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Jerry Thomas, Jr.

Lawyer and gallery owner Jerry Thomas, Jr. was born on June 8, 1952 in Washington, D.C to Jerry, Sr., and Estell Thomas. He received his B.A. degree in 1974 from Wesleyan University in Middletown, Connecticut and his J.D. degree in 1977 from The George Washington University Law School in Washington, D.C. He also received a certificate in International Law, Business, Trade Commerce and Negotiations in 1986 from The Hague Academy of International Law in The Hague, the Netherlands.

After graduation, Thomas went to work for the U.S. Congress as a staff aide in Washington, D.C. In the late 1980s, he served as a lawyer at the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in Washington, D.C. Thomas was named director of administration for the 1990 Goodwill Games where he was responsible for control of the overall operation of the international event. Thomas was admitted to the Georgia State Bar in 1990. He also established the Law Offices of Jerry Thomas, LLC in Atlanta, Georgia and served as managing partner for over sixteen years. In 1995, he founded Jerry Thomas Arts in Atlanta, Georgia, where he served as owner, art broker, curator and consultant.

His collection includes works from; Romare Bearden, Jean-Michel Basquiat, Thornton Dial and Sam Middleton. In 2012, Thomas’ own Romare Bearden collection was featured when the Romare Bearden Foundation hired him to curate the art for Atlanta’s observance of the artist’s 100th birthday. In 2013, he set a record price for the sale of a Thornton Dial artwork to record producer Swizz Beatz. In 2015, Thomas collaborated with Alan Avery, owner of the Alan Avery Art Company in Atlanta, to showcase the work of Romare Bearden at an exhibition.

Thomas also has been a featured speaker at conferences, and in 2005, he delivered a speech at the National Black MBA Association Annual Conference on investing and collecting African American Art and has been quoted in the Los Angeles Times, BusinessWeek magazine, and the London Stock Exchange regarding the investment potential of African American art. Thomas also served as chair of the Fulton County Arts Council. In addition, Thomas served as a founding board member of the Edwin Moses Foundation, an initiative supporting science, technology, engineering, and math education.

Jerry Thomas, Jr. was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on March 9, 2018.

Accession Number

A2018.037

Sex

Male

Interview Date

03/9/2018

Last Name

Thomas

Maker Category
Occupation
Schools

Nalle Elementary School

McKinley Technology High School

Wesleyan University

George Washington University

The Hague Academy of International Law

First Name

Jerry

Birth City, State, Country

Washington

HM ID

THO27

Favorite Season

Spring

State

District of Columbia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Dominican Republic

Favorite Quote

Always Strive For Perfection But Always Remember That It's an Ideal.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Birth Date

6/8/1952

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Atlanta

Favorite Food

Fried Chicken, Sweet Potatoes, Collard Greens

Short Description

Lawyer and gallery owner Jerry Thomas, Jr. (1952 - ) was a lawyer for the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) and founded the Law Offices of Jerry Thomas, LLC and Jerry Thomas Arts.

Employment

Jerry Thomas Arts

Thomas and McDonald, LLC

Goodwill Games (TBS)

Federal Communications Commission

Neighborhood Legal Services

Favorite Color

Blue

Steve Smith

Education administrator Steve Smith was born in 1964 in Albany, Georgia. After graduating from high school, he attended several institutions of higher education. Smith received both his B.A degree in English education and M.A. degree in education administration from the University of Georgia. He also holds an Ed.S. degree in education management from Troy State University. In 2010, Smith earned his M.B.A. degree after completing the executive format of the University of Georgia’s M.B.A. program at Terry College. The program included an international residency to Vietnam and China. In addition, Smith is a graduate of Leadership Atlanta and Leadership Georgia

Smith has over twenty-five years of business leadership experience, ranging from education, marketing and communications to business development and fiscal management. From 1991 to 1997, Smith served as a principal in the Fulton County School System, and was director of administrative services for Georgia Public Broadcasting. Smith served as vice president of corporate responsibility for Turner Broadcasting System, Inc. (TBS), where he directed the review, selection and funding of community non-profit organizations through TBS, Inc.’s corporate philanthropy program. In 2009, Smith founded and served as principal of Steve Smith Consulting, LLC, and became a founding investor and board member of Atlantic Capital Bank – an $850 million community bank based in Buckhead, Georgia. In 2011, Smith was appointed as the deputy superintendent and chief of staff for Atlanta Public Schools, where he has executive control and direct oversight responsibility for all aspects of the day to day operations of the district.

Smith has also served on the board of directors of numerous organizations, including the Atlanta Convention and Visitors Bureau, Georgia Chamber of Commerce 100 Black Men of Atlanta, Georgia Partnership for Excellence in Education, University of Georgia Trustees, University of Georgia Alumni Association, Metro Atlanta Arts & Culture Coalition, Metro Atlanta YMCA, 191 Club and the Atlanta Business League. He has served as a gubernatorial appointment to the Independent Redistricting Task Force, and was a mayoral appointment to the Atlanta Arts & Cultural Funding Task Force.

Steve and his wife, Dr. Debra Smith, lived in Atlanta with their son, Steven, Jr.

Steve Smith was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on December 17, 2012.

Accession Number

A2012.250

Sex

Male

Interview Date

12/17/2012

Last Name

Smith

Maker Category
Schools

Lee County Elementary School

Lee County High School

Lee County Upper Elementary School

Darton State College

University of Georgia

Troy University

University of Georgia Terry College of Business

First Name

Steve

Birth City, State, Country

Albany

HM ID

SMI26

Favorite Season

Spring, Summer

State

Georgia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Los Angeles, California

Favorite Quote

Stay Flexible So You Don't Get Bent Out Of Shape.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Birth Date

7/19/1964

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Atlanta

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Biscuits

Short Description

Education administrator Steve Smith (1964 - ) was appointed deputy superintendent of the Atlanta Public Schools in 2011.

Employment

Fulton County School System

Georgia Public Broadcasting

Turner Broadcasting System, Inc.

Steve Smith Consulting, LLC.

Atlanta Public Schools

Barrow County School System

Lee County Ledger

Albany Herald

WGPC Radio

Favorite Color

Navy Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:1185,31:2123,51:3329,72:5004,104:5607,115:6478,134:12090,197:13190,213:14290,225:17930,240:18400,246:18870,252:19528,260:21690,288:22160,294:22630,300:25544,342:26954,371:27706,381:28364,389:28928,400:29304,405:35895,496:36805,517:39353,571:39808,577:40445,585:41901,642:43175,657:43630,663:47286,677:49934,707:52710,736:53700,749:54060,754:55140,768:58100,783:58905,791:62210,831:63170,836:63490,841:63810,846:64610,858:65650,876:66130,903:66850,916:67730,936:69090,962:69490,968:69970,975:79146,1075:80238,1108:81512,1130:82058,1137:89762,1201:92419,1215:102042,1340:105818,1400:106290,1405:110214,1429:110904,1442:111801,1459:112077,1464:116414,1505:117050,1513:118428,1528:118958,1534:119700,1542:122668,1582:126355,1599:126830,1605:127400,1612:136344,1684:137135,1692:139650,1717:140338,1727:141628,1747:142230,1755:142574,1760:142918,1765:143262,1770:143692,1776:145670,1809:146014,1814:146530,1821:147562,1837:147992,1843:150964,1857:151532,1866:152029,1874:152313,1879:154060,1887:154756,1896:156931,1934:157714,1950:158410,1959:159019,1967:159367,1972:159976,1980:160933,1991:162064,2008:162586,2015:167325,2060:168495,2090:168885,2097:169580,2109$0,0:1826,13:6173,85:9056,124:11474,154:12125,165:12497,170:14171,193:15101,206:20280,293:20945,301:22670,310:23270,319:23570,324:24020,331:25370,358:25745,364:27320,393:28520,410:28970,417:29570,426:30020,433:32950,447:33661,457:34767,473:35952,494:36505,505:40820,598:41260,604:41788,611:42404,619:43020,630:43900,644:44692,655:45220,662:46364,680:47684,701:48212,708:54104,790:54656,797:57860,817:58156,822:58674,830:60302,859:61412,878:62004,892:63188,910:64668,945:65038,951:65852,961:66740,977:67110,983:70772,1003:71592,1015:72166,1023:74298,1048:74872,1057:75610,1070:76184,1077:76512,1082:77086,1091:77414,1098:77988,1106:88180,1201:102048,1265:104032,1355:121880,1449:124850,1475:125276,1482:127193,1549:128940,1578:134924,1678:140580,1727:143268,1737:146098,1761:146722,1768:147450,1780:148074,1787:153211,1852:155059,1884:156291,1902:163170,1985:163650,1992:165560,1998:166144,2003:167290,2010:167800,2017:169160,2037:170690,2059:171625,2072:175068,2112:177580,2146:179080,2172:179480,2177:180180,2185:182330,2197:183050,2209:183450,2215:184010,2224:184410,2230:185050,2239:189290,2315:192570,2375:193050,2382:193610,2393:194010,2399:194650,2408:199926,2434:200880,2445:204105,2462:205260,2472:205785,2480:223550,2711:224030,2725:224894,2735:234862,2893:235186,2898:235591,2915:235915,2920:242258,3027:259789,3178:264690,3244
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Steve Smith's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Steve Smith lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Steve Smith describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Steve Smith describes his mother's education and career

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Steve Smith talks about his mother's experiences of racial discrimination in Albany, Georgia

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Steve Smith describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Steve Smith recalls the start of his aspiration to attend college

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Steve Smith describes his siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Steve Smith remembers his mother's honesty about his father's identity

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Steve Smith describes his likeness to his parents

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Steve Smith describes his stepfamily

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Steve Smith describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Steve Smith lists his siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Steve Smith describes the sights and sounds of his childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Steve Smith describes his early interests

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Steve Smith remembers his athletic role models

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Steve Smith remembers Lee County Elementary School in Leesburg, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Steve Smith recalls his influential teachers

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Steve Smith remembers the New Piney Grove Baptist Church in Leesburg, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Steve Smith describes his experiences of academic tracking

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Steve Smith recalls his early work experiences

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Steve Smith talks about his athletic involvement at Lee County High School

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Steve Smith describes his extracurricular activities at Lee County High School

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Steve Smith recalls his start at Albany Junior College in Albany, Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Steve Smith describes his decision to attend Albany Junior College

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Steve Smith talks about the racial demographics of the faculty at Lee County High School

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Steve Smith describes his community in Lee County, Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Steve Smith recalls his time at Albany Junior College

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Steve Smith describes his early work in the communications industry

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Steve Smith recalls his transition to the University of Georgia in Athens, Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Steve Smith talks about the integration of the University of Georgia

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Steve Smith talks about the development of his racial identity during college

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Steve Smith recalls studying under Michael Lomax

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Steve Smith remembers his activities at the University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Steve Smith recalls the start of his career as an educator

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Steve Smith remembers meeting his wife

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Steve Smith talks about his graduate education

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Steve Smith recalls serving as the principal of A. Philip Randolph Elementary School in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Steve Smith remembers his transition to Georgia Public Broadcasting

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Steve Smith describes his time at Georgia Public Broadcasting

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Steve Smith describes his work at the Turner Broadcasting System, Inc.

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Steve Smith talks about Leadership Atlanta

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Steve Smith remembers his experiences at Leadership Atlanta and Leadership Georgia

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Steve Smith talks about his organizational involvement

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Steve Smith remembers earning his M.B.A. degree

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Steve Smith talks about his return to the Atlanta Public Schools

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Steve Smith describes the cheating scandal in the Atlanta Public Schools

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Steve Smith talks about the carbon monoxide leak at Finch Elementary School in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Steve Smith describes his professional goals

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Steve Smith describes his advice to aspiring community leaders

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Steve Smith talks about Steve Smith Consulting, LLC.

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Steve Smith talks about his family and community

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Steve Smith describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Steve Smith reflects upon his life

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Steve Smith reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Steve Smith describes how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Steve Smith narrates his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$4

DAStory

11$4

DATitle
Steve Smith remembers the New Piney Grove Baptist Church in Leesburg, Georgia
Steve Smith recalls the start of his career as an educator
Transcript
In your grade school days, now when you were a kid growing up, was, was church very important?$$Oh yes, church was very central to my upbringing. We, we had, you know, we had the, I don't know, I guess you would call it the quintessential small black Baptist church located in the rural South where most of my uncles were the deacons in the church, and you know, out of maybe one hundred people who were members, I, you know, I'd had to say ninety of them were related to me in some way. So we went to that kind of church.$$What was the name of your church?$$New Piney Grove Baptist Church [Leesburg, Georgia].$$New Piney Grove.$$Yeah, the quintessential small church in the country. And grew up and was raised Baptist and you know, religion was very central to my upbringing and remains very central to me in adulthood. But I have very fond memories of growing up and my mother [Lois Smith Rushin] taking us to church and being in church with my uncles and other family members. Yeah, I have very fond memories of growing up and being a part of New Piney Grove Baptist Church.$$Did the church--did the reverend or the other church leaders identify you as a youth as a leader?$$Yes, they did and specifically, specifically my Uncle Buddy, now we sh- his name was Tom Smith. But my Uncle Buddy was the head of the deacon board. And I remember that Uncle Buddy would always call on me to either read scripture or to take up money in the church and or to make announcements. So he and others, in the church, recognized and quite frankly encouraged and helped to, I think, as I reflect on it, I think really empower me to be a leader and to be not only a leader, but I, I got the message from them whether it was direct or indirect, I got the message from them that being smart was okay. They were--they were always proud of me for being smart. And I remember getting that message probably indirectly and they may have meant it directly, but I remember getting that message indirectly from my--from my church family and my, my extended family that being smart was okay, and they were pretty proud of me.$When did you graduate? In--?$$Graduated 1986--$$Okay.$$--and one of the--one of the things that, that led me to a track of administration right away was that I was very fortunate to get a job right out of college [University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia]. And the job that I got right out of college involved teaching high school English part time, and the other half of the day I was at the superintendent's office handling public relations and community relations for a small district right outside of Athens [Georgia], it was Barrow County [Barrow County School System] in Winder, Georgia just about thirty minutes outside of Athens. So I started my career teaching half day English and then the second half I was handling public relations for the small district. And in handling the public relations, I got to work closely alongside the superintendent because in a small district, the superintendent is involved in, you know, essentially every aspect of operations of a small district. So I was involved in working alongside Dr. Hight, who became a friend and a mentor from that job that I started back in 1986.$$Okay, how do you spell the Hight?$$H-I-G-H-T.$$Okay.$$Don Hight. He was quite, quite a little pistol.$$Okay. So you were, so this is the--what school district is this, this is the?$$Barrow County, B-A-R-R-O-W. Barrow County and the county seat is Winder, W-I-N-D-E-R.$$Um-hm, so, Winder, Georgia.$$Um-hm.$$So, I know you went over to the Fulton County school system [Fulton County Schools] at one point and became a principal before you left education--$$Correct.$$--I mean in your early days. So what was going on in Barrow County and how, what was the transition to Fulton?$$To Fulton, yeah. I spent from 1986 until 1991 in Winder in Barrow County, and during that timeframe I was teaching English half time, handling public relations, the other half of my responsibilities, working out of the superintendent's office. And during that timeframe, one of the things that, that became pretty prevalent for me is that I knew I enjoyed being in the community. I enjoyed being--having the flexibility of going to different events and being involved with elected officials. That was my first taste of being involved with the mayor of the city. You know, again in a small town like that, the superintendent is, you know, a bigwig in town. So I got to travel around the small district with him a lot. And as a result, he encouraged me to start, to start a program, if I were going to be in education, he said, "You should go to graduate school and get an educational administration degree." Because if you're gonna be in education you want to be a leader and you should--in order to do that to be an assistant principal and to move to a principalship you gotta have a master's [degree] in educational administration, which is what I--what I subsequently pursued. But that time period, the five years that I spent in Winder were very--it was very--I guess it was an enjoyable time in my life and was a very successful time for me professionally. I got married in 1989, and my wife [Debra Smith] and I worked in Winder for those next two years or three years I guess, before we moved to Atlanta [Georgia]. And I have--

Ronald Brown

Atlanta Life Financial Group President and CEO Ronald DeWayne Brown was born on August 1, 1953 in Cleveland, Ohio to Bettye Williams and Clifford Brown. He was raised in New York City by his mother and stepfather, Gifford Williams. Brown was a graduate of Morehouse College with a B.A. degree in political science and economics. He was also a graduate of the Financial Management Program at Columbia University School of Business.

Brown began his career in 1977 working with Equifax in Atlanta, Georgia where he held various managerial positions. In 1988, he began his tenure with the Dun and Bradstreet Corporation and its successor companies, becoming the President and CEO of Sales Technology. There, he developed sales force automation software for the consumer packaged goods and pharmaceutical industries and was instrumental in taking the company public. In 1998, Brown became the CEO of Strategic Technologies, a premier market research firm with operations in 90 countries. By 2000, Brown was the President of Synavant, a global leader in customer relationship management software and solutions for the pharmaceutical industry.

In 2001, Brown joined the board of directors of Atlanta Life and became the CEO and managing partner of Variant Group. Charles E. Cornelius, President of Atlanta Life Financial Group retired, and in 2004, Brown was appointed the sixth President and CEO in the 100 year history of Atlanta Life Financial. He was also the Chairman of Jackson Securities, a full service investment bank, now affiliated with Atlanta Life, founded by the late mayor of Atlanta, Maynard Jackson.

Brown served as a business mentor at Morehouse College and the Georgia 100 Mentor program. He was the 2005 recipient of the Rainbow PUSH Wall Street Project Entrepreneur of the Year Award and the Business Advisor of the Year Award. He was also a member of the 100 Black Men of Atlanta Executive Committee and the Rotary Club of Atlanta.

Brown passed away on April 28, 2008 at age 54.

Accession Number

A2007.115

Sex

Male

Interview Date

3/28/2007

Last Name

Brown

Maker Category
Middle Name

DeWayne

Schools

George Washington Carver Elementary School

P.S. 129 John H. Finley School

P.S. 139 Frederick Douglass School

J.H.S. 104 Simon Baruch

Seward Park High School

Morehouse College

First Name

Ronald

Birth City, State, Country

Cleveland

HM ID

BRO43

Favorite Season

Fall

Sponsor

AON

State

Ohio

Favorite Vacation Destination

Cabo San Lucas, New York City

Favorite Quote

The More You Sweat During Times Of Peace, The Less You Bleed During Times Of War.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Birth Date

8/1/1953

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Atlanta

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Thanksgiving Dinner

Death Date

4/28/2008

Short Description

Investment chief executive Ronald Brown (1953 - 2008 ) was the President and CEO of Sales Technology for Dun and Bradstreet Corporation, served on the board of directors of Atlanta Life Financial Group, and was appointed President and CEO of Atlanta Life Financial Group.

Employment

Equifax, Inc.

First Atlanta Bank, N.A.

Sales Technologies, Inc.

Atlanta Life Financial Group, Inc.

Main Sponsor
Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:1980,30:3240,46:4770,85:5760,91:6300,101:6660,106:7740,122:15485,245:18224,302:20548,328:24183,346:24750,354:26127,372:26694,381:27990,397:28557,406:29367,420:30096,431:30663,442:32121,465:32850,481:34065,500:37143,550:38601,575:39411,588:39735,593:40302,603:41355,619:41679,624:42003,629:48138,646:48746,656:49962,681:50266,686:50798,695:52878,712:53182,717:54474,741:55690,758:56982,781:57362,787:57894,795:58654,808:59262,818:59718,825:60630,840:61390,853:63670,886:64354,898:69099,912:70177,927:70562,933:70947,939:72995,957:74045,971:76445,1021:77795,1040:78320,1049:78920,1059:79370,1067:80045,1079:80720,1089:82070,1111:82745,1122:83795,1141:89260,1154:89580,1160:89836,1165:90156,1171:95596,1269:96620,1287:100040,1299:101120,1315:101480,1320:102110,1328:102470,1333:105530,1381:109310,1441:113130,1465:113670,1477:114300,1485:115290,1527:119470,1567:120110,1578:120430,1584:120814,1592:121198,1599:121582,1607:122222,1626:122798,1638:128778,1693:130924,1745:131220,1750:132034,1763:132848,1778:133366,1787:136104,1849:136844,1864:137658,1876:138250,1886:138768,1897:139064,1902:139656,1911:140174,1920:140988,1934:146390,1950:147750,1966:149030,1987:149750,2001:151270,2027:154950,2091:155270,2096:155750,2103:156070,2108:164750,2140$0,0:1309,18:1617,26:4543,162:4928,168:5236,173:6083,186:7238,203:8855,232:9394,240:9702,245:11088,268:12397,288:12705,293:13783,306:15169,326:15631,331:17402,361:22956,374:23658,380:25686,404:26622,414:27636,429:28260,438:28884,448:30834,503:31848,523:32160,528:32862,540:34968,578:42628,634:42960,639:43541,648:44703,664:45035,669:48043,683:48367,688:49987,708:51202,726:51526,731:52498,746:52984,759:53794,770:55090,793:55414,798:57196,830:58330,844:59140,855:62137,892:63676,949:64000,954:64324,959:64648,964:68617,1077:74290,1092:74710,1100:76270,1131:77650,1167:78130,1176:78670,1187:79210,1199:79450,1204:79990,1222:80530,1233:82600,1243
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Ronald Brown's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Ronald Brown lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Ronald Brown describes his maternal grandfather

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Ronald Brown describes his maternal grandmother

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Ronald Brown talks about his mother's college education

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Ronald Brown describes his paternal grandmother

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Ronald Brown describes his father's upbringing

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Ronald Brown describes his father's golf career

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Ronald Brown describes his relationship with his parents

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Ronald Brown describes how his parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Ronald Brown remembers moving to his mother's home in New York City

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Ronald Brown talks about his parents' move to Cleveland, Ohio

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Ronald Brown lists his siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Ronald Brown describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Ronald Brown remembers the community of Bessemer, Alabama

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Ronald Brown remembers George Washington Carver Elementary School in Bessemer, Alabama

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Ronald Brown remembers living for the summer in Brooklyn, New York

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Ronald Brown recalls his relocation to New York City

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Ronald Brown talks about his stepfather

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Ronald Brown describes his early education in New York City

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Ronald Brown remembers his teacher, H.W. Brendle

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Ronald Brown describes his extracurricular activities

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Ronald Brown describes the sounds and smells of his childhood

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Ronald Brown describes the sights of New York City

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Ronald Brown remembers his mother's involvement in the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Ronald Brown remembers Seward Park High School in New York City

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Ronald Brown remembers his experiences in the Baptist church

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Ronald Brown talks about his early understanding of racial identity

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Ronald Brown talks about the political climate of the 1960s

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Ronald Brown remembers his decision to attend Morehouse College in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Ronald Brown describes his experiences at Morehouse College

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Ronald Brown remembers his influences at Morehouse College

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Ronald Brown describes his part time work experiences

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Ronald Brown describes his social life at Morehouse College

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Ronald Brown describes his early career

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Ronald Brown remembers his roles at Sales Technologies, Inc.

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Ronald Brown recalls the expansion of Sales Technologies, Inc.

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Ronald Brown remembers his tenure as the CEO of Sales Technologies, Inc.

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Ronald Brown remembers the initial public offering of Sales Technologies, Inc.

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Ronald Brown remembers his introduction to international business, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Ronald Brown remembers his introduction to international business, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Ronald Brown talks about his family

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Ronald Brown recalls his career at Synavant, Inc.

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Ronald Brown recalls joining the board of the Atlanta Life Financial Group

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Ronald Brown describes the history of the Atlanta Life Insurance Company

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Ronald Brown recalls his appointment as the CEO of the Atlanta Life Financial Group

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Ronald Brown describes the Atlanta Life Financial Group's role in the community

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Ronald Brown talks about the future of the Atlanta Life Financial Group

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Ronald Brown talks about Jesse Hill's role in the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Ronald Brown describes his commitment to minority financial education

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Ronald Brown talks about his board memberships

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Ronald Brown describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Ronald Brown reflects upon his life

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Ronald Brown reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Ronald Brown shares a message to future generations

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Ronald Brown narrates his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

1$6

DAStory

8$6

DATitle
Ronald Brown describes his father's golf career
Ronald Brown talks about Jesse Hill's role in the Civil Rights Movement
Transcript
And what did he--what was his occupation?$$My father [Clifford Brown] was one of the first blacks to ever play on the PGA Tour [Professional Golfers' Association].$$Okay. Tell me about that.$$Well, it was during a time period where you weren't making Tiger Woods money, that's for sure. A lot of the purses were significantly smaller then. He started late. He got his love for golf as a caddy there in Alabama. And naturally, after he'd finished caddying he'd stay out on the course and hit the ball a little while. And it got to a point where people saw that he could really hit a golf ball, and actually got to play with some of the, the white men that were members of the club there in Alabama, and did very well. And the rest, as they say, is, is history. But it was a tough history because of a series of things that happened, based on how difficult it was to, to fit in. Golf at the time was your quintessential white man's game. And for my father, to be able to do it and do it well, there were a lot of hardships, not the least of which was when he would go to play in a tournament, he wasn't allowed to stay in any of the hotels. So, there were times when my father would go to a tournament and have to sleep in his car and have to shave at, in the restroom of a gas station and then go out and play against Jack Nicklaus and Arnold Palmer and Lee Trevino.$$So those were some of the golfers that he played against?$$And beat, yes.$$Okay. What year are we talking about? What years?$$Early '60s [1960s].$$Early '60s [1960s], okay.$$There's a, a tremendous story that my father told me about a tournament that he was playing in, in Tennessee. And whether you're aware of this, but they, they feed all of the, the PGA. The card carrying PGA pros get to go into the clubhouse and eat, and you know, they always put on these big spreads, these extravagant meals for them. And they wouldn't allow my father in the clubhouse. And only one golfer stood up for him and said, "If you don't let him in, I won't come in either, and I'll protest this." And ironically, it was Gary Player from South Africa.$$Very interesting.$Is there anything that we have not talked about, about Atlanta Life [Atlanta Life Financial Group, Atlanta, Georgia] that you would like to, to tell us?$$Well, I think it's important to recognize that a major part of Atlanta Life's history took place during the civil rights era. And it took place during Jesse Hill's tenure when actually allowed Atlanta Life employees to leave work and go and work as deputized individuals to register people to vote in the City of Atlanta [Georgia]. And all of the progress that we've seen here in the City of Atlanta now, particularly the diversification process, a lot of that stemmed from the work that was done by Atlanta Life employees and that they were given the opportunity to do that because of the vision that, that Jesse Hill had for what this city could be and what the southeast could be. So everything from having the phones answered here from the SCLC [Southern Christian Leadership Conference] when they were trying to tap all of Dr. King's [Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.] phones, to in this very room where we are right now, the funeral arrangements for Coretta Scott King were made with all of the King children sitting in some of the same chairs that we're sitting in right now.

William A. Clement, Jr.

Entrepreneur and corporate chief executive William Alexander Clement, Jr. was born on January 22, 1943 in Atlanta, Georgia to politician Josephine Dobbs Clement and Executive Vice President for North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance Company William Alexander Clement, Sr. Clement received his B.A. degree from Morehouse College in 1964, majoring in mathematics and business administration, and his M.B.A. degree in finance and insurance from Wharton Business School at the University of Pennsylvania in 1967.

Clement worked as a credit analyst for NCNB Corporation (predecessor to Bank of America) in Charlotte, North Carolina, as a registered representative for Bache & Company as well as a representative for The Robinson-Humphrey Company prior to becoming vice president and senior loan officer of Citizens Trust Bank in 1973. In 1977, Clement was a political appointee in the Carter Administration and served as an associate administrator of the United States Small Business Administration. While in this position, he served as senior management officer for the federal government’s largest minority business development program. Clement also received a presidential appointment by President Jimmy Carter to join the board of directors of the National Consumer Cooperative Bank in Washington, D.C. In addition, he was founder and former chairman and chief executive officer of DOBBS, RAM & Company, a systems integration company. Founded in 1981, DOBBS, RAM & Company was engaged by the United States Internal Revenue Service (IRS) to maintain its E-Filing System.

Clement became an outside director of Atlanta Life Insurance Company in 1992, and in 2001, the board of directors named him chairman. In 2008, Clement was elected president and chief executive officer of the Atlanta Life Financial Group, Inc., and worked in this position for three years. He also served on the boards of two publicly-traded companies, Radiant Systems, Inc. and TRX, Inc.

Clement has been active in numerous civic and community organizations. He was former chair of the board of Opportunity Funding Corporation, a trustee of the Maynard Jackson Youth Foundation, and a former trustee of the Woodruff Arts Center. He served on the board of directors of The Commerce Club and the Metro Atlanta Chamber of Commerce. Clement was also a charter member of the 100 Black Men of Atlanta, a former co-chair of the Atlanta Action Forum and a former chair of the Atlanta Business League. He has served as a member of the trustee board ministry of Antioch Baptist Church, as co-grantor of the Brown-Clement Endowed Scholarship Fund at Morehouse College, and a member of the Society of International Business Fellows.

Clement is married to R. Ressie Guy-Clement and is the father of two daughters and the grandfather of two grandchildren.

William Alexander Clement, Jr. was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on March 27, 2007.

Accession Number

A2007.114

Sex

Male

Interview Date

3/27/2007

Last Name

Clement

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

A.

Schools

Morehouse College

Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania

W. G. Pearson S.T.E.A.M. Elementary School

Whitted Elementary School

Hillside High School

First Name

Willliam

Birth City, State, Country

Atlanta

HM ID

CLE05

Favorite Season

Spring, Summer

State

Georgia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Caribbean

Favorite Quote

Don't give in, don't give up, and don't give out.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Birth Date

1/22/1943

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Atlanta

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Fried Chicken, Collard Greens, Potatoes, Cornbread

Short Description

Corporate chief executive and entrepreneur William A. Clement, Jr. (1943 - ) is the co-founder of DOBBS, RAM & Company and, as of 2008, serves as the President and CEO of the Atlanta Life Financial Group, Inc.

Employment

Atlanta Life Insurance Company

DOBBS, RAM & Company

United States Small Business Administration

Citizens Trust Bank

Robinson-Humphey Company

Bache & Company

NCNB Corporation (predecessor to Bank of America)

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:8356,89:13676,216:19224,320:19680,327:23480,403:28526,428:37956,580:48326,737:49859,772:75110,1043:85442,1285:96045,1359:115726,1671:117206,1702:123090,1795$0,0:26328,311:57692,738:61003,810:62774,853:63082,858:70880,907:84822,1123:88566,1178:89190,1187:89892,1198:97146,1320:109916,1471:110330,1479:113480,1487
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of William A. Clement, Jr.'s interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - William A. Clement, Jr. lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - William A. Clement, Jr. describes his maternal family history, pt.1

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - William A. Clement, Jr. describes his maternal family history, pt.2

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - William A. Clement, Jr. describes his paternal family history

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - William A. Clement, Jr. talks about his father, William Clement, Sr.

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - William A. Clement, Jr. remembers his grandparents' farm on Edisto Island in South Carolina

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - William A. Clement, Jr. talks about how his parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - William A. Clement, Jr. describes his childhood neighborhood of Buttermilk Bottom in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - William A. Clement, Jr. recalls his childhood memories of Durham, North Carolina

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - William A. Clement, Jr. describes his mother, Josephine Dobbs Clement

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - William A. Clement, Jr. describes his father, William Clement, Sr.

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - William A. Clement, Jr. begins to talk about his elementary school years

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - William A. Clement, Jr. describes his grandfather's emphasis on education, and his mother's sisters

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - William A. Clement, Jr. continues to describe his elementary school years

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - William A. Clement, Jr. remembers his childhood neighborhood in Durham, North Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - William A. Clement, Jr. talks about his five siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - William A. Clement, Jr. remembers attending majority white summer camps in Boston, Massachusetts as a child

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - William A. Clement, Jr. recalls his activities during his junior high years

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - William A. Clement, Jr. remembers his favorite teacher at Hillside High School in Durham, North Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - William A. Clement, Jr. describes his decision to attend Morehouse College in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - William A. Clement, Jr. talks about sit-ins in Durham, North Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - William A. Clement, Jr. describes his experience with segregation

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - William A. Clement, Jr. remembers his senior prom at Hillside High School in Durham, North Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - William A. Clement, Jr. talks about his experience at Morehouse College in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 13 - William A. Clement, Jr. describes Dr. Benjamin Mays and his professors at Morehouse College

Tape: 2 Story: 14 - William A. Clement, Jr. talks about his jobs in college

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - William A. Clement, Jr. talks about working for North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance Company as a college student

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - William A. Clement, Jr. recalls the desegregation of Rich's Department Store and hearing Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. speak

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - William A. Clement, Jr. describes working for Connecticut General Life Insurance Company in Hartford, Connecticut

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - William A. Clement, Jr. talks about his experience at the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - William A. Clement, Jr. talks about his first job out of graduate school with the NCNB Corporation and the bank's history

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - William A. Clement, Jr. talks about his first wife

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - William A. Clement, Jr. recalls working for Bache & Company, and for Robinson-Humphrey Company

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - William A. Clement, Jr. talks about Maynard Jackson's mayoral campaign

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - William A. Clement, Jr. recalls working with Herman Russell and Jesse Hill during Maynard Jackson's mayoral campaign

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - William A. Clement, Jr. talks about the history of Citizens Trust Bank

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - William A. Clement, Jr. details his tenure as vice president of Citizens Trust Bank

Tape: 3 Story: 12 - William A. Clement, Jr. describes his work as an associate administrator of the Small Business Administration in the President Jimmy Carter Administration

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - William A. Clement, Jr. talks about the benefits of his experiences in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - William A. Clement, Jr. talks about the beginning of The Dobbs Corporation

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - William A. Clement, Jr. talks about his company, DOBBS, RAM & Company

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - William A. Clement, Jr. talks about his second marriage

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - William A. Clement, Jr. talks about how he became the chairman of Atlanta Life Insurance in 2001

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - William A. Clement, Jr. talks about his work on the board of Radiant Systems, Inc.

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - William A. Clement, Jr. talks about the national reach of Atlanta Life Financial Group

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - William A. Clement, Jr. talks about his church, Antioch Baptist Church North in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - William A. Clement, Jr. talks about his participation in 100 Black Men and the Maynard Jackson Youth Foundation

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - William A. Clement, Jr. describes his work on the Opportunity Funding Corporation and Friends of Morehouse

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - William A. Clement, Jr. talks about his parents' deaths and managing Maynard Jackson's estate

Tape: 4 Story: 12 - William A. Clement, Jr. talks about politicians in his family

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - William A. Clement, Jr. talks about his grandchildren

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - William A. Clement, Jr. shares his advice for future generations

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - William A. Clement, Jr. shares his business advice

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - William A. Clement, Jr. reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - William A. Clement, Jr. describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - William A. Clement, Jr. talks about what he would do differently

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - William A. Clement, Jr. narrates his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$3

DAStory

9$8

DATitle
William A. Clement, Jr. talks about sit-ins in Durham, North Carolina
William A. Clement, Jr. talks about Maynard Jackson's mayoral campaign
Transcript
Now civil rights are heating up in Atlanta [Georgia], are your parents involved in civil rights?$$My father [William Clement, Sr.] was, my father was on the Durham Committee For [sic, On] The Affairs Of Black People which was a very, very strong activist organization in, in Durham [North Carolina]. And Durham was the second city in, in the 1960s for the sit-ins. Greensboro [North Carolina] was the first and Durham was the second. And we were in, involved in that, they took us down to Woolworth's or whatever the store, I can't even remember what it was and it, it, it, it just was--I hate to say this, but it was a thing to do. It was not dangerous at that time even though the kids in Greensboro--but it was nothing, you know, like what [HM] John Lewis faced or people in Selma [Alabama], and once again, Durham was a relatively small town and so it was a really a non-event just going down to, you know, sit in a, a luncheon counter at, at, at one of the five-and-ten stores there.$$Were things turned around easily there?$$No, no, eventually it became--but, it was not--even though it started in Greensboro then, an, you know, the images we have of the dogs and the hoses and all, and that was in places like Birmingham [Alabama] and maybe some cities in Mississippi. But that, for some reason just did not happen in North Carolina. I think one reason is that North Carolina's always been a fairly progressive state relative to the other southern states. We had a Governor, whose name was Luther Hodges, and he had a lot of industry there, a place called Research Triangle which had a lot of businesses there and so it was a, a different kind of place, it still is a, a more progressive place then some of the southern, you know, real southern states like Mississippi and Alabama.$During this time Maynard Jackson moves back to Atlanta [Georgia] and we grew up together, even though he was a little older--from the reunions and all, but when he gets back to Atlanta we kind of bound again and it was in the early '70s [1970] that he started talking about running for mayor. And so he called four of us together one Saturday--well, including him, four including him, David Franklin, who was married to Shirley Franklin at one time; gentleman by the name of Chuck Williams, who is dead now; and Maynard. And he talked about wanting to run for mayor, he had run now for the United States Senate against [Herman] Talmadge and then was the sitting vice chair, or vice chairman of the Aldermanic Board which is almost like President of the Atlanta City Council today. And he was still only his thirties, and people thought that he would wait until his, his turn, but he had noticed that the demographics in Atlanta changed and that the Atlan--the city of Atlanta registered voters become predominately black, and he thought that with the right campaign that he could win. And so I tell that because it was really a turning point of my life. I, I, I really got directly engaged in politics. David Franklin and I put up the first $40,000, I mean, back in the '70s [1970], that was a lot of money and we actually lent it to the campaign and he developed a staff and campaign staff and the election was next year and, you know, he won and the rest is, the rest is history.

Nathaniel R. Goldston, III

Founder of Gourmet Services, Inc., Nathaniel Russell Goldston, III was born on October 20, 1938, in Omaha, Nebraska, to Nathaniel and Mary Elizabeth Goldston. Goldston’s mother worked in food service in the public school system and his father at the local hotels and restaurants. Goldston received his B.S. degree in business administration with a concentration in hotel and restaurant management from the University of Denver in 1962.

Goldston worked at a food service company for ten years after graduating from college; he held positions such as district manager, regional vice president, and senior vice president. After being denied a promotion to chief executive officer due to racial discrimination, Goldston left in 1974 to start his own business, Gourmet Services, Inc. in Charlotte, North Carolina. Gourmet Services, Inc. grew to include contracts at six black colleges and employ 300 individuals; in its first year, the company generated $2.3 million in revenues. In 1976, Goldston met former Atlanta Mayor Maynard Jackson, who encouraged him to move Gourmet Services, Inc. to Atlanta. The business continued to grow after relocating, and eventually Gourmet Services, Inc. became the nation’s largest African American-owned food service management companies, boasting 2,500 employees; it was ranked fourteenth among the nation’s top 50 food service companies.

In 1986, Goldston founded the Atlanta Chapter of 100 Black Men of America along with twenty-one other local businessmen and civic leaders. In 1989, Goldston became the 100 Black Men of America’s second national president. Gourmet Services, Inc. has donated millions of dollars in scholarships to students attending historically black colleges and universities; Goldston also established the Mary E. Goldston Foundation to provide scholarships to deserving African American students.

Goldston passed away on July 4, 2017.

Accession Number

A2007.112

Sex

Male

Interview Date

3/26/2007 |and| 2/25/2008

Last Name

Goldston

Maker Category
Middle Name

R.

Schools

Kellom Elementary School

Omaha Central High School

University of Denver

Doane University

First Name

Nathaniel

Birth City, State, Country

Omaha

HM ID

GOL02

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Nebraska

Favorite Vacation Destination

Cape Town, South Africa

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Birth Date

10/20/1938

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Atlanta

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Gumbo

Death Date

7/4/2017

Short Description

Food service executive and food service entrepreneur Nathaniel R. Goldston, III (1938 - 2017 ) was the founder of Gourmet Services, Inc. and the Atlanta Chapter of 100 Black Men of America.

Employment

Union Pacific Railroad

Allied Chemical Corporation

Dillon Hotel Company

Catering Management, Incorporated

Gourmet Services, Inc

Favorite Color

Red

Timing Pairs
0,0:744,7:1209,13:1581,18:3906,45:4371,51:11253,167:17682,231:18114,236:21246,274:22974,326:23406,331:30485,418:30841,423:34045,472:35202,491:38584,559:44670,618:44998,629:45982,645:46966,659:47868,675:53140,731:53679,739:53987,744:55835,771:56297,778:56605,783:57298,797:57683,803:58376,813:59608,834:61148,859:61533,865:62072,878:63150,895:63689,903:64228,911:64536,916:67847,984:68617,996:74330,1023:74750,1030:84998,1188:86174,1211:89702,1272:90374,1283:92426,1292:93162,1302:95830,1335:98314,1375:102522,1469:102862,1475:104562,1505:106262,1560:114125,1663:114869,1672:117548,1697:117940,1702:118430,1708:118822,1713:119998,1728:122252,1763:122938,1771:129602,1884:130974,1916:152070,2192:152700,2200:153240,2208:159090,2308:160350,2331:170206,2524:171422,2600:172258,2612:173778,2636:174234,2643:174994,2655:175602,2664:176362,2675:177654,2695:178262,2704:179022,2715:184620,2752:184920,2757:185745,2773:186420,2785:186795,2791:187245,2798:193157,2870:194123,2902:194951,2925:195503,2934:197558,2950:200180,2988:201076,2997:204056,3024:207125,3057:207590,3063:208520,3082:209078,3090:220140,3241:220484,3246:221430,3258:222032,3267:223870,3274$0,0:819,17:1183,22:8190,179:22372,348:26850,392:27270,399:30000,456:30630,468:31120,476:45144,671:46362,692:47406,723:50886,826:60760,939:61680,954:62232,961:66556,1048:68304,1072:70420,1140:80448,1256:81456,1269:85325,1310:86960,1339:88206,1348:96562,1455:98082,1485:99070,1507:99526,1514:100438,1531:100970,1539:101350,1549:101730,1555:102034,1560:102490,1569:102946,1576:103782,1590:105226,1625:105758,1634:111466,1662:112229,1670:121308,1807:121604,1812:122196,1823:124120,1860:127678,1905:132364,1962:136802,2058:137112,2064:139767,2098:140222,2104:142679,2149:143225,2156:143680,2193:144499,2204:153476,2295:160046,2410:171712,2556:172180,2563:172648,2570:175490,2590:178346,2657:179186,2672:179606,2678:182294,2787:182966,2799:183302,2808:183806,2815:189120,2843:189528,2848:193608,2936:194526,2946:196872,2973:197280,2978:197892,2985:199014,3004:203736,3018:204392,3028:204966,3037:206114,3062:206852,3073:207590,3086:217975,3290:218885,3314:219210,3320:219535,3326:220055,3336:223390,3349:224245,3364:225765,3383:226715,3424:230040,3461:235170,3557:242418,3598:243408,3632:248208,3703:250676,3722:252104,3745:252376,3750:257858,3879:260308,3899:260564,3904:261332,3923:263796,3939:265743,3986:266156,3994:268760,4009:269100,4036:274030,4098:278654,4206:279130,4215:279946,4231:280218,4236:281034,4254:286530,4285:289550,4331:290876,4359:292280,4431:298093,4479:302319,4541:302691,4546:307317,4577:310610,4625:311210,4633:311710,4639:312510,4648:313210,4656:313710,4662:314410,4674:315210,4686:315710,4691:316410,4699:317110,4707:317610,4713:325980,4810:326260,4815:326540,4820:327240,4833:327800,4843:332844,4888:339830,4972
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Nathaniel R. Goldston, III's interview, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Nathaniel R. Goldston, III lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Nathaniel R. Goldston, III describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Nathaniel R. Goldston, III describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Nathaniel R. Goldston, III describes how his parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Nathaniel R. Goldston, III describes his earliest childhood memories

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Nathaniel R. Goldston, III describes his mother's parenting

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Nathaniel R. Goldston, III describes his father's parenting

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Nathaniel R. Goldston, III remembers working for his father

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Nathaniel R. Goldston, III describes his family's food service professions

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Nathaniel R. Goldston, III recalls his neighbors in Omaha, Nebraska

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Nathaniel R. Goldston, III remembers Kellom Grade School in Omaha, Nebraska

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Nathaniel R. Goldston, III describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Nathaniel R. Goldston, III remembers the winters in Omaha, Nebraska

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Nathaniel R. Goldston, III remembers moving to a residential neighborhood

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Nathaniel R. Goldston, III describes his family's catering business

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Nathaniel R. Goldston, III remembers playing golf

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Nathaniel R. Goldston, III describes his early personality

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Nathaniel R. Goldston, III describes Omaha Central High School in Nebraska

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Nathaniel R. Goldston, III describes his early aspirations

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Nathaniel R. Goldston, III describes Doane College in Crete, Nebraska

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Nathaniel R. Goldston, III recalls working as a chair car porter

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Nathaniel R. Goldston, III recalls paying tuition at the University of Denver

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Nathaniel R. Goldston, III describes the University of Denver in Colorado

Tape: 2 Story: 13 - Nathaniel R. Goldston, III recalls the civil rights activity at the University of Denver

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Nathaniel R. Goldston, III describes the Pi Lambda Phi Fraternity

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Nathaniel R. Goldston, III describes food service education

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Nathaniel R. Goldston, III recalls his early employment

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Nathaniel R. Goldston, III remembers the Vietnam War draft

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Nathaniel R. Goldston, III recalls studying at the University of Denver College of Law

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Nathaniel R. Goldston, III describes his early contracts at Gourmet Services, Inc.

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Nathaniel R. Goldston, III describes his family

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Nathaniel R. Goldston, III describes Gourmet Services, Inc.

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Nathaniel R. Goldston, III describes his work with the Aramark Corporation

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Slating of Nathaniel R. Goldston, III's interview, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Nathaniel R. Goldston, III describes his college education

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Nathaniel R. Goldston, III talks about the food service industry

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Nathaniel R. Goldston, III recalls joining Catering Management, Incorporated

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Nathaniel R. Goldston, III recalls his position at Catering Management, Incorporated

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Nathaniel R. Goldston, III talks about food service in universities

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Nathaniel R. Goldston, III remembers leaving Catering Management, Incorporated

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Nathaniel R. Goldston, III recalls partnering with his previous clients

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Nathaniel R. Goldston, III recalls moving to Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Nathaniel R. Goldston, III recalls starting Gourmet Services, Inc. in Atlanta

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Nathaniel R. Goldston, III describes the employees of Gourmet Services, Inc.

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Nathaniel R. Goldston, III recalls changes in his business strategy

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Nathaniel R. Goldston, III talks about his business innovations

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Nathaniel R. Goldston, III describes the board of Gourmet Services, Inc.

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Nathaniel R. Goldston, III talks about Gourmet Services Inc.'s catering

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Nathaniel R. Goldston, III describes his hotel business

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Nathaniel R. Goldston, III describes his business challenges

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Nathaniel R. Goldston, III lists the top food service industry companies

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Nathaniel R. Goldston, III describes his plans for the future of Gourmet Services, Inc.

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Nathaniel R. Goldston, III describes his collaboration with Aramark Corporation

Tape: 5 Story: 11 - Nathaniel R. Goldston, III recalls working with Eastern Air Lines

Tape: 5 Story: 12 - Nathaniel R. Goldston, III talks about the young leadership of Gourmet Services, Inc.

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Nathaniel R. Goldston, III recalls founding 100 Black Men of Atlanta, Inc.

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Nathaniel R. Goldston, III recalls the members of 100 Black Men of Atlanta, Inc.

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Nathaniel R. Goldston, III recalls fundraising for Project Success

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Nathaniel R. Goldston, III recalls the contribution of Dillard Munford

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Nathaniel R. Goldston, III recalls the fundraising events for Project Success

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Nathaniel R. Goldston, III describes the changes in Project Success

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Nathaniel R. Goldston, III describes creation of 100 Black Men of America, Inc.

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Nathaniel R. Goldston, III recalls his presidency of 100 Black Men of America, Inc.

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Nathaniel R. Goldston, III describes his initiatives as president of 100 Black Men of America, Inc.

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Nathaniel R. Goldston, III describes the successes of 100 Black Men of Atlanta, Inc.

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Nathaniel R. Goldston, III reflects upon his life

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Nathaniel R. Goldston, III reflects upon his legacy and how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Nathaniel R. Goldston, III shares his advice to aspiring businesspeople

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Nathaniel R. Goldston, III narrates his photographs

DASession

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DATape

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DAStory

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DATitle
Nathaniel R. Goldston, III remembers leaving Catering Management, Incorporated
Nathaniel R. Goldston, III recalls founding 100 Black Men of Atlanta, Inc.
Transcript
So you build this business up for six years, until about 1970. Is that right?$$Nineteen--nine- I, I built the Catering Management [Catering Management, Incorporated] business. I, I, I stuck with it 'til 1974, right.$$So tell me, what happens in 1974 that makes you decide that it's time to go (laughter)?$$(Laughter) It was very interesting. I was, I was still with Catering Management, but Catering Management had been sold, and it'd been sold to a major conglomerate company in, in New York. And if you remember the, the early '60s [1960s] and, and the early '70s [1970s], they didn't have a lot of faith in the fact that, that an African American can, could run that, that business. So when Catering Management sold, I was brought into Columbia, Missouri, as the senior vice president and chief operating officer. But it was always understood that I would never be the president of the company because they were in a search mode for, for president of the company. I ran the company for almost, I guess it was two years, from 1972 to 1974, with interim managers coming in--come--presidents coming. They'd come in, and they, they couldn't figure it out, and they couldn't do the business. And yet and still, I'd turn--once I turn the reins over to the them, I'd have to go back and start all over again, to the point that it became rather frustrating. And, and my wife [Darlene Goldston] said to me, "You know, you run these people's--this biz- business for these people. You don't need these people for you, for, to run the business. You can see that you run the business. You know how to run--you ought to run your own business." I said, "You're probably right." So they had one more sale, when they sold--the company that, that, that bought my company sold to Aramark [Aramark Corporation]. Then it was ARA Services. And I knew I didn't want to get into that big company and getting into all of that. It just wasn't my style. I wasn't gonna move to Philadelphia [Pennsylvania], and I wasn't gonna--and you know, what was my job gonna be? And I basically just decided I'll just start on my--I mean I just woke up one morning and flew to Atlanta [Georgia], and had a, a meeting with an attorney in Atlanta, and told him I wanted to--what, what, what is my, my legal obligations to this company, and how can I start my own business? That lawyer was Prentiss Yancey [Prentiss Q. Yancey, Jr.], who had graduated from Villanova [Villanova University, Villanova, Pennsylvania] and graduated from Emory law school [Emory University School of Law, Atlanta, Georgia]. And, and he was responsible ultimately for, for the merger between the American Basketball Association and the National Basketball Association. And Prentiss is, was a very bright guy. He knew how to bring things together. And he told me, he said, he said, "Well, let me look at your contract." And I looked at the contract. "You have a contract with, with food service management. You don't have a contract with ARA. So, if you were still an employee of, of, of the other company, you would have an obligation. But since you quit, you have no obligations to anybody." He said, "Now you gotta figure out how to go get your business." And it's a, a very interesting story in itself.$Let's talk about your involvement with the 100 Black Men [100 Black Men of America, Inc.]. So let's start from the beginning.$$Well, it was a (laughter), it's a very interesting story. Back in the, in the mid-'80s [1980s], we operated a food service for the Harlem State Office Building [Adam Clayton Powell Jr. State Office Building] in, in New York [New York]. And one of my, one of the people that, or one of the, the organizations that we regularly served on a monthly basis was the 100 Black Men of New York [100 Black Men, Inc. of New York]. And they met in our building, and we would, and we would serve them dinner in the evenings. And I just happened to be around and asked the president, who was Roscoe, Dr. Roscoe Brown [HistoryMaker Roscoe C. Brown], if I could just kind of listen into the meeting. "Y'all, this is a secret meeting or something?" "No, no, no, no, sit down." And they were--I listen to them. They were planning their annual fundraiser for scholarships that they gave to, to kids in Harlem [New York, New York], basically, going to any college that they wanted to. And, and it was a nice, it was great, great kind of a program. And on my way back to Atlanta [Georgia], I thought about it. I said you know, there's no organization like that in Atlanta that basically, you know. And it was during the time, in those '80s [1980s], black males had a, they had a, a horrible rap. I mean it was, I mean we were known as people that, that ran off and left our families and people that went to the grocery store and never came back for twenty years and all that kind of stuff. And we didn't have the greatest reputation. And I thought about it, and I said you know, there ought to be, we ought to be able to put one of those groups together in the City of Atlanta. And I came back to my secretary, who was Monica Douglas at that time, and I told her. She said, "Yeah, maybe, I don't know." She said, "I, I don't know." She said, "But you're right: there is nothing, you know, there is nothing here in Atlanta that even comes close to that." We didn't have a black chamber. We didn't have a--we had the Black United Front [National Black United Front], which came close to doing something like that. So at any rate, I decided I would, I would call a few guys and invite them to dinner at the Mansion Restaurant [Atlanta, Georgia]. It ended up there was twenty-five or thirty of us showed up. And I talked to them about, you know, the group in, that I'd encountered in New York. And they were actually founded to combat police brutality in Harlem back in the, in the '50s [1950s] and the '60s [1960s]. That's how they got their group together. You know, they called it 100 Black Men [100 Black Men, Inc.; 100 Black Men of America, Inc.], and they worked with the police department and the mayor to stop some of the police brutality that was going on. And, and I said we need that kind of a community organization here, and the guys agreed with it. So we sat down and as a result of that, we decided we had to try to figure out what we were going to do. What can we do to impact the, the community in the City of Atlanta? And of course, one of those guys was in the superintendent of schools. He said, "I'll tell you what you can do. You can help some, keep some of these young people in school." He said, "You can help us, you know, basically give them some kind of a hope, some mind of a reason for staying in school and going on with life instead of dropping out. Our dropout rate is somewhere around 45 percent, 50 percent." And we said well, that makes sense. So what, what, what could we do? He said, "Well, I'll tell you what: he says I got a school. The worst school I got is Archer High School [S.H. Archer High School, Atlanta, Georgia] up at Perry Homes [Atlanta, Georgia] in the projects up there. And if we can figure out a way to help those kids through school and make certain that they went on to college and had a college education," he said, "We could do it like that guy did up in New York, that Eugene Lang." He said, "We challenge them. If they come through our program, and they do everything we say, that at the end of there, when you graduate, we'll make certain that your college tuition is paid for." Everybody, the room went silent. And then of course the, the accountants came up there. "How much would that cost?" "We don't know how much it would cost." "Well, don't you think we need to find out first?" So we went back. And the next meeting they came back, and when the accountants came up and gave their report, said, "You would have to raise anywhere between three hundred and fifty and a half million dollars every year." You've got to be kidding me. That's what it's gonna cost. Now if you get out there and make that promise, you better be able to deliver. And so we thought long and hard about it. And I was kind of the leader of the group, since I was the convener.

Reed Kimbrough

Reed D. Kimbrough is the Director of Diversity Programs and Community Relations for Cox Communications’ Atlanta Journal-Constitution (AJC). Kimbrough manages employee development and training at the Atlanta Journal-Constitution. He is the eldest of three children of retired United States army officer William Reed and Ernestine Willis Kimbrough. Born in Selma, Alabama, on February 27, 1951, Kimbrough spent his formative years between West Germany and the southern United States.

Upon his return to the United States, Kimbrough graduated from high school in Fort Knox, Kentucky and entered Eastern Kentucky University where he graduated with a degree in business administration. In his second year at Eastern, he was instrumental in starting the first chapter of Kappa Alpha Psi Fraternity, Inc. He served in the United States Army and rose to the rank of captain with his primary duties in the 101st Airborne Division as a helicopter pilot. He is a retired Major of the U.S. Army Reserves.

Kimbrough joined the Atlanta Journal-Constitution in the news circulation department. He was promoted to the production department where he managed building services, shipping, receiving, packaging, distribution and management-level employee development. He currently holds the position as Director of Diversity Programs and Community Relations.

Kimbrough is active in various organizations including the National Association for the Advancement of Colored Peopled (NAACP), the National Association of Minority Media Executives (NAMME), the Celebrate Life Foundation, Hands on Atlanta, Habitat for Humanity, and the Georgia Hispanic Chamber of Commerce. He serves on the board of Men Stopping Violence and is a long term member of Kappa Alpha Psi Fraternity, Inc.

Kimbrough is married to Charlcye R. Kimbrough and is the father of Anthony M. Kimbrough.

Accession Number

A2005.248

Sex

Male

Interview Date

11/23/2005

Last Name

Kimbrough

Maker Category
Middle Name

D.

Schools

Custer Elementary School

The Academy @ Shawnee

Nurnberg American High School

Fort Knox High School

Eastern Kentucky University

Vilseck Elementary School

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Reed

Birth City, State, Country

Selma

HM ID

KIM01

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Alabama

Favorite Vacation Destination

Porto Fino, Italy

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Birth Date

2/27/1951

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Atlanta

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Fried Chicken

Short Description

Newspaper publishing executive Reed Kimbrough (1951 - ) was Community Relations Director and Director of Diversity Programs at the Atlanta Journal-Constitution

Employment

United State Army

Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta

United States Department of Commerce

Atlanta Journal-Constitution

Favorite Color

Red

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Reed Kimbrough's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Reed Kimbrough lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Reed Kimbrough describes his mother's background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Reed Kimbrough describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Reed Kimbrough describes his father's background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Reed Kimbrough describes how his parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Reed Kimbrough describes his father's parents

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Reed Kimbrough describes his mother's ancestry

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Reed Kimbrough recalls drawing a plantation scene during grade school

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Reed Kimbrough describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Reed Kimbrough describes his childhood personality

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Reed Kimbrough lists his siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Reed Kimbrough describes the circumstances of his birth in Selma, Alabama

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Reed Kimbrough talks about where his father was stationed

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Reed Kimbrough describes his experiences in Wiesbaden, West Germany

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Reed Kimbrough descries the sights, sounds, and smells of his childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Reed Kimbrough recalls the diverse occupants of his U.S. military housing complex in West Germany

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Reed Kimbrough recalls moving to Fort Sill, Oklahoma

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Reed Kimbrough recalls summer vacations in Selma, Alabama

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Reed Kimbrough describes his paternal grandfather's land ownership and passing

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Reed Kimbrough describes his experiences in elementary school

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Reed Kimbrough describes his experiences on the Fort Sill U.S. military base

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Reed Kimbrough recalls his elementary school years in Montgomery, Alabama

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Reed Kimbrough describes his childhood road trips to Selma, Alabama

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Reed Kimbrough recalls living with his paternal grandmother in Montgomery, Alabama

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Reed Kimbrough describes Bad Nauheim Elementary School in Germany

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Reed Kimbrough recalls his experience of racial discrimination in Germany

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Reed Kimbrough recalls moving to California as a young teenager

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Reed Kimbrough remembers the Cuban Missile Crisis

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Reed Kimbrough recalls attending Shawnee Junior High School in Louisville, Kentucky

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Reed Kimbrough recalls attending Nuremberg High School in Furth, Germany

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Reed Kimbrough remembers Nuremberg American High School

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Reed Kimbrough remembers his extracurricular activities in Vilseck, Germany

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Reed Kimbrough talks about the teachers at Nuremberg American High School

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Reed Kimbrough recalls singing songs by The Temptations on street corners

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Reed Kimbrough remembers his military mentors and the Vietnam War

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Reed Kimbrough remembers the Vietnam War and moving back to the United States

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Reed Kimbrough recalls the assassination of President John Fitzgerald Kennedy

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Reed Kimbrough remembers attending Fort Knox High School in Kentucky

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Reed Kimbrough describes his social activities in Fort Knox, Kentucky

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Reed Kimbrough describes his influential teachers at Fort Knox High School

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Reed Kimbrough recalls the assassination of Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr.

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Reed Kimbrough describes the unrest after Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr.'s death

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Reed Kimbrough recalls deciding whether to go to college or enlist

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Reed Kimbrough recalls his rejection from the United States Air Force Academy

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Reed Kimbrough describes his decision to attend Eastern Kentucky University

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Reed Kimbrough remembers his motivation to persevere in college

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Reed Kimbrough describes his college experiences

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Reed Kimbrough describes Eastern Kentucky University's Black Alumni Association

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Reed Kimbrough remembers his most influential teachers

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Reed Kimbrough talks about the United States Bullion Depository at Fort Knox

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Reed Kimbrough recalls returning to Selma, Alabama

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Reed Kimbrough recalls his marriage to Charlcye Ritchie Kimbrough

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Reed Kimbrough recalls working for Atlanta's Federal Reserve Bank

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Reed Kimbrough describes his career at the Atlanta Journal-Constitution

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Reed Kimbrough recalls attending a three-day leadership development program

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Reed Kimbrough describes his volunteer work

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - Reed Kimbrough explains why he agreed to share his story

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Reed Kimbrough reflects upon his life

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Reed Kimbrough describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Reed Kimbrough describes how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Reed Kimbrough shares his message to young people

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Reed Kimbrough talks about the importance of history

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Reed Kimbrough reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Reed Kimbrough narrates his photographs, pt. 1

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Reed Kimbrough narrates his photographs, pt. 2

DASession

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DATape

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DAStory

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DATitle
Reed Kimbrough remembers his military mentors and the Vietnam War
Reed Kimbrough recalls attending a three-day leadership development program
Transcript
And our role models were, were the men that we saw around us, [U.S.] military guys, that were doing positive things, at least moving in a positive direction. Did they have their own issues? Yeah, they probably did but those are the folks that we saw that were making decisions. They were primarily enlisted guys but they were sen- by this time they were senior enlisted guys.$$Now were these, these role models that you're speaking of, the older guys, were they black or were they white?$$They were primarily black--$$Okay.$$--about this time and now I'm talking about, you know, when I was, when I was a sophomore and then further on. Most of the officers were white, even then. I'm sure--I know there were black officers but they just weren't at, at our installation. Our installation was a training installation. So, and this is about the time that Vietnam [Vietnam War] was really getting hot. I remember it being, poking fun at a vet [veteran]. There was a group of us leaving the movie [in Vilseck, Germany], about four or five of us teenagers leaving the movie, and we saw this guy who was obviously intoxicated coming up the road and, and so we started picking fun of him. That's what, that is what military kids did. Military brats, they were teenagers and they, and they pulled pranks on folks and the only people they had to pull pranks on were soldiers who were about a few years older than them and we saw this guy coming up and he was staggering he and his buddy and we started poking fun of him and he looked at us, he said, "I'll kill you." He said, "I just got back from Vietnam," and he reached down to take his shoes off and we took off running. That was as close as Vietnam had gotten to me at that point. We had seen newsreels at the, at the movie theatre because at that time you go to the theatre, that you get, you get a newsreel and you get a cartoon and you get the feature.$$Okay.$$And I remember the bombing of the U.S. embassy, or the officers club, in Saigon [Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam] and because we kept getting fed that stuff. We were very patriotic.$And at that point somebody decided that maybe I should go away and get, get my perspective widened and I went to a, a leadership development program, a three-day course, through the National Association of Minority Media Executives [National Association of Multicultural Media Executives (NAMME)] where I met some folks with some national reputations. I learned more about the newspaper business and within a year of that, less than a year of that, I was tapped to become the, the operations manager of our packaging department, which is commonly named, known as our mailroom.$$Okay, now what, how do you feel that NAMME affected that, your change in position at the newspaper [Atlanta Journal-Constitution]?$$NAMME, NAMME helped me, and it was in Chicago [Illinois], it was in Chicago at, at Kellogg [Kellogg School of Management], Northwestern [Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois]. NAMME gave me an insight into what newspapers, how newspapers can impact people and I think I always knew that but didn't really know what role I could have in that but in that three day period and doing, listening to some presentations and talking to some people, I realized that there were a lot of things in my background that I brought to the table that I had not adequately applied.$$And just what are a couple of those things that you realized?$$That business is built on relationships and that companies seek actively, leaders, people who could lead other people. I'd always decided that I would take a, as much as possible, take the backseat in terms of being a driver of anything. I felt I was better suited as a support person because I could get people to do things for me but as I thought about what, what, some of the things I share with you today, I realized that over the years I've always been kind of at the forefront, if not the leader, at least the guy that was saying, well you know, we can do this. If we just do this, we could do this. If we just did this piece, we can do this too and, you know, who knows what it'll look like in ten years and I had not done that with the newspaper. I was more plotting, I was more methodical, I want to do this, I want to do this and then we'll see what that happens. Somehow I came away from that three day period with a clearer understanding of how I could apply some of those skills, some of that leadership skill, and how it would just require a little bit of risk. Me just taking a little bit of risk and stepping outside of the comfort of my confines and I did that.