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Winston Anderson

Biomedical scientist and research director Winston A. Anderson was born on July 26, 1940 in Kingston, Jamaica. In 1959, Anderson graduated from Calabar High School in Kingston and received his Higher Schools Certificate. At the age of seventeen, he immigrated to the United States and enrolled at Howard University in Washington, D.C. Anderson went on to earn his B.S. degree in zoology and his M.S. degree in zoology from Howard University in 1962 and 1963, respectively. In 1966, he graduated from Brown University in Providence, Rhode Island with his Ph.D. degree in biomedical sciences.

Anderson was appointed as chair of the Howard University Department of Zoology in 1975. He served in that position until 1983 and remained on the faculty as a professor of biomedical science. In 2006, with a $1 million grant from the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Anderson started the Howard Hughes Medical Research Scholars program. This program has been supported by the National Science Foundation’s Research Careers for Minority Scholars program and the National Institute of Health Biomedical Research Support program for minority students at Howard University. In addition to research and mentoring, Anderson co-founded the Sandy Spring Museum and African Art Gallery in1988 and serves as the curator.

Anderson is a founding member of the American Society for Cell Biology (ASCB) and was the first African American scientist elected to serve on the ASCB Council. While at the University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine, Anderson received the Anne Langer Award for Cancer Research and the Distinguished Teacher Award at the Pritzker School of Medicine. In 1992, Brown University bestowed on Anderson its Outstanding Graduate Alumnus Award, and Howard University’s Division of Academic Affairs honored him for establishing the distinguished lecture series, “Brilliant Encounters in Science.” In 2011, Anderson received the Presidential Award for Excellence in Science, Mathematics, and Engineering Mentoring.

Winston A. Anderson lives in Silver Springs, Maryland with his wife, Carol Anderson. They have three children: Laura, Lea, and Michael.

Winston A. Anderson was interviewed by The HistoryMakers February 17, 2013.

Accession Number

A2013.053

Sex

Male

Interview Date

2/17/2013

Last Name

Anderson

Maker Category
Middle Name

A

Schools

Calabar High School

Brown University

Howard University

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Winston

Birth City, State, Country

Kingston

HM ID

AND14

Favorite Season

Spring, Summer

Favorite Vacation Destination

Ocho Rios, Jamaica

Favorite Quote

Hang in there.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

7/26/1940

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

Jamaica

Favorite Food

Ackee, Saltfish

Short Description

Biomedical scientist Winston Anderson (1940 - ) , a Howard Hughes Medical Institute Research Professor, was awarded the 2011 Presidential Award for Excellence in Science, Mathematics, Engineering Mentoring.

Employment

University of Paris

Harvard University Medical School

University of Chicago

Howard University

Sandy Spring Slave Museum and African Art Gallery

Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI)

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Winston Anderson's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Winston Anderson lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Winston Anderson describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Winston Anderson talks about his mother

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Winston Anderson describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Winston Anderson describes his parent's personalities and who he takes after

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Winston Anderson talks about his siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Winston Anderson talks about growing up in his family's household

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Winston Anderson describes the sights, sounds, and smells of his childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Winston Anderson describes the music he listened to growing up in Jamaica

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Winston Anderson talks about his elementary schools

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Winston Anderson talks about his high school

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Winston Anderson talks about his influential high school teachers

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Winston Anderson describes being on the track team in his high school

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Winston Anderson talks about his time at Howard University

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Winston Anderson describes the transition from Jamaica to the United States

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Winston Anderson describes working as a switchboard operator while at Howard University

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Winston Anderson talks about the faculty at Howard University

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Winston Anderson remembers going with Stokely Carmichael to boycott restaurants in North Carolina

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Winston Anderson talks about his mentors at Howard University

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Winston Anderson describes his decision to attend Brown University for his doctoral degree

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Winston Anderson describes his time at Brown University

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Winston Anderson describes his doctoral dissertation

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Winston Anderson talks about his spermatology research at the University of Paris

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Winston Anderson describes his mentors while he was at a post-doctoral position at Harvard University

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Winston Anderson describes teaching at the University of Chicago

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Winston Anderson describes his research on endochondral ossification

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Winston Anderson describes his research on estrogen-induced peroxidase

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Winston Anderson describes how he met his wife

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Winston Anderson describes leaving University of Chicago to teach at Howard University

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Winston Anderson describes the challenges he faced as head of the Biology Department at Howard University

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Winston Anderson describes the grants he obtained for Howard University pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Winston Anderson describes the grants he obtained for Howard University pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Winston Anderson talks about the Ernest Everett Just

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Winston Anderson describes the growth of the Biology Department at Howard University

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Winston Anderson describes current research at Howard University

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Winston Anderson reflects on his legacy pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Winston Anderson reflects on his legacy pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Winston Anderson describes the interdepartmental projects at Howard University

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Winston Anderson reflects on his life

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Winston Anderson talks about the Sandy Springs Slave Museum and African Art Gallery pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Winston Anderson talks about the Sandy Springs Slave Museum and African Art Gallery pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Winston Anderson talks about his family

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Winston Anderson describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Winston Anderson talks about how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Winston Anderson describes his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$3

DAStory

2$1

DATitle
Winston Anderson talks about his spermatology research at the University of Paris
Winston Anderson describes the transition from Jamaica to the United States
Transcript
Now, before we get away from Brown [University, Providence, Rhode Island], tell us about Elizabeth LaDuke?$$Right, you know, Brown allowed you to have many mentors, Richard Ellis, Richard Goss, Elizabeth LaDuke. She was the, the product of a professor there called J. Walter Wilson. A building is named after J. Walter Wilson. She was a great cancer biologist, and she would spend every summer at labs in France called Village Reef in France. And she was the person that said, "Winston, what do--would you like to go to France and continue your research?" I said, "Why not?" You know, I didn't have anything else to do at the time. So I got an American Cancer Society fellowship to go to France to work with, at her recommendation, work with a fellow named John Andre. John Andre was the most charismatic scientist you could ever find and a good scientist. And at that time, he was involved in identifying mitochondrial DNA in different protozoa and in different plants. And he was one of the first to isolate the mitochondrial DNA and look at it as single DNA particles, isolated from the cell. So it was really wonderful. But John Andre was a generalist as a cell biologist. And again, just like Brown [University], they allowed you to work on what you wanted to work. So he knew that I was interested, as I told you earlier on in the manchette, those microtubules that have formed heads of sperm. And then we took off, and we became, founded a society there called Society for Spermatology, International Society for Spermatology, groups from Italy, from Sweden, Europe, all over and the United States. And with one prime person, his name is Don Fawcett who was to become one of my most important mentors, Don Fawcett. Now--$$Now, what year is the society formed?$$This is '66 [1966].$$In '66 [1966], okay.$$'66, we're dealing with now, '66 [1966] to '68 [1968]. At the University of Paris [Paris, France] I think I came out with about twelve publications on spermatology, structure, function of sperm. On stuff dealing with mitochondrial metamorphosis, during spermiogenisis, the differentiation of sperm and identifying things like DNA in the sperm mitochondria of different animals and looking at the impregnation of the egg with sperm. In other words, use the electron-microscope to watch where the sperm binds with surface of the egg, how it gets incorporated. That's important because not only could you--the question was, does the sperm DNA in their, in their mitochondrial, contribute to the differentiation of the egg and the embryonic system? In most systems, it seems like the sperm DNA just breaks down. But in our system of the sea urchins that we looked, we found that the sperm mitochondria with its DNA fused with the egg mitochondria with its DNA and was carried on into the embryo. So we believe that the sperm or paternal mitochondrial DNA had something to do--or just not eliminated. It may have had something to do with the differentiation of the embryo.$$Okay.$$So those were interesting years. You met some of the great scientists of the world, and made the best connections that you could ever have.$$Now, you mentioned John Andre--$$John Andre, yeah.$$Now, what about Emanuel Foray, Ferme--$$Fremiet.$$Fremiet.$$Fora--Fremiet was one of the protozoologist of the time, and he worked very closely with John Andre. He was an old man, so he used John Andre's laboratories and really sort of one of the great advisors of the area.$$Okay, and what about--there's a person called "Person"--$$Paul Personne.$$Personne?$$Personne, he was a student of Andre. And he and I specialized in a very unique spermatozoan. This spermatozoan, and most sperm have the head, where you have the nucleus and the DNA. And then they have a body that just contains mitochondria, and the mitochondria provides the energy for the motility of the sperm. But this unique sperm had in its body a compartment that contained glycogen. And it used that glycogen to make ATP or energy for the sperm, and the difference of the mitochondria for the sperm to move. So it was a very, very unique thing, and you know, and it was time where we would develop techniques. Very few people knew how to demonstrate the presence of glycogen. We found glycogen everywhere in these cells, in the flagella, in the mitochondria, all over. So we hypothesized that they were, this was a source of glycolytic ATP. In addition to the ATP coming from mitochondria for the propulsion and movement of these sperm. And that was fun.$I just wanted to go back and have you describe your, how you made the transition from--$$Okay.$$--you know, Calabar [High School, Kingston, Jamaica]?$$Right.$$When you were on the verge of graduating from high school at Calabar--$$Yes, yes.$$--did you have college counseling from anyone?$$Nothing, nothing like that. I, you had two choices, people in my situation. My brother [Abraham St. Aubyn Anderson] was already in the United States. My sister [Shirley Payne Anderson] had gone to London [England, United Kingdom], and there was no money to really do much with me. So after Calabar, I worked one year in Jamaica at a job at the mail office, pulling bags of mail. Then my uncle got me a little job in new accounts at the bank, and I think just fouled up a lot of people's bank books (laughter), because I didn't, wasn't very good at it. But then, I had a choice. My type of person in this family setting would either be a teacher or a preacher. And they're all ready to send me to the Methodist Man School to become a Methodist minister. And my mother [Ruth Elizabeth Gray] made the mistake of asking me, "What did you want to do?" And I said I wanted to come to the United States to be a dentist, to prepare to become a dentist. And that was a ploy that we all used because at that time, the island needed dentists, and you could only get off if you said you wanted to be a dentist. And so I used that ploy, but you had to show some monies to back it up, and so my mother and her sister and a couple friends of mine, the Livermore's, got enough money to let me get to the United States.$$Okay.$$Okay, and I came here, and I remember, it was on the old BOAC [British Overseas Airways Corporation] airplanes. And I remember my father [Laurel Charles] didn't see me off, and that was the last time I saw my father. But on the plane, I saw him driving a little truck, coming to the airport. It was too late. And my mother gave me two things. She said, "Here is a little bible, and here's fifty dollars. Go see your uncle in Wilmington [North Carolina]" and then to my older brother in Washington [D.C.]. So I still have the bible.$$Okay, now, this is in 1958?$$1958.$$Okay, all right.$$Seventeen years old, going on towards eighteen.$$Okay.$$And so that's the transition.

George Langford

Biologist and academic administrator George M. Langford was born on August 26, 1944 in Roanoke Rapids, North Carolina to Lillie and Maynard Langford. Langford excelled at math in high school and was fascinated by the shapes and structures found under the microscope. He studied biology at Fayetteville State University earning his B.S. degree in 1966. Despite the lack of laboratory facilities, Langford had good mentors who persuaded him to attend graduate school. He earned his M.S. degree in 1969 and his Ph.D. degree in 1971, both in cell biology from the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT). He finished his postdoctoral training in 1973 from the cell biology program at the University of Pennsylvania as a National Institutes of Health (NIH) Fellow.

In 1973, Langford joined the faculty of the University of Massachusetts as a professor of cell biology and conducted research at the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Massachusetts in 1976. He continued his career in academia, teaching at Howard University in 1977 and joining the faculty of University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill in 1979. He was promoted to a full professor at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill in 1988. Langford’s research focused on the nerves of invertebrates as well as cellular motility. He was honored with an appointment to the National Science Foundation (NSF) where he served as director of cell biology from 1988 to 1989. In 1991, Langford joined the faculty of Dartmouth College as the Ernest Everett Just Professor of Natural Sciences and a professor of biological sciences where he remained until 2005. Between 2005 and 2008, Langford was employed at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst as dean of the College of Natural Sciences and Mathematics and Distinguished Professor of Biology. In 2008, he was engaged by Syracuse University as dean of the College of Arts and Sciences.

Langford holds memberships in many nationally prominent professional societies including the American Society for Cell Biology, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the Corporation of the Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA and the Society of Sigma Xi. He served on the National Science Board (NSB) from 1998 to 2004, where he served as chair of the Education and Human Resources Committee and the Vannevar Bush Award Committee. Langford has been recognized numerous times for his work including the Illinois Institute of Technology Professional Achievement Award and the American Society for Cell Biology Ernest Everett Just Lectureship Award. Langford received an honorary Doctorate from Beloit College in 2003. He is married to Sylvia Langford and they have three children.

George Langford was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on August 6, 2012.

Accession Number

A2012.165

Sex

Male

Interview Date

8/6/2012

Last Name

Langford

Middle Name

Malcolm

Schools

Potecasi Graded School

W.S. Creecy High School

Fayetteville State University

Illinois Institute of Technology

University of Pennsylvania

Beloit College

Woodland Elementary

First Name

George

Birth City, State, Country

Halifax

HM ID

LAN08

Favorite Season

Christmas

State

North Carolina

Favorite Vacation Destination

Cape Cod, Massachusetts

Favorite Quote

C'est la vie.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Birth Date

8/26/1944

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Syracuse

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Apples

Short Description

Cell biologist and academic administrator George Langford (1944 - ) is an expert on cell motility and served as a dean at University of Massachusetts, Amherst and Syracuse University

Employment

Syracuse University

University of Massachusetts, Amherst

Dartmouth College

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Howard University

University of Massachusetts, Boston

University of Pennsylvania

National Science Foundation (NSF)

Marine Biological Laboratory

Argonne National Laboratory

Favorite Color

Red

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of George Langford's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - George Langford lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - George Langford describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - George Langford talks about his maternal grandparents

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - George Langford talks about his mother's growing up in Potecasi, North Carolina

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - George Langford describes his mother's remarkable skills as a farmer and a homemaker

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - George Langford describes his father's family background - part one

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - George Langford describes his father's family background - part two

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - George Langford talks about his father attending high school, and his paternal family's reputation as merchants and tradespeople

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - George Langford discusses the history and demographics of Potecasi, North Carolina, and talks about Nat Turner and the slave revolt of 1831

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - George Langford describes the segregated town of Potecasi, North Carolina, while he was growing up

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - George Langford talks about his father's family receiving an education

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - George Langford talks about his parents getting married in the early 1920s

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - George Langford talks about segregation in North Carolina, and his father's role in mediating peace during inter-racial conflicts

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - George Langford describes his parents' personalities and who he takes after

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - George Langford talks about his siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - George Langford describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - George Langford describes his childhood memories on his family's farm in Potecasi, North Carolina, and talks about the home where he grew up

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - George Langford describes the sights, sounds and smells of growing up in Potecasi, North Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - George Langford describes his experience as the youngest of nine children

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - George Langford describes his interests while growing up

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - George Langford talks about his father's physical strength and his long life

Tape: 2 Story: 13 - George Langford talks about his access to African American magazines and newspapers while growing up in Potecasi, North Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 14 - George Langford talks about all the schools that he attended, and describes his elementary school experience at Potecasi Graded School

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - George Langford describes his experience in elementary school

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - George Langford talks about the high elementary school drop-out rate while he was in school

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - George Langford describes his involvement in Church as a child, and his recollections of the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - George Langford describes his experience during segregation in Potecasi, North Carolina

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - George Langford describes his experience at W.S. Creecy High School, his interest in science, and the mentorship that he received from his teachers

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - George Langford talks about his interest in the physical sciences and his decision to major in biology in college

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - George Langford talks about his academic performance and his involvement in extracurricular activities at W.S. Creecy High School

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - George Langford talks about his mentors at W.S. Creecy High School, and his decision to pursue a college education at Fayetteville State University

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - George Langford describes his experience at Fayetteville State University

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - George Langford talks about his involvement in the Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - George Langford describes how the student government at Fayetteville State University facilitated the integration of Fayetteville in the 1960s-part one

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - George Langford describes how the student government at Fayetteville State University facilitated the integration of Fayetteville in the 1960s-part two

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - George Langford talks about his mentors, Joseph Knuckles and F. Roy Hunter, at Fayetteville State University

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - George Langford describes the strong liberal arts and education programs at Fayetteville State University, and his involvement in music while there

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - George Langford describes his first winter in Chicago, and talks about the blizzard of 1967

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - George Langford talks about his experience in Chicago, and how he met his wife, Sylvia

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - George Langford talks about his doctoral advisor, William Danforth

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - George Langford talks about his interest in cell biology, and his mentors, Teru Hayashi and Jean Clark Dan, at the Illinois Institute of Technology

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - George Langford talks about the unrest in Chicago, following Dr. Martin Luther King's assassination in 1968

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - George Langford talks about other black students at the Illinois Institute of Technology while he was a student there in the late 1960s and early 1970s

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - George Langford describes his Ph.D. dissertation on the growth of the unicellular protozoa of genus Euglena, in the absence of oxygen

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - George Langford talks about the role of the American Society for Cell Biology (ASCB) in shaping his research career

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - George Langford describes his introduction to cell biology and live-cell imaging, and his experience at the University of Pennsylvania

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - George Langford describes his postdoctoral studies on the mechanism of motility in Pyrsonympha, the native protozoa found in termite guts

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - George Langford talks about his experience at the University of Massachusetts in Boston and his reasons for leaving there

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - George Langford describes his rich scientific experience at the Woods Hole Marine Biological Laboratory (MBL), and its influence on his research career

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - George Langford talks about the life of Ernest Everett Just, his pioneering science, and his tenure at the Woods Hole Marine Biological Laboratory

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - George Langford talks about the similarities between his scientific career and that of Ernest Everett Just

Tape: 5 Story: 11 - George Langford describes being an African American researcher at the University of Pennsylvania in the 1970s, and current racial trends in science

Tape: 5 Story: 12 - George Langford talks about his appointment at Howard University and his subsequent transition to the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - George Langford describes the racial challenges at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - George Langford talks about segregation at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and the surrounding community in the 1980s

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - George Langford describes his experience as the chairman of the Minority Affairs Committee of the American Society for Cell Biology (ASCB)

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - George Langford describes his experience as the director of the cell biology program at the National Science Foundation (NSF)

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - George Langford talks about his appointment as the Ernest Everett Just Professor of Natural Sciences at Dartmouth College in 1991

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - George Langford describes the liberal arts style of education at Dartmouth College

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - George Langford describes his efforts to increase the retention of African American students in science at Dartmouth College

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - George Langford talks about the field of social science, and his efforts to educate his colleagues and students about the concept of "white privilege"

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - George Langford describes his groundbreaking discovery of actin-dependent organelle movement in squid axoplasm

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - George Langford talks about biologist, Robert D. Allen

Tape: 6 Story: 11 - George Langford describes the implications of his discovery of actin-dependent organelle movement in squid axoplasm

Tape: 6 Story: 12 - George Langford describes his service on the National Science Board, and talks about atmospheric scientist, Warren Washington

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - George Langford talks about his service on the National Science Board's National Workforce Task Force Sub-Committee in 1999

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - George Langford describes his service as the dean of the College of Natural Sciences and Mathematics at the University of Massachusetts

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - George Langford describes his service as the dean of the College of Arts and Sciences at Syracuse University

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - George Langford describes his current research on yeast toxins and the collaboration between science and humanities at Syracuse University

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - George Langford shares his perspectives on how modern technology affects education

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - George Langford describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - George Langford reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - George Langford reflects upon his choices and shares his advice to young students who want to pursue studies in the STEM fields

Tape: 7 Story: 9 - George Langford talks about his family

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - George Langford talks about his exposure to the liberal arts and humanities at Dartmouth College

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - George Langford talks about how he would like to be remembered

DASession

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George Langford describes his rich scientific experience at the Woods Hole Marine Biological Laboratory (MBL), and its influence on his research career
George Langford talks about his service on the National Science Board's National Workforce Task Force Sub-Committee in 1999
Transcript
So, it was while you were there [University of Massachusetts in Boston] that you took advantage of the Marine Biological Laboratory [MBL] at Woods Hole [Massachusetts].$$That's right, that's right. I began going to the Marine Biological Laboratory in '72 [1972] when I was at Penn [University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania]. And then I continued going for the time that I was at the University of Massachusetts in Boston.$$Okay. Well, tell us the significance of this place. And then there's another, there's a figure in the history of black science that spent a lot of time there, Dr. Ernest Everett Just [pioneering African American embryologist who studied the early development of marine invertebrates].$$Right.$$I think you've discussed him in lectures and that sort of thing, so--$$Right. Yes, so the Marine Biological Laboratory became one of the most important institutions in my development as a scientist. I went there while I was a post-doc at Penn because my, post-doc mentor Shinya Inoue always moved his laboratory there in the summers. And I went there to take the physiology course, and this was one of those amazing experiences. It's a total emersion course. It teaches you really the fine points of research science, and you're learning it from the best people in the discipline. So it's a great place, it's very student-oriented. Faculty members who come there do it because they love to do it. They are accessible in ways that they're not when they're at the home institution. And it creates this atmosphere of openness and really strong support. So, you develop, you know, an excellent network of individuals to work with as a result of being there. So, I went there in '72 [1972] for the physiology course, and I went back in '74 [1974] for the neurobiology course. And then I began to go as an independent scientist. I served as an MBL Steps [ph.] Fellow, a Macy--Josiah Macy Fellow, working in the laboratory of other scientists as I was developing my own research program, and then began to go there as an independent investigator. So, it's really, it's a unique place. If you've never been there it's really worth a visit because there's just none other place like it. So, for my own advisor, you know, because of the stress of all of the things he had to do when he was at the university, it was very hard to get in to talk to him. But in Woods Hole, it was easy, you know. You had, you could sit out on a bench by the water and talk at lunch. You could go--you know, you could spend time in the evenings working together. So, people were just accessible, and it was a wonderful learning experience. Because as I said before, you remember--I, you know, research science was all new to me, and it takes a long time to really develop a strong network and to understand just how to move a science project forward. So, I depended a great deal on the network of friends that I developed at the Marine Biological Laboratory.$[In] '99 [1999], you served as vice chair of the National Science--, I'm sorry, the National Science Board's National Workforce Task Force Sub-Committee.$$Right, right.$$What is that, now?$$So, the chair of the board at the time, Eamon (ph., unclear) [M. Kelly], wanted to address this issue of the lack of students going into the sciences. And so, he put together a task force of the board to really look at this issue. And so, for a year we actually studied the trends for students going into the sciences. And, you know, it was really frightening what we observed, you know. The data showed that we were still under-producing students in the sciences. We were doing better in the biological sciences but the numbers were very, very, small in physics and they were pretty miserable in chemistry and really bad in engineering. And so, the board put together a strong set of recommendations on how we could increase the number of students, the domestic students, who were majoring in the sciences. This is an ongoing problem, we haven't solved it. But the board was really on top of it way back there in '98 [1998], '99 [1999] to try to address that issue.$$Okay, okay. Now in 2000 you were nominated by President [Bill] Clinton for a second six-year term on the National Science Board, and you then subsequently served in 2002, you served as chair of the National Science Board Education and Human Resources Committee.$$Right, right. So, the board had several standing committees. And one of the standing committees was the Committee on the Education and Human Resources Directive. And so, this was a very important assignment as well, because this was the committee that oversaw all of the program activities at the NSF [National Science Foundation] that were designed to increase the pipeline. You know, programs that were designed to increase the quality of training in the public schools in K-12 [kindergarten through twelfth grade] as well as curriculum changes within the universities. And so, this, the committee was in charge of oversight of all of those grant programs.$$Okay. How closely did you work with Congresswoman Eddie Bernice Johnson? You know, she was in charge of the science committee.$$That's right, yes. I got to attend several workshops that she organized to deal with this question. And she was a very, very strong supporter of the National Science Foundation and the programs that it had designed to increase students in the sciences. So, she was considered one of our strongest champions on the [Capitol] Hill.$$Okay.

J. K. Haynes

Biologist and academic administrator John K. “J.K.” Haynes was born on October 30, 1943 in Monroe, Louisiana to John and Grace Haynes. His mother was a teacher and his father was the principal of Lincoln High School in Ruston, Louisiana. Haynes began first grade when he was four years old. When he was six, his family moved to Baton Rouge, Louisiana and Haynes began attending Southern University Laboratory School. He attended Morehouse College when he was seventeen and he received his B.S. degree in biology in 1964. Haynes aspired to attend medical school. However, a professor advised him to apply to graduate school and he went on to attend Brown University, where he obtained his Ph.D. degree in biology in 1970.

Haynes completed his first year of postdoctoral research at Brown University, where he worked on restriction enzymes. During this time, he became interested in sickle cell anemia, which led to a second postdoctoral appointment in biochemistry at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), where he worked with Vernon Ingram, the scientist who discovered the amino acid difference between normal and sickle cell hemoglobin. In 1973, Haynes joined the faculty at the Meharry Medical School as a junior faculty member in the department of genetics and molecular medicine and the department of anatomy. His research was focused on why sickle cells were less deformable than normal. In 1979, he returned to Morehouse College as an associate professor of biology as well as the director of the Office of Health Professions. As part of his work, Haynes created a program for high school students interested in medical school. Haynes has also helped recruit minority students into science with the assistance of agencies like the National Science Foundation (NSF), the Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI), and the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Haynes became the endowed David E. Packard Chair in Science at Morehouse College and chairman of the biology department in 1985. In 1991, he took a sabbatical and went to Brown University to continue his work on sickle cells. Since 1999, he has served as Dean of Science and Mathematics at Morehouse College.

Under Haynes administrative leadership, new buildings for both chemistry and biology were built at Morehouse College as well as a curriculum with an emphasis on lab work. Haynes has published papers on cell biology as well as on undergraduate STEM education.

J. K. Haynes was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on April 14, 2011.

Accession Number

A2011.013

Sex

Male

Interview Date

4/14/2011

Last Name

Haynes

Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Kermit

Schools

Southern University Laboratory School

Morehouse College

Brown University

Search Occupation Category
First Name

John

Birth City, State, Country

Monroe

HM ID

HAY12

Favorite Season

Summer

Sponsor

National Science Foundation

State

Louisiana

Favorite Vacation Destination

Paris, France

Favorite Quote

We're Building A House At The House.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Birth Date

10/30/1943

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Atlanta

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Lamb

Short Description

Academic administrator and biologist J. K. Haynes (1943 - ) developed methods for detecting and preventing sickle cell anemia. He joined the faculty of Morehouse College in 1979 and later became Dean of the Division of Science and Mathematics.

Employment

Meharry Medical College

Morehouse College

Brown University

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Main Sponsor
Main Sponsor URL
Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of J.K. Haynes' interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - J.K. Haynes lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - J.K. Haynes talks about his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - J.K. Haynes talks about his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - J.K. Haynes recalls his childhood in Louisiana

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - J.K. Haynes talks about himself as a student

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - J.K. Haynes explains his family's involvement in the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - J.K. Haynes recalls his father's funeral home business

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - J.K. Haynes recounts his involvement in the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - J.K. Haynes talks about his interests during high school

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - J.K. Haynes talks about his experience in high school

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - J.K. Haynes talks about resemblance to certain family members

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - J.K. Haynes recalls his experience at Morehouse College under President Benjamin Mays

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - J.K. Haynes recalls student activism in Atlanta

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - J.K. Haynes talks about the influential science faculty at Morehouse College, part 1

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - J.K. Haynes talks about the influential science faculty at Morehouse College, part 2

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - J.K. Haynes talks about his graduate school experience at Brown University

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - J.K. Haynes talks about sickle cell anemia and relates his Ph.D. dissertation topic

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - J.K. Haynes describes his postdoctoral molecular biology research at Brown University

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - J.K. Haynes responds to a question about his work as a biologist

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - J.K. Haynes discusses the nature of post doctoral research

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - J.K. Haynes talks about financial problems at the Meharry Medical College

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - J.K. Haynes talks about his achievements in sickle cell anemia research, part 1

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - J.K. Haynes talks about his achievements in sickle cell anemia research, part 2

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - J.K. Haynes discusses his reaction to the first reported sickle cell anemia cure

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - J.K. Haynes talks about his research in sickle cell anemia, part 1

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - J.K. Haynes talks about his research in sickle cell anemia, part 2

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - J.K. Haynes discusses the nature of his scientific research and funding

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - J.K. Haynes describes Project Kaleidoscope

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - J.K. Haynes describes the history of the Nabrit-Mapp-McBay building at Morehouse College

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - J.K. Haynes talks about his involvement with the American Society for Cell Biology Minorities Affairs Committee

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - J.K. Haynes recalls Walter Massey's presidency at Morehouse College

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - J.K. Haynes talks about the sickle cell anemia drugs and treatments

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - J.K. Haynes reflects on the wisdom of his parents

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - J.K. Haynes talks about his academic promotions at Morehouse College

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - J.K. Haynes discusses health issues in the black community

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - J.K. Haynes reflects on balancing his administrative, research, and teaching responsibilities

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - J.K. Haynes talks about the changing focus of sickle cell anemia research

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - J.K. Haynes talks about his involvement with the World Learning School for International Training

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - J.K. Haynes describes his concept for a program to develop new science faculty

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - J.K. Haynes shares his hopes for Morehouse College's future

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - J.K. Haynes talks about what he would have done differently in his career

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - J.K. Haynes discusses the impact of advice from his mentors

Tape: 5 Story: 11 - J.K. Haynes reflects on his life's accomplishments

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - J.K. Haynes talks about his family and his likeness to Ebony editor, Lerone Bennett

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - J.K. Haynes responds to a question about how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - J.K. Haynes talks about his interest in art and music

DASession

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J.K. Haynes talks about the influential science faculty at Morehouse College, part 1
J.K. Haynes recalls Walter Massey's presidency at Morehouse College
Transcript
Some people like Lonnie King, and I think that Lonnie King may have been here. He may have been a senior when I was a freshman so Lonnie was one of these guys with Julian [Bonds] and others. That's what they spent their time doing.$$Now, was David Satcher a biology major too?$$Yes.$$Okay, so did you see a lot of him in the biology department?$$Yeah, yeah. So one of the powerful influences on the biology majors during that time was a guy by the name of Roy Hunter. And so Roy Hunter was one of, Roy loved David Satcher, and so when I came along under Roy Hunter, and so when I give talks about my mentors, he's the one who I always mention first at Morehouse [College, Atlanta, Georgia].$$Now, why was Dr. Hunter so important?$$He was a powerful, powerful instructor. So he was a guy who had polio when he was a kid, and so he spent his life on crutches before he moved to a motorized cart. But when he taught at Morehouse, he was on crutches. Yet he could draw these beautiful diagrams of anatomy and embryos on the board, and he'd talk with such facility about the subject. And so for those--it turns out that he and Dr. [Frederick E.] Mapp who was the chair of the department at that time, did not necessarily get along. And so Roy Hunter's tenure at Morehouse was short-lived. But for those of us who came along during the time that he was there, or here, he was a tremendous influence on us.$$Now, where did he go when he left Morehouse, do you know?$$I think he became chair of the Department of Biology at Morgan State [University, Baltimore, Maryland]. And he eventually became chair of the Department of Biology at Atlanta University, and at some point, he went to work for Lou Sullivan at the Morehouse School of Medicine as an administrator.$$Okay.$$So one of the things that I regret most is not bringing him back to the faculty at Morehouse when I became chair of biology. He and I used to talk about that. I just couldn't pull it off. So one of the things that I did as chair of biology was to move in the direction of hiring people who not only taught but did research. So Roy was way beyond doing research, but he was such a giant that I wanted to have him in the midst just to have that history and tradition and the power that he conveyed just talking to students. And I just didn't pull it off. And he always reminded me, I'm still waiting for you to invite me back. I just, just couldn't do it.$$So, he's passed now?$$Yeah, he died, I guess, about ten years ago.$$Okay, okay, but a great mentor.$$Powerful mentor.$$Okay, now we always hear a lot about Henry McBay. Did you have him for--$$I took him for, I had him in general chemistry class, and was also powerfully influenced by him. People were more frightened by Henry McBay. So he's known for either producing chemists or producing politicians or ministers. So Maynard Jackson used to tell the story that the reason--because Maynard Jackson apparently wanted to be a physician when he came here. And so Henry McBay turned him towards politics.$$So in other words, he, you either succeeded sort of--$$That's right.$$--big time here or he pushed out of--$$That's right, right. So he was very demanding, put a lot of emphasis on the mathematical basis of chemistry. He would fill up the board with just equations, and he wrote beautifully. And his, he had sort of an extreme attitude about things, and so he frightened a lot of students. I mean I thought he was a great instructor. I enjoyed his style of lecturing. And I don't think I felt intimidated by him.$$That's interesting. Okay.$Okay. So in '95 [1995], Walter Massey becomes the ninth president of Morehouse [College, Atlanta, Georgia]. He's a physicist.$$Right.$$Did his presidency facilitate science at Morehouse?$$Not as much as we thought it would, although Walter [Massey] was very supportive of a number of things that we did. So one of the important things that Walter did was to create three divisions at the college. So we have Business and Economics, Social Sciences and Humanities, and Science and Math. That was his idea, and so we've split the college now into about three equal parts. With about a thousand students--at the time, he was here, we had about three thousand students. And so his idea was to reduce the scale of the college more like it looked, and to make it more like it looked when he was a student here, so when I was a student, there were only eight hundred students at Morehouse. So he was trying to promote faculty-faculty interaction, faculty-student interactions, etc. And that actually had a transformative effect. So when we created, when we brought the three--six departments together that constitute the Division of Science and Math, it's been a, there was an explosion of activity. And so we meet, as a faculty, every month. People are talking across disciplines. And at some point, students finishing the division will have a more interdisciplinary education, which is where we wanna go. We're developing interdisciplinary curricula, interdisciplinary research and so I think while, at the time, it didn't seem like such a momentous deal, it has had an enormous impact. We began the Division of Science and Math with a grant that we got from the Packard Foundation. Walter was on the board of the Packard Foundation. So that's very helpful. So Walter is connected to the titans of American industry. So he brought the heads of GE [General Electric, Fairfield, Connecticut], Motorola [Inc., Schaumburg, Illinois]. Walter is more of a scholar than he is a business person. So he's not known for twisting arms. And so they didn't leave perhaps as much money as they might, but they came to know about us. And so the current president [Robert M. Franklin] I think is more of an arm twister, and I think, so we're gonna reap the benefits of what Walter has established. But Walter had to deal--you know, people have said about Walter that he's a guy who thinks very broadly. He's now the president of the Art Institute of Chicago, right, so (laughter). So he's had a very broad prospective, and so I think that he was a wonderful president at Morehouse. I don't know that he could afford, because we had a number of problems that he had to deal with. I don't know that he could afford to just tackle the sciences. So I think what he did was to seed something. And the fruits of that will be manifested in the years ahead.