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James M. Harkless

Labor lawyer James M. Harkless was born on April 19, 1931 in Detroit, Michigan. He attended Harvard University, where he received his A.B. degree in history in 1952. While there, he was the first African American to be elected president of the Harvard Glee Club. Harkless went on to attend Harvard Law School and earned his J.D. degree in 1955.

Upon graduation, Harkless clerked for a justice of the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court and was appointed chief clerk in 1956. From 1957 to 1960, he worked as an associate in a Boston area law firm, where he represented unions in labor relations. In 1961, Harkless served as general counsel for a sub-committee of the U.S. House Education and Labor Committee. Then, from 1962 to 1964, he became the first African American appellate court attorney in the Office of the National Labor Relations Board General Counsel. Harkless went on to work as confidential assistant to the Commissioner of Customs, as executive secretary of the U.S. Office of Economic Opportunity, and as senior associate and vice president of a Washington, D.C. consulting firm. In 1970, Harkless was hired as an arbitrator and associate umpire for Bethlehem Steel Company and United Steelworkers of America. He then received arbitration cases through the Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service, the American Arbitration Association, and the National Mediation Board, as well as selections as permanent arbitrator for private companies, federal agencies, and their unions. Harkless has issued more than 3,000 decisions covering most labor-management issues.

Harkless has served in many other organizations, often as a board member. In 1972, the United States President appointed Harkless to serve on the Special Railroad Emergency Boards. He then worked as part-time chairman of the Washington, D.C. Board of Labor Relations from 1974 until 1978. Harkless also served as a member of the Prince George's County, Maryland Public Employee Relations Board from 1975 to 1978 and as a member of the Employee Relations Council of the Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority from 1993 to 1995. From 1985 to 2006, he was chairman of the IUE-GM (Delphi) Legal Services Plan. Harkless was appointed a member of the Foreign Service Grievance Board in 1990, served as a consultant on arbitration to a South African government commission in 1998, and was elected the first African American President of the National Academy of Arbitrators in 1998. In 2005, the College of Labor and Employment Lawyers made him an honorary fellow.

Harkless lives in Washington, D.C.

James M. Harkless was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on January 29, 2014 and January 30, 2017.

Accession Number

A2014.007

Sex

Male

Interview Date

1/29/2014 |and| 3/17/2014 |and| 01/30/2017

Last Name

Harkless

Maker Category
Marital Status

Divorced

Middle Name

McConnell

Occupation
Schools

Alger Elementary School

Harry B. Hutchins Intermediate School

Northern High School

Harvard University

Harvard Law School

First Name

James

Birth City, State, Country

Detroit

HM ID

HAR45

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Michigan

Favorite Vacation Destination

Capalua, Hawaii

Favorite Quote

Just do it.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

4/19/1931

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

United States

Favorite Food

All Foods

Short Description

Labor lawyer James M. Harkless (1931 - ) has been a labor lawyer and arbitrator for over fifty years. He was the first African American President of the National Academy of Arbitrators.

Employment

Delete

Bethlehem Steel & United Steel Workers

Leo Kramer, Inc.

Office of Economic Opportunity

Favorite Color

Red

Reginald Van Lee

Management consultant Reginald Van Lee was born on May 8, 1958 in Houston, Texas to Tommie Lee and Eva Elnora Jefferson Lee. Van Lee received his B.S. degree in engineering from Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in 1979; and, in 1980, he earned his M.S. degree in civil engineering from MIT. Upon graduation, Van Lee was hired by Exxon Production Research Company as a research engineer. In 1982, he entered the M.B.A. program at Harvard Business School, and he interned at Booz Allen Hamilton during the summer of 1983. In 1984, after graduating with his M.B.A. degree in business administration, Van Lee was hired at Booz Allen Hamilton.

In 1993, Van Lee was promoted to partner at the Booz Allen Hamilton; and in 2003, he was promoted to senior partner. Van Lee leads Booz Allen Hamilton’s health and not-for-profit businesses, where he has helped numerous private and public health organizations and not-for-profit organizations, such as Habitat for Humanity and the American Cancer Society. As an industry expert on strategy implementation, Van Lee has contributed a number of articles on the topic. His articles have appeared in The Journal of Business Strategy and Business Horizons. Van Lee also co-authored the book, Megacommunities: How Leaders of Government, Business, and Non-Profits Can Tackle Today’s Global Challenges Together. He has appeared on ABC-TV’s “World News This Morning” and CNBC, and co-led the Urban Enterprise Initiative with the William Jefferson Clinton Foundation, where he focused on driving enhanced competitiveness for small businesses in Harlem. Van Lee is also a founding member of the Clinton Global Initiative.

Van Lee’s many recognitions include the 2008 Black Engineer of the Year Award and New York University’s C. Walter Nichols Award for community service. He was also chosen as one of the 2009 Washington Minority Business Leaders by the Washington Business Journal. Van Lee served as chairman emeritus of the board of the Evidence Dance Company, trustee of the Studio Museum in Harlem, and chairman of the Washington Performing Arts Society. In 2008, he was appointed by President Barack Obama to the President’s Committee on the Arts and the Humanities.

Reginald Van Lee was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on September 14, 2012.

Accession Number

A2012.149

Sex

Male

Interview Date
9/14/2012
Last Name

Van Lee

Maker Category
Schools
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Harvard Business School
James R. Reynolds Elementary School
Crispus Attucks Middle
Carter G. Woodson K-8 School
Evan E. Worthing Senior High School
First Name

Reggie

Birth City, State, Country

Houston

HM ID

VAN06

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Texas

Favorite Vacation Destination

Paris, France

Favorite Quote

The Two Most Important Days In Your Life Are The Day You Were Born And The Day You Understand Why.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Birth Date

5/8/1958

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New York

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Gumbo

Short Description

Management consultant Reginald Van Lee (1958 - ) is an executive vice president at Booz Allen Hamilton.

Employment
Exxon Mobil
Booz Allen Hamilton, Inc
Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:3752,109:5494,144:8174,227:12127,326:14338,381:38222,851:38698,859:39174,888:39514,894:51915,1132:58440,1274:58890,1285:62790,1385:63165,1391:63465,1396:68050,1425:68310,1430:68960,1461:71820,1566:82536,1740:86752,1831:87636,1848:88384,1862:90084,1911:101406,2059:101714,2064:114313,2363:114605,2368:116503,2456:136528,2823:137860,2859:138748,2961:147188,3050:153268,3162:161079,3232:161673,3242:171020,3435$0,0:637,31:922,37:18704,475:26474,756:27066,765:28324,809:28620,814:32024,970:32542,978:33134,987:33652,998:34022,1004:41190,1032:42165,1048:43890,1083:44565,1093:46140,1123:48540,1167:48990,1192:57756,1293:58862,1312:59415,1321:59968,1329:61943,1364:62259,1369:62654,1375:63602,1397:64155,1405:69843,1486:74017,1518:74638,1534:74983,1540:75466,1548:76708,1572:76984,1577:77881,1592:78157,1597:80503,1649:81124,1660:85678,1778:91020,1814:95445,1897:96345,1912:101985,1993:102310,2001:104390,2058:104780,2065:105495,2095:106600,2122:106860,2127:107315,2139:107575,2144:107900,2150:108745,2178:109655,2195:110175,2215:110890,2229:111280,2239:111865,2250:112320,2259:112645,2265:119219,2402:119786,2412:120272,2419:120596,2428:133454,2560:134766,2576:137718,2625:141850,2687
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Reginald Van Lee's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Reginald Van Lee lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Reginald Van Lee describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Reginald Van Lee describes his mother's childhood in Houston, Texas

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Reginald Van Lee describes his father's family background, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Reginald Van Lee describes his father's family background, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Reginald Van Lee describes his parents' personalities and who he takes after

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Reginald Van Lee lists his siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Reginald Van Lee describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Reginald Van Lee describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Reginald Van Lee remembers James R. Reynolds Elementary School in Houston, Texas

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Reginald Van Lee describes his childhood activities

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Reginald Van Lee remembers his mother's parenting style

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Reginald Van Lee recalls his junior high school experiences

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Reginald Van Lee talks about his family's influence

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Reginald Van Lee remembers the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Reginald Van Lee describes his early academic success

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Reginald Van Lee talks about his extracurricular activities

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Reginald Van Lee remembers Evan E. Worthing High School in Houston, Texas

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Reginald Van Lee remembers developing an interest in engineering

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Reginald Van Lee remembers entering the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, Massachusetts

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Reginald Van Lee describes his experiences at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, Massachusetts

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Reginald Van Lee describes the racial makeup of Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Reginald Van Lee remembers his influential professors

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Reginald Van Lee describes the racial tensions in Boston, Massachusetts

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Reginald Van Lee remembers the black community at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Reginald Van Lee recalls his mentors at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Reginald Van Lee recalls earning a master's degree from at Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Reginald Van Lee recalls the start of his career at the Exxon Mobil Corporation

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Reginald Van Lee recalls his decision to attend the Harvard Business School

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Reginald Van Lee remembers enrolling at the Harvard Business School

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Reginald Van Lee describes the black student community at Harvard Business School

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Reginald Van Lee remembers his coursework at the Harvard Business School

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Reginald Van Lee recalls his start at Booz Allen Hamilton Inc.

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Reginald Van Lee talks about his mother's role in his success

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Reginald Van Lee describes his early career at Booz Allen Hamilton Inc.

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Reginald Van Lee remembers his projects at Booz Allen Hamilton, Inc.

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Reginald Van Lee describes the highlights of his career at Booz Allen Hamilton, Inc.

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Reginald Van Lee describes the Harlem Small Business Initiative, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Reginald Van Lee describes the Harlem Small Business Initiative, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Reginald Van Lee describes the formation of the Urban Enterprise Initiative

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Reginald Van Lee talks about his awards and recognitions

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Reginald Van Lee remembers coauthoring 'Megacommunities'

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Reginald Van Lee describes his involvement in the arts

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Reginald Van Lee talks about his career plans

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Reginald Van Lee reflects upon his life

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Reginald Van Lee reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Reginald Van Lee describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Reginald Van Lee describes how he met his husband, Corey McCathern

Tape: 5 Story: 11 - Reginald Van Lee describes his wedding

Tape: 5 Story: 12 - Reginald Van Lee talks about his racial and sexual identity

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Reginald Van Lee describes his parents' views on his sexuality

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Reginald Van Lee describes how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Reginald Van Lee narrates his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$5

DAStory

9$1

DATitle
Reginald Van Lee remembers developing an interest in engineering
Reginald Van Lee describes the Harlem Small Business Initiative, pt. 2
Transcript
In high school had you figured that you were going to become an engineer, in high school?$$When I was in the eighth grade, I was watching 'Star Trek,' well actually when I was in kindergarten I told my mother I wanted to be an artist and she said, "Well artists starve so you need to be something else like an architect." So from kindergarten to eighth grade I was going to be an architect. Then in eighth grade my mother said, "Well the latest thing is engineering so you should be an engineer. You can be an architectural engineer but you need to be an engineer." I was very obedient, my mother said do it, made sense to me. So I'm watching 'Star Trek' and this guy comes on the USS Enterprise who had gone to MIT [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts], Ph.D. MIT, master's [degree] MIT all this stuff and they were, Captain Kirk [James T. Kirk] and Mr. Spock were like bowing to this guy like he was a deity and to me Captain Kirk and Mr. Spock were deities. So if they are bowing to this guy he must be something. So I asked my mother, "What is MIT?" Actually to my surprise she said, "It's a school of engineering in Massachusetts." And I said, "Well I want to go to MIT," and she says, "You're going to MIT," just like that. So she called the school and they sent the bulletins. When the recruiters came from MIT they didn't come to my little black high school, they came to I think Rice University [Houston, Texas] or something. My parents [Eva Jefferson Lee and Tommie Lee] put me in the car and we went over to meet the recruiters and I did the interviewing and everything filled out the forms and wrote the essays and then I went to MIT. So that's what got me--my mother got me interested in engineering and at that time, once I really did my research, I discovered that MIT was the best engineering school in the world, highest rated. So that's where I went to school.$$So counseling played virtually no role in this, I guess?$$No as a matter of fact not Mrs. Freddie Gaines [ph.], my senior counselor who is very encouraging, but one of the other counselors basically told me that I should go to University of Houston [Houston, Texas] or Texas Southern [Texas Southern University, Houston, Texas] or maybe University of Texas [University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas] because while I was smart for Worthing High School [Evan E. Worthing High School, Houston, Texas], you know, I probably wouldn't be smart enough to compete with those other kids and she didn't want me to go and be disappointed, she didn't want me to feel failure. So she felt she was protecting me. As you can imagine once I got my MIT degree I went back and showed her the degree and said, "Thank you for the encouragement because I decided that I had to go to MIT and graduate after you were so discouraging to me."$$Now this is a white counselor?$$No this is a black counselor, black counselor, yeah (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) Black counselor, okay, interesting so was Worthing High School mostly black since it was closer to the neighborhood?$$Yeah, yep, at the time I graduated because we'd gone through the majority/minority zoning sort of thing, we had probably twenty white students and maybe twenty or thirty Hispanic students, but it was more than predominantly black.$$Okay. So you graduated in what nineteen seventy- (simultaneous)?$$(Simultaneous) Seventy-five. [1975].$$Seventy-five [1975].$Yeah we were talking about the small business initiative [Harlem Small Business Initiative; Urban Enterprise Initiative] in Harlem [New York, New York], and--$$And, so the small businesses came to the president [President William Jefferson "Bill" Clinton] and said, "We need your help so that we can continue to be competitive and live and grow in Harlem." So the president went to a number of consulting firms to ask them if they would do this pro bono and we wanted to do this partnership as a collaborative approach. So we had the Clinton Foundation [New York, New York], we had the Harlem Small Business Alliance [sic. Harlem Business Alliance, New York, New York], we had Congressman Charlie Rangel's [HistoryMaker Charles B. Rangel] office, we had Columbia University [New York, New York], we had New York University [New York, New York], we had the National Black MBAs [National Black MBA Association], we had Booz Allen Hamilton [Booz Allen Hamilton Inc.] all working together with these small businesses to add different resources as we could deliver to them. We did the technical assistance and the consulting thing. We had attorneys to give them legal help on their leases, on their rent. We had the M.B.A.s to give us some leverage of students doing analysis, et cetera. And what we did was to create a program that actually changed the lives of many small businesses in Harlem. Several hundred have gone through the program now since 2001. We started with ten pilot businesses and it's interesting because when we first started looking at who would be good candidates for this program we said well we want the program to run for almost two years so we have enough time to really help them and test the results and see the progress we've made. So let's make sure that the businesses either own their building or they have at least a two year lease. We discovered that some 80 percent of the businesses of Harlem at that time operated on a month to month lease. So at any point a landlord could say, "I can get more for this, you've got thirty days, you've got to get out," right. And they were okay with that in the lean years because they didn't want to sign a long term lease and go out of business in a couple of months and still be stuck with having to pay the lease. So it was a good deal for them and it was a good deal for the landlords at the time. But long story made short, we worked with the businesses to bring just modern management 101 techniques to them, inventory management, receptionists for people, marketing plans, business plans, analysis of their consumer base through surveys, just very simple things; and we turned some businesses around.

Alexine Jackson

Alexine Clement Jackson is active in volunteerism and community service for the African American community. Jackson was born in Sumter, South Carolina, on June 10, 1936. Jackson's mother, Josephine Clement, was active in North Carolina politics and business and volunteered her time to a number of civic organizations. Her father, William A. Clement, was an insurance executive who devoted great amounts of time to civic and fraternal organizations. Jackson earned her B.A. from Spelman College in Atlanta and an M.A. in speech pathology and audiology from the University of Iowa.

Jackson has devoted her life to civic organizations. She is the former national president of the Young Women's Christian Association (YWCA), and in that capacity she traveled to the Middle East as part of a fact-finding mission in 1996. Jackson led the American delegation to the 1999 World YWCA Council in Cairo and was a delegate in the 1995 Council in South Korea. Prior to that, she had been chosen as a development education consultant by the YWCA to explore issues relating to women in poverty, and traveled to the Philippines, Mexico and Kenya, as well as participating in the International Learning Center in Hawaii. The Taiwanese Minister of Foreign Affairs invited Jackson, along with six other leaders of women's organizations, to visit the country in 1985 and speak to different groups.

After a fifteen-year battle with breast cancer, Jackson served on the board of the Cancer Research Foundation of America and was the chairperson of the Intercultural Cancer Council, where she focused her energies on minority cancer education and prevention. In 2009, Jackson became the chair of the board of directors for Susan G. Komen for the Cure. With more than twenty-five years of work in civic organizations, Jackson has garnered numerous awards for her work. She has been awarded the 2001 Community Service Award by the Black Women's Agenda, the Woman of Courage and Distinction Award by the National Association of Colored Women's Clubs, and was named Washingtonian of the Year by Washingtonian magazine. Her husband, Aaron, is the chief of the Division of Urology at Howard University Hospital.

Accession Number

A2003.156

Sex

Female

Interview Date

7/15/2003

Last Name

Jackson

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Clement

Schools

David T. Howard High School

Oglethorpe Elementary School

Whitted Elementary School

Hillside High School

Spelman College

University of Iowa

First Name

Alexine

Birth City, State, Country

Sumter

HM ID

JAC08

Favorite Season

Summer

State

South Carolina

Favorite Vacation Destination

Beaches

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

California

Birth Date

6/10/1936

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Los Angeles

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Indian Food

Short Description

Civic volunteer and foundation chief executive Alexine Jackson (1936 - ) is a former YWCA national president. After a fifteen-year battle with breast cancer, Jackson served on the board of the Cancer Research Foundation of America and was the chairperson of the Intercultural Cancer Council.

Favorite Color

Black, Jewel Tones

Timing Pairs
0,0:5138,97:5878,109:6322,115:7358,128:8542,148:10244,181:10540,186:11206,196:12982,232:13278,237:13944,247:17340,259:17628,264:18420,278:18924,286:19284,292:20220,308:23388,372:23748,378:24396,398:24756,404:25332,413:28068,460:28572,469:30012,491:30660,501:31884,521:32964,541:33612,556:34332,584:39291,598:39753,605:40292,613:43295,690:45220,720:48377,779:53286,825:53874,833:55554,864:56058,871:56394,876:57150,886:58158,901:58914,912:59502,920:62190,963:63282,984:63954,996:67766,1016:68686,1029:69882,1046:80095,1169:80865,1183:81173,1188:81481,1193:83098,1231:83483,1237:83791,1242:85023,1269:85562,1278:87718,1320:88719,1335:93740,1383:94084,1388:94772,1398:95546,1410:97524,1443:101910,1529:102684,1542:103200,1548:108966,1613:109390,1619$0,0:6794,208:7584,222:7900,227:8216,232:9796,272:10191,279:11297,298:12008,326:12482,333:13746,350:14299,361:14773,369:15168,375:15563,381:16037,390:17064,409:17617,417:18486,435:21725,491:30012,517:30792,528:32196,548:37032,625:38046,643:39450,677:39996,685:41010,705:41322,710:43662,745:44208,753:56883,887:57499,896:58038,904:59886,951:60502,960:61118,971:61426,977:62196,989:62889,1000:63505,1039:71051,1218:71359,1223:81302,1301:82764,1347:87408,1422:89128,1454:89988,1465:91622,1488:92052,1494:92482,1504:94632,1527:100960,1562:101416,1568:102252,1577:102784,1586:103088,1591:103392,1596:104912,1622:105368,1628:107572,1668:107952,1674:109548,1733:110232,1744:111752,1789:115172,1881:115552,1887:125768,2023:126096,2028:126588,2036:130688,2113:135120,2151:135840,2163:140720,2236:141040,2241:148260,2305:149060,2314:151760,2346:152960,2361:153560,2368:156060,2405:160290,2434
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Alexine Jackson's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Alexine Jackson lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Alexine Jackson talks about her maternal family history

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Alexine Jackson talks about her paternal great-grandfather, Rufus A. Clement, who donated land to build a school in Cleveland, North Carolina

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Alexine Jackson talks about her paternal grandfather and the Presbyterian faith in her paternal family

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Alexine Jackson talks about the history of her paternal family's employment at the North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance Company

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Alexine Jackson describes her parents' personalities and their civic engagement in Durham, North Carolina

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Alexine Jackson describes segregation and the African American business community in Durham, North Carolina

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Alexine Jackson describes the sights, sounds, and smells of growing up in Charleston, South Carolina and Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Alexine Jackson describes her maternal family in Atlanta, Georgia, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Alexine Jackson describes her maternal family in Atlanta, Georgia, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Alexine Jackson explains how she skipped a grade in elementary school when she moved to Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Alexine Jackson lists the schools she attended in Atlanta, Georgia and Durham, North Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Alexine Jackson describes the activities she enjoyed as a child in Durham, North Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Alexine Jackson describes the type of student she was at Hillside High School in Durham, North Carolina and at Spelman College in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Alexine Jackson describes influential teachers and reflects upon the positiveeffects of segregation

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Alexine Jackson reflects upon the limitations of her experience growing up in Durham, North Carolina during the Jim Crow Era

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Alexine Jackson describes the activities she participated in and her social experience at Hillside High School in Durham, North Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Alexine Jackson lists the presidents of Spelman College in Atlanta, Georgia from 1953 through the 2003

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Alexine Jackson describes memorable professors from Spelman College in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Alexine Jackson talks about graduating from college, earning a master's degree and then starting a family

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Alexine Jackson talks about the birth of her first children in 1959 and moving to Greenwood, Mississippi in 1963

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Alexine Jackson describes the town of Greenwood, Mississippi where she moved with her husband in 1963

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Alexine Jackson talks about giving birth to two of her children in Greenwood, Mississippi

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Alexine Jackson talks about starting a daycare center in Greenwood, Mississippi

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Alexine Jackson describes the tactics used in Greenwood, Mississippi to intimidate African American voters during the 1960s

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Alexine Jackson talks about her husband's medical career in Greenwood, Mississippi and his urology residency at the University of Iowa in Iowa City

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Alexine Jackson compares and contrasts her experiences living in Iowa City, Iowa and Greenwood, Mississippi

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Alexine Jackson talks about her social life in Iowa City, Iowa

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Alexine Jackson explains how her husband became chief of the Division of Urology at Howard University Hospital in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Alexine Jackson explains her involvement in the YWCA and her family's history of involvement in the organization

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Alexine Jackson talks about her work with the Intercultural Cancer Council and the disparities in cancer rates within minority communities

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Alexine Jackson explains the early history of YWCA USA

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Alexine Jackson talks about HistoryMaker Dorothy Height and YWCA USA's one imperative of eliminating racism

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Alexine Jackson talks about the aspect of YWCA USA's mission that promotes the empowerment of women's leadership

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Alexine Jackson talks about the economic status of women in corporations and female entrepreneurs

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Alexine Jackson describes the worldwide disparity in women's access to economic resources

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Alexine Jackson talks about the efforts of international organizations like the World Bank, International Monetary Fund, and the World YWCA to educate women

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Alexine Jackson describes the purpose of The Community Foundation for the National Capital Region and the problems facing day laborers

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Alexine Jackson describes the many civic and non-profit organizations in which she is involved

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Alexine Jackson describes her hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Alexine Jackson reflects upon her racial identity, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Alexine Jackson reflects upon her racial identity, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Alexine Jackson talks about volunteerism and philanthropy in the African American community

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Alexine Jackson reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Alexine Jackson considers what she would do differently in her life

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Alexine Jackson describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Alexine Jackson narrates her photographs, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Alexine Jackson narrates her photographs, pt. 2

DASession

1$1

DATape

1$3

DAStory

6$9

DATitle
Alexine Jackson talks about the history of her paternal family's employment at the North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance Company
Alexine Jackson explains her involvement in the YWCA and her family's history of involvement in the organization
Transcript
When was your father [William Clement] born and--$$My father was born in 1912 and he was born in Charleston, South Carolina. My grandfather was, he worked for North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance Company, now, North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance Company for many years was the largest black business in the country. It's headquartered in Durham, North Carolina. And in those early years, in the early founding years when they were beginning to build up the company, they had districts in different cities. And so, my grandfather was the manager of the Charleston [South Carolina] district. My father started working for North Carolina Mutual [Life Insurance Company] in the summers of college. And he continued to work at North Carolina Mutual and retired after fifty-some years there as executive vice-president. His brother also worked for North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance Company as the manager of several districts in the--around the country. So, that was sort of the family, the family pattern. My father had a sister who was a teacher and lived in Baltimore [Maryland], married, and moved to Baltimore. But my grandparents lived in Charleston. And when we moved away from Charleston, I lived in Charleston the first five years of my life, and then after my father married again, he was then, he was transferred to Atlanta [Georgia]. And we lived in Atlanta for five years and then he was promoted and we moved to Durham, which was the headquarters--became an officer of the company, and so I really say I'm from Durham, North Carolina--$$Okay.$$--'cause they lived there for more than fifty years.$A lot of things to get involved in Washington [D.C.].$$Oh, yeah, yeah.$$You're--this is basically your career (simultaneous)--$$This is my--this is true, that's true.$$Volunteer, super volunteer, and--$$Yep, that's true. It's been since here, you know, I always say it's been a privilege. And my husband [Aaron Jackson] has always encouraged to do this. And when we first moved here, he said, you know, we decided that a lot of the social things that we would do, we would do through our charitable, you know, our charitable giving. And I did, once the kids were about--my youngest was maybe third or fourth grade and in school all day, I started getting more involved. I started getting involved in arts organizations. And then I started getting involved with the YWCA [USA] here. And, you know, ultimately through, with, through that path, I became president of the YWCA of the National Capital region [sic, area]. Then I was elected to the national board, and then, ultimately, became the National President of the--we call the president, now we call the Chair of the Board [of Directors] for the national organization.$$Now, now, your, your family has a long history with the YWCA (simultaneous)?$$Yes, it does actually. Both my grandparents were--my grandmothers were both involved. My grandmother Dobbs [Ophelia Thompson Dobbs] in Atlanta [Georgia] was in, in those times, the YWCAs were segregated in the South. But even at that, those segregated facilities gave women, black women, an opportunity to develop leadership. And my grandmother in South Carolina also was very much involved with the YWCA in South Carolina. So I always used to say, I'm third generation. And my mother [Josephine Dobbs Clement], too, because my mother in Durham [North Carolina] was on the board of the segregated YWCA. And then when the integration came about, she was one of the first members of the integrated board of the YWCA. And she always had me involved in the teen activities, Y-Teen [Y-Teens Youth Program] and that kind of thing. So I kind of--it was natural when I was asked to, to be a part of it that I, you know, that I join. And I have to say that I, I always attribute any leadership qualities that I've gained had come through my activities with the YWCA. And it's been a wonderful personal experience for me. Much of the travel and the people that I've met has really enriched my life through that experience.

The Honorable Edward Brooke

Edward Brooke, III was born in Washington, D.C., on October 26, 1919. His father, Edward Brooke, Jr., was an attorney for the Veterans Administration for more than fifty years, and his mother, Helen, later worked on all of Brooke’s political campaigns. Brooke entered Howard University at the age of sixteen, and earned his B.A. degree in sociology in 1941. After graduation, Brooke entered the U.S. Army and was sent overseas. A decorated captain in the all-black 366th Combat Infantry Regiment, Brooke defended men in military tribunals. During the Italian campaign, Brooke disguised himself as an Italian, crossing enemy lines to meet with the Italian Partisans and facing Nazi and Fascist troops.

Returning from World War II and experienced in legal proceedings, Brooke enrolled in Boston University Law School, earning an LL.B. in 1948 and an LL.M. a year later, as well as serving as the editor of the school’s Law Review. While practicing law in Boston, Brooke began seeking political office. Despite good showings in several races between 1950 and 1960, he failed to win. However, in 1960, he was appointed chairman of the Boston Finance Commission, where he exposed corruption in many city departments. His popularity high from his work there, Brooke was elected to the office of Massachusetts Attorney General, becoming the first African American to hold that post in the nation. He remained in the office for two terms, and in 1966, he won election to the U.S. Senate, where he was the first African American to be elected by popular vote, the first to be seated since Reconstruction and later the only to be re-elected.

During his first term in the Senate, Brooke spent a great deal of time on the issue of the Vietnam War, traveling to Asia on fact-finding missions. Upon his return, he requested that the United States cease using napalm. He also began calling for an end to trade with South Africa because of its apartheid policies. In 1967, President Lyndon B. Johnson appointed him to the National Commission on Civil Disorders, which made recommendations that ultimately took shape as the 1968 Civil Rights Act. Brooke later challenged Richard Nixon's Supreme Court nominees Hainsworth and Carswell, even though he had supported Nixon’s bid for the presidency. Brooke later became the first senator to call for Nixon’s resignation. Leaving Congress in 1979, Brooke spent another six years in private practice before retiring.

Brooke received thirty-four honorary degrees from the nation’s most prestigious colleges and universities and numerous other awards, including the Spingarn Medal from the NAACP and the Grand Cross of the Order of Merit from the Italian Government. In 2000, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts dedicated a courthouse in his honor.

Brooke passed away on January 3, 2015 at the age of 95.

Accession Number

A2003.233

Sex

Male

Interview Date

9/23/2003

Last Name

Brooke

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Occupation
Schools

Paul Laurence Dunbar High School

Boston University School of Law

Howard University

First Name

Edward

Birth City, State, Country

Washington

HM ID

BRO10

Favorite Season

Spring

State

District of Columbia

Favorite Vacation Destination

St. Martin, French West Indies

Favorite Quote

You do what you have to do.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Florida

Birth Date

10/26/1919

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Miami

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Lamb

Death Date

1/3/2015

Short Description

U.S. senator The Honorable Edward Brooke (1919 - 2015 ) was the first African American to be elected senator by popular vote, the first to be seated since Reconstruction, and the first to be re-elected. During the Vietnam war, he called for a ban on napalm; he also served on the National Commission on Civil Disorders and later was the first senator to call for the resignation of President Richard M. Nixon.

Employment

Boston Finance Commission

State of Massachusetts

United States Senate

C. Splar & Bok

O'Connor & Hannan

Favorite Color

Blue

DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Edward Brooke

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Edward Brooke identifies five favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Edward Brooke provides information about his mother

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Edward Brooke shares information about his paternal lineage and father

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Edward Brooke reflects on his childhood in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Edward Brooke discusses childhood activities and heroes

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Edward Brooke describes the personalities of his mother and father

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Edward Brooke talks experiences and influences at Dunbar High School in Washington D.C.

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Edward Brooke describes himself as a student in high school

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Edward Brooke identifies a high school mentor

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Edward Brooke talks about commuting as a student to Howard University

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Edward Brooke reflects on sports at Howard University

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Edward Brooke remembers notable professors at Howard University

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Edward Brooke discusses his college involvement in the Alpha Phi Alpha fraternity

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Edward Brooke talks about the significance of black organizations

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Edward Brooke discusses his entrance into the Army

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Edward Brooke describes degregation in the army

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Edward Brooke shares stories about his army experiences

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Edward Brooke shares stories of discrimination while serving in the army

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Edward Brooke talks about the low morale of the black troops

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Edward Brooke recounts leading a band of Italian partisans

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Edward Brooke reflects on the historical service of blacks in the military

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Edward Brooke retells a story of a suprise attack on the enemy while stationed in Italy

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Edward Brooke details the reluctance to use black troops for combat duty

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Edward Brooke describes the mix of emotions upon returning home after the war

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Edward Brooke shared details about his black combat unit

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Edward Brooke discusses meeting and marrying an Italian woman

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Edward Brooke recounts his decision to attend law school

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Edward Brooke talks about living in the Roxbury district of Boston, Massachusetts

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Edward Brooke discusses entering private legal practice

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Edward Brooke talks about running for public office

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Edward Brooke describes his involvement in Massachusetts politics

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Edward Brooke comments on the impact of his wife's race on his campaigns

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Edward Brooke talks about running for Secretary of State

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Edward Brooke describes some of the challenges he faced while investigating corruption

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Edward Brooke discusses being elected Attorney General for Massachusetts

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Edward Brooke talks about the Boston Strangler case

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Edward Brooke discusses politics in Massachusetts

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Edward Brooke talks about the Voting Rights Act

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Edward Brooke talks about the importance of economic and political power

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Edward Brooke highlights the contributions of individuals to black political and economic progress

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Edward Brooke comments on Barry Goldwater

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Edward Brooke comments on black elected officials

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Edward Brooke discusses his path to the Senate

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Edward Brooke discusses his constituency

Tape: 7 Story: 9 - Edward Brooke talks about political opposition in 1966

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Edward Brooke explains his approach to public office

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Edward Brooke talks about opposition to his run for the United States Senate

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Edward Brooke discusses the Vietnam war

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - Edward Brooke identifies issues he confronted while running for the United States Senate

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - Edward Brooke talks about the Watts riot

Tape: 8 Story: 6 - Edward Brooke discusses black voters and the two major political parties

Tape: 8 Story: 7 - Edward Brooke talks about the Kennedy family

Tape: 8 Story: 8 - Edward Brooke discusses black voter support and black representation

Tape: 9 Story: 1 - Edward Brooke outlines key issues for future black Senatorial candidates

Tape: 9 Story: 2 - Edward Brooke discusses his contentious relationship with Richard Nixon

Tape: 9 Story: 3 - Edward Brooke details his stature and influence in the Republican Party

Tape: 9 Story: 4 - Edward Brooke reveals his abhorrence for the Republican Southern Strategy

Tape: 9 Story: 5 - Edward Brooke discusses Richard Nixon's strengths and weaknesses

Tape: 9 Story: 6 - Edward Brooke remembers his advice to Richard Nixon to resign the Presidency

Tape: 9 Story: 7 - Edward Brooke recounts his views on the Vietnam War and a meeting with Lyndon Johnson

Tape: 9 Story: 8 - Edward Brooke notes highlights from his Senate career

Tape: 10 Story: 1 - Edward Brooke shares his hopes and concerns for society

Tape: 10 Story: 2 - Edward Brooke reflects on his legacy