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Lillian S. Williams

Professor Lillian S. Williams was born on February 19, 1944 in Vicksburg, Mississippi to Ada L. Williams and James L. Williams, Sr. Williams graduated from Niagara Falls High School in Niagara Falls, New York in 1962, and earned her B.A. degree in history from the State University of New York at Buffalo in 1966. After working as a high school history teacher for several years, Williams went to earn her M.A. degree in history in 1973 and her Ph.D. degree in urban history in 1979, both from the State University of New York at Buffalo. While there, Williams founded the African American Historical Society of the Niagara Frontier in 1974, and served as associate editor of the Afro-Americans in New York Life and History Journal starting in 1977.

Williams worked as an assistant professor in the department of history at Howard University from 1979 until 1986, when she became a visiting professor in the department of American Studies at the University of Buffalo. She also taught as an assistant professor of women’s studies and Africana Studies at the State University of New York at Albany, where she also served as the director for the Institute for Research on Women. In 1990, Williams wrote an article called “And Still I Rise: Black Women and Reform, Buffalo, New York, 1900-1940,” which was published in the Afro-Americans in New York Life and History Journal. Then, in 1996, she published a monograph entitled A Bridge to the Future: the History of Diversity in Girl Scouting. Williams was promoted to associate professor at the University of Albany in 1996. She released her first book, Strangers in the Land of Paradise: The Creation of an African American Community, Buffalo, New York, 1900-1940 in 1999. In 2002, Williams became an associate professor at the State University of New York at Buffalo.

In addition to becoming a Rockefeller Foundation Minority Scholars Fellow, Williams has received numerous awards, including the Nuala McCann Dresher Award, and the University at Albany “Bread and Roses” Award for Distinguished University Service. In 2000, Williams was honored with a lifetime achievement award from the Niagara County Black Achievers. She was selected as a fellow for the National African American Women’s Leadership Group in 2001. Williams was also a recipient of the SUNY Chancellor’s Award for Excellence in Teaching. She served on the board of directors for Albany’s NAACP, and was a member of the New York State Historic Records Advisory Board. Williams also served on the education committee of the Buffalo Urban League and the editorial board of the Journal of African American History.

Lillian S. Williams was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on April 22, 2018.

Accession Number

A2018.074

Sex

Female

Interview Date

4/22/2018

Last Name

Williams

Maker Category
Middle Name

S.

Schools

State University of New York at Buffalo

First Name

Lillian

Birth City, State, Country

Vicksburg

HM ID

YOU10

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Mississippi

Favorite Vacation Destination

Aruba

Favorite Quote

There's A Danger In A Single Story.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Birth Date

2/19/1944

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Buffalo

Favorite Food

Salmon

Short Description

Professor Lillian S. Williams was an associate professor at State University of New York at Buffalo. She also authored several articles and books, including Strangers in the Land of Paradise, published in 1999.

Employment

Buffalo Board of Education

University at Buffalo

Favorite Color

Turquoise

Margie M. Tuckson

Corporate executive Margie M. Tuckson was born on March 20, 1952 in Mobile, Alabama. Graduating from Murphy High School in Mobile, Alabama in 1969, Tuckson enrolled at the University of South Alabama, Mitchell College of Business in Mobile, Alabama where she was a founding member of the Delta Sigma Theta Iota Nu Chapter. She received her B.S. degree in marketing and accounting from the University of South Alabama in 1973.

After graduation, she went to work for International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) in Mobile as product administrator, where she specialized in market analysis, product placement, internal and external executive training and product development. There, she was integral in the automation of the State of Georgia’s Department of Human Services-Child Support Services Program. She served in several management roles at IBM, and retired from the company after over eighteen years of service in 1991. Tuckson then worked as a consultant for a global aerospace and defense technology company Northrup Grumman in Los Angeles, California from 1991 to 1997. She also became the program manager for the City of Chicago Department of Cultural Affairs from 1997 to 2000. In 2013, Tuckson served as chief financial officer and manager for Tuckson Health Connections in Atlanta, Georgia.

Tuckson was a member of the University of South Alabama National Alumni Association board of directors and served on the finance committee. She was also active with numerous organizations including Hope Chest for Breast Cancer, Charles Drew University of Medicine and Science, Penumbra Theater in St. Paul, Minnesota, Morehouse School of Medicine, Big Brothers/Big Sisters, National Council of Negro Women, Georgia CHARLEE, United Negro College Fund, Iota Nu Chapter of Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, The LINKS Incorporated, Hank and Billye Aaron Scholarship Fund, Leadership Mobile, Pre-School for the Deaf, Daniel Freeman Hospital, American Cancer Society and Tuckson Health Connections Community Outreach Programs. Tuckson was appointed to the University of South Alabama Board of Trustees by Governor Kay Ivey in 2017, and confirmed by the Alabama Legislature on January 16, 2018.

Margie and her husband Reed V. Tuckson have four children; Kobi, Nia, Dominic and Lance.

Margie Tuckson was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on March 5, 2018.

Accession Number

A2018.031

Sex

Female

Interview Date

3/5/2018

Last Name

Tuckson

Maker Category
Middle Name

M.

Occupation
Schools

Caldwell School

Central High School

Alabama A&M University

University of South Alabama

First Name

Margie

Birth City, State, Country

Mobile

HM ID

TUC33

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Alabama

Favorite Vacation Destination

Italy

Favorite Quote

Life is Short.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Birth Date

3/30/1952

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Atlanta

Favorite Food

Seafood

Short Description

Corporate executive Margie M. Tuckson (1952 - ) worked at IBM for over eighteen years and served as chief financial officer and manager for Tuckson Health Connections.

Employment

Tuckson Health Connections

City of Chicago

Charles Drew University of Science and Medicine

IBM

Favorite Color

White

Audrey M. Edmonson

Audrey M. Edmonson was born on January 27, 1953 in Miami, Florida. She graduated from Miami Jackson Senior High School in Miami, Florida in 1971. Edmonson earned her A.A. degree in psychology from Miami Dade College in 1991, and her B.A. degree in psychology from Florida International University in 1994. Edmonson received her dual M.S. degree in marriage family therapy and mental health counseling from Barry University in 1997.

In 1997, she was elected as a councilperson to the Village of El Portal City Council in Florida. In 1999, she was elected mayor of the Village of El Portal, Florida and became the city’s second African American mayor. During the same year, Edmonson began working as a trust specialist in the Miami Dade Public School system. Edmonson was re-elected three successive terms and became the municipality's first mayor to be elected by residents rather than by the members of the Village Council. Under her leadership, the Village hired its first Village Manager. In 2005, when she was elected as commissioner for the 3rd District on the Miami-Dade County Commission. She was re-elected three more times and in 2010 and 2016, she was elected to serve as vice chair. In 2018, Edmonson was elected to serve as president of the Miami-Dade County Commission.

Edmonson was chairwoman of the Housing and Social Services Committee and the Building Safer Neighborhoods Sub-Committee. She also served as vice chairwoman of the Transportation and Public Works Committee and the Chairman’s Policy Council, and as a member of the Youth Crime Task Force. She served as the vice chairwoman of the Miami Dade Expressway Authority (MDX) Board of Directors. Edmonson was appointed to the Miami-Dade County HIV/AIDS “Getting to Zero” Task Force and served as Chairwoman of the Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) I-395 Signature Bridge-Aesthetic Steering Committee. She also serves on the Miami-Dade Economic Advocacy Trust and the Public Health Trust nominating councils, the Public Health Trust/Miami-Dade Annual Operating Agreement Committee, the Jackson Health System Obligation Bond Citizens’ Advisory Committee and the County Advisory Task Force for the Byrne Criminal Justice Innovation Program Planning and Implementation Project which is referred locally as Project PEACE: People Engaged and Advocating for Community Empowerment. Vice Chairwoman Edmonson serves as the Vice Chair of the International Trade Consortium Board.

In addition to her work as a city commissioner, Edmonson was also involved in many different community organizations. She was a member of the Top Ladies of Distinction, Inc. and the Links, Incorporated. She also helped create the Miami Children’s Initiative in 2006, where she served as a board member. Edmonson served as a board member for the Frost Science Museum, the JMH Citizen’s Advisory Board, and the JMH Nominating Committee. Edmonson was recognized for her community work by South Florida Magazine, which named her one of “South Florida’s 50 Most Powerful Black Professionals.”

Edmonson has two children, Dr. Ebony Nicole Dunn and Louis Ivory Edmonson and three grandchildren.

Audrey M. Edmonson was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on March 10, 2017.

Accession Number

A2017.035

Sex

Female

Interview Date

03/10/2017

Last Name

Edmonson

Maker Category
Schools

Barry University

Florida International University

Miami Dade College

Miami Jackson Senior High School

Georgia Jones-Ayers Middle School

Lenora Braynon Smith Elementary School

Liberty City Elementary School

First Name

Audrey

Birth City, State, Country

Miami

HM ID

EDM05

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Florida

Favorite Vacation Destination

Cape Town, South Africa

Favorite Quote

It's Not That You Can't Do Something It's How You Can Get It Done.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Florida

Birth Date

1/27/1953

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Miami

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Snapper

Short Description

Mayor and city commissioner Audrey M. Edmonson (1953 - ) was mayor of the Village of El Portal for six years before serving the Miami Dade Board of Commissioners for twelve years.

Employment

Miami Dade County

Village of El Portal

Miami Dade Schools

AT Services

Eastern Airlines

New Horizons Community Mental Health Center

Favorite Color

Purple

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Audrey M. Edmonson's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Audrey M. Edmonson lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Audrey M. Edmonson describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Audrey M. Edmonson talks about her mother's family in Nassau, Bahamas

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Audrey M. Edmonson describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Audrey M. Edmonson talks about her mother's marriages

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Audrey M. Edmonson describes her earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Audrey M. Edmonson describes the sights, sounds and smells of her childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Audrey M. Edmonson remembers her early neighborhood of Liberty City in Miami, Florida

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Audrey M. Edmonson talks about attending church and completing chores on the weekends

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Audrey M. Edmonson lists her siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Audrey M. Edmonson remembers transferring between elementary schools in Miami, Florida

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Audrey M. Edmonson recalls moving from Liberty City to a majority white neighborhood

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Audrey M. Edmonson remembers attending Allapattah Junior High School in Miami, Florida

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Audrey M. Edmonson talks about Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Audrey M. Edmonson recalls staging a sit-in to integrate her high school cheerleading team

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Audrey M. Edmonson describes her high school extracurricular activities

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Audrey M. Edmonson recalls becoming one of the first African American flight attendants at Eastern Air Lines

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Audrey M. Edmonson describes the process to become a flight attendant

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Audrey M. Edmonson recalls her experiences with racism as a flight attendant, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Audrey M. Edmonson recalls her experiences with racism as a flight attendant, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Audrey M. Edmonson talks about her career at Eastern Air Lines

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Audrey M. Edmonson talks about the social dynamics of being a flight attendant

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Audrey M. Edmonson remembers meeting her former husband, Louis Edmonson

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Audrey M. Edmonson describes her children

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Audrey M. Edmonson talks about the changes in reglations for a flight attendant at Eastern Air Lines

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Audrey M. Edmonson recalls starting her cleaning company, AT Services

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Audrey M. Edmonson talks about adopting her second child, Louis Ivory Edmonson

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Audrey M. Edmonson describes her college education

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Audrey M. Edmonson talks about her first involvement in political campaigns

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Audrey M. Edmonson describes her work with the New Horizons Community Mental Health Center in Miami, Florida

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$2

DAStory

3$6

DATitle
Audrey M. Edmonson recalls staging a sit-in to integrate her high school cheerleading team
Audrey M. Edmonson describes the process to become a flight attendant
Transcript
So, you say it was because of Dr. King [Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.] that they weren't allowed to do these things?$$No. It was because of Dr. King that we finally did something about this at Miami Edison High School [Miami Edison Senior High School, Miami, Florida]. We--$$This is after you moved to that school?$$Yeah. Only--I was at Edison for a year.$$Okay.$$Ninth grade.$$Okay.$$I'm in ninth grade now.$$Okay. Got it.$$So, I'm growing up a little bit.$$That's fine.$$(Laughter) So, what we did--$$And, this is the predominately white school--$$Yes.$$--where they're not allowing the girls to--$$Correct.$$--to participate.$$The boys were allowed to play in the sports.$$Okay.$$The girls were allowed to play sports. But, they did not choose any blacks who were--and we had a lot that went out for the cheerleaders and the, the Raiderettes, which are the swingettes or whatever you call them. And, it was another group of girls. So, we, we had to meet, they--how, I don't know how we pulled this off, you know, we were kids. We, it was secretly going out, a meeting was gonna be, and they gave us the address. And, I remember the, the girl's last name was White [ph.]. And, we went over to her home that night, and the word was, "Don't come unless you bring your parents with you." And, I was afraid but I knew I wanted to go to this meeting. So, I finally approached my mom [Florence Smith Downs] and I said, "Mom, they gonna have a meeting at a house tonight" (laughter). I say, "And, they say we can't come unless we bring our parents." And, she asked me, what was it about? And, I told her, you know, that--they didn't put any young ladies on the cheerleader squad, they didn't put any--and she says, "And, you're gonna meet over there about that?" She said, "That can be trouble." And, I said, "I know, but I wanna go. And, I can't go unless you go." She said no more. We got in the car later on that evening and we drove over there and I was shocked. She gave me my permission to do a sit-in. And, we did a sit-in the next day and it took the school by surprise. And, the media was there. So, they placed one, one young lady. They didn't have another, no type of competitive thing. They placed one young lady on the cheerleaders, one on the Raiderettes and one on the, the other group.$$So it worked.$$It worked. And, we sat there on the floor quietly. And, I remember (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) For how long?$$--the, the young lady's father was a doctor, and he's the one that really facilitated everything. And, he told us, no matter what, just sit there, don't open our mouths, and do not use any profane language, don't talk back, just sit there. And, that what we did.$$Do you remember how long you sat there?$$We had to have sat there for at least two hours because I think the superintendent, everybody came at--to the school. So, it was a big thing. It was in the news.$$They couldn't believe you were doing that.$$They couldn't believe we did that.$$Even though these things were happening across the country--$$And, we sat there and we blocked the office door, right in the hallway.$$And, how many of you were there?$$It had to be a good--because, now when we were at the house, it was only about thirty or forty of us. But, somehow when we did the sit-in, it had to have been a good fifty, sixty, I mean, it was triple the amount of us that were at the house.$$And, was everybody black?$$Um-hm, all black. I think the word got around. And, if you were black you came, and you sat.$$Were you afraid?$$No. I enjoyed it. You know, I was young. You know, nothing could happen to me. I was invincible.$Was that part of the interview process [for Eastern Air Lines], just your comfort on a plane?$$That could've been because that was discussed. They gave me a test. I took the test. That was, you know, the test I took, I couldn't believe the test, you know, it was, "Would you rather be a bishop or, or a cardinal?" And, you know, I remember things like that on this test that I took. And, I just took the test and then my last interview was before a panel and as they--at the end one of them said, "Audrey [HistoryMaker Audrey M. Edmonson], we think we're gonna take you on." And, back then, the things they did they wouldn't dare to now. Because the first interview I had to walk from one side of the room to the other side. So, they could see me walk. And, they asked me to stoop down. But, I did remember from home ec [home economics], you never bend (laughter). So, I did do it at the knees (laughter). So, I did remember some things.$$So, so it was, because, I mean, the original stewardesses as we, you know, see in movies and everything are (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Skinny.$$--skinny, fashionable--$$They weighed us every time we came in.$$Right. They did?$$Yeah. They had the scale right to the door.$$And, what did you have to (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) And, if you were on probation, you got weighed every trip.$$Why would you be on probation?$$Because you had a six months probationary period when you first started out.$$And, what did you have to weigh (simultaneous)?$$(Simultaneous) They could just let you go for no reason.$$What was the weight requirement?$$When I started, I was 5'7". I had to keep my weight under 126. I could not go over 126 pounds.$$And, were you, was that easy or difficult for you (simultaneous)?$$(Simultaneous) It was difficult. Because when they hired me I was 132 pounds. And, she asked me if I thought I could lose the weight by that very last interview. I wanted that job. I even--I used to even bite my nails. I stopped biting my nails. I lost the weight, and I was about 124 at that last interview.$$Just in the process of the interview. And, this is across what period of time?$$About a three month period.$$So, they needed, you needed to get to the 126 in order for them to hire you?$$Um-hm. I guess they wanted to see how motivated I was. Or, how much motivation I had. And, I had it.$$And, at this time it didn't, it didn't bother you that there were these kinds of requirements?$$No. Well, I didn't know any better. I even had to dye my hair because on my first interview, I think it was my first and second interview, I wore an Afro wig. So, at that time, and you'll see that (laughter), when you look at my pictures, at one point in time I was blonde (laughter). My hair was blonde underneath. So, they had no idea. So, when I came to, I think the second interview, I told her, I says, "Now, my hair is kind of blonde-ish." And, she was surprised 'cause she thought the wig was my hair. She says, "Well, what do you mean, blonde-ish?" And, I kind of did that little number to her. And, she says, "Well, are you willing to dye it black?" (Laughter) And I said, I said, "Yes, I'll dye it." I wanted this job. And, she says, "Now, what if we don't hire you? What if they decide they're not gonna hire you in the next interview?" I says, "Well, that's okay, I'll just dye it back blonde," (laughter). And, she gave a little chuckle and--$$So, for the third interview, you'd lost the weight, dyed you hair (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Third interview, lost the weight, stopped biting my nails, and dyed my hair.$$And, how were you wearing it? 'Cause now, you're not having on an Afro wig, what style are you wearing it?$$Shorter Afro.$$Okay. So, it was--so, they didn't mind the Afro?$$No. They did mind the Afros. Let me tell you what they did. As a matter of fact, in the class that I was in there were, we had three blacks. One was really not in the class, she was in the class ahead of us but she got sick so she finished out in our class. But, there were, we had two blacks in my class that went through. And, they brought us from all over the country. Both of us had Afros. For some reason they kind of liked her Afro. They didn't like mine. So, at the end of the class when they see that they're actually going to graduate you, they sent all of us to the, the beauty parlor. So, I'm sitting up there, I'm telling the girl how I want my hair. She says, "But, that's not what it says on the paper." And, this is, we were the first class that they actually sent to a black salon. They had been sending (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Oh, you're at a black salon, okay.$$--the black girls to the white salons. We were the first. They sent us to Supreme Wig and Beauty Supply [sic. Supreme Wig and Beauty Salon, Miami, Florida]. And, the girl stands there, and she's looking at it (laughter), she says, "Well, this is not what I'm supposed to do." I said, "What do you mean, this is not what you're supposed to be?" She says, "I'm supposed to relax your hair and cut it into a bob." And, that's what she did. She put a relaxer on my head.$$Had you ever had a relaxer?$$Yeah, I did have a relaxer back when I was in high school. I took up cosmetology. So, I played around--that's how I got the blonde hair, just playing around with my hair.$$So, again, you wanted the job. So, you're like--$$Yeah.$$I'll do it.$$I did it.

Gwen Ifill

PBS-TV journalist Gwen Ifill was born on September 29, 1955 in New York City to her parents, O. Urcille Ifill, Sr., an African Methodist Episcopal minister who hailed from Panama, and her mother, Eleanor Husbands from Barbados. Her father's ministry required the family to live in several cities in different church parsonages throughout New England including Pennsylvania, Massachusetts and New York, where the family resided in federally subsidized housing. Ifill's interest in journalism was rooted in her parents' insistence that their children gather nightly in front of the television to watch the national news. In 1973, Ifill graduated from Classical High School in Springfield, Massachusetts. Four years later, she received her B.A. degree in communications from Simmons College in Boston. During her senior year, she interned at the Boston Herald American newspaper.

Ifill worked at the Boston Herald American newspaper as a reporter in 1977. She left in 1980 to work as a writer for the Baltimore Evening Sun where she was able to work as a political reporter. In 1984, Ifill moved to Washington D.C. to work as a political reporter for the Washington Post where she covered the suburban Maryland beat until 1988, when she was promoted to the national news desk and sent to report on the Republican National Convention. Ifill then accepted a position as White House correspondent for the New York Times in 1991. She went on to NBC News in 1994 and worked in the Washington, D.C. bureau as chief Congressional and political correspondent. In 1999, Ifill became the first African American woman to host a prominent political talk show on national television when she became moderator and managing editor of PBS’s Washington Week and senior political correspondent for The PBS NewsHour. In 2004, Ifill moderated the vice-presidential debate between Republican Vice President Dick Cheney and Democrat Senator John Edwards, and in 2008, she moderated the vice-presidential debate between Democratic Senator Joe Biden and Republican Governor Sarah Palin.

Ifill was the recipient of numerous awards including the George Foster Peabody Award and the Leonard Zeidenberg First Amendment Award. Her book The Breakthrough: Politics and Race in the Age of Obama, was published in 2009.

Gwen Ifill was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on March 8, 2012.

Ifill passed away on November 14, 2016.

Accession Number

A2012.058

Sex

Female

Interview Date

3/8/2012 |and| 3/22/2014

Last Name

Ifill

Maker Category
Marital Status

Single

Schools

Simmons College

Springfield Central High School

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Gwen

Birth City, State, Country

New York

HM ID

IFI01

Favorite Season

Spring

Sponsor

Herb and Sheran Wilkins Media Makers

State

New York

Favorite Vacation Destination

Caribbean

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

9/29/1955

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Gravy

Death Date

11/14/2016

Short Description

Newspaper reporter and television news reporter Gwen Ifill (1955 - 2016 ) was the first African American woman in history to host a prominent political talk show on national television when she became moderator and managing editor of 'Washington Week' and senior correspondent for 'The PBS NewsHour'.

Employment

Boston Herald American

Baltimore Evening Sun

Washington Post

New York Times

NBC News

PBS Washington Week

The PBS NewsHour

Main Sponsor
Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Gwen Ifill's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Gwen Ifill lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Gwen Ifill describes her father's personality and the values he taught her

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Gwen Ifill talks about her father's family background in Panama City, Panama and his immigration to the United States

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Gwen Ifill describes her mother's family background in Barbados

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Gwen Ifill reflects upon how she embodies her parents' characteristics

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Gwen Ifill describes her siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Gwen Ifill describes her earliest childhood memories of growing up in poverty

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Gwen Ifill lists the cities she lived in as a child

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Gwen Ifill describes the sights, sounds and smells of her childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Gwen Ifill describes her childhood personality

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Gwen Ifill describes her upbringing in the African Methodist Episcopal (A.M.E.) Church, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Gwen Ifill describes her upbringing in the African Methodist Episcopal (A.M.E.) church, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Gwen Ifill talks about her identity as an African American with Caribbean heritage

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Gwen Ifill describes her relationships with her parents as a child

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Gwen Ifill talks about her close relationship with her brother and love of reading

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Gwen Ifill recalls the assassinations of President John Fitzgerald Kennedy and Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Gwen Ifill recalls her exposure to the news as a child

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Gwen Ifill recalls her father's patriotism and race pride

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Gwen Ifill describes her educational experience from junior high school in Steelton, Pennsylvania through high school in Springfield, Massachusetts

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Gwen Ifill describes her experiences entering Simmons College in Boston, Massachusetts

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Gwen Ifill talks about her internships and mentors while at Simmons College in Boston, Massachusetts

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Gwen Ifill talks about African American student organizations at Simmons College in Boston, Massachusetts

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Gwen Ifill describes her experiences interning at the Boston Herald American newspaper

Tape: 2 Story: 13 - Gwen Ifill remembers Shirley Chisholm speaking at her graduation from Simmons College in Boston, Massachusetts in 1977

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Gwen Ifill recalls reporting on the first big story of her career at the Boston Herald American

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Gwen Ifill talks about attending St. Paul AME Church in Cambridge, while living in Boston, Massachusetts

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Gwen Ifill explains how she learned about politics as a reporter at the Boston Herald American

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Gwen Ifill talks about the lessons she learned as a political reporter for the Baltimore Evening Sun

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Gwen Ifill talks about covering Baltimore, Maryland Mayor William Donald Schaefer for the Baltimore Evening Sun

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Gwen Ifill talks about accepting a job at The Washington Post

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Gwen Ifill describes what it was like to be an African American woman reporter at The Washington Post in the 1980s

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Gwen Ifill reflects upon the lack of diversity in The Washington Post's newsroom

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Gwen Ifill talks about moving to The Washington Post's national staff in 1987 and covering HistoryMaker Reverend Jesse L. Jackson's presidential campaign

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Gwen Ifill reflects upon the significance of HistoryMaker Reverend Jesse L. Jackson's 1988 presidential campaign

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Gwen Ifill talks about being hired by The New York Times as a congressional correspondent

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Slating of Gwen Ifill's interview, session two

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Gwen Ifill talks about other African American journalist working at The Washington Post in the 1980s

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Gwen Ifill talks about the repercussions of the Janet Cooke scandal

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Gwen Ifill talks about covering Prince George's County, Maryland while a reporter for The Washington Post

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Gwen Ifill talks about covering long-shot candidates in the 1988 presidential campaign, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Gwen Ifill recalls interviewing voters with journalist David Broder

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Gwen Ifill talks about covering long-shot candidates in the 1988 presidential campaign, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Gwen Ifill describes what it is like to a reporter on a political campaign trail

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Gwen Ifill describes the dynamics between reporters and candidates' staff while on the campaign trail

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Gwen Ifill talks about being hired by The New York Times

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Gwen Ifill describes her first experiences appearing on television

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Gwen Ifill talks about the prestige of working at The New York Times

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Gwen Ifill talks about being hired away from The New York Times by NBC News

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Gwen Ifill talks about her close friendships with HistoryMaker Michele Norris and Michel Martin who also transitioned into television at the same time

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Gwen Ifill recalls taking care of her mother before she died

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Gwen Ifill lists other African American journalists transitioning from print to TV journalism in the early 1990s

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Gwen Ifill reflects upon the differences between commercial television and public broadcasting, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Gwen Ifill explains how she was hired by PBS for 'Washington Week in Review' and 'PBS NewsHour'

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Gwen Ifill reflects upon the differences between commercial television and public broadcasting, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Gwen Ifill describes her vision for 'Washington Week'

Tape: 5 Story: 11 - Gwen Ifill explains the structure of the Public Broadcasting Service and the evolution of 'PBS NewsHour'

Tape: 5 Story: 12 - Gwen Ifill explains the difference between 'PBS NewsHour' and 'Washington Week'

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Gwen Ifill recalls moderating the 2004 and 2008 vice presidential debates

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Gwen Ifill recalls how she prepared to moderate the 2004 and 2008 vice presidential debates

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Gwen Ifill recalls moderating the 2004 and 2008 vice presidential debates, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Gwen Ifill talks about breaking her ankle before the 2008 vice presidential debate

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Gwen Ifill recalls writing an op-ed in The New York Times denouncing Don Imus's racist comments about the Rutgers women's basketball team, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Gwen Ifill recalls writing an op-ed in The New York Times denouncing Don Imus's racist comments about the Rutgers women's basketball team, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Gwen Ifill talks about mentoring young African American women

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Gwen Ifill describes the process of writing her book 'The Breakthrough: Race and Politics in the Age of Obama'

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Gwen Ifill reflects upon the evolution and the next generation of African American politicians

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Gwen Ifill recalls being considered to be the successor to 'Meet the Press' host Tim Russert

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Gwen Ifill reflects upon her career

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Gwen Ifill reflects upon her experience interviewing celebrities for The HistoryMakers

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Gwen Ifill recalls her experience interviewing HistoryMaker Ursula Burns for 'An Evening with Ursula Burns'

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Gwen Ifill talks about her positive African American identity

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Gwen Ifill describes her hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Gwen Ifill reflects upon the legacy of her generation of African Americans

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Gwen Ifill reflects upon the lessons she learned as a the child of immigrants

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Gwen Ifill reflects upon her racial identity

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - Gwen Ifill reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - Gwen Ifill describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 9 Story: 1 - Sponsors of 'An Evening With Gwen Ifill'

Tape: 9 Story: 2 - Introduction of 'An Evening With Gwen Ifill'

Tape: 9 Story: 3 - Gwen Ifill talks about the importance of creating a sense of accessibility for her audience

Tape: 9 Story: 4 - Film clip of Gwen Ifill's family background and education

Tape: 9 Story: 5 - Gwen Ifill describes her childhood household

Tape: 9 Story: 6 - Gwen Ifill recalls using her platform to address the racial slur directed at the Rutgers University women's basketball team in 2007

Tape: 9 Story: 7 - Gwen Ifill describes her childhood aspirations and her experiences working at the Boston Herald American

Tape: 9 Story: 8 - Gwen Ifill talks about her early journalism career and a clip of her transition from print to TV news

Tape: 9 Story: 9 - Gwen Ifill recalls covering HistoryMaker Reverend Jesse L. Jackson and other long-shot candidates during the 1988 presidential campaign

Tape: 9 Story: 10 - Gwen Ifill describes her transition from print to TV journalism and her passion for covering politics

Tape: 9 Story: 11 - Gwen Ifill talks about hosting 'Washington Week in Review' and being a senior political correspondent for the 'PBS NewsHour'

Tape: 9 Story: 12 - Film clip of Gwen Ifill's career at PBS, hosting political debates and interviewing HistoryMakers

Tape: 9 Story: 13 - Gwen Ifill reflects upon being a role model

Tape: 9 Story: 14 - Gwen Ifill recalls her experiences hosting vice presidential debates

Tape: 9 Story: 15 - Special message from HistoryMakers Dionne Warwick and Diahann Carroll

Tape: 9 Story: 16 - Gwen Ifill recalls her interviews for The HistoryMakers 'An Evening With...' events

Tape: 9 Story: 17 - Gwen Ifill reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 9 Story: 18 - Gwen Ifill describes her dream interview subject for The HistoryMakers

Tape: 9 Story: 19 - Musical selection from Mae Ya Carter Ryan

Tape: 9 Story: 20 - Information on how to order a copy of 'An Evening With Gwen Ifill'

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$3

DAStory

6$9

DATitle
Gwen Ifill recalls her exposure to the news as a child
Gwen Ifill talks about moving to The Washington Post's national staff in 1987 and covering HistoryMaker Reverend Jesse L. Jackson's presidential campaign
Transcript
So what's the discussion occurring around the dining room table? Are you--'cause I remember, you know, in our household there was, you know, all these things were sort happening; you know and your parents [O. Urcille Ifill, Sr. and Eleanor Husbands Ifill] were discussing it, and so I'm just wondering is that--how are you being formed? You know, how is your mind being formed about events, you know, that are occurring in the world at a time that, you know, you're young but very aware of what--$$Yeah. But part of it is we really read the newspaper every day, and we watched the news every night. So, part of the reason I'm a journalist today is 'cause I remember we got the afternoon paper, I remember reading it. Every place we lived, we got the newspaper. We read it. We were--we took it in. I loved the idea that someone somewhere was asking questions and getting their name on a story and to tell the story. And then we watched '[The] Huntley-Brinkley [Report]' growing up. I mean, we were very keenly aware of what was happening in the world around us, and when we would talk about it at the table. And then my father would throw provocative ideas onto the table so that we could fight with him about it, so that we could--I don't think we were even conscious of that's what he was doing at the time. He would say something outrageous, and we'd say, "That's not true." But it would force you to think through what you believed and backup your arguments. So we, you know, my brother was a star on the debate club. I don't think it's an accident that he knew how to debate, because he learned how to do it at the table. And we all, in that sense, still kind of do that when we get together at Thanksgiving. We still talk about current events. We still--everyone still has to be a little bit literate about that and we find a way to be.$What are you learning about national politics at this point? And are you covering national or are you covering, in 19--$$In 1987, I covered--I was recruited to the national staff [at The Washington Post] by a woman by the name of Ann Devroy who was a political editor, who took a look at her staff of reporters and said, "I've got nothing by middle-aged white guys." And she consciously said, "This is a bad idea." So she looks--started looking around the metro staff. Who do we have? Who else has covered politics? And she--my interview for the job, but she hired me in part because she thought I would bring up a new--a fresh eye, new blood to these guys who'd been covering things the same since the '70s [1970s]. And one of the people who I have to say embraced me and completely was happy to see me and guided me along the way was David Broder, who had been doing this forever, but saw in me the possibility to learn something he didn't know. I find at different points throughout my career, there were always the people who were most helpful to me and nurturing were often people who thought that there was something I could tell them. Tim Russert was the same way. "What is it that you know that I don't know? Tell me, and then I can tell you what you don't know. We can help each other." And so, as a result, I learned from David Broder how to listen and talk to voters and to value what individuals say as much, if not more, than what official statements say, and to listen more closely. And there was so--there was such a rich--there was such a rich group of folks to learn from if you wanted to, if you wanted to be open to it, and if you didn't pretend like you knew it all, and I didn't know anything. I knew nothing about covering national politics. I was at the bottom of the totem pole, so I was sent out to cover all the candidates who were never going to be president. I had--if they were--looked like they were the most improbable, I was there to cover Pat Buchanan; I was there to cover [Marion Gordon] "Pat" Robertson, and I was there to cover every person left standing; 1988 was my first campaign, national campaign, and 'til the last person standing, who was not the nominee, was [HistoryMaker Reverend] Jesse [L.] Jackson. And so on Jesse Jackson's campaign, he had an entire press corps that was black folk, because in 1984 and 1988, once again, all the people at the bottom of the totem pole on all these different newsroom organizations often were people like me; folk who are covering their first campaign, black people; Marilyn Milloy and--who was working for Newsday at the time, and [HistoryMaker] Joe Davidson, who was working for--who was Joe working for? [The] Wall Street Journal, I guess? Maybe I'm missing another newspaper. But there were, like, a bunch of us who were all-[HistoryMaker] Sylvester Monroe was working for Time. We were all working for different newspapers, and we--Phyllis Crock [ph.] was working for NPR, and we all found ourselves out with Reverend Jackson. This was in some ways a weird ghetto-ish thing. And in other ways, it was very useful, because we did kind of get the rhythm of the Jackson campaign. We were attuned to talking to different kinds of people and hearing what they were saying and what was really driving it. We were better versed in trying to get beneath the candidate to find out what was really going on in the campaign, and Reverend Jackson was very cagey character, you know. He knew how to make black reporters feel guilty because he'd say, "You're working for the man, you know, so you're probably selling me out." And he knew how to make white reporters feel guilty by saying, "You know, that's kind of a racist question you're asking." He wouldn't have to say it, but he would imply it so that you were always a little bit off guard. It was also the most disorganized campaign in the history of the world, because he would take off and not know where he was going to land, and he would just--but still wherever he landed there would be four thousand people waiting for him, because he was the phenomenon. He won thirteen states. I mean, we're covering a campaign this year with--there are some people who are not going to win one state, and we're giving them all this all this time. This guy went around and he just--he really earned himself a role at the [Democratic] National Convention in the way that he had in 1984, that made it an exhilarating experience, an exhausting experience to cover, and taught me a whole lot about black politics in a way that served me later when I wrote my book ['The Breakthrough: Politics and Race in the Age of Obama,' Gwen Ifill]. I mean, I understood kind of the rhythm of black politics and met a lot of the people who were leading the charge in a way that I wouldn't have covering, or never did, covering white politicians because it wasn't as important to them to speak to those communities.

Artis Hampshire-Cowan

Academic administrator Artis Hampshire-Cowan was born in Mobile, Alabama on February 5, 1955. In 1976, she graduated with honors from Morris Brown College with her B.A. degree in Business Management. Three years later, she received her J.D. degree from Temple University Law School in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. After graduation, she served as Assistant District Attorney in Philadelphia, whereupon she moved to Washington, D.C. For twelve years, Hampshire-Cowan worked with the government of the District of Columbia. She held such positions as Congressional lobbyist with the Office of Intergovernmental Relations; Chief of the Office of Compliance at the Department of Consumer and Regulatory Affairs; Historic Preservation Development Expert; and Senior Advisor/Attorney Advisor to the Deputy Mayor for Economic Development and City Administrator. Hampshire-Cowan also served as General Counsel at RFK Stadium; she served as in-house counsel and the chief negotiator for several sports initiatives including the Redskins/District proposal to construct a new Redskins stadium in the District of Columbia and subsequently served as Special Counsel to County Executive Wayne Curry’s successful construction of the Redskins Stadium in Prince George’s County, Maryland.

In 1991, Hampshire-Cowan co-founded and later served as president of Bright Beginnings, an organization that aims to meet the needs of
homeless children by providing families with childcare and on-site therapeutic and family support services. In 1994, Hampshire-Cowan joined the Board and also served as president (2005-2007) of the Prince George’s Community Foundation, which supports and grants funds to the County’s nonprofit organizations. Hampshire-Cowan, a graduate from the Stephen Covey Leadership Center, is a certified trainer for the Seven Habits of Highly Effective People, Principle Centered Leadership, and First Things First. She has provided training for boards of directors and executive management in higher education, business, government, and nonprofit community-based organizations. Currently, Hampshire-Cowan is Senior Vice President and Secretary of Howard University. In this role, she serves as corporate secretary of the University; manages the affairs of Howard's Board of Trustees; and plans and manages all official functions of the University, including Opening Convocation, Charter Day, and Commencement.

In 1993, Hampshire-Cowan served as Prince George's County Executive appointee on Superintendent Selection Committee. In 1994 and 1998, she Co-Chaired Prince George's County Executive's 1994 Education Transition Committee. In 1998, Hampshire-Cowan was appointed by Governor Glendening as Chairperson, Management Oversight Panel, Prince George’s County Public Schools. Hampshire-Cowan was granted the Power 150—People Who Make Things Happen Award by the Washingtonian Magazine in 2007 and the Women Who
Mean Business Award by the Washington Business Journal in 2008. In 2009, Hampshire-Cowan was featured in the Washingtonian Magazine’s 100 Most Powerful Women, and in 2010, she was named to the 2010 Prince George’s Suite Top 100
“Who’s Who of Prince George’s County and Who’s Who in Black Metropolitan Washington, DC.” Hampshire-Cowan currently resides in Mitchellville, Maryland, with her husband, Ernest. They have
two children, Carri and Ernest, Jr.

Artis Hampshire-Cowan was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on June 27, 2010.

Accession Number

A2010.060

Sex

Female

Interview Date

6/27/2010

Last Name

Hampshire-Cowan

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Schools

Temple University Beasley School of Law

Morris Brown College

Mattie T. Blount High School

Trinity Gardens Middle School

Trinity Evangelical Lutheran School

First Name

Artis

Birth City, State, Country

Mobile

HM ID

COW02

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Alabama

Favorite Vacation Destination

Gulf Shores, Alabama

Favorite Quote

Your Word Is Your Bond.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

2/5/1955

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Greens (Collard)

Short Description

Academic administrator Artis Hampshire-Cowan (1955 - ) served as vice president for human resource management, senior vice president and acting president at Howard University in Washington, D.C. She also acted as general counsel of the RFK Stadium authority, and special counsel to Wayne Curry.

Employment

Office of the District Attorney of Philadelphia

District of Columbia

Howard University

Leverage Leadership Group LLC

Favorite Color

Red

Timing Pairs
0,0:710,13:8165,170:21952,525:23998,556:27173,569:28096,590:31987,641:32401,648:32746,654:37438,794:40060,841:41923,868:42475,878:44890,917:45304,924:47512,966:53270,1014:56754,1066:66582,1335:81576,1529:86165,1550:88415,1590:88790,1596:89990,1616:90815,1630:91490,1642:95765,1721:96590,1733:97115,1741:98090,1769:102444,1788:103786,1800:104640,1809:105250,1815:111240,1852:113904,1891:120194,2000:121082,2011:123598,2053:123894,2058:129730,2114:130178,2123:130690,2154:131266,2166:133826,2256:135426,2284:136450,2302:139394,2361:140418,2407:149335,2466:150050,2480:152455,2543:152845,2550:153170,2556:154535,2614:154795,2622:155510,2641:155900,2648:156420,2657:157460,2692:165501,2800:165998,2808:167347,2835:167915,2844:168483,2852:171820,2930:189356,3255:189696,3261:190852,3285:192008,3306:194388,3353:195068,3366:198804,3382:199200,3390:200388,3411:201906,3442:202764,3460:206856,3537:208572,3567:214350,3623$0,0:1820,41:9376,142:10384,154:11056,191:32954,551:34280,577:40316,608:40664,613:42404,642:44231,667:45188,680:52720,766:53449,780:54340,812:54988,822:69424,1109:70126,1121:83820,1370:86572,1432:86892,1438:89068,1485:89836,1502:90156,1508:90796,1525:96236,1671:98860,1745:102444,1764:103659,1777:104145,1785:104874,1796:105441,1804:105846,1810:106494,1817:107142,1826:107547,1832:109390,1839:110120,1851:111288,1867:111726,1875:112456,1887:114720,1914:115336,1924:118801,1977:120649,2047:122035,2078:122420,2084:124576,2127:126039,2150:126809,2162:132010,2192:132604,2202:133066,2216:135574,2268:135970,2275:136432,2284:139328,2310:139846,2326:142732,2389:143028,2394:144656,2420:145396,2439:145914,2448:147024,2466:147616,2477:152238,2514:152818,2525:153108,2531:157458,2656:158096,2670:158328,2675:158560,2680:158792,2685:161344,2744:161866,2755:162330,2764:166632,2787:166888,2792:167336,2801:167720,2809:168168,2818:169000,2833:169512,2842:170088,2857:170536,2865:173352,2940:174056,2954:174568,2963:176360,3004:182830,3096:186205,3149:186805,3159:187180,3167:188530,3190:189730,3212:194669,3235:197756,3302:198071,3308:198386,3315:200763,3330:201686,3352:202183,3361:202467,3366:202964,3374:203248,3379:203958,3391:204526,3401:204952,3408:206301,3441:209780,3533:210348,3550:211129,3566:211626,3580:212194,3593:213259,3612:215034,3648:220606,3690:221068,3701:222058,3729:225950,3774:226760,3785:228200,3811:229550,3836:230720,3852:233420,3895:237650,3957:238640,3971:239450,3981:240800,4003:249101,4120:249612,4128:250780,4148:251291,4157:252386,4177:255280,4186:259230,4238:259720,4247:260140,4257:261890,4295:262310,4305:262590,4310:268359,4386:269736,4419:270384,4496:273000,4526
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Artist Hampshire-Cowan's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Artis Hampshire-Cowan lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Artis Hampshire-Cowan describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Artis Hampshire-Cowan talks about her mother's upbringing

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Artis Hampshire-Cowan describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Artis Cowan-Hampshire talks about her paternal family's land ownership

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Artis Hampshire-Cowan describes her father's upbringing and employment

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Artis Hampshire-Cowan lists her siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Artis Hampshire-Cowan describes her likeness to her parents

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Artis Hampshire-Cowan remembers baseball games with her father

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Artis Hampshire-Cowan recalls her mother's civic involvement

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Artis Hampshire-Cowan talks about Mardi Gras in Mobile, Alabama, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Artis Hampshire-Cowan talks about Mardi Gras in Mobile, Alabama, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Artis Hampshire-Cowan describes her family's Sunday routine

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Artis Hampshire-Cowan remembers the summers

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Artis Hampshire-Cowan recalls the start of her schooling

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Artis Hampshire-Cowan reflects upon her early education

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Artis Hampshire-Cowan talks about her education at Lutheran schools

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Artis Hampshire-Cowan remembers her family's activism against segregation

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Artis Hampshire-Cowan recalls her paternal uncle's police assault

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Artis Hampshire-Cowan reflects upon her experiences of segregation in Mobile, Alabama

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Artis Hampshire-Cowan remembers judging the Azalea Trail Maids contest in Mobile, Alabama

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Artis Hampshire-Cowan talks about the political influences in Mobile, Alabama

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Artis Hampshire-Cowan remembers school integration in Mobile, Alabama

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Artis Hampshire-Cowan recalls her activities at Mattie T. Blount High School in Eight Mile, Alabama

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Artis Hampshire-Cowan recalls her summer program in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Artis Hampshire-Cowan remembers her decision to study business

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Artis Hampshire-Cowan recalls her start at Morris Brown College in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Artis Hampshire-Cowan describes her experiences at Morris Brown College

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Artis Hampshire-Cowan talks about her hairstyle

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Artis Hampshire-Cowan remembers her introduction to African American history

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Artis Hampshire-Cowan recalls her decision to study law at Temple University in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Tape: 3 Story: 12 - Artis Hampshire-Cowan talks about her undergraduate and law school classmates

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Artis Hampshire-Cowan describes Temple University Law School in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Artis Hampshire-Cowan remembers her law school professors

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Artis Hampshire-Cowan remembers her attempt to visit Ghana

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Artis Hampshire-Cowan describes her early law career

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Artis Hampshire-Cowan recalls serving as an assistant district attorney in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Artis Hampshire-Cowan talks about Reverend Dr. W. Wilson Goode, Sr.'s mayoral administration

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Artis Hampshire-Cowan recalls her role in Mayor Marion Barry's administration

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Artis Hampshire-Cowan reflects upon Mayor Marion Barry's achievements

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Artis Hampshire-Cowan talks about the responsibilities of elected officials

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Artis Hampshire-Cowan talks about the importance of workplace relationships

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Artis Hampshire-Cowan describes the founding of Bright Beginnings

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Artis Hampshire-Cowan recalls Wayne Curry's leadership in Prince George's County, Maryland

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Artis Hampshire-Cowan talks about the impact of Bright Beginnings in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Artis Hampshire-Cowan describes her career at Howard University

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Artis Hampshire-Cowan remembers Joyce Ladner's leadership of Howard University

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Artis Hampshire-Cowan describes her work in the Prince George's County Public Schools

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Artis Hampshire-Cowan reflects upon her work at Howard University

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Artis Hampshire-Cowan recalls her experiences as Howard University's social events coordinator

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Artis Hampshire-Cowan talks about her motivational speaking career

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Artis Hampshire-Cowan talks about her board service

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Artis Hampshire-Cowan talks about her community in Prince George's County, Maryland

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Artis Hampshire-Cowan describes her hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Artis Hampshire-Cowan reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Artis Hampshire-Cowan talks about her children

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Artis Hampshire-Cowan describes her plans for the future

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Artis Hampshire-Cowan describes her father's support

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Artis Hampshire-Cowan shares her advice to young female professionals

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - Artis Hampshire-Cowan describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Artis Hampshire-Cowan narrates her photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$5

DAStory

7$2

DATitle
Artis Hampshire-Cowan recalls her role in Mayor Marion Barry's administration
Artis Hampshire-Cowan describes the founding of Bright Beginnings
Transcript
So, you, you really wanted to get out of Philadelphia [Pennsylvania] at a certain point. You thought that it was maybe the best--?$$Yeah, and I think the other thing is that in one of my summer internships while in law school [Temple University Law School; Temple University Beasley School of Law, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania] was at the Federal Trade Commission and I met this guy named Ernest Cowan [Ernest Cowan, Sr.], who was working there as an accountant. And he was smart and fun and, and we dated and so we had this weekend relationship and I was curious, you know, whether it was just the weekend or what, and what can I tell you, thirty years later (laughter) we're together and two kids [Carri Cowan and Ernest Cowan, Jr.] later. So, it was, it was--clearly I did not want to be a prosecutor anymore, and Philadelphia was not a place I wanted to live. I really do like a more southern lifestyle, single family detached homes and a place you raise your kids, so Washington [D.C.] was more the kind of city I wanted to live in and so I sought employment opportunities and was in district government for twelve years and had a phenomenal career in the Barry administration.$$So, so, when did you arrive in, in D.C.?$$Nineteen eighty [1980].$$Okay, 1980, okay. So, Barry [HistoryMaker Marion Barry] was elected about what?$$Nineteen seventy-nine [1979]. He's, his--$$Okay, so he was fresh.$$Yeah.$$Okay. All right.$$His administration was one year old when I came, and I have to tell you I met some of the brightest people ever. I know people look at Mayor Barry now and make jokes about it but at the height of his game in the first Barry administrations, it was really a role model. I mean, he recruited outstanding African Americans from all over the country; gave them responsible jobs and great opportunity. I came in 1980 and did legislative work. I eventually became part of a team with Carol Thompson Cole to redo the regulatory functions in the city, I directed compliance, became her attorney as deputy mayor and then she was city administrator. I was her attorney and chief of staff. When the Redskins [Washington Redskins] were at the height of their dominance in the NFL [National Football League], we needed to build a new stadium and I was given the responsibility to represent the city in negotiating a new Redskins stadium. That was an unbelievable experience. Dealing with Jack Kent Cooke, you know, day to day, up close. And then when the deal did not work in D.C., because Mayor Barry left office and Sharon Pratt Kelly [HistoryMaker Sharon Pratt] came in, then there was talk of coming out here to Prince George's County [Maryland] and I had become politically involved and living in Prince George's County and [HistoryMaker] Wayne Curry retained me as his special counsel on negotiating the Redskins stadium deal here. So I still got to work on the Redskins deal even though it didn't happen in--$$So the stadium was actually here in P.G. County?$$Yes, it is. Yes, it's now called FedExField, it was Jack Cooke Stadium [Jack Kent Cooke Stadium, Landover, Maryland] when it was constructed. And we had really exceptional--again, this was a Barry attribute, I believe, because I grew up professionally and the Barry administration had been involved in ensuring that there was minority participation in major deals in the District, I was able to write a similar plan here in Prince George's County that proved to be successful in the construction of the stadium in terms of job opportunities, training, apprenticeships, as well as contracting opportunities for minority business.$Talked about some of the activities, but you've done a lot of things. You did, did a lot of things for the city, and you worked for the, the District of Columbia f- until--from I guess 1980 until 1992?$$Let's see. I left the District in '92 [1992]. I did, I left the stadium authority in '92 [1992] and I came to Howard University [Washington, D.C.], and--$$Now, before you, you came to Howard, though, you founded Bright Beginnings [Washington, D.C.].$$Yes$$So maybe we should talk about that.$$Yes. Yes. Well, you know the '80s [1980s] was the height of homelessness in Washington and, and sort of an area that had not gotten a lot of attention was children. Children are impacted by homelessness.$$Now, to tell the truth, now Washington, D.C. was home to a couple of big crises in the '80s [1980s]: the first big crack [crack cocaine]--$$Right.$$--epidemic to hit the nation was here--$$Right. That's true.$$--in the '80s [1980s] with these--$$It's true.$$--skyrocketing--$$It's true.$$--killings and, and murders, you know.$$Yep. Yep. It was a terrible time. And, you know drugs were many times part of the equation in homelessness as well. But there was a woman I met in a program, Leadership Washington [Leadership Greater Washington, Washington, D.C.], Marti Kipner [ph.]. She's a lawyer at par- Patton, Boggs and Blow [Squire Patton Boggs]. She was president of the Junior League and she actually approached me about joining the Junior League because she said she really wanted to bring diversity to the Washington Junior League and--$$Can you describe what the Junior League is for those watching this who have no idea?$$Okay. The Junior League of Washington [Washington, D.C.]--all over the country, they're all over the country. It is an organization that is focused on getting young women, actually under forty, involved in doing volunteer work to improve the community. But the Junior League is also thought to be the elite, the blue bloods of the Mayflower [Mayflower Society]. I mean, it's sort of their, you know, reputation. And so when I was first approached by this, it certainly wasn't an organization I had any interest in joining or saw me spending my volunteer time in their activities, but when Marti approached me as she was coming into the presidency, about how she wanted to truly make it a diverse organization and figure out a way to attract more African American women, I also didn't see my time and energy in being a part of an organization that helped white folks understand black people; that just wasn't where I was at the time. But we enjoyed a good relationship, and about a year and a-half later she called me and said that they were applying for a demonstration grant to start a daycare center for homeless children and needed my help with the city in terms of navigating the building permit, zoning process facilities and that's the way I became involved. I was then asked to be a member of the founding board for Bright Beginnings, the daycare center and I had to join the Junior League to be a board member because they wanted all the board members to be Junior League members. But as a result of that, I really got up close to understand all of the issues in homelessness because the city's policy, of course they housed them in apart- in hotel rooms, basically, but they were required to leave by nine o'clock each morning and could not return until five in the afternoon. So basically, during the middle of the day they were just out and about, and they were out and about with their children. Now, they were--of course, were supposed to be out looking for employment or trying to find resources, and so there was an acute need for a daycare center for homeless children and we you know established it, the demand was unbelievable. I mean, we were, you know, the only facility at the time so there was lots of demands, lots of requirements. And at one point I ended up being chair of the board and the executive director was in a car accident, so I actually had to take on the role of running the center, so I got up close the experience of running a service delivery nonprofit: making a payroll, delivering services based on limited contracts and reimbursement we got from the city, but basically relying on the good will of people to help support, you know, meeting an important cause and demand.$$So, you were the founding I think--$$I was on the founding board of Bright Beginnings (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) You were board president. Right, okay.

June M. Perry

June Martin Perry was born on June 10, 1947, and raised in Columbia, South Carolina. She received her B.A. degree from North Carolina Central University. Perry attended graduate school at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee and received her M.S. degree in social work in 1971. She has also completed her course work for a Ph.D. in urban studies at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee.

Perry and fellow social worker Geri McFadden started New Concept Development Center, Inc., in 1975 to address what they saw as a lack of local social services, specifically those for African Americans. New Concept is a non-profit social services agency that targets African Americans. Services include family counseling, housing, and employment assistance, as well as case management for HIV patients. In the 1980s, New Concept expanded into a greater set of social services by starting a mentoring program for girls at the Hillside Housing Project, providing a Youth Motivation Seminar for Role Models and Youth, and developing its first youth-managed and operated business through its youth entrepreneurship program. In 1986, New Concept authored a Blue Ribbon report on Teen Pregnancy Prevention for the City of Milwaukee. New Concept developed the first Prenatal Care Program which soon became the model for Title XIX benefits. In the 1990s, New Concept Development Center again expanded its services by opening Milwaukee’s first Father’s Resource Center and developing a First-time Juvenile Offenders Program which became a model for Milwaukee County. What began as a two-woman operation has grown into a 50-employee business serving more than 7,000 families a year operating a budget of $2.5 million. After retiring from New Concept Development Center in 2006, Perry created Access 2 Success, an organization which acts as a technical assistance intermediary between business, government and non-profits to expand the capacity for non-profit sustainability and strategic planning.

Perry is the recipient of many awards including the Sacajawea Trailblazer Award, the Woman of Influence Award, Mentor of the Year, the Black Women’s Network Lifetime Leader Award, the Kraft Foods - Essence Award, the Black Administrators in Child Welfare Long Term Leaders Award, and the Community Service Award from SET Ministries. Perry’s current volunteer involvement includes being a founding member of the African American Women’s Fund, membership on the board of directors of the Aurora Health Care Metro Region, and the oversight and advisory committee for the Healthier Wisconsin Partnership for the University of Wisconsin School of Public Health. Perry is also an independent travel agent for Keystone Travel. She has recently traveled to Australia, New Zealand, Greece, Turkey, France, Italy, and Mexico.

Perry has two adult children and enjoys spending time with her life partner, Bill Stevens.

Accession Number

A2008.133

Sex

Female

Interview Date

11/17/2008

Last Name

Perry

Maker Category
Middle Name

Martin

Schools

W A Perry Middle

C. A. Johnson High School

Carver-Lyon Elem

North Carolina Central University

University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

First Name

June

Birth City, State, Country

Columbia

HM ID

PER05

Favorite Season

Fall

Sponsor

John and Irma Daniels and the Fellowship Open

State

South Carolina

Favorite Vacation Destination

Italy

Favorite Quote

If It Is Going To Be, It Is Up To Me.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Wisconsin

Birth Date

6/10/1947

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Milwaukee

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Grits

Short Description

Social worker and nonprofit executive June M. Perry (1947 - ) started New Concept Development Center, Inc., a non-profit social services agency that targets African Americans, in 1975. In 2006 Perry created Access 2 Success to expand the capacity for non-profit sustainability and strategic planning.

Employment

Wisconsin Department of Public Welfare

New Concept Self Development Center

Main Sponsor
Favorite Color

Red

Timing Pairs
0,0:7910,151:39005,504:39905,517:40805,537:43805,603:44780,620:45830,641:48455,687:49430,701:49730,706:54245,728:55745,745:63030,793:64980,822:66630,846:67455,855:68055,865:68430,871:68805,877:69705,895:70605,909:71130,921:71505,927:72030,935:76176,956:76668,963:76996,968:77324,973:79210,1004:79784,1013:82326,1058:85196,1130:85606,1138:86426,1161:90510,1189:99645,1377:100776,1396:101298,1415:106352,1463:107122,1480:107815,1491:108508,1501:112666,1585:116516,1687:117440,1707:117902,1715:119981,1751:128090,1838:129455,1852:130295,1861:130820,1867:131240,1872:131660,1877:134510,1882:136656,1921:138358,1965:138728,1972:139172,1979:154160,2209:156032,2238:156422,2244:161492,2364:166562,2490:176641,2604:180791,2690:187029,2753:188108,2767:188689,2776:189436,2787:190515,2804:191179,2814:193500,2822:193860,2827:196560,2861:197910,2885:198630,2896:199080,2902:200070,2919:211890,3044:212226,3049:214494,3084:217434,3141:218358,3153:237470,3464$0,0:6039,201:6732,210:7227,216:10230,233:10950,251:11590,260:12710,346:21990,451:22425,458:23295,469:23643,474:23991,479:26949,507:27297,512:31377,543:34694,580:35229,586:35657,591:41828,666:42238,672:47110,714:47979,736:48453,743:49243,755:49559,760:49875,765:53430,830:54931,857:58500,867:60866,909:68146,1031:68783,1039:75500,1093:78662,1146:79580,1156:82130,1184:87652,1243:90116,1286:99920,1398:101270,1426:101795,1434:102245,1446:103145,1494:104795,1523:109716,1544:110086,1550:114600,1604:115251,1613:119796,1687:120693,1700:123144,1780:123788,1789:128020,1853:128572,1860:129032,1866:130320,1885:133908,1948:140455,1985:140835,1990:142070,2009:142545,2015:143685,2037:144255,2045:147964,2068:152760,2130:153390,2145:154920,2163:158290,2201
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of June M. Perry's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Slating of June M. Perry's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - June M. Perry describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - June M. Perry describes her maternal grandfather's career as an electrician

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - June M. Perry talks about her family's roots in Africa

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - June M. Perry describes her paternal ancestry in Jenkinsville, South Carolina

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - June M. Perry describes her mother's upbringing in South Carolina

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - June M. Perry describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - June M. Perry describes her parents' personalities

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - June M. Perry describes her earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - June M. Perry describes the sights, sounds and smells of her childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - June M. Perry describes the role of religion in her childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - June M. Perry describes her community in Columbia, South Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - June M. Perry describes her grade school experiences

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - June M. Perry recalls experiencing racial discrimination in the late 1950s

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - June M. Perry remembers C.A. Johnson High School in Columbia, South Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - June M. Perry recalls her brother's sit-ins in Greensboro, North Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - June M. Perry remembers North Carolina College at Durham

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - June M. Perry recalls meeting Howard Fuller in Durham, North Carolina

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - June M. Perry recalls her decision to study at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - June M. Perry remembers moving to Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - June M. Perry describes her community organizing work in Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - June M. Perry describes the Organization of Organizations' role in Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - June M. Perry recalls her community at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - June M. Perry recalls her work at the Wisconsin Department of Public Welfare

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - June M. Perry describes racial segregation in Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - June M. Perry describes her work as a child abuse investigator in Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - June M. Perry recalls the psychological toll of child abuse casework

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - June M. Perry recalls founding the New Concept Self Development Center

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - June M. Perry describes her parental counseling services

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - June M. Perry describes the problems in the Milwaukee Public Schools

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - June M. Perry describes the Each One Reach One mentoring program

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - June M. Perry describes her work with teenage parents

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - June M. Perry describes her preparations for retirement

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - June M. Perry describes the programs at the New Concept Self Development Center

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - June M. Perry describes her work to decrease childhood incarceration

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - June M. Perry reflects upon her career at the New Concept Self Development Center

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - June M. Perry reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - June M. Perry describes her hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - June M. Perry reflects upon her family life

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - June M. Perry describes her plans for the future

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - June M. Perry narrates her photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$3

DAStory

4$8

DATitle
June M. Perry recalls experiencing racial discrimination in the late 1950s
June M. Perry describes her work as a child abuse investigator in Milwaukee, Wisconsin
Transcript
Now, the country was really getting into the Civil Rights Movement in the late '50s [1950s], you know (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Yeah.$$--Little Rock [Arkansas], and you had, you know, the Montgomery Bus Boycott and--$$Yes.$$And so were things starting to heat up in--$$Yeah.$$--South Carolina?$$I remember when we went to the movies, we, you know, had to sit upstairs and I remember, you know, the news talking about segregation and the--kind of an escalation of the fear--well not fear, but just conversation about you shouldn't drive alone at night because, you know, the Ku Klux Klan [KKK] is around and we'll never see you again, just those kind of things being a part of the conversations that were prevalent in the community in the school. Yeah, so I remember the difference and more attention to the things that we had lived with, like the black and white water fountains and the different bus station and train waiting rooms and all of the things that were segregated. I remember that.$$When you first encountered--can you remember when you first encountered that kind of thing or took notice of it?$$As a little girl, I remember my [maternal] grandmother [Rosena Martin] taking me to ride the bus and the fact that we had to sit in the back. And I would ask her, "Why do we have to go to the back," and she would say, "That's just the way it is." Yeah, and like I said, being with my [maternal] grandfather, and knowing that he had to collect money from white people and sometimes they wouldn't pay him, and also recognizing the difference of he always called them mister and they always called him Uncle Willie [Will Martin]. So, you know, I always--you knew those things happened and also my family would travel, drive, when my father [Mark Martin, Sr.] was alive. I remember we drove to Canada, to Quebec, and we would stay in people's homes that they knew because we couldn't stay in hotels and stop on the side of the road and, you know, have a picnic because we couldn't go in hotels or--you know, in restaurants. So, I--yeah, I remember those things.$$Once you got to Quebec, was it still segregated?$$No. I remember staying in the hotel in Quebec and I think that's, you know, probably why we wanted to go there because it was a different country with different rules, but I remember that.$$It's interesting in those days, a lot of places in the North, black people couldn't stay in hotels either, yeah, I know so--$$Yeah, that's true.$$Yeah.$$The North was just as segregated. It just wasn't talked about as much, you know, but it was. It was--Baltimore [Maryland] was awful, you know, and where--the Mason-Dixon Line, it was supposedly after you crossed that, everything was okay, but I don't think so. And I had my grandmother's sisters, several of them went to New Jersey to work in very wealthy homes, so they worked for people who had a lot of money, for white people, and they lived in a neighborhood in New Jersey, I think it was Newark [New Jersey] then, that was not a bad neighborhood. People had very nice homes and--excuse me--all the people who lived there worked, but it was a--certainly a distinction between what white people and what black people and how they lived.$$Okay.$$Yeah.$$So--usually the pattern is South Carolina goes to New York, and--$$D.C. [Washington, D.C.]$$D.C., too (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous0 Uh-huh.$$Okay.$$Yeah, a lot in D.C. I have one aunt in D.C., one in New Jersey.$$Okay.$$Yeah.$So you were organizing on the North Side of Milwaukee [Wisconsin], the black (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Yeah.$$--part of town?$$Yeah, uh-huh.$$All right.$$Yeah.$$So, were you still investigating cases of child abuse?$$That was when I got out of graduate school [University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, Wisconsin].$$Okay.$$That was my first job, was investigating child abuse, yeah, and mostly in the central city and the North Side. But, again, that was a very rude awakening to me of poverty, very different than in the South, I think. The things that I saw, I had never seen before.$$Like what, for instance?$$The level of poverty, how people lived, homes where there was no food, where, you know, people were living in actual squalor and kids were neglected, didn't have food to eat, you know. I--there are poor people in the South, but I never saw that level of poverty and mistreatment of children before, so that was a rude awakening to me of kind of a difference. And I was thinking, some friends and I were talking about growing up. In the South, everybody lived in a house and had a yard--a yard. People didn't live in high-rise apartments or--the projects were one level, you know, maybe three or four units joined together. But, I think the difference was people were more independent but connected. There were neighborhoods where, like I said, my family--people--no child would go without food because people were around you that knew if you were poor, you lost your job, they were going to help you. So, I had never seen the kind of poverty and mistreatment of children before I came here. That was new. And that was really kind of the motivation for starting the agency [New Concept Self Development Center, Inc., Milwaukee, Wisconsin].$$Now, what was your analysis of I guess the child abuse problem?$$Yeah, it was before crack cocaine, so it was some drugs, but not real prevalent. It was poverty and it was frustration, not having--people were most often referred for child neglect, children who came to school with, you know, very dirty clothes or who--the abuse was I would say maybe 20 percent of the time, but neglect because of poverty was more prevalent.

The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner

Former Colorado state senator Gloria Travis Tanner was born on July 16, 1934, in Atlanta, Georgia, to Blanche Arnold Travis and Marcellus Travis. Tanner received her B.A. degree in political science and graduated magna cum laude from Metro State College in 1974. She received her M.A. degree in urban affairs from the University of Colorado in 1976. In addition, Tanner graduated from the American Management Association Program for Women in Top Managerial Positions and the Women in Leadership Program at the John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University.

Tanner worked as an administrative assistant for the Office of Hearings and Appeals at the United States Department of the Interior from 1967 to 1972. She worked as a reporter and feature writer for the Denver Weekly News, one of the leading African American newspapers in the Denver area, from 1972 through 1976. From 1976 to 1978, Tanner was the executive assistant to Colorado lieutenant governor George L. Brown, one of the first black lieutenant governors since Reconstruction. She then worked for Senator Regis Groff as the executive director of his communications office. Tanner was elected as a member of the Colorado State House of Representatives for District 7 in 1985 and served as the House Minority Caucus leader from 1987 through 1990. She was the second African American to be elected to a leadership position in the Colorado House of Representatives. In 1994, Tanner was appointed to the Colorado State Senate to replace Regis Groff who resigned to take a position elsewhere. She was the first African American woman to serve as a Colorado state senator, and held the seat until the year 2000. During her seventeen years in public service, she initiated and sponsored legislation on key issues such as marital discrimination in the workplace, parental responsibility, worker’s compensation cost savings, civil rights for women and minorities, and parental rights for adoptive parents.

Tanner is a widow and has three children: Terrance Ralph, Tanvis Renee, and Tracey Lynne.

Accession Number

A2008.131

Sex

Female

Interview Date

11/6/2008

Last Name

Tanner

Maker Category
Middle Name

Travis

Occupation
Schools

David T. Howard High School

Gray Street School

Metropolitan State University of Denver

University of Colorado Denver

First Name

Gloria

Birth City, State, Country

Atlanta

HM ID

TAN02

Favorite Season

Holiday Season

State

Georgia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Paris, France

Favorite Quote

This Too Shall Pass.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Colorado

Birth Date

7/16/1934

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Denver

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Soul Food

Short Description

State senator The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner (1934 - ) was the first African American woman to serve as a Colorado state senator. She was also elected as a member of the Colorado State House of Representatives for District 7 in 1985, and served as the House Minority Caucus leader from 1987 through 1990. She was the second African American to be elected to a leadership position in the Colorado House of Representatives.

Employment

General Rose Memorial Hospital

U.S. Air Force

Colorado House of Representatives

Town and Country Real Estate, Inc.

Coldwell Banker Real Estate LLC

U.S. Department of the Interior

Colorado Governor

Favorite Color

Green

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner talks about her parents' marriage

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner describes her relationship with her parents

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner lists her siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner describes her earliest childhood memories

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner remembers the holidays

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner describes the Gray Street School in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner recalls her extracurricular activities

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner remembers David T. Howard High School in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner describes the sounds and smells of her childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner describes the sounds of her childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner remembers Auburn Avenue in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner recalls her aspiration to attend college

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner describes her activities at David T. Howard High School in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner remembers her time in the U.S. Air Force, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner recalls her conversion to Catholicism

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner remembers her time in the U.S. Air Force, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner recalls meeting her husband

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner describes her early career in Denver, Colorado

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner lists her children

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner talks about her work experiences in Denver, Colorado

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner describes her political activities in Denver, Colorado

Tape: 2 Story: 13 - The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner talks about her career in real estate

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner remembers the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner talks about segregation in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner recalls the assassinations of the 1960s

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner remembers her first political campaign

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner describes her tenure in the Colorado House of Representatives, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner describes her tenure in the Colorado House of Representatives, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner talks about her tenure in the Colorado State Senate

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner describes her organizational affiliations

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner remembers her work with NOBEL Women

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner talks about serving on the Colorado State Senate's Joint Budget Committee

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner describes her hopes for women in politics

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner describes her mentorship of aspiring black female politicians

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner remembers the 2008 Democratic National Convention

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner talks about the election of President Barack Obama

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner remembers meeting Nelson Mandela

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner reflects upon her life, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner talks about her family

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner describes her plans for the future

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner shares her advice for aspiring politicians

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner describes her concerns for the African American community

Tape: 4 Story: 12 - The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner describes her hopes for the public education system

Tape: 4 Story: 13 - The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner shares a message to future generations

Tape: 4 Story: 14 - The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 4 Story: 15 - The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner reflects upon her accomplishments

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner talks about obstacles to her success

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner reflects upon her life, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner narrates her photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$3

DAStory

2$1

DATitle
The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner describes her hopes for women in politics
The Honorable Gloria Travis Tanner remembers the Civil Rights Movement
Transcript
And so, that's what made you so successful in the different organizations, you know, for, for women, and making sure that they get appointed. What was, what are some of the things--you talked about a lot of different organizations. But in the, and, and a lot of them have to do with women and making sure that, you know, they get appointed to boards. And what are some of the things that, that you had to accomplish to get these things done?$$Well, the first thing you have to help women to believe in themselves, to believe that you can accomplish this, and that you can do it. We always put everybody else before we put ourselves. We got our children. We got our husband. We got the house to take care of. We got this. We always have an excuse that we don't have time, and a lot of times, we don't, unless we can get our schedules together and set up priorities and do things. But the first thing you have to make women think that you, you can do it. You've done this at home. You've, you've done these kind of things before. You just didn't know you were doing it, you know, and get them to think that you can, you can accomplish it. And you can do it, and you are needed, and this is why you're needed there, you know, because if you're not there, these things are never going to come up 'cause, you know, men, men usually don't bring up some of this stuff, especially when it comes to things like parenting. And any kind of legislation that they--in fact, they used to tell us all the time, "That's the problem with you women that you don't get on the budget committee, or you don't get a leadership position 'cause you're always talking about families." Well, shouldn't they be concerned about families, too (laughter)? Are we the only one? But they think they talk about the big things, and we talk about the small ones, you know. So, you have to instill in women that we are capable of doing the same thing, you know. I think the only difference is that we're more sensitive. They say, we are more emotional, but I think being more emotional is--women make us more sensitive to these things, so that--but I, I think is really, really important. I think the most important thing for me, when I walked through that senate door every morning, was to realize how many shoulders I came in on, and how many people are going to be looking at my shoulders to see, can I climb on them, you know? But you got to do something to make it right, a lot less troublesome for women than it has been before. And from the Northeast, too, you know, you have, you have to look at those things and see. And people always say, "Aren't you proud of being the being the first black woman elected to the senate [Colorado State Senate]." I say, "No, I'm not, I'm honored because they finally opened the door, and let one in." But of a hundred years, that'll be, have the senate or so it just shows how many have been denied. It doesn't--I'm not so carried away with just being the first black woman, but what am I going to do with that? I'm going to make sure that I'm not the last one, that's for sure, so that's, that's some of the things (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) And so--$You wanted to--we kind of brushed over the civil rights era.$$The era, um-hm.$$And we, we tried to go back and then we, we got a little lost, but you wanted to share a story--$$Yeah.$$--about that time.$$I, when I got out of the [U.S.] Air Force, as I told you, I got accepted at Emory University, Grady School of Nursing [Grady Memorial Hospital School of Nursing, Atlanta, Georgia] there. And when I was there, the civil rights, it just really started with the Rosa Parks and everything. And the black students and nurses, we had a different dormitory. And for the least little thing that would happen if you were late coming in, five minutes, anything that would happen and, and you would get suspended and kicked out of school and everything. It was not happening to the white student nurses. So, we decided to go on strike there, and we all sit in the auditorium. And finally, they sent the dean there and she said to us, "If you don't get back in your classes, and get back in that hospital, you're all going to be maids, like your mother--like your mothers." And, and she never tried to tell us, we're going to try to make it right or anything, and that was really when it got started. And they, they finally suspended some of the students, you know, that got--they said, they got it started, and so forth and so on. But that--by that time in '56 [1956], I, in May, I left Atlanta [Georgia], so I wasn't there any longer. When I got to Denver [Colorado], most people worked for the government, so they all made around the same salaries. They were teachers. They worked at the Federal Center [Denver Federal Center, Denver, Colorado]. So, didn't have much of a civil rights thing going on here 'cause they didn't feel like they needed it, which I didn't agree, but they didn't feel that they needed it here. So, it was not really--the only thing you could really do is send money. And then things start getting tough here with gang type stuff, you know. And that's when people got involved here a lot, but before that, it was not a whole lot. Martin Luther King [Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.], I can remember coming here a few times, but not a whole lot of things. But I had faced so much prejudice as a child, drinking out of the coloreds' fountains, and going up all those steps to the Fox Theatre [Atlanta, Georgia] there that Senator Martha Ezzard was a senator here like I was. And she and I were back there in Atlanta for the Democratic Convention [1988 Democratic National Convention, Atlanta, Georgia]. And they took us over to the Fox and took pictures. And she showed how she went in the front door and I had to go up all these stairs, you know, and stuff. So, it was so many things that I remember--sitting on the back of the bus, and not being able to sit at the counters to eat lunch at the downtown drugstores, at Kress's [S.H. Kress and Co.] and all that, that a lot of things that these people here probably had not faced, you know. I don't know, but I do know they did have problems in Denver, but nothing like we had probably. So, I, I--it's a lot of memories back there, a lot of things that happened as a child, you know.

Adrienne Bailey

Educational consultant Adrienne Yvonne Bailey was born on November 24, 1944 in Chicago, Illinois to Julia Spalding Bailey and Leroy Bailey. Bailey received her B.A. degree from Mundelein College in 1966 and her M.A. degree in education from Wayne State University in 1969. Bailey received her Ph.D. from Northwestern University in 1973.

In Chicago, Bailey taught social studies, English, French and mathematics at Deneen Elementary School and was the neighborhood youth corps supervisor at the South Shore YMCA and the program coordinator for the Circle Maxwell YMCA in the late 1960s. Bailey then worked as the education coordinator at the Government Office of Human Resources from 1969 to 1971 and as the university coordinator of the Northwestern Community Education Project at Northwestern University from 1972 to 1973. In 1973, Bailey was appointed to a six-year term on the State Board of Education, and from 1973 to 1981, Bailey was a senior staff associate at Chicago Community Trust. She has also served as vice president of the National Association of State Boards of Education. Bailey was the Vice President of Academic Affairs for the College Board of New York in 1981 and on the Education and Career Development Advisory Committee of the Urban League in 1982. Bailey then served on the Government Educational Advancement Committee from 1983 through 1987, while also serving on the National Committee on Secondary Schooling for Hispanics from 1983 to 1985.

Bailey is currently serving as an ExEL (Executive Leadership Program for Urban Education) at Harvard University.

Bailey was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on November 4, 2008.

Accession Number

A2008.121

Sex

Female

Interview Date

11/4/2008

Last Name

Bailey

Maker Category
Schools

Holy Cross Elementary School

St Dorothy Elementary School

Mercy High School

Northwestern University

Central State University

Wayne State University

Mundelein College

First Name

Adrienne

Birth City, State, Country

Chicago

HM ID

BAI07

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Illinois

Favorite Vacation Destination

South Africa

Favorite Quote

It Is What You Get To Know, That's Where It Is At.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Illinois

Birth Date

11/24/1944

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Chicago

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Fish

Short Description

Education consultant Adrienne Bailey (1944 - ) dedicated her career to education, served as a teacher, education coordinator at the Government Office of Human Resources, and as the university coordinator of the Northwestern Community Education Project. Bailey also served a six-year appointment on State Board of Education, and served on the Government Educational Advancement Committee.

Employment

South Shore YMCA

Circle Maxwell YMCA

Detroit Board of Education

Illinois Board of Education

Governor's Office of Human Resources

The Chicago Community Trust

The College Board

Board of Education of the City of Chicago

Stupski Foundation

Strategic Philanthropy, Ltd.

Harvard University Graduate School of Education

Chicago Public Schools

Favorite Color

Purple

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Adrienne Bailey's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Adrienne Bailey lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Adrienne Bailey describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Adrienne Bailey describes her maternal grandparents

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Adrienne Bailey describes her mother's childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Adrienne Bailey describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Adrienne Bailey describes her father's education and career

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Adrienne Bailey describes her parents' personalities

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Adrienne Bailey describes her earliest childhood memories

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Adrienne Bailey recalls the neighborhood of Woodlawn in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Adrienne Bailey recalls her move to Park Manor in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Adrienne Bailey describes the sights, sounds and smells of her childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Adrienne Bailey recalls her early education

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Adrienne Bailey remembers Mercy High School in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Adrienne Bailey recalls entertainment of her youth

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Adrienne Bailey remembers her summers in Columbus, Ohio

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Adrienne Bailey remembers Sister Mary Leonette

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Adrienne Bailey remembers studying the French language

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Adrienne Bailey recalls studying abroad in France, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Adrienne Bailey recalls studying abroad in France, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Adrienne Bailey describes her first teaching position

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Adrienne Bailey reflects upon her travels in France

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Adrienne Bailey recalls her work at the Circle Maxwell YMCA in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Adrienne Bailey describes her involvement in the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Adrienne Bailey talks about the West Side and South Side of Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Adrienne Bailey remembers the riots after Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr.'s assassination

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Adrienne Bailey remembers Wayne State University in Detroit, Michigan

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Adrienne Bailey describes her experiences in Detroit, Michigan

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Adrienne Bailey recalls her Ph.D. program at Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Adrienne Bailey describes her experiences at Northwestern University

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Adrienne Bailey remembers being hired at the Chicago Community Trust

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Adrienne Bailey recalls her appointment to the Illinois State Board of Education

Tape: 3 Story: 12 - Adrienne Bailey remembers leading a delegation to Japan

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Adrienne Bailey recalls her presidency of the National Association of State Boards of Education

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Adrienne Bailey talks about the national standards of education

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Adrienne Bailey recalls her trip to China

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Adrienne Bailey describes her multicultural education policy

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Adrienne Bailey recalls her position at the College Board

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Adrienne Bailey reflects upon her achievements at the College Board

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Adrienne Bailey describes her involvement on education advisory boards

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Adrienne Bailey recalls her appointment as Chicago Public Schools deputy superintendent

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Adrienne Bailey talks about the Chicago School Reform Act of 1988

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Adrienne Bailey describes her work as an education consultant

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - Adrienne Bailey describes her education initiatives in Mississippi, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 12 - Adrienne Bailey describes her education initiatives in Mississippi, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Adrienne Bailey describes her work with the U.S. Department of Education

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Adrienne Bailey recalls her work for the United States Agency for International Development

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Adrienne Bailey describes her work for the Harvard University Graduate School of Education

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Adrienne Bailey talks about notable activists in education

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Adrienne Bailey describes her plans for the future

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Adrienne Bailey describes her hopes and concerns for education in the African American community

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Adrienne Bailey talks about the challenges in public education

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Adrienne Bailey talks about the future of public education in the African American community

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Adrienne Bailey describes her philosophy of education

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Adrienne Bailey reflects upon her life

Tape: 5 Story: 11 - Adrienne Bailey reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 12 - Adrienne Bailey talks about her family

Tape: 5 Story: 13 - Adrienne Bailey describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 5 Story: 14 - Adrienne Bailey narrates her photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$4

DAStory

11$11

DATitle
Adrienne Bailey recalls her appointment to the Illinois State Board of Education
Adrienne Bailey describes her education initiatives in Mississippi, pt. 1
Transcript
The other thing that came to me during that time is that we were moving away from, in Illinois from an elected constitutional officer and state superintendent. There had been a constitutional convention, none of like what's on the ballet today, to get away from that elected position and there was, at that time, Governor Dan Walker was creating the first appointed Illinois State Board of Education. It's interesting enough because it was the private sector and the legislation assigned the state board responsibilities over both public and private education. So, unbeknownst to me there was a group that had promoted my name, primarily because of my experience in private education, as a representative they wanted to advance to the government for appointment. Now part of the appointment criteria is you cannot be, you see, an employed educator, so you can't work for a school system, so I had a unique background in that I was trained as an educator, had a strong educational set of experiences, but I was, I fit the criteria so I was appointed then as one of, let's see, two or three African Americans to the first appointed Illinois Board of Education in about 1973 or 1974. I served on that board for eight years, leaving it in 1980 as its vice president. During that time my career also jettisoned. I would say that was probably the time that I was just on the move, thanks to many great advocates and supporters of me, but my career just kind of took off. I then became the president of the National Association of State Boards of Education, and became well acquainted, therefore, with state board members and chief state school officers in all fifty states and at the same time I was invited by the governor to be a commissioner, a member of the Education Commission of the States, which involves the fifty states but in each state it involves the governor, the heads of the two legislative parties, usually someone from the state board and someone from the state education leader side.$$Let us go back and get some dates. I don't want to mess up here.$$Okay.$$So you were appointed to the Illinois State Board of Education?$$Right, and probably in about 1973 or 1974.$$Seventy-four [1974], okay. And then you became president of the national state board of education.$$Probably about '78 [1978] or '79 [1979], because I'm just back from the fiftieth year anniversary of that organization in Washington [D.C.] two weeks ago.$I worked in Mississippi for a period of two or three years around the grassroots community initiative for, you know, focusing on academic rigor and training parents about you know, about what it meant to be able to look at quality and, as I recall, that was just so touching because we actually trained people who had never spoken in front of groups. They developed you know, preparations and note cards and they would begin their opening about, so we had decided that because we are doing this as a collaboration between this community organization [Mississippi Action for Community Education, Inc., Greenville, Mississippi] and parents and the state education department, that we didn't want the participants to listen to a group of talking heads about the state. Education people couldn't get up first, and so it was parents getting up to greet people in which they, opening comments were, "I want to tell you why quality education is important for your children in Mississippi," and they would use examples that were in their own life about how you judge quality, what is going to a grocery store, and had come to understand, therefore, about how having discernment around quality in their own children's education was an important attribute that they needed to acquire, so we did that in probably about twenty-two communities in preparation for Mississippi's subsequent accountability law, which was going to put pretty strict constraints on testing and eventually graduation requirements. So, I can remember that even though that was several years ago, that adage to the parents was don't worry, that's not going to catch up with you right now but guess what? Today, Mississippi has graduation tests that you must pass, so the whole ideal to parents was that you don't start at the ninth or the tenth grade to figure out that you've got to get over this hurdle, that it really begins back in your early elementary and middle school, to know whether or not there is this high quality instruction in the teaching and the learning that your student is getting, but not only from letting the schools define it for you, but you being able to capture this in terms of your own understanding of the kind of education your child is receiving.

Opalanga D. Pugh

Professional storyteller Opalanga D. Pugh was born on October 31, 1952, in Denver, Colorado, to Mary Edmonson and John Harris. She also grew up in Denver. In 1975, Pugh received her B.S. degree in communication studies from the University of Wisconsin. Her senior year, as an undergraduate student, she studied at the Imo University of Lagos in Nigeria. Her more extensive informal education includes studying under the instruction of traditional griots in the Gambia, and workshops with African dance choreographer Baba Chuck Davis; African shamans Malidoma and Sobonfu Some; futurist Jean Houston; and motivational speaker Les Brown. Pugh has immersed herself and her work in the realm of communication—including (but not limited to) public relations, group facilitation, mental health, and outdoor education.

Pugh spent an extensive amount of time working, traveling and studying in nine West African countries including the Gambia and Nigeria. While she was there, her studies served as primary sources of learning African oral tradition. Since 1986, she has been a professional storyteller. In addition to that, she has done various keynote addresses as well as facilitated workshops and programs. To date, Pugh has made presentations at thousands of schools in thirty-seven states across the country and over 500 corporations and nonprofit organizations. Her work has taken her across the world. She has shared and collected stories, and hosted events and ceremonies in the United States, Canada, Europe, West Africa, and the Caribbean.

In 1995, Denver’s Westword Magazine named Pugh “Best Storyteller.” She also received the Mayor’s Award for Excellence in the Arts that year. The following year, she was featured as an “African American Living Legend” by NBC-TV. She has been featured in the following publications and media outlets: Women Who Run with the Wolves, The Wall Street Journal, Christian Science Monitor, and on Black Entertainment Television (BET). Pugh was awarded the Urban Spectrum Newspaper “One Who Makes A Difference” Award. She also received the Ambassador of Peace Award from The Conflict Center in Denver.

Other accomplishments include her work with the international relief organization, CARE, to coordinate and present components of their global conference for over 60 country directors surrounding the theme of gender equity and diversity. Pugh was also instrumental in assisting the grieving Columbine High School staff and students through ‘story intervention’ after the tragic shooting in 1999.

Opalanga D. Pugh was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on November 3, 2008.

Ms. Pugh passed away on June 5, 2010.

Accession Number

A2008.120

Sex

Female

Interview Date

11/3/2008

Last Name

Pugh

Maker Category
Middle Name

Donna Jessie

Schools

East High School

Ebert Elementary School

University of Colorado Boulder

University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

University of Lagos

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Opalanga

Birth City, State, Country

Denver

HM ID

PUG02

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Colorado

Favorite Vacation Destination

Caribbean

Favorite Quote

Stories Are Not Just Meant To Make Us Smile. Our Very Lives Depend On It.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Colorado

Birth Date

10/31/1952

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Denver

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Lentils (Curried)

Death Date

6/5/2010

Short Description

Professional storyteller Opalanga D. Pugh (1952 - 2010 ) was a scholar of African oral traditions who facilitated ceremonies and workshops across the United States, Canada, West Africa and the Caribbean.

Employment

Trans-Alaska Pipeline System

Salvation Army-Booth Memorial Home

Adams County Library

Second World Black and African Festival of Arts and Culture

Favorite Color

Purple

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Opalanga D. Pugh's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Opalanga D. Pugh lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Opalanga D. Pugh describes her mother's upbringing and education

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Opalanga D. Pugh talks about her mother's creativity

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Opalanga D. Pugh describes her maternal grandmother's personality, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Opalanga D. Pugh remembers her maternal great-grandmother

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Opalanga D. Pugh describes her maternal grandmother's personality, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Opalanga D. Pugh talks about her mother's experiences in the medical field

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Opalanga D. Pugh describes her maternal great-grandmother's appearance

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Opalnaga D. Pugh describes her likeness to her maternal family members

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Opalanga D. Pugh talks about her paternal family background

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Opalanga D. Pugh talks about her stepfather's parents

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Opalanga D. Pugh recalls her step-grandfather's experiences in the segregated South

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Opalanga D. Pugh describes her step-grandmother

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Opalanga D. Pugh remembers her stepfather's career

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Opalanga D. Pugh talks about her brothers

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Opalanga D. Pugh describes her earliest childhood memory

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Opalanga D. Pugh remembers Ebert Elementary School in Denver, Colorado

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Opalanga D. Pugh describes her early personality

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Opalanga D. Pugh talks about her childhood in Denver, Colorado

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Opalanga D. Pugh describes the sights, sounds and smells of her childhood, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Opalanga D. Pugh describes the sights, sounds and smells of her childhood, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Opalanga D. Pugh remembers her early religious experiences

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Opalanga D. Pugh recalls the integration of the Denver Public Schools

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Opalanga D. Pugh talks about her involvement in the Black Power movement

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Opalanga D. Pugh remembers a Black Power march in Denver, Colorado

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Opalanga D. Pugh remembers her parents' response to the Black Power march

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Opalanga D. Pugh describes her community in Denver, Colorado

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Opalanga D. Pugh remembers the start of her adolescence

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Opalanga D. Pugh recalls her campaign for student council secretary

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Opalanga D. Pugh describes her early aspirations, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Opalanga D. Pugh remembers her junior high school math teacher

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Opalanga D. Pugh describes her early aspirations, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Opalanga D. Pugh remembers her time at the Colorado Outward Bound School

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Opalanga D. Pugh remembers matriculating at the University of Colorado Boulder

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Opalanga D. Pugh remembers living in Dayton, Ohio

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Opalanga D. Pugh recalls her decision to study abroad in Nigeria

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Opalanga D. Pugh remembers her arrival in Lagos, Nigeria

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Opalanga D. Pugh recalls her educational experiences at the University of Lagos in Nigeria

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - Opalanga D. Pugh remembers Nigerians' misconceptions about African American women

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Opalanga D. Pugh talks about her Yoruba naming ceremony

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Opalanga D. Pugh describes the Yoruba language

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Opalanga D. Pugh remembers her experiences in Lagos, Nigeria

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Opalanga D. Pugh recalls her departure from Lagos, Nigeria

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Opalanga D. Pugh describes her move to Fairbanks, Alaska

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Opalanga D. Pugh recalls working on the Trans Alaska Pipeline System

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Opalanga D. Pugh remembers meeting Eldridge Cleaver

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Opalanga D. Pugh describes her work at Salvation Army Booth Memorial Home in Anchorage, Alaska

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Opalanga D. Pugh reflects upon her time in Anchorage, Alaska

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Opalanga D. Pugh remembers her introduction to professional storytelling

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Opalanga D. Pugh talks about the mass shooting at Columbine High School in Columbine, Colorado

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Opalanga D. Pugh shares a parable about gratitude

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Opalanga D. Pugh talks about fable singing

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Opalanga D. Pugh talks about facilitating broom jumping ceremonies

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Opalanga D. Pugh talks about officiating end of life ceremonies

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Opalanga D. Pugh describes her ceremonial instruments

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Opalanga D. Pugh talks about the importance of godparents

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - Opalanga D. Pugh talks about mentoring her nephew

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Opalanga D. Pugh talks about roots and wings ceremonies

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Opalanga D. Pugh reflects upon her career as a storyteller

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Opalanga D. Pugh talks about her experience with cancer, pt. 1

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Opalanga D. Pugh talks about her experience with cancer, pt. 2

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Opalanga D. Pugh talks about her interest in sharing her life story

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Opalanga D. Pugh reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Opalanga D. Pugh describes her advice to future generations

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Opalanga D. Pugh plays the mbira

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Opalanga D. Pugh narrates her photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$6

DAStory

6$2

DATitle
Opalanga D. Pugh remembers a Black Power march in Denver, Colorado
Opalanga D. Pugh remembers her introduction to professional storytelling
Transcript
But I remember the day that Martin Luther King [Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.] was assassinated and I was a junior in high school. And, and it was a sad day. And I remember, you know, we had this school assembly in East High School [Denver, Colorado] and they had called us all into assembly and I remember the principal, Mr. Colwell [Robert Colwell]. He, he called us all in and, and you know, people were just crying, it was such a blow. And he was saying that Dr. Martin Luther King wanted us to be peaceful, that he was about nonviolence, and you know, that we should keep our focus and you know, 'cause riots was breaking off, you know, Watts [Los Angeles, California] was burning and you know, it was all across the country. It was like (makes sound) just jumping off. And then I remember this brother named Michael Dehue [ph.] he was from Oakland, California, he was in the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense [Black Panther Party], and also another brother named Lauren Watson who was a local person here. He's another person that should be interviewed on this HistoryMakers [The HistoryMakers]. So they came in, they had their black leather jackets, had their black tams, and then they just like rolled up into the high school, you know right on through the auditorium, up on the stage and took the microphone from the principal. Talking about, "All power to the people." And we're like (gesture), "Power!" You know he said, "Power to the people," we said, "Power!" He said, "They have killed our black shining king. The dream is dead." He said, "Why are you sitting here? You should be back in your community." And then there's like that moment of silence, you know, people was just like deciding on what to do. It's like--. And then I could hear (claps hands) boom, it was like one of the seats--hit the back of the chair 'cause somebody had got up, then another one, and then another one and another one, and people started getting up, you know. And I got up and we were going down the hallway and we were trying to head to this community. Manual High School [Denver, Colorado] is like one block from where I live right now. That was--you know, this is the heart of the black community where I'm at. East High School is like--was on the edge of black and white 'cause we had integrated. So we were making a, a trail down here to go to Five Points [Denver, Colorado] back into the center of the black community. But on the way out, there was--then you could feel that anger coming up, you know, and then black kids was like beating white kids head. I mean I remember this one white girl was in a--that's when they had phone booths that, you know, you could close the door and--I remember this guy just like kicked the door open, just pulled her out, ho, ho, I was like oh my--then I remember I stopped him, like, "No this is not--I don't think Martin wanted this," you know. And they were just running across--it was just pandemonium, running across the football field. And so then we finally gathered in the park and then formed a parade down to, to Manual. And again, the music was such a part of our, our movement and this is awesome, again back to music is medicine. I mean that's how our, our slave ancestors I think made it through dark nights would be able to call those songs that could warm the soul. And so we were doing all these revolutionary songs: (singing), "Revolution has come. Off the pig! It's time to pick up your gun. Off the pig! No more pigs in our community. Off the pigs! What we need is black unity." And you know, we were singing and chanting, you know, and coming down to Manual. But when we got to Manual, which is an all-black school, their principal had like locked the doors, I mean put the chain lock on the doors and they were up in the second floor and they were waving down at us. We're like, "Come out, come out," you know, but they wouldn't--they wouldn't come out. So we just kept going down to Five Points and we were singing, you know, the revolutionary songs and you know, once in a while they throw in 'We Shall Overcome,' you know, that, that--. And what were some of the other songs that they were signing? (Singing), "Power to the people, power to the people." You always do call and response. (Singing), "Stone people's power, stone people's power, power to the people, power to the people, said power, power. Free Huey Newton [Huey P. Newton]," so we'd just go run through all the political prisoners.$Nineteen eighty [1980], I came back, again my [maternal] grandma [Jessie Howard] got sick and that was interesting 'cause I really had a job in Puerto Rico, but I stopped in Denver [Colorado] to check on my grandma and she just had an appointment to go to the doctor and they end up taking her to the hospital and then ultimately she went to a nursing home. She never came back to her house from that doctor's appointment. And I decided to stay in Denver. And from--so from 1980 I've pretty much been here as my base. I worked at Adams County public library as a media, public, public affairs person. So I was still, still writing and press releases and in charge of the audiovisual collections for Adams County public library. And it was a thirty hour job. So I began to pick up storytelling on the side, you know. But I was also producing storytelling hours working with the children's librarians. Producing storytelling hours for cable television, also producing adult public affairs programming. That I won an award for a program I did on literacy in Colorado. And I interviewed Famous Amos [Wally Amos], the cookie magnate, who was the spokesman for Literacy Volunteers of America. And so that--that was very meaningful. So that was another form of storytelling, but it was through video, through the movement. And but I was beginning to pick up so much work storytelling that I had like thirty hours of storytelling and thirty hours at Adams County public library which like was a sixty hour week. So I knew I had to make a decision. And so when I decided to go I started saving my money and you know, getting my dental work done 'cause I was getting ready to break camp. And, and it was 1983 in March where there's a National Storytelling Conference held here in Denver. And at the end of the conference they have a place, you know, for a story swap, or new people to bring their story forward. And I brought Sojourner Truth. And she was probably the first historical character who came through me. Excuse me. And I say through me because she was six foot tall and so am I. And I just kind of feel her speaking in my ear. And I came forward and I did the speech called Ain't I a Woman? And it was a speech that she, she gave at a Women's Rights Convention in Akron, Ohio in 1855 [sic. 1851]. And they were afraid for her to speak because they thought that the women's--the issue of women's rights be con- be confused with colored folk's rights. But she just took the stage anyway. And she said, "Well children, why there so much racket? It seems to me there's something out of kilter. Now I think between the white women in the North and, and the women in the South all working for our rights, the white man be in a heck of a fix pretty soon." So she went on to, to speak her truth, you know. And it was so well received that--at this conference there were a lot of librarians and teachers and they became probably my first line of support to invite me into the schools, do school assemblies, to be in the library programs. And so it's beg- it's just kind of developed from there, you know. I've joined the National Association of Black Storytellers. I was at their first gathering and we're celebrating twenty-five years now. Nineteen eighty-six [1986], you know, I've been telling as full time storytelling as an independent way of making my life and my livelihood since 1986. You know, paying my car, and paying my mortgage and so it's, it's been a journey. It's been quite a journey.

Dr. Edith Irby Jones

Pioneering medical physician Dr. Edith Irby Jones was born on December 23, 1927 to Mattie Buice Irby, a maid, and Robert Irby, a farmer. As a child, Jones witnessed her older sister die due to a typhoid epidemic and was encouraged to pursue a career as a medical physician. She attended Langston Elementary School and Langston Secondary School both in Hot Springs, Arkansas. In 1944, Jones’ high school teacher helped her obtain a scholarship to attend Knoxville College in Knoxville, Tennessee where she majored in chemistry, biology and physics. While at Knoxville College, Jones was an active member of the Alpha Kappa Mu Honor Society and was initiated into the Delta Sigma Theta Sorority. In addition, Jones was a member of the debate team, pep squad, drama club and the YMCA.

In 1948, nine years before the “Little Rock Nine” integrated Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas, Jones became the first African American admitted to the University of Arkansas College of Medicine. Although she was not provided with the same housing, dining or bathroom facilities as white students, Jones received support from her high school alumni, neighbors and a black-owned local newspaper, The Arkansas State-Press. Afterwards, she received an internship at the University Hospital in Little Rock. In Arkansas, Jones practiced medicine and worked with Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. in the Civil Rights Movement before moving with her family to Texas in 1958. In 1959, Jones began her residency in internal medicine at Baylor College of Medicine Affiliated Hospitals, but the hospital that she was assigned to segregated her, limiting her patient rosters. She completed the last months of her residency at Freedman’s Hospital in Washington, D.C., and in 1963, she received an academic appointment as a clinical assistant professor of medicine at the Baylor College of Medicine.

On May 4, 1979, Jones’ achievements were recognized by the State of Arkansas, and she was honored with the founding of the annual celebration of Edith Irby Jones Day. That following year, she became a founding member of the Association of Black Cardiologists Incorporated. In 1985, Jones became the first woman to be elected president of the National Medical Association, and in 1986, she led the United States Task Force on Health to Haiti where the medical and healthcare infrastructure were examined and potential solutions for the impoverished nation were explored.

In 1997, the Edith Irby Jones M.D. Hospital was opened in Houston, Texas. Later, in 2001, Jones was named in Black Enterprise Magazine’s selection of 101 leading black physicians in America. She has received numerous awards and recognitions for her contributions to the medical field and the American Civil Rights Movement including: the Sinkler Miller Medical Association National Achievement Award, Kato Models Woman of the Year Award, Pioneer Award from the Student National Medical Association, Mickey Leland Certificate of Congressional Award, Bennett College Belle Ringer Image Award and the Oscar E. Edwards Memorial Award for Volunteers.

Jones was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on March 10, 2008.

Accession Number

A2008.041

Sex

Female

Interview Date

3/10/2008 |and| 5/10/2010

Last Name

Jones

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Irby

Schools

Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine

Langston High School

Knoxville College

University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences

First Name

Edith

Birth City, State, Country

Mayflower

HM ID

JON20

Favorite Season

All Seasons

State

Arkansas

Favorite Vacation Destination

Hot Springs, Arkansas

Favorite Quote

I Love You.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Texas

Birth Date

12/23/1927

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Houston

Country

United States

Favorite Food

None

Short Description

Internal medicine physician Dr. Edith Irby Jones (1927 - ) integrated the University of Arkansas College of Medicine in 1950. In addition to practicing medicine, Jones served as president of the National Medical Association and on the faculty of the Baylor College of Medicine.

Employment

Baylor College of Medicine

Hermann Hospital

Favorite Color

Red and Black

DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Dr. Edith Irby Jones' interview, session 1

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Dr. Edith Irby Jones lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Dr. Edith Irby Jones describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Dr. Edith Irby Jones talks about her relationship with her mother

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Dr. Edith Irby Jones describes her memories of her father

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Dr. Edith Irby Jones describes her father's family background, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Dr. Edith Irby Jones describes her father's family background, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Dr. Edith Irby Jones talks about her parents' marriage

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Dr. Edith Irby Jones remembers her father's employment

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Dr. Edith Irby Jones lists her siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Dr. Edith Irby Jones remembers her sister's death

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Dr. Edith Irby Jones describes her neighborhood in Conway, Arkansas

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Dr. Edith Irby Jones remembers contracting rheumatic fever

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Dr. Edith Irby Jones describes her early education

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Dr. Edith Irby Jones talks about the community of Hot Springs, Arkansas

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Dr. Edith Irby Jones reflects upon her childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Dr. Edith Irby Jones remembers her favorite teachers

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Dr. Edith Irby Jones describes her early activities

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Dr. Edith Irby Jones remembers the Union Baptist Church in Hot Springs, Arkansas

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Dr. Edith Irby Jones recalls her decision to attend a private university

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Dr. Edith Irby Jones remembers her teenage social activities

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Dr. Edith Irby Jones describes the sounds and smells of her childhood

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Dr. Edith Irby Jones describes the sights of her childhood

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Dr. Edith Irby Jones remembers Virginia Clinton Kelley

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Dr. Edith Irby Jones recalls her aspiration to become a doctor

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Dr. Edith Irby Jones remembers enrolling at Knoxville College in Knoxville, Tennessee

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Dr. Edith Irby Jones recalls her work experiences at Knoxville College

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Dr. Edith Irby Jones describes her academic experiences at Knoxville College

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Dr. Edith Irby Jones remembers joining the Delta Sigma Theta Sorority

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Dr. Edith Irby Jones recalls her medical school applications

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Dr. Edith Irby Jones describes her decision to attend the University of Arkansas Medical School

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Dr. Edith Irby Jones recalls her first day at University of Arkansas Medical School in Little Rock, Arkansas

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Dr. Edith Irby Jones recalls her experiences as the first black student at the University of Arkansas Medical School, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Dr. Edith Irby Jones describes her transportation to the University of Arkansas Medical School

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Dr. Edith Irby Jones remembers her apartment in Little Rock, Arkansas

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Dr. Edith Irby Jones describes her private accommodations at University of Arkansas Medical School

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Dr. Edith Irby Jones recalls her experiences as the first black student at the University of Arkansas Medical School, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Dr. Edith Irby Jones remembers opening a private medical practice in Hot Springs, Arkansas

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Dr. Edith Irby Jones talks about her marriage

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Dr. Edith Irby Jones reflects upon her opportunity to attend medical school

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Slating of Dr. Edith Irby Jones' interview, session 2

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Dr. Edith Irby Jones recalls her decision to practice medicine in Hot Springs, Arkansas

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Dr. Edith Irby Jones describes her children

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Dr. Edith Irby Jones remembers moving to Houston, Texas

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Dr. Edith Irby Jones describes her residency at the Baylor College of Medicine in Houston, Texas

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Dr. Edith Irby Jones remembers her activism with the Freedom Four

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Dr. Edith Irby Jones recalls the support of Daisy Bates

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Dr. Edith Irby Jones reflects upon her decision to integrate an all-white medical school

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Dr. Edith Irby Jones remembers the support of H. Clay Chenault

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Dr. Edith Irby Jones recalls opening a medical practice in Houston, Texas

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Dr. Edith Irby Jones talks about her medical office in the Third Ward of Houston, Texas

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Dr. Edith Irby Jones remembers joining the staff of Hermann Hospital in Houston, Texas

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Dr. Edith Irby Jones talks about her patients

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Dr. Edith Irby Jones describes her teaching career, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Dr. Edith Irby Jones remembers the Civil Rights Movement in Houston, Texas

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Dr. Edith Irby Jones describes her teaching career, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Dr. Edith Irby Jones recalls the founding of the Association of Black Cardiologists

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Dr. Edith Irby Jones describes her early involvement in the National Medical Association

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Dr. Edith Irby Jones talks about her mentor, Dr. Michael E. DeBakey

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - Dr. Edith Irby Jones recalls her agenda as president of the National Medical Association

Tape: 6 Story: 11 - Dr. Edith Irby Jones talks about the hot springs of Hot Springs, Arkansas

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Dr. Edith Irby Jones describes her humanitarian work in Haiti, pt. 1

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Dr. Edith Irby Jones describes her humanitarian work in Haiti, pt. 2

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Dr. Edith Irby Jones describes her hopes for the Haitian people

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Dr. Edith Irby Jones talks about her advocacy work

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Dr. Edith Irby Jones shares a message to future generations

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Dr. Edith Irby Jones describes a hospital named in her honor in Houston, Texas

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Dr. Edith Irby Jones reflects upon her legacy