Hunter College in New York, New York

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Clive Callender talks about the turning point in his academic career at Hunter College in New York, New York

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Clive Callender talks about being accepted to Meharry Medical College in Nashville, Tennessee

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Clive Callender describes an influential physiology professor at Hunter College in New York, New York

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Clive Callender explains how his church raised money to send him to medical school

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Clive Callender talks about being the top student in his class at Meharry Medical College in Nashville, Tennessee

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Clive Callender talks about his professors at Meharry Medical College in Nashville, Tennessee

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Clive Callender talks about his experiences at hospitals in Ohio, during an externship and as a surgical intern

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Clive Callender talks about medical advances in treating tuberculosis

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Clive Callender describes why he transferred from Harlem Hospital to Howard University Hospital

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Clive Callender talks about his experience being active in the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Clive Callender describes how he met his wife

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Clive Callender talks about being a medical missionary in Port Harcourt, Nigeria pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Clive Callender talks about being a medical missionary in Port Harcourt, Nigeria pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Clive Callender describes how Nigerians reacted to death

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Clive Callender talks about why he thinks that all people of color descended from Africans should visit Africa

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Clive Callender talks about his missionary work in Nigeria

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Clive Callender talks about his memories of his time in Nigeria

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Clive Callender talks about his time at the transplant program at the University of Minnesota in Minneapolis, Minnesota

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Clive Callender talks about working with Dr. Samuel Kountz, the first African American transplant surgeon

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Clive Callender talks about starting the transplant program at Howard University Hospital

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Clive Callender describes the study he conducted with Dr. James Bayton to understand why African Americans are reluctant to be organ donors

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Clive Callender talks about the reasons African Americans are reluctant to become kidney donors

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Clive Callender talks about the formation of the District of Columbia Organ Donor program in 1982

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - Clive Callender talks about the success of the Dow Chemical Company's Take Initiative Program

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Clive Callender talks about the conception of the National Minority Organ Tissue Transplant Education Program (M.O.T.T.E.P.)

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Clive Callender talks about securing funding for the National Minority Organ Tissue Transplant Education Program (M.O.T.T.E.P.)

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Clive Callender talks about the success of the National Minority Organ Tissue Transplant Education Program (M.O.T.T.E.P.)

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Clive Callender talks about the challenges the National Minority Organ Tissue Transplant Education Program (M.O.T.T.E.P.) faced working in the Native American community

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Clive Callender talks about National Minority Organ Tissue Transplant Education Program's (M.O.T.T.E.P.) efforts to educate people on health and preventative care

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Clive Callender talks about the donor shortage in the United States and the cost of addressing the problem

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Clive Callender explains the need to educate minority communities about stem cell transplantation pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Clive Callender explains the need to educate minority communities about stem cell transplantation pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Clive Callender talks about health issues in the African American community

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Clive Callender talks about overcoming religious objections to organ donation

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Clive Callender talks about the "Be Blessed Model"

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Clive Callender talks about becoming chair of the department of surgery at Howard University College of Medicine in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Clive Callender talks about effect of the environment on people's health

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Clive Callender talks about his thoughts on the Affordable Care Act and universal healthcare

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Clive Callender explains his medical philosophy

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Clive Callender explains what he would do differently in his career

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Clive Callender reflects on his legacy

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Clive Callender shares some stories of successful transplant patients

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Clive Callender talks about his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Clive Callender talks about his wife, children, and twin brother

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Clive Callender talks about how thankful he is for his health

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Clive Callender talks about how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Clive Callender narrates his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

6$4

DAStory

2$6

DATitle
Clive Callender talks about the "Be Blessed Model"
Clive Callender talks about working with Dr. Samuel Kountz, the first African American transplant surgeon
Transcript
Okay, you had something called the "Be Blessed Model"?$$Well, one of the things that we developed after our last grant from N.I.H. [National Institutes of Health] was to look at end-stage renal disease and find out what really is the causation factor. And as we look at some work done by [Dr.] Jules Harrell at Howard University [Washington, D.C.] who started his effort in 1982 and others across the country, we recognized that part and parcel of it institutionalized racism. Part and parcel of it is doing those things that are contrary to the soul and the mind of mankind. And out of it we've evolved--actually, Dr. Alonzo Campbell at Howard University was part of our team, evolved the "Be Blessed Model" which looks at the biological aspects of it, the environmental aspects of it, the behavioral aspects of it, the willingness to love, the willingness to forgive. And as we've looked at those elements of it, we have recognized that one aspect of it that most people don't even think about, but a very positive aspect of it is, is spirituality. And so as we've looked at, and when, as we put together "Be Blessed Model", we, we identified those factors that are associated with positivity and good health. And those factors that are associated with negativity and bad health, and so if you promote the positive, then what will happen will be, you win that race. If you promote the negative, that is hostility, lack of forgiveness, lack of love, then you will promote the losing the race--I'm sorry, the winning the race and dying early. Okay, that's the bottom line. If you, if you win the race, that means you die early. If you lose the race, that means that you have adopted those positive elements of forgiveness, of love and therefore, you will not be likely to be as afflicted by those negative elements and, and have a lot of hostility because it turns out, that institutionalized racism, hostility and hating are, are factors that result in you dying early. And so this then is what the "Be Blessed Model" is all about, promoting those elements that are spiritually positive and going away--doing away with those elements that are negative. One of the things that is associated with obesity is depression and, and not having love in your life. And so you eat so much, and you get too fat. And then you get too fat and you also get kidney disease, you get hypertension and those other things. So that this is what the "Be Blessed Model" is all about. And one of the things we'd like to do, apply broadly, is to see how we can not only have this as something that we've tested and done with some volunteer groups, but to see how this is done across the country, how--and if we can promote these positive attitudes and, and positive spirituality elements, if that then will help us turn around this negative tendency that we have towards winning that race from the cradle to the grace--to the grave, a race that we want to lose.$Now, Dr. [Samuel] Kountz, he, he's an African American?$$Yes, he was actually from Arkansas and wound up in Stanford [University, Palo Alto, California], and then after exceling in Stanford, was, he was appointed as the Chairman of Surgery at [State University of New York] Downstate Medical College [New York, New York]. And so shortly after I finished my training at University of Minnesota [Minneapolis, Minnesota] [clearing throat], I found the opportunity to work with him on weekends and often so that while I did my transplant training at University of Minnesota, and you might read some places that (laughter), that I trained under [Dr. Samul] Sam Kountz, it's not actually true. I did my training with John Najarian, but when I returned as a fully-trained surgeon, I spent a lot of time with Sam Kountz, learning from him, the arts and science of transplant surgery as he had learned them. And he was one of the pioneers, it was an opportunity to learn a lot from him. It was interesting as well to work with him and Khalid Butts who is, who was his right hand there because in 1980, he actually died of complications of high blood pressure. You'll actually read in the literature that he died of something he contracted in Africa, but the truth of the matter is that he actually died of complications of high blood pressure. We, as doctors, aren't always good patients. We don't always take our medication as we should. And he developed complications of high blood pressure, which resulted in him being in the hospital and one of the medications he took resulted in him getting a seizure and convulsions and because of the fact that he had some anatomical differences in his neck, they had difficulty intubating him. As a consequence, he had brain damage that resulted in his later death and him never being able to practice surgery again. So he died at around the age of fifty in the prime of his career, the prime of his life. But in spite of what you read in the books, he actually died of complications of high blood pressure. But he was a great friend and a great surgeon and great human being who has a legacy of his own that will live on. As a consequence of my interaction with him, shortly after his death, I put on at least six Samuel Kountz International Symposia which would honor, honor his legacy and, and try to get people to recognize the minority dilemma in transplantation that existed yesterday and today and we hope will be eliminated tomorrow. But it, it's something that is important to acknowledge and be aware of.$$Okay, well--so he was, Kountz, Dr. [Samuel] Kountz was involved in kidney transplantation, right?$$He was a pioneer in kidney transplantation. He came along shortly after John Najarian and [Richard] Rich Simmons and [Thomas] Tom Starzl and those blacks who were the pioneers of kidney transplantation. He did some things in transplantation that hadn't, hadn't been done before. He did a lot with live donor transplantation, was one of the first to use intravenous steroids to reverse rejection episodes and was one of the first to do live transplantation on television, which was televised across the United States. He was quite a, a surgeon and was internationally renowned, had gone to Egypt and other places to do transplants, to take transplantation outside of the United States of America. He was quite a pioneer and quite a surgeon who became the first African American president of the Society of University Surgeons.