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The Honorable U. W. Clemon

Judge and state representative U.W. Clemon was born on April 9, 1943 in Fairfield, Alabama to Mose Clemon and Addie Clemon. He graduated from Westfield High School in 1961 and received his B.A. degree from Miles College in Fairfield, Alabama in 1965, and his J.D. degree from Columbia Law School in 1968.

After his graduation from Miles College, Clemon was active in the Civil Rights Movement in Birmingham, Alabama. He marched with Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. in 1963 and helped desegregate the Birmingham Public Library. While enrolled in law school, Clemon worked part-time in the New York office of the NAACP Legal Defense Fund. After receiving his J.D. degree, Clemon returned to Birmingham and joined the law firm of Adams, Burg, & Baker. In 1969, on behalf of the University of Alabama’s black student organization, Clemon brought a lawsuit against football coach Paul “Bear” Bryant to force him to recruit black athletes. In 1974, Clemon was elected to represent the 15th District in the Alabama State Senate. He was one of the first African Americans elected to the Alabama Senate since Reconstruction, and chaired the Senate Rules Committee and the Judiciary Committee. Clemon fought against Governor George Wallace’s exclusion of African American citizens from state boards and agencies, as well as his reinstatement of the death penalty. In 1977, Clemon was credited with the defeat of an effort by conservative lawmakers at the federal level to reform the Fifth Circuit Court. In 1979, Clemon’s representation of police brutality victims led to an establishment of a biracial committee to improve relations between the African American community and the police, as well as the election of Richard Arrington, Jr., the first African American mayor of Birmingham. The following year, President Jimmy Carter appointed Clemon as Alabama’s first African American federal judge. He served on the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of Alabama and rose to the position of Chief Judge in 1999, a position he held until 2006. Clemon retired from the bench in 2009, after serving for twenty-nine years. Clemon then returned to his private law practice at White, Arnold, & Dowd.

Clemon and his wife, Barbara, have two children, Isaac and Michelle.

U.W. Clemon was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on May 3, 2017.

Accession Number

A2017.092

Sex

Male

Interview Date

05/03/2017

Last Name

Clemon

Maker Category
Organizations
First Name

U.W.

Birth City, State, Country

Fairfield

HM ID

CLE08

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Alabama

Favorite Vacation Destination

Caribbean - Mediterranean Cruises

Favorite Quote

Come my friends 'tis not too late to seek a new world ... etc. (Tennyson)

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Alabama

Birth Date

4/9/1943

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Birmingham

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Sweet potatoes

Short Description

Judge and state representative U.W. Clemon (1943 - ) was an Alabama State Senator and served for twenty-nine years as U.S. District Court Judge for the Northern District of Alabama, and rose to the position of chief judge.

Favorite Color

Blue

The Honorable Edwin A. Lombard

Judge Edwin A. Lombard was born on June 11, 1946 in New Orleans, Louisiana. Lombard graduated from Xavier University Preparatory School in New Orleans, Louisiana in 1964. He was one of the first African Americans admitted to Tulane University in New Orleans, Louisiana, where he was a Rockefeller Scholar and earned his B.A. degree in 1967. Lombard attended Southern University Law School in Baton Rouge, Louisiana and received his J.D. degree from Loyola University New Orleans College of Law where he was a Roosevelt Fellow, in 1970. He also attended the New York University School of Law Institute for Appellate Judges.

After receiving his B.A. degree, Lombard worked for the “Voter Education Project” as part of its voter registration drive. Following his admission to the Louisiana State Bar in 1973, Lombard was elected to the position of Clerk of the Orleans Parish Criminal District Court. He was one of the youngest African American elected officials in the United States at the time. Soon after, Lombard was selected as the chief election officer for the Orleans Parish, as the first African American to hold this position in the South. Lombard remained in his position on the Orleans Parish Criminal District Court until 2003, when he was elected to the Fourth District Court of Appeals in New Orleans. He was reelected to the position in 2012.

In 2004, Lombard was selected to sit ad hoc on the Louisiana Supreme Court for In Re Ellender case, which was about racial misconduct by Judge Timothy C. Ellender. After the devastation of Hurricane Katrina, he was appointed as Supernumerary Judge pro tempore of the Criminal District Court for Orleans Parish by the Louisiana Supreme Court to help rebuild. Lombard was also appointed as a member of the Judiciary Commission of Louisiana by the Supreme Court. He also served as president of the National Bar Association’s Louisiana Judicial Council, the Algiers-Fischer Community Organization and was a member of the New Orleans Legal Assistance Corporation, and TOTAL Community Action Inc.. In 2012, Lombard was awarded the George W. Crockett, Jr. Lifetime Achievement Award by the National Bar Association.

Edwin A. Lombard was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on May 22, 2017.

Accession Number

A2017.108

Sex

Male

Interview Date

05/22/2017

Last Name

Lombard

Maker Category
Middle Name

A.

Occupation
Organizations
Schools

Xavier University Preparatory School

Tulane University

Loyola University New Orleans

First Name

Edwin

Birth City, State, Country

New Orleans

HM ID

LOM02

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Louisiana

Favorite Vacation Destination

New York

Favorite Quote

To thine own self be true.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Louisiana

Birth Date

6/11/1946

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New Orleans

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Oysters

Short Description

Judge Edwin A. Lombard (1946 - ) has served the courts of Louisiana for over thirty years.

Employment

Court of Appeals, Fourth District

Criminal District Court

Southern University

Nelson and Lombard

Collins, Douglas and Elie

New Orleans City Attorney's Office

Secretary of Utilities

Favorite Color

Blue

H. Ron White

Judge and lawyer H. Ron White was born on February 10, 1941 in Richmond, Virginia to Ernest White and Mattie White. He graduated from Maggie L. Walter High School in 1958. White received his B.S. degree in biology and chemistry from Hampton University in 1962, and his J.D. degree from Howard University in 1971.

After graduation from Hampton University, White joined the U.S. Army in 1962. He was stationed in Kaiserslautern and Mannheim, Germany, and at Fort Jackson, South Carolina. From 1967 until 1968, White served a tour of duty in Vietnam, and was stationed in Quin Yan. By the end of his military service, he had reached the rank of captain. White began his professional career in 1971 at the Atlantic Richfield Oil Company as an environmental and labor attorney. He was promoted to the position of federal regulatory compliance counsel in 1974. Two years later, White joined Irvin & White, P.C., which became White, Mahomes, and Briscoe, P.C. the following year. In 1979, White established the Law Offices of H. Ron White & Associates. He then served as a district court judge in the State of Texas after being appointed to the position in 1983. White returned to his private law practice in 1985, and served as a partner at White & Wiggins.

In addition to his law practice, White has been active in a number of organizations. Specifically, he has been a board member of The General Counsel Forum for the Dallas and Fort Worth Chapter, and the Urban League of Greater Dallas and North Texas. White has also been a member of the Texas Bar College and the National Bar Association, as well as a Life Fellow of Texas Bar Foundation.

White has been recognized and awarded for his contributions to the community. In 2004, White was named as “Trial Lawyer of the Year” by the Dallas Bar. He also received the Dallas Bar Foundation Fellows Award for Outstanding Service to the Bar and Civic Community in 2006. White was named as one of the fifty “Lions of the Texas Bar” by The Texas Lawbook, as well as a Texas Super Lawyer by Martindale-Hubbell in 2005 and from 2010 through 2015.

White and his wife, Rita C. White, have one son, Eric.

H. Ron White was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on March 14, 2017.

Accession Number

A2017.069

Sex

Male

Interview Date

03/14/2017

Last Name

White

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Ron

Occupation
Schools

George Washington Carver Elementary School

Benjamin Graves Junior High School

Maggie L. Walker High School

Hampton University

Howard University School of Law

Westwood School

First Name

H.

Birth City, State, Country

Richmond

HM ID

WHI24

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Virginia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Bahamas, St. Martin

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Texas

Birth Date

6/10/1941

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Dallas

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Steak, Hamburger, Liver

Short Description

Judge and lawyer H. Ron White (1941 - ) was appointed State of Texas District Court Judge and was named “Trial Lawyer of the Year” by the Dallas Bar Association in 2004

Employment

White & Wiggins, LLP

Law Offices of H. Ron White & Associates, P.C.

State of Texas

U.S. Army

Atlantic Richfield Company

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:1504,48:9212,350:9588,355:11562,397:18563,515:23348,643:23870,689:31004,810:40256,887:44845,933:46970,985:47480,992:47820,997:52240,1091:52665,1097:53175,1132:54620,1162:59890,1222:60400,1229:60910,1237:61250,1242:62100,1254:62610,1262:80200,1456:80480,1461:81300,1466$0,0:1587,29:2085,36:7729,137:13136,248:16160,315:22379,414:22853,422:25381,470:27514,515:30121,584:34563,609:35550,627:42040,748:47608,878:47992,883:49528,910:55094,958:64768,1111:69696,1243:74912,1292:79179,1418:92760,1559:109959,1740:112505,1750:120700,1915:129564,1977:129928,1983:130383,1992:130747,1997:138304,2067:145976,2130:146304,2135:148354,2177:158810,2372:159431,2385:160742,2431:161225,2439:162398,2489:170506,2568:172882,2630:173674,2644:177745,2725:182808,2788:183140,2793:183555,2802:189645,2879:190740,2896:192720,2927:207430,3144:209650,3194:211500,3249:212462,3288:225357,3455:226036,3467:233938,3577:234748,3588:238990,3643:241469,3671:242270,3688:247877,3854:251526,3916:255640,3953:256360,4022:270450,4130
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of H. Ron White's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - H. Ron White lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - H. Ron White describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - H. Ron White talks about his mother's upbringing

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - H. Ron White describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - H. Ron White talks about his father's education

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - H. Ron White describes his father's community involvement

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - H. Ron White recalls how his parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - H. Ron White describes his parents' personalities and who he takes after

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - H. Ron White describes his father's military service

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - H. Ron White lists his siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - H. Ron White talks about his son's occupation

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - H. Ron White remembers enrolling at Westwood School in Richmond, Virginia

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - H. Ron White talks about the desegregation of Virginia schools

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - H. Ron White describes Westwood School in Richmond, Virginia

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - H. Ron White describes his childhood home

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - H. Ron White remembers the Westwood community

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - H. Ron White recalls the business district of Richmond's Westwood community

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - H. Ron White talks about the African American businesses in Richmond, Virginia

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - H. Ron White recalls the schools he attended in Richmond, Virginia

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - H. Ron White describes his involvement in the school band

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - H. Ron White recalls his early interest in science

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - H. Ron White remembers influential high school teachers

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - H. Ron White recalls his decision to attend Hampton Institute in Hampton, Virginia

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - H. Ron White remembers his early work shining shoes

Tape: 2 Story: 13 - H. Ron White describes his father's interest in golf

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - H. Ron White talks about his paternal family's tailoring experience

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - H. Ron White recalls his jobs in high school

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - H. Ron White remembers attending the Hampton Institute in Hampton, Virginia

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - H. Ron White recalls his early experiences of religion

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - H. Ron White talks about his musical interests

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - H. Ron White remembers performing in the Hampton Institute Band and Orchestra

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - H. Ron White describes his academic interests at the Hampton Institute

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - H. Ron White talks about the impact of the film 'Hidden Figures'

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - H. Ron White talks about his scientific interests at the Hampton Institute

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - H. Ron White remembers his extracurricular activities in college

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - H. Ron White recalls joining the U.S. Army

Tape: 3 Story: 12 - H. Ron White remembers meeting his wife

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - H. Ron White talks about the civil rights activities at the Hampton Institute in Hampton, Virginia

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - H. Ron White remembers the assassination of President John Fitzgerald Kennedy

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - H. Ron White describes his experiences in Germany

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - H. Ron White recalls being deployed to Vietnam

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - H. Ron White describes Qui Nhon, Vietnam

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - H. Ron White talks about starting a jazz band in Vietnam

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - H. Ron White remembers considering his career options after his release from the U.S. Army

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - H. Ron White recalls his decision to pursue a career in law

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - H. Ron White remembers the assassination of Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - H. Ron White recalls entering Howard University School of Law in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - H. Ron White remembers his favorite law school instructors

Tape: 4 Story: 12 - H. Ron White describes the most difficult aspects of law school

Tape: 4 Story: 13 - H. Ron White remembers being recruited by Atlantic Richfield Company in Dallas, Texas

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - H. Ron White describes his experiences at Howard University School of Law in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - H. Ron White remembers being interviewed by Atlantic Richfield Company in Dallas, Texas

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - H. Ron White recalls his decision to move to Dallas, Texas

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - H. Ron White describes the creation of J.L. Turner Legal Association

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - H. Ron White remembers his supportive coworkers at Atlantic Richfield Company

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - H. Ron White recalls joining the Dallas Bar Association

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - H. Ron White remembers his organizational involvement while at Atlantic Richfield Company

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - H. Ron White recalls his involvement in the Dallas, Texas community

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - H. Ron White talks about the migration of African Americans to southern cities

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - H. Ron White remembers guest speakers for the Committee of 100

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - H. Ron White recalls the formation of the Committee of 100

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - H. Ron White talks about the spread of information in the Dallas African American community

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - H. Ron White talks about the gendered division of social organizations, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - H. Ron White talks about the gendered division of social organizations, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - H. Ron White recalls the changes in African American business markets

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - H. Ron White remembers working to educate Dallas' African American business community

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - H. Ron White recalls Dallas' challenges with desegregation

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - H. Ron White describes the importance of city support for new residents

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - H. Ron White remembers African American elected officials in Dallas, Texas

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - H. Ron White talks about organizations promoting African American politicians

DASession

1$1

DATape

5$5

DAStory

1$3

DATitle
H. Ron White describes his experiences at Howard University School of Law in Washington, D.C.
H. Ron White recalls his decision to move to Dallas, Texas
Transcript
(Simultaneous) You were just talking off camera about you being the oldest student and having--giving, giving you a little advantage on (unclear) in law school [Howard University School of Law, Washington, D.C.] (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) Right, 'cause I was, you know, I was at least five or six years older than the average student that would have been admitted at that time and then I had that real life experience being married [to Rita White] and having a child [Eric White] and having been in the [U.S.] military so you see things a little bit different than the student that's, who's just coming out of college who is going to law school with a few life experiences, okay. So that enabled me to, I think, develop a relationship with some of the faculty to the extent that I was selected, I guess, that last year to be the student faculty representative for the, for the law school and that was a time when Pat [ph.] and some of the others, Harrison [ph.], and some of the others were there and they were having issues trying to, you know, students began to not only boycott but raise issues at the school. Back during that time, they, they weren't that bashful about, about trying to improve the climate and ensure that we were getting the kind of resources that we felt we needed that we were investing in for our career. So, I did get a chance to participate in that capacity on behalf of the student body, the law school student body, my last year.$I came down, got a couple of people that were trying to be courteous and cordial and show me around a little bit. I realized when I got back, I didn't have a lot of information that I could share with my wife [Rita White] and they wanted to know, they said, "Well we're really interested, we'd like to make you an offer," you know, and I said, "Well, I'm--I'd be happy to consider that offer but I'm not sure I'm able to make any decisions regarding that offer without first having my wife to come down and take a look and so we can better determine what the alternatives are for my family," okay, 'cause at that time I had a wife and a son [Eric White]. And so they said, "Oh yeah, we'd be, we'd be happy to do that." So they, they did in fact arrange for me, I think a couple of weeks or so later. They said, "You let me know what time you can come and arranged for me to come back down to spend another weekend and, and to look around, to try to make that decision." We did, they got a slightly different crew. I told them, I don't want them to take me just to the white areas, I need to see where the black communities are, I need to talk with someone else who'll give me a better perspective of what, what's here really for African Americans. And so they arranged that also. Was there something you need to get?$$No, no, no. I keep hearing something but it's all right.$$Yeah, but anyways, so, so we did that and I, when I came down this time, I had to, I wanted to visit with the African American lawyers that were in town and I, my contact at that time was, was C.B. Bunkley [C.B. Bunkley, Jr.] who had been here for a while. L.A. Bedford [Louis A. Bedford, Jr.] was another prominent lawyer who had been involved, who was here. My classmate, Walter Irvin [ Walter L. Irvin] had been here a year before and Walter had graduated from Howard [Howard University School of Law, Washington, D.C.] also that year before and had been here and so those were the, the four, three or four persons that I spoke with on that second trip and I think but for the encouragement of, of C.B. Bunkley, whose son-in-law became the city attorney for Dallas [Texas] in subsequent years but he was well respected because he had been here practicing. He had primarily a civil practice, sole, sole practitioner, just like everyone in the city, primarily the sole practitioners except for a couple of them that had partnered together or working together, not so much partnered but that was the, that was the legal climate at that point. So, Bunkley said that, you know, he said, "Ron [HistoryMaker H. Ron White], I know you, you know, you'll be the first African American to be extended an offer or at least potentially accept an offer, we need you to accept this offer because that hopefully will begin to open some doors in terms of getting some more lawyers hired by some of these corporations and businesses and that, you know, that included the, the governmental entities too." So I said, said, "Well, I had told them I had to get with my wife, I need to see, see the various areas that, where we could probably live and see what we could, we could arrange." I said, "Well if I can't make it work, I'm going to get an agreement so they'll send me back to D.C. [Washington, D.C.] in two years." So, I got that agreement in place as a part of the condition of accepting the offer. There are several other things I think I discussed or was considered in making that decision. So my wife and I said, well, we'll give it a shot and see what we can do. So we established those conditions with the encouragement of the African American lawyers that were well respected at that time in the market, saying, "We'll help wherever we can, if you don't like it and you still want to practice, you've got an office here in my, in my building to work, to do some work," so that gave me another alternative that if it doesn't work I can still go out and practice with the, one or the other established lawyers and make a go of it. That was in part the dynamics of what, what evolved in terms of my decision to come down and give it a shot.

The Honorable Roger L. Gregory

Judge Roger L. Gregory was born on July 17, 1953 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, but raised in Petersburg, Virginia. He graduated from Petersburg High School in 1971, and enrolled at Virginia State University, where he graduated summa cum laude in 1975, and earned his J.D. degree from the University of Michigan Law School in 1978.

In 1978, Gregory became the first African American attorney at the law firm of Butzel, Long, Gust, Klein & Van Zile in Detroit. In 1980, he joined the Richmond law firm of Hunton & Williams LLP. Gregory was nominated by President Bill Clinton to be the first African American judge on the Richmond-based U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit, but the Senate refused to hold Gregory’s confirmation hearing. He was then nominated by President George W. Bush and confirmed in 2001. In 2014, he joined the majority opinion on Bostic v. Schaefer, which overturned Virginia’s ban on same-sex marriage. Also that year, Gregory authored the court’s unanimous opinion on King v. Burwell, which upheld tax subsidies for health insurance purchased on federal exchanges under the Affordable Care Act. In 2016, Gregory became the first African American chief judge of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit.

Gregory has served on numerous boards, including: Richmond Metropolitan Chamber of Commerce, Richmond Arts Council, Virginia State University Foundation, Richmond Bar Association, and Central Virginia Legal Aid Society. He served as president of the Friends Association for Children and the Black History Museum and Cultural Center of Virginia. Gregory was chairman of the Industrial Development Authority of Richmond and the executive committee of Richmond Renaissance. Gregory also sat on the board of ChildFund International and served on the board of the Virginia Historical Society.
He serves as trustee emeritus on the Board of Trustees at the University of Richmond. He serves on the Junior Board of Directors of the John Marshall Foundation. He is a member of the American Bar Association and was keynote speaker for the opening assembly at the 2005 ABA annual meeting in Chicago. He is a member of the National Bar Association and the Old Dominion Bar Association of which Gregory is a past president. He is a member of the State Bar of Michigan and Virginia.

He was the recipient of many awards, including the 1997 National Conference of Christians and Jews Humanitarian Award. He was featured in Ebony magazine as one of the “56 Most Intriguing Blacks of 2001.” In 2002, he received the Pioneer Visionary Award from the National Black Student Leadership Development Conference. In 2003, Judge Gregory received the Dominion Resources Strong Men and Women: Excellence in Leadership Award. Gregory was also awarded the Old Dominion Bar Association’s L. Douglas Wilder Vangard Award. He was also awarded the National Bar Association’s Gertrude E. Rush and Equal Justice Awards, and the Thurgood Marshall Award of Excellence. In 2015, he received the Washington Bar Association’s Charles Hamilton Houston Merit Medallion.

Roger L. Gregory was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on December 9, 2016.

Accession Number

A2016.102

Sex

Male

Interview Date

12/9/2016

Last Name

Gregory

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

L.

Occupation
Schools

Virginia Avenue Elementary School

Peabody High School

Petersburg High School

Virginia State University

University of Michigan Law School

First Name

Roger

Birth City, State, Country

Philadelphia

HM ID

GRE16

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Pennsylvania

Favorite Vacation Destination

Beaches

Favorite Quote

Is The Currency Reason Or Power?

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Virginia

Birth Date

7/17/1953

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Richmond

Country

United States

Favorite Food

None

Short Description

Judge Roger L. Gregory (1953 - ) was appointed to serve as a judge of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit in 2001, becoming the first African American chief judge of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit in 2016.

Employment

United States Court of Appeals

Wilder, Gregory & Associates

Hunton & Williams

Butzel, Long, Gust, Klein & Van Zile

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
177,0:6626,141:6978,146:17098,433:23572,523:26744,655:32476,752:35486,841:54992,1363:70486,1584:82670,1902:85970,1984:105495,2226:108779,2264:116888,2378:131220,2639:141040,2860:143248,2947:147470,2992:149585,3012:155153,3117:158656,3192:161029,3223:180109,3501:181558,3540:181834,3545:182110,3571:204796,3931:235534,4326:235990,4331:248530,4634:252292,4695:264391,4987:265348,5000:271612,5184:277739,5272:278540,5282:315122,5733:327960,5913:337750,5972:342890,6363$0,0:8882,279:33359,622:52901,913:53356,919:54266,930:58972,1002:61996,1049:79650,1300:80658,1314:81078,1320:81498,1326:82086,1335:83850,1397:103080,1710:105750,1727:106235,1733:115935,1908:143231,2189:145011,2261:146613,2299:151464,2335:173074,2659:184108,2813:187452,2886:190416,2957:190796,2963:191936,2980:193228,3016:209468,3231:212306,3304:218544,3359:232600,3583
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of The Honorable Roger L. Gregory's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - The Honorable Roger L. Gregory lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - The Honorable Roger L. Gregory describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - The Honorable Roger L. Gregory talks about his mother's career

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - The Honorable Roger L. Gregory describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - The Honorable Roger L. Gregory talks about his father's career

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - The Honorable Roger L. Gregory recalls his father's career as a gospel singer

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - The Honorable Roger L. Gregory describes his likeness to his parents

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - The Honorable Roger L. Gregory talks about his adoption

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - The Honorable Roger L. Gregory describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - The Honorable Roger L. Gregory remembers growing up in the Heights of Petersburg, Virginia, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - The Honorable Roger L. Gregory talks about the events of the Civil War in Petersburg, Virginia

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - The Honorable Roger L. Gregory recalls the civil rights history of Petersburg, Virginia

Tape: 1 Story: 14 - The Honorable Roger L. Gregory remembers growing up in the Heights of Petersburg, Virginia, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - The Honorable Roger L. Gregory remembers Virginia Avenue Elementary School in Petersburg, Virginia

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - The Honorable Roger L. Gregory talks about his early exposure to the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - The Honorable Roger L. Gregory describes the history of Peabody High School in Petersburg, Virginia

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - The Honorable Roger L. Gregory recalls his activities at Peabody High School in Petersburg, Virginia

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - The Honorable Roger L. Gregory talks about the famous residents of Petersburg, Virginia

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - The Honorable Roger L. Gregory remembers his teachers at Peabody High School in Petersburg, Virginia

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - The Honorable Roger L. Gregory recalls his experiences at Virginia State College in Petersburg, Virginia

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - The Honorable Roger L. Gregory describes his transition to the University of Michigan Law School in Ann Arbor, Michigan

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - The Honorable Roger L. Gregory describes his experiences at the University of Michigan Law School

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - The Honorable Roger L. Gregory recalls his internships during law school

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - The Honorable Roger L. Gregory recalls his start as a litigator

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - The Honorable Roger L. Gregory remembers his undergraduate courses with L. Douglas Wilder

Tape: 2 Story: 13 - The Honorable Roger L. Gregory describes his transition to Hunton and Williams LLP

Tape: 2 Story: 14 - The Honorable Roger L. Gregory talks about his first marriage

Tape: 2 Story: 15 - The Honorable Roger L. Gregory describes his cases at Hunton and Williams LLP

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - The Honorable Roger L. Gregory talks about the law firm of Wilder and Gregory

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - The Honorable Roger L. Gregory talks about L. Douglas Wilder's political career

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - The Honorable Roger L. Gregory recalls his appointment to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - The Honorable Roger L. Gregory remembers presiding over United States v. Zacarias Moussaoui

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - The Honorable Roger L. Gregory recalls his citations in U.S. Supreme Court opinions

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - The Honorable Roger L. Gregory talks about his involvement in theater

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - The Honorable Roger L. Gregory talks about the public opinion of lawyers

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - The Honorable Roger L. Gregory remembers the Brown v. Board of Education 50th Anniversary Commission

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - The Honorable Roger L. Gregory remembers Oliver W. Hill and Reverend Dr. Wyatt Tee Walker

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - The Honorable Roger L. Gregory recalls his decision of Bostic v. Schaefer

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - The Honorable Roger L. Gregory describes his views on police brutality, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - The Honorable Roger L. Gregory describes his views on police brutality, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - The Honorable Roger L. Gregory shares his advice for improving the criminal justice system

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - The Honorable Roger L. Gregory talks about his judicial philosophy

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - The Honorable Roger L. Gregory recalls his opinion on King v. Burwell

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - The Honorable Roger L. Gregory remembers the death of his first wife

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - The Honorable Roger L. Gregory recalls his appointment as chief judge of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - The Honorable Roger L. Gregory reflects upon his life

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - The Honorable Roger L. Gregory reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - The Honorable Roger L. Gregory describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - The Honorable Roger L. Gregory talks about his children

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - The Honorable Roger L. Gregory describes how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - The Honorable Roger L. Gregory narrates his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$3

DAStory

1$10

DATitle
The Honorable Roger L. Gregory talks about the law firm of Wilder and Gregory
The Honorable Roger L. Gregory recalls his decision of Bostic v. Schaefer
Transcript
When you joined Douglas Wilder [HistoryMaker L. Douglas Wilder], he, was he just by myself?$$Yeah, he was by himself, yeah he was by, he had been sharing office in the same building with somebody. He was by himself, he had--1982, when he came and formed together, formed the firm of Wilder and Gregory in 1982, yeah.$$Yeah, so he was operating in the old style--black lawyer--$$Yeah, the old style, yeah he had his--$$Always had to have his shingle up.$$That's right.$$People would come see him, talking about my boy's in trouble, see if you can help him and--$$Exactly.$$Or, you know, insurance company's trying to cheat me, see if you can help me, you know, all that kind of stuff.$$Oh, that's right, that's the kind of price we had and--$$Yeah.$$I love it, you know, people--you had to really produce. It wasn't about the--you couldn't just read your resume (unclear), "Well, I went to the University of Michigan Law School [Ann Arbor, Michigan] and I worked for Hunton and Williams [Hunton and Williams LLP, Richmond, Virginia] and Butzel Long [Butzel, Long, Gust, Klein and Van Zile; Butzel Long]." Yeah, okay but can you handle this matter. I love that, and you had to produce and you had to really show what you could do. So it was, it was, it was good. And Governor Wilder, he was--then senator, he was awesome trial lawyer. I--his timing and just quick mind, I learned--we used to tried cases together, he was just awesome.$$Okay, all right. So he brings you in as a partner. And what was your plan? What was, what was Doug Wilder's plan--$$Well--$$--for you to be part of his--what were you going to work on?$$Well, you know, you know, he was in the Senate [Senate of Virginia] then, and the whole idea was, you know, he had some idea of what value I could bring to the table. And then fortunately he trusted that I could help build upon and (unclear)--institutionalize it for the first time. I think it helped him to see what he might have be able to do beyond just as an individual lawyer but a firm, an institution. And we did, the two of us practiced and then we had hired an associate. And we built up and when we finished, we had eleven lawyers and we did bond work and all kinds of work. So we grew and took that opportunity but we still did the core things, like you talk about when, you know, the mom and dad and junior's in trouble or we need this. We were the firm that could answer those needs and do it at the highest level. And then we--only difference was in our view, was we're just smaller. But we didn't take a back seat to anybody in terms of confidence and ability and that's what I learned from him and that confidence and competence, yeah.$$Um-hm, okay. So he was in the state senate even then (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) He was in the state senate and he would--$$Yeah.$$--at the end of the day, I loved that we would come back and he would talk about the day. And the senate floor and the politics and his, and just his comprehensive knowledge, he's the quintessential statesman. Not only a politician but a statesman, in terms of understanding the needs of people and addressing what really makes the difference and how to make the political process work for the better good. The common weal, as they say it, and the commonwealth. And that's what he, he dedicated his public service to it. And a, had a high sense of duty and public service, modeled by him.$$Okay, all right. So now did you help in his campaigns when--$$No, I helped by this, that I always say that I want to make sure that my priority was that I do nothing to dishonor and hurt his opportunity. So my job was to keep the home front going, matter of fact, when he ran for lieutenant governor, his headquarters was in our law firm. So I lived and breathed it every day. So, but, no, you know, and my job was to keep the firm going. And he was--as lieutenant governor, you know, he would, he could still practice law, so his mind was, he was right on target, he knew what was going on, he tried cases, so it was a wonderful partnership. And, you know, and we never signed a document, it was by handshake and understanding, yeah. Now it's been unheard of to be able to do something like that. But that's the kind of ilk of a, of person that he was and still is.$$Okay, okay. So for--before your first appointment as judge, you like, you were working with Douglas Wilder for--$$Oh, yeah, it was from--$$--basically (simultaneous)--$$--(simultaneous) from 1982 all the way up to 19--well, 2000--$$--to 2001, that's like twe- twenty years.$$To 2000, yeah. Long, yeah, it's a long--$$You had a twenty years so--$$Long time.$$--so what are the cases, some of the cases that you all dealt with that you dealt with--$$Oh, yeah, well, we--$$--during that period of time (simultaneous)?$$(Simultaneous) We dealt with a lot of (makes sound)--I tried murder cases, double homicide cases. We--I did--and what we did was, we can, we be--we're fortunate to be an American Bar Association demonstration project. People like [HistoryMaker] Dennis Archer, who's the first black president of the American Bar and then Robert Grey [Robert J. Grey, Jr.], who's the second black, they helped us get into that. And we could show it so we started getting corporate clients nationally. So we did work for Ford Motor Company and did some work for General Motors [General Motors Corporation; General Motors Company] and other, and, so we did defense work for insurance companies so we broadened our footprint. But we still did the old school criminal defense work too. And we did bond work, so I loved it, it was a great pra- we had eleven lawyers. (Mumbles) one of the largest African American owned, at the time, firms in Virginia. And it was wonderful, some bright lawyers we got people who worked at the firm who are now judges. And I'm so proud that it wasn't--and that's where the point about institutionalizing. The firm is still in existence, it's called Harrell and Chambliss [Harrell and Chambliss LLP]. But that's the firm and so proud that that's still going on. It wasn't just--'cause, you know, success is seized having a plan of succession and them taking the ball running and gone further on, and I'm very proud of them so, yeah we were able to, thank God, to do something that was significant and still goes on as a legacy.$So we talked about Bostic versus Schaefer [Bostic v. Schaefer, 2014], right?$$Um-hm.$$The same sex marriage--$$(Nods head).$$But was there a lot of, you know, it's been said that the black church is one of the most unprogressive on this subject of any of the institutions in the black community. And it's probably a place where you're going to, you're going to visibly see a lot of gay people doing things in the church.$$Well, you know, yeah, you know, yeah it's--as a judge, you know, I (laughter), I don't really get to com- comment on that but, you know, I think, you know--$$Okay.$$--preachers that have their, have your faith in what there is. But, you know, as the, as the law in construing it, I mean I found the case to be not very compliment, not very complicated on the law after Lawrence [Lawrence v. Texas, 2003], when the [U.S.] Supreme Court said that matters of sexual encounters and intimacies among consenting adults can't be banned, so once that, 'cause that--I thought it was the moral traditions was the longest and strongest issue that states said, "We can ban it." But once that's no longer the case it came to be dis- discrimination in terms of how could that be legally deprived by based on who they loved. So from a legal standpoint, but I think people have very strong religious and moral views about it which, you know, because--and I remember sitting in my office before the argument, I could hear people chanting on one side versus the other. But I thought how wonderful it is to live in a country where people can voice their views one way or the other but, yet in an ordered fashion. I'd be going in a few minutes in a court of law and deciding the case and in an ordered fashion, and not being disturbed by the slogans of the time or whatever but by being drawn to what the law--and interpret it as best you could--the [U.S.] Constitution. So, you know, it's--it does speak to freedom of ideas and thought, but the law had prevailed, so it was quite a moment (unclear) cases.$$Okay. Is it, is there ever a time when you feel that the sacred and the secular are clashing too much or there's a--$$No.$$--there's a--$$I don't think and I think we all comes with our backgrounds and construct, you know, you know the--I'm a Christian and I, yeah and I have very strong faith and also, not but, and also I'm a, I'm a judge. And if it comes to the point there's anything that my view in that regard is so overwhelming that it surmounts my interpretation (unclear) of the law, then I shouldn't sit and cannot sit on that. 'Cause you take an oath to be impartial and that's what the job is. Like I have death cases, but my personal views of the death penalty is of no moment, the question is was there constitutional error. And if it was, then the writ should be granted, you know. And, but if isn't then, the writ is not, you know. So, you know, it's looking at the law but certainly, you know, you wear the hat as a human being, and I got three daughters, I'm a father and a husband. It's like everybody else but it's that the obligation to look at the law and judge it fairly. That's why justice is blindfolded because she's saying that I'm not looking at who's before me, where they're from, their ethnicity or gender or whatever. But I'm only interested in what is the weight of the evidence. And the side that wins the one under the law and the facts have the weight of the evidence and the preponderance of the standard and that's who prevails. But not who I visually see and connect with or would want it to be in my personal view.

The Honorable Glenda Hatchett

Judge Glenda Hatchett was born on May 31, 1951 in Atlanta, Georgia to Clemmie Barnes and Paul Lawrence Hatchett. In 1969, Hatchett graduated from Charles Lincoln Harper High School, a segregated school in Atlanta’s Collier Heights. She received her B.A. degree in political science from Mount Holyoke College in South Hadley, Massachusetts in 1973, and went on to obtain her J.D. degree from Emory University School of Law in Atlanta in 1977.

After completing a federal clerkship in the United States District Court in the Northern District of Georgia, Hatchett worked in the legal department at Delta Air Lines, Inc. As a senior attorney, she represented the company in labor and anti-trust cases, and participated in merger negotiations. She was then promoted to manager of Delta’s public relations department, handling global crisis management and media relations for the U.S., Europe and Asia. In 1991, upon her appointment to the Fulton County Juvenile Court, Hatchett became the first African American chief judge of a state court. In collaboration with the Atlanta Bar Association and Alston & Bird, Hatchett helped found the Truancy Intervention Project, an early intervention program for truant children. In 1998, Hatchett resigned from the Fulton County Juvenile Court to spend time with her two children before accepting an offer from Sony Pictures Television to have her own television show, Judge HatchettJudge Hatchett ran between 2000 and 2008. In 2014, Hatchett created her own national law firm, The Hatchett Firm, focused on wrongful death, catastrophic injury, medical malpractice, product liability, class action, premises liability and social security cases. Concerned about police brutality against African American men, Hatchett announced that she would represent Philando Castile’s family in 2016.

While filming Judge Hatchett, Hatchett released her first self-help book, Say What You Mean and Mean What You Say!: Saving Your Child from a Troubled World. She released her second book, Dare to Take Charge: How to Live Your Life on Purpose, in 2012. In addition to her civic contributions, Hatchett received numerous awards, including the Roscoe Pound Award, the National Council on Crime and Delinquency’s highest recognition, and the NAACP Thurgood Marshall Award. The Girl Scouts of the United States of America named Hatchett one of its 10 National Women of Distinction. She also served on multiple boards, including the National Football League’s Atlanta Falcons’ Board of Advisors.

Judge Glenda Hatchett was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on October 5, 2016.

Accession Number

A2016.043

Sex

Female

Interview Date

10/5/2016

Last Name

Hatchett

Maker Category
Occupation
Schools

Anderson Park Elementary School

Charles Lincoln Harper High School

Mount Holyoke College

Emory University School of Law

First Name

Glenda

Birth City, State, Country

Atlanta

HM ID

HAT02

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Georgia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Beaches

Favorite Quote

Great Day.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Birth Date

5/31/1951

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Atlanta

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Salmon

Short Description

Judge Glenda Hatchett (1951 - ) became the first African American chief judge of a state court when she was appointed to the Fulton County Juvenile Court in 1991. She was featured in her own television show, Judge Hatchett, and in 2014, founded the national law firm, The Hatchett Firm.

Employment

Emory University School of Law

United States District Court - Northern District of Georgia

Delta Air Lines, Inc.

Fulton County Juvenile Court

Columbia/Tri-Star Television

11Alive Atlanta

The Hatchett Firm

Entertainment Studios, Inc.

Favorite Color

Red

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of The Honorable Glenda Hatchett's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - The Honorable Glenda Hatchett lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - The Honorable Glenda Hatchett describes her mother's family background, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - The Honorable Glenda Hatchett describes her mother's family background, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - The Honorable Glenda Hatchett talks about her maternal grandmother

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - The Honorable Glenda Hatchett describes her mother's education

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - The Honorable Glenda Hatchett describes her father's family background, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - The Honorable Glenda Hatchett describes her father's family background, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - The Honorable Glenda Hatchett remembers her father's career

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - The Honorable Glenda Hatchett talks about her father's experiences at Clark College in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - The Honorable Glenda Hatchett describes how her parents met

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - The Honorable Glenda Hatchett describes her parents' personalities and who she takes after

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - The Honorable Glenda Hatchett describes her experiences at Anderson Park Elementary School in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - The Honorable Glenda Hatchett reflects upon her father's lessons about racial discrimination

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - The Honorable Glenda Hatchett describes her early experiences of religion

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - The Honorable Glenda Hatchett remembers her mentors at Anderson Park Elementary School in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - The Honorable Glenda Hatchett talks about her extracurricular activities

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - The Honorable Glenda Hatchett describes her experiences of segregation in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - The Honorable Glenda Hatchett describes her experiences at Charles Lincoln Harper High School in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - The Honorable Glenda Hatchett remembers leading a walkout at Charles Lincoln Harper High School

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - The Honorable Glenda Hatchett talks about her achievements during high school

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - The Honorable Glenda Hatchett talks about her community in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - The Honorable Glenda Hatchett recalls her summer program at Phillips Exeter Academy

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - The Honorable Glenda Hatchett describes her decision to attend Mount Holyoke College in South Hadley, Massachusetts

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - The Honorable Glenda Hatchett remembers her freshman roommate at Mount Holyoke College

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - The Honorable Glenda Hatchett remembers the assassination of Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - The Honorable Glenda Hatchett recalls the integration of the University of Georgia

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - The Honorable Glenda Hatchett describes her experiences at Mount Holyoke College

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - The Honorable Glenda Hatchett talks about her social life at Mouth Holyoke College

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - The Honorable Glenda Hatchett remembers her professors at Mount Holyoke College

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - The Honorable Glenda Hatchett remembers studying under Max Roach

DASession

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DATape

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DAStory

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DATitle
The Honorable Glenda Hatchett recalls the integration of the University of Georgia
The Honorable Glenda Hatchett reflects upon her father's lessons about racial discrimination
Transcript
And I must add an important piece to this. Hamilton Holmes was my next door neighbor, who was the first black student, he and [HistoryMaker] Charlayne Hunter-Gault, the two first black students to integrate the University of Georgia [Athens, Georgia].$$Yes.$$So--$$Right, right.$$--I had gone through all of that with--Hamp was like my big brother, you know, much, much older, but still my, you know, somebody I looked up to and just deeply admired. And because I had younger brothers [Paul Hatchett, Jr. and Kolen Hatchett], it was like having all these older brothers right next door, 'cause there were like four Holmes brothers, Hamp being the oldest, and loved him to the bone. And I can still remember my father [Paul Hatchett, Sr.] rushing into the house, because literally we lived in a cul-de-sac, and they're the only two houses in the cul-de-sac. If you're facing our house, their house was to the left. And our house was kind of on an, a more of an incline, the, the, the way that, to main--the, the, the let--what do you call it?$$Trajectory of the land?$$Yeah, get (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Or the terrain?$$Terrain, the terrain of the land was kind of, it sloped down, so our house sat higher, and our house was a split level. Their house was, the main level was all on one level. So we could see the street that fed into our neighborhood [Collier Heights, Atlanta, Georgia]. So, really, there was two, there were only two streets that came into our neighborhood. It's a very small neighborhood, a cul-de-sac on one end, which is one where we lived, and a cul-de-sac at the other end, and then the main street that was parallel to our street was--I could see from my parents' bedroom window. My father ran in and said, "Clemmie [Clemmie Barnes Hatchett], they're sending them home," right. And my mother said, "You know, stay here," dah, dah, dah, dah, dah. She rushed over to see about Mrs. Holmes [Isabella Holmes]. The men in our community stood vigil, they did, because at that point you didn't know who to trust on the, trust on the police force [Atlanta Police Department] and all of that. You just didn't know how they were gonna be protected. And I remember looking out of the front bedroom window when they pulled up with Charlayne and Hamp. And the men held coats to make a tent to get them in the house, right. And just the tension, and my father told me to go and stand in their bedroom, my parents' bedroom window, so I had a clear shot of the cars coming down, "Oh no," and to let him know if I saw cars that--'cause you know, everybody knew everybody in the neighborhood--that I didn't, that I, that I didn't recognize. That's how tense that situation was. Years later, I guess two years ago now, it was my honor, I mean special privilege, to be invited by the University of Georgia to do the Holmes-Hunter Lecture series, that I did the lecture. And I stood up, and I had to get my composure, because for me it was very personal, deeply personal to have lived through that as a kid and watching, watching that happen, and understanding the courage that it took not just for Hamp and Charlayne but for the families and you know, and for the neighbors and just the, the love and support of, you know, we're here, and they did. They, you know, the community just was a very small neighborhood all stood by him, you know, very proud of him. And then, of course, he went on to be the first black to, to finish Emory medical school [Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia], you know. And just, I was heartbroken when he died. He died much too early, much too soon.$My father [Paul Hatchett, Sr.] said, "She's right. Colored children don't get new books." Well, I didn't understand that. And he said to me, "So I want you to go into your room and get your box of crayons," I had a little red table with two red chairs. And he said, "I want you to sit down and write your own story." I didn't get that at six, oh, but baby, I got it now, because my father in his wisdom knew that he and my mother [Clemmie Barnes Hatchett] couldn't fix a society where colored children were not treated equally like they should have been and that even though there were decisions coming down from the [U.S.] Supreme Court that clearly hadn't made it down to my little elementary school [Anderson Park Elementary School] in Atlanta, Georgia, and this is what happened. He said, "Write your own story." I've used that story in motivational speeches all over the country to say that he didn't let me linger at the pity party about what I didn't have. He told me to go on and write my story. And so what I do is I use that story to say that in my father's wisdom, although they couldn't protect me from, from this society and what was happening to colored children and colored people in that area, he couldn't fix the society, but he could fix me. And that is the lesson that he poured into me, that I had to write my own story. And again, I didn't get it in first grade.$$Now, now--$$But I so--$$--I'm, I'm thinking that you had books in, at home, I would guess (unclear) (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Oh, I had books at home which is how I knew how to read. You know, I, I, I--my parents taught me to read before I went to school, so I had books at home.$$Yeah--$$You know--$$--that, that seemed like a major community issue to be brought to the City of Atlanta. I mean, (unclear)--$$They didn't (simultaneous)--$$--(simultaneous) schools, they didn't have any books--$$They didn't care. And my parents paid the same amount of taxes as the white children's parents, but that is how things operated, you know, when I was, when I was young. And so it, it was, it was a issue, but you know, the school board is all white; the mayor is all white; the city council [Atlanta City Council] is all white, you know. I mean, there was--it wasn't until there got to be more momentum in the Civil Rights Movement that these things became--you know, but I had horrible, horrible facilities and, and, and, and you know, just thrown out stuff.$$Yeah.$$The school building wasn't so horrible, but the fa- you know, but we had to work with. But the lesson was: when you hit hard places, when you hit hard places in your life, and there are gonna be torn pages in life's book, whether it's racism or sexism or ageism, or whatever-ism, you know, poverty, whatever it is, that's when you have to write your own story, that's when you have to dig deep and not continue to function as a victim, but how do you figure out how you're gonna be victorious. And that is a valuable gift that my father gave me. And in honor of him, when I was a commencement speaker--what year was that? I'll have to think of that in a minute--at Clark Atlanta University [Atlanta, Georgia], I told that class that story because I said that that was such a special gift from my father, because see, I was told I could do anything. I did not grow up believing that being a little colored girl in the Deep South was a curse, 'cause my daddy told me; my mama told--you know, I heard positive reinforcement from my teachers and people at church [Providence Missionary Baptist Church, Atlanta, Georgia] and my neighbors, and you know, and so I grew up believing that, that I could do anything, you know. And that is the message that I think that people have to hear from my dad's story, my dad's gift, my life lesson, is that we have to write our own stories--$$Sure. Did (simultaneous)--$$--(simultaneous) and why I'm so honored to be interviewed by HistoryMakers [The HistoryMakers], because you're preserving--$$Well, it's--the honor is ours (laughter).$$--our stories.

The Honorable Gabrielle Kirk McDonald

Judge Gabrielle Kirk McDonald was born on April 12, 1942 in St. Paul, Minnesota to James Kirk and Frances English. McDonald was raised in Manhattan, New York and in Teaneck, New Jersey, where she graduated from Teaneck High School in 1959. In the early 1960s, she attended Boston University and Hunter College. She then went on to attend Howard University School of Law, where she was Notes Editor for the Howard Law Journal and received several academic awards. McDonald graduated cum laude and first in her class with her LL.B. degree in 1966.

Upon graduation, McDonald was hired as a staff attorney for the NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund, Inc. From 1969 to 1979, she was a founding partner, with her then-husband, attorney Mark T. McDonald, of the Houston, Texas law firm of McDonald & McDonald. While in private practice, she also taught law as an assistant professor at the Thurgood Marshall School of Law, Texas Southern University, and then as a lecturer at the University of Texas School of Law.

In 1979, McDonald was appointed as a judge on the United States District Court for the Southern District of Texas. She was the first African American to be appointed to the federal bench in Texas (and the South) and only the third African American woman federal judge in the country. McDonald resigned from the bench in 1988 and joined the law firm of Matthews & Branscomb. She also returned to academia, teaching first at St. Mary’s University School of Law, and then at the Thurgood Marshall School of Law. In 1991, she became counsel to the law firm of Walker & Satterthwaite, and later served as Special Counsel to the Chairman on Human Rights for Freeport-McMoRan, Inc.

In 1993, McDonald received the highest number of votes from the General Assembly of the United Nations and served as one of eleven judges on the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia. In 1997, she became the Tribunal’s president. Then, in 2001, McDonald was called to serve as an arbitrator on the Iran-United States Claims Tribunal in The Hague, Netherlands, where she remained until her retirement in 2013.

Her publications include the co-edited volume, Substantive and Procedural Aspects of International Criminal Law: The Experience of International and National Courts, and numerous articles including The International Criminal Tribunals: Crime and Punishment in the International Arena, and Problems, Obstacles and Achievements of the ICTY.

McDonald was a member of the Board of Trustees of Howard University for twenty-three years. She also served on boards for the American Bar Association Human Rights Center and the American Arbitration Association, as well as on the Genocide Prevention Task Force. In 2014, she was elected Honorary President of the American Society of International Law. Her honors include the National Bar Association's first Equal Justice and Ronald Brown International Law Awards; the American Society of International Law's Goler T. Butcher Award for Human Rights; the Open Society Institute's first Women Groundbreakers in International Justice Award; the Dorothy Height Lifetime Achievement Award; and the Doctor of Laws Honoris Causa from several institutions. She was inducted into the Texas Women’s Hall of Fame in 1993 and the National Bar Association Hall of Fame in 2008.

McDonald has two children, Michael and Stacy, who are both lawyers.

Gabrielle Kirk McDonald was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on August 27, 2014.

Accession Number

A2014.184

Sex

Female

Interview Date

8/27/2014

Last Name

McDonald

Maker Category
Marital Status

Divorced

Middle Name

Kirk

Occupation
Schools

Howard University School of Law

Hunter College

Boston University

Teaneck Senior High School

The Manumit School

JHS 101

Ps 108 Philip J Abinanti School

St Peter Claver School

First Name

Gabrielle

Birth City, State, Country

St. Paul

HM ID

MCD07

State

Minnesota

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Birth Date

4/12/1942

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New York

Country

United States

Short Description

Judge and educator The Honorable Gabrielle Kirk McDonald (1942 - ) was the first African American to be appointed to the federal bench in Texas and the third African American woman federal judge in the country. She also served as a judge on the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, and as an arbitrator on the Iran-United States Claims Tribunal.

Employment

NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund, Inc.

McDonald & McDonald

Texas Southern University Thurgood Marshall School of Law

University of Texas School of Law

United States District Court for the Southern District of Texas

Matthews & Branscomb

St. Mary's University School of Law

Walker & Satterthwaite

Freeport-McMoRan, Inc.

International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia

Iran-United States Claims Tribunal

The Honorable Kenneth M. Hoyt

Judge Kenneth Michael Hoyt was born on March 2, 1948 in San Augustine County, Texas. His father, Earl, was a barber; his mother, Fannie, a beautician. Hoyt attended Lincoln Elementary School and Lincoln High School, both in San Augustine, Texas. He received his A.B. degree from Texas Southern University in 1969 and his J.D. degree from Texas Southern University’s Thurgood Marshall School of Law in 1972, where he served as an editor for the Law Review.

From 1972 to 1981, Hoyt worked as an attorney at the Houston, Texas law firms of Wickliff, King, Hoyt & Jones; Anderson, Hodge, Hoyt & Jones; and Hoyt, Webster, Shepard & Anderson. While practicing law, Hoyt also fulfilled a six year military reserve commitment from 1972 to 1978. In addition, he served as city attorney for Kendleton, Texas and Prairie View, Texas from 1975 until 1981.

In 1981, Governor Bill Clements appointed Hoyt to preside over the 125th Civil District Court of Texas. He also practiced law through his firm, Kenneth M. Hoyt, P.C., from 1982 to 1985. During that time, Hoyt was a member of the faculty of the South Texas College Trial Advocacy Program, and from 1983 to 1984, he was an adjunct professor at the Thurgood Marshall School of Law. From 1985 to 1988, Hoyt served as a justice of the First Court of Appeals of Texas. Then, on November 24, 1987, Hoyt was nominated by President Ronald Reagan to a seat on the United States District Court for the Southern District of Texas. He was confirmed by the United States Senate in March of 1988, and received his commission on April 1, 1988. Hoyt was the second African American federal judge in the state of Texas. He took senior status on March 2, 2013.

Hoyt has received numerous awards, including the City of Kendleton Service Award, the Willie Melton Civic Memorial Award, three Houston Business and Professional Men’s Club awards, the Ethel Ranson Art and Literary Award, the National Black Law Students Association President’s Award, an Institute for Social Justice Award, the Houston Lawyers Association Outstanding Service Award, the Gardere 10th Annual Martin Luther King Oratory Award, San Augustine’s Key to the City Award, the Thurgood Marshall Christian Legal Society Award, an NAACP award, and multiple awards from the Thurgood Marshall School of Law. Hoyt has also served on many state and local bar committees, including the Thurgood Marshall School of Law ABA Blue Ribbon Committee and the Governor’s Blue Ribbon Criminal Justice Corrections Committee.

Hoyt lives in Houston, Texas with his wife, Veola Johnson Hoyt. They have three children: Michael, an economist, Stacy, an educator, and Justin, a chemist.

Kenneth Hoyt was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on March 5, 2014.

Accession Number

A2014.084

Sex

Male

Interview Date

3/5/2014

Last Name

Hoyt

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Michael

Occupation
Schools

Lincoln Elementary School

Lincoln High School

Texas Southern University

Thurgood Marshall School of Law, Texas Southern University

Speakers Bureau

Yes

Speakers Bureau Availability

Days and Evenings

First Name

Kenneth

Birth City, State, Country

San Augustine County

HM ID

HOY01

Speakers Bureau Preferred Audience

Youth, Teens and Seniors

Speakers Bureau Honorarium

No

State

Texas

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Texas

Birth Date

3/2/1948

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Houston

Country

United States

Short Description

Judge The Honorable Kenneth M. Hoyt (1948 - ) was the second African American to be named a federal judge in the state of Texas. He served on the United States District Court for the Southern District of Texas.

Employment

U.S. Federal Courts

Texas Appellate Courts

Kenneth M. Hoyt, P.C.

125th Judicial District (TX)

Hoyt, Webster, Shepherd & Anderson

Anderson, Hodge, Hoyt & Jones

Wickliff, King, Hoyt & Anderson

Sears, Roebuck and Co.

Texas Southern University

W. Bell & Co.

Fairway Farm Club

The Honorable C. Ellen Connally

Judge C. Ellen Connally was born on January 26, 1945 in Cleveland, Ohio to George and Gwendolyn Johnson Connally. She attended St. Thomas Aquinas Elementary School and graduated from the Notre Dame Academy in Cleveland, Ohio in 1963. Connally received her B.S. degree in social studies from Bowling Green State University in 1967, and her J.D. degree from Cleveland State University in 1970.

In 1971, Connally was hired as a law clerk for Ohio’s 8th District Court of Appeals. From 1972 to 1979, she worked as a trial referee in the Probate Division of the Cuyahoga County Court of Common Pleas. In 1980, Connally was elected a judge of the Cleveland Municipal Court and became the first African American female elected judge in Ohio without being first appointed. She was re-elected in 1985, 1991 and 1997.

In 1998, Connally received her M.A. degree in American history from Cleveland State University. She then went on to attend Akron University and completed all coursework towards a Ph.D. degree in American history.

In 2004, Connally retired from the Cleveland Municipal Court and ran for chief justice of the Ohio Supreme Court. She then worked as an adjunct professor of history at Ursuline College from 2005 to 2006, and as a visiting and adjunct professor of law at the University of Akron College of Law from 2006 to 2008. In 2009, she was appointed special prosecutor for the City of Cleveland. In 2010, Connally was elected to the Cuyahoga City Council, the legislative branch of the county government, and was elected president of the council in 2010 and re-elected in 2012.

Connally has served as president of the Board of Trustees of Bowling Green State University, president of the Board of Trustees of the Breast Cancer Fund of Ohio, vice president of the Board of Community Action Against Addiction, vice president for Traffic Safety - Greater Cleveland Safety Council, and president of the Northern Ohio Municipal Judges Association. In addition, Connally served on the Mayor’s Task Force on Violent Crime, and on the Executive Committee of the Cleveland Civil War Roundtable. She has also been a member of numerous boards, including the Cleveland Bar Foundation, the Cleveland Society for the Blind, the Legal Aid Society of Cleveland, the Cleveland Public Theater, the Girls and Boys Club of Cleveland, and the Ohio Judicial College. A long time student of the Kennedy Assassination, Connally currently lectures on the subject in programs of continuing legal education and currently serves on the Board of Trustees of the Ohio Historical Society and the Cleveland State University Foundation Board.

Connally has received the 1997 Achievement Award from Cleveland State University’s History Department; a 1999 Certificate of Special Appreciation from Mothers Against Drunk Driving; the 2001 Alumni of the Year Award from the Cleveland Marshall College of Law; the Cuyahoga County Criminal Defense Lawyers Association’s John J. McMahon Outstanding Jurist Award; and 2004’s National Legacy Award, presented by Councilman Zachary Reed.

Connally lives in the Shaker Square area of Cleveland with her two rescue dogs. She is the mother of one son, Seth, an Iraq War Veteran.

C. Ellen Connally was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on February 14, 2014.

Accession Number

A2014.070

Sex

Female

Interview Date

2/14/2014

Last Name

Connally

Maker Category
Marital Status

Single

Middle Name

Ellen

Occupation
Schools

St Thomas Aquinas School

Notre Dame-Cathedral Latin School

Bowling Green State University

Cleveland-Marshall College of Law

Cleveland State University

University of Akron

National Judicial College

First Name

Cecelia

Birth City, State, Country

Cleveland

HM ID

CON06

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Ohio

Favorite Vacation Destination

None

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Ohio

Birth Date

1/26/1945

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Cleveland

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Potato Chips

Short Description

Judge The Honorable C. Ellen Connally (1945 - ) served as a judge of the Cleveland Municipal Court from 1980 to 2004. She was the first African American female judge elected in Ohio without first being appointed.

Employment

Connally Insurance Agency

Carl J. Character and Samuel S. Perry

Law Department of the City of Cleveland

Cuyahoga County Court of Appeals - Judge Alvin I Krenzler

Cuyahoga County Court of Common Pleas - Probate Division

Cleveland Municipal Court

City of Cleveland's Fair Election's Committee

Ursuline College

City of Cleveland

University of Akron College of Law

Cuyahoga County Council

Cuyahoga Grand Jury

East Cleveland Municipal Court; South Euclid Municipal Court

General Election for Chief Justice of the Ohio Supreme Court

Nominee for Chief Justice of the Ohio Supreme Court

Court's Personnel

Probation Committee

Favorite Color

Orange

Timing Pairs
0,0:355,9:2911,74:3408,82:3976,149:7211,191:7616,348:21467,592:21872,598:22601,620:23330,630:24464,678:32874,794:33544,805:34817,831:35286,839:36090,858:36358,874:38100,911:41651,1030:41986,1036:42522,1045:44264,1111:52468,1276:53920,1309:54316,1321:58408,1428:58738,1434:59200,1443:64758,1481:68284,1551:68858,1654:80975,1811:81371,1816:88004,2173:96855,2411:103485,2638:108698,2685:136280,3100$0,0:5390,172:5950,181:7840,235:10710,355:11130,362:14010,369:19120,504:19485,512:20069,559:22478,618:28245,778:29340,806:36056,944:41700,954:42992,996:57508,1256:68156,1418:68896,1529:69932,1553:73877,1579:75556,1616:81031,1746:86068,1889:86579,1898:87163,1907:87966,1924:93936,1988:94241,1994:94790,2006:97108,2093:99060,2157:99487,2165:99914,2174:111320,2345:119756,2523:120668,2651:128825,2803:130550,2841:137150,2991:139025,3024:140600,3071:141050,3078:145325,3178:146300,3236:147275,3256:151950,3332:161270,3462
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of The Honorable C. Ellen Connally's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - The Honorable C. Ellen Connally lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - The Honorable C. Ellen Connally describes her mother's family background, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - The Honorable C. Ellen Connally describes how her maternal grandparents met

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - The Honorable C. Ellen Connally talks about her mother's education

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - The Honorable C. Ellen Connally describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - The Honorable C. Ellen Connally talks about her father's education at the Tuskegee Institute

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - The Honorable C. Ellen Connally describes her father's career, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - The Honorable C. Ellen Connally describes how her parents met and their personalities

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - The Honorable C. Ellen Connally describes her father's career, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - The Honorable C. Ellen Connally remembers her family's first home in Cleveland, Ohio

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - The Honorable C. Ellen Connally describes the Glenville neighborhood of Cleveland, Ohio

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - The Honorable C. Ellen Connally talks about her early education in Catholic schools

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - The Honorable C. Ellen Connally remembers the politicians from Ohio during her youth

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - The Honorable C. Ellen Connally remembers the St. Thomas Aguinas School in Cleveland, Ohio

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - The Honorable C. Ellen Connally describes her extracurricular activities

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - The Honorable C. Ellen Connally describes her family's summer vacations

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - The Honorable C. Ellen Connally recalls her early political influences

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - The Honorable C. Ellen Connally recalls her decision to attend Bowling Green University in Bowling Green, Ohio

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - The Honorable C. Ellen Connally remembers her first impressions of Bowling Green University

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - The Honorable C. Ellen Connally describes her activities at Bowling Green University

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - The Honorable C. Ellen Connally remembers President John Fitzgerald Kennedy's assassination, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - The Honorable C. Ellen Connally remembers President John Fitzgerald Kennedy's assassination, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - The Honorable C. Ellen Connally talks about the response to the Warren Commission

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - The Honorable C. Ellen Connally remembers graduating from Bowling Green University in Bowling Green, Ohio

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - The Honorable C. Ellen Connally recalls the election of Cleveland Mayor Carl Stokes

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - The Honorable C. Ellen Connally recalls a scandal in Mayor Carl Stokes' administration

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - The Honorable C. Ellen Connally describes her experiences at Cleveland-Marshall College of Law in Cleveland, Ohio

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - The Honorable C. Ellen Connally remembers her early legal career

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - The Honorable C. Ellen Connally describes her clerkship for Judge Alvin Krenzler

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - The Honorable C. Ellen Connally recalls her election to the Cleveland Municipal Court

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - The Honorable C. Ellen Connally describes her early experiences as a judge

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - The Honorable C. Ellen Connally remembers a domestic violence case

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - The Honorable C. Ellen Connally recalls her motivation to run for judicial office

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - The Honorable C. Ellen Connally talks about ruling on prostitution cases

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - The Honorable C. Ellen Connally talks about her efforts to rule fairly as a judge

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - The Honorable C. Ellen Connally describes her judicial philosophy

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - The Honorable C. Ellen Connally talks about Carl Stokes' time as a judge

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - The Honorable C. Ellen Connally describes her graduate studies

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - The Honorable C. Ellen Connally talks about prominent civil rights cases

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - The Honorable C. Ellen Connally talks about Jefferson Davis, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - The Honorable C. Ellen Connally talks about Jefferson Davis, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - The Honorable C. Ellen Connally talks about her campaign for chief justice of the Supreme Court of Ohio

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - The Honorable C. Ellen Connally recalls her experiences as a special prosecutor for Cleveland, Ohio

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - The Honorable C. Ellen Connally talks about the discrepancies in criminal sentencing

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - The Honorable C. Ellen Connally talks about her election as president of the Cuyahoga County Council

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - The Honorable C. Ellen Connally talks about her work with the Ohio Historical Society

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - The Honorable C. Ellen Connally talks about her editorial work

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - The Honorable C. Ellen Connally shares her views on the Ohio Democratic Party

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - The Honorable C. Ellen Connally describes her concerns for the African American community in Cleveland, Ohio

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - The Honorable C. Ellen Connally reflects upon the education system in Cleveland, Ohio

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - The Honorable C. Ellen Connally talks about her plans for the future

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - The Honorable C. Ellen Connally reflects upon President John Fitzgerald Kennedy's assassination

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - The Honorable C. Ellen Connally reflects upon her life

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - The Honorable C. Ellen Connally reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - The Honorable C. Ellen Connally describes her family

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - The Honorable C. Ellen Connally talks about her relatives who passed for white

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - The Honorable C. Ellen Connally describes how she would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$6

DAStory

3$1

DATitle
The Honorable C. Ellen Connally talks about her efforts to rule fairly as a judge
The Honorable C. Ellen Connally reflects upon President John Fitzgerald Kennedy's assassination
Transcript
And now, this is not a prostitution story, but I was going--I went to the federal building [Anthony J. Celebrezze Federal Building, Cleveland, Ohio] about two years, year and a half, and the guard said--you have to show your ID. And he goes, "I know who you are. You can go on in." And I go, "Like, did I do something wrong?" He says, "No," he said, "no. You gave me a break." He says, "I have this job because you gave me a break." He said, "I won't tell you what it was." He said, "But you were fair and you gave me a break, and I was able to get this job." So, you know, some kid would come in, and he had a marijuana charge, and, you know, he didn't have any other record, and he seemed like a good kid going to school. I'd say, you know, what, prosecutor, can you give the guy a disorderly conduct and he'll pay the maximum fine, and he won't have that mari- that drug charge. Because you know, thirty years from now, something comes up. You got a drug charge on you. So, you know, the people that can go to the first offender program. You know, the kid is going to go in the [U.S. military] service, and they got--he's got, you know, some kind of a little disorderly conduct, similar charge. Say, you know what? Can we put him through the first-offender program? He's got his recruiter here. He's going to the service. He'll be gone. You know, we get him through in a week or so (unclear). So I think those kinds of things, you know, are--a judge can do that, you know, you can, you can help somebody. These are not people that killed somebody. Now, if you killed a dog, that's it, maximum sentence.$$You had some cases like that, huh.$$Oh, yeah. Oh, yeah. If you did something to a dog, the prosecutors would all be praying that I would get the case because I, I, you know, it's very hard for me to be fair to somebody--not fair--I'm fair, but be lenient on someone that does something to an animal.$$Okay. So not just dogs, but--$$Oh, yeah. Any kind of animal.$$Any animal. Did you have to deal with--I know Ohio at one time had more exotic animals than any other state.$$You know, we never had any of those. I never had any of those. Those are more out in the suburbs, yeah. I know because I went to a conference when I first became a judge, and they were talking about a wildlife violation. I thought they were talking about prostitution. They were like, no, no, like that jack lighting deer. Like, what the hell is jack lighting deer? You go out like you shine a light up and it scares the deer, and they freeze and you can shoot them or something. I was like, I was like I didn't know what that was.$$That's the first time I've heard of that.$$Yeah. It's called jack (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) What-- what's this--$$--lighting deer.$$Okay. So it makes them easier to shoot, just--$$Yeah. Because you, you--$$It freezes.$$--you shine the light in their eye, and the deer freezes, and you can shoot them.$$Oh, oh.$$Which is horrible.$$Yeah. It's really not sport (unclear) (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) Killing Bambi, you know.$$Yeah. Right.$Yeah. Well, I was, I was asking you about the psychic effect. I mean, the (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Well, here, here's my--$$--the effect to, to the psyche of the American people of the--$$Here's, here's my presentation that, that the other assassinations when Lincoln [President Abraham Lincoln] dies, Booth [John Wilkes Booth] is killed within eleven days. When Garfield [President James Abram Garfield] is shot, Guiteau [Charles J. Guiteau] is arrested immediately, and he's ultimately hung after a trial. And, you know, he says that, you know, he's a disgruntled officer, so there's a logic behind--not logic, but, you know, people know. And then Czolgosz [Leon Czolgosz], who actually lived here in Cleveland [Ohio] shot McKinley [President William McKinley]. He's an anarchist and he's, he's hung within, I don't know, like a month or something. And then there's some other attacks on, on presidents, and there's very swift justice. Well, and they're all in plain view. You know, walk up to McKinley, shoot him. Walk up to Garfield, shoot him. But, you know, you got Oswald [Lee Harvey Oswald], you know, he shoots from the window, and, there's--now, there are actually eyewitness that see him shooting out the window, but they get always kind of lost in the shuffle, but--so no one ever knows the motive, and then, you know, when Ruby [Jack Ruby] shoots Oswald, you know, and then there's all this, you know, the, the trial is in the media, and, and Ruby is the executioner, so it, it affects the psyche that no one--there's no finality. There's no due process, and there's no finality, so people are, are wonderi- are never probably going to be satisfied, so that's why we like to--you know, there's me and these other people kind of like to get the word out, the anti--'cause conspiracy people--'cause I've written to a number of historians. They're like, why have the academic community really abandoned the Kennedy assassination? Because it's kind of been taken over by the crazies, and it's, it's hard to argue with them, you know. You have all your evidence there, and they come up with like, you know, well, this guy was walking down the street, and Oswald was like living in the same town, so, therefore, there must be a conspiracy.$$What, what did the Kennedy era mean to you and those who--I mean, writing about the assassination is one thing, but what did that era mean?$$I just remembered that was the first president that I had ever campaigned for. And I think I told you earlier that I went to my aunt's house, and she's this old line Republican, and she's got these Nixon [President Richard Milhous Nixon] signs on her door. I was like, what is this? So I remember that I had Kennedy buttons and my mom [Gwendolyn Johnson Connally] had never worked at the polls, and she actually worked at the polls the whole night that--counting votes, you know, for Kennedy, so I just remember, you know, kind of going--rushing home from school and watching press conferences and, you know, always, you know--we all wore like kind of the Jackie Kennedy [Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis] clothing, and it was just--you know, after this kind of stodgy Eisenhower [President Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower], who just kind of played golf. You know, it was exciting. You know, the, the whole Kennedy era was exciting, and so, you know, when he, when he dies, it's just--it's like a relative or something died. It just changed everything.

The Honorable Justin Johnson

Pennsylvania Superior Court judge Justin Morris Johnson was born on August 19, 1933, in Wilkinsburg, Pennsylvania, to Irene and Oliver Johnson. He received his A.B. degree from the University of Chicago in 1954, where he graduated with a Bond Medal. Johnson served in the United States Air Force from 1956 to 1959 as an aircraft commander, and from 1963 to 1973 as a major. In 1962, Johnson received his J.D. degree from the University of Chicago.

Upon graduation from law school, Johnson worked for the firm of Johnson, Johnson & Johnson, where he eventually became a partner and sole proprietor. After fifteen years at the law firm, Johnson became the assistant solicitor and assistant secretary for the Pittsburgh and Pittsburgh-Mt. Oliver board of education. He remained in that capacity until he became a partner at Berkman, Ruslander, Pohl, Liber & Engel from 1978 to 1980. In 1980, Johnson was appointed to the Pennsylvania Superior Court, making him the second African American judge appointed to Pennsylvania’s Superior Court in twenty-seven years. While on the bench, Johnson served as an adjunct professor at Duquesne University Law School.

Johnson has served on the board of trustees for Mercy Hospital, Southside Hospital, United Way of Allegheny Company, and Princeton Theological Seminary, and is a life trustee of Carnegie Mellon University. He was chairman of the Pennsylvania Board of Examiners from 1983 to 1989.

Johnson is the recipient of the Martin Luther King, Jr., Citizen’s Award; Top Hat Award for distinguished judicial services; Homer S. Brown Service Award; Presidents Award by the Pennsylvania Trial Lawyers Association; Award of Merit by the Pittsburgh Young Adult Club; and the Man of the Year Award from Bethesda Presbyterian Church.

Johnson is the father of three children and resides in Pittsburgh with his wife, Florence.

Accession Number

A2008.101

Sex

Male

Interview Date

8/11/2008

Last Name

Johnson

Maker Category
Middle Name

M.

Occupation
Organizations
Schools

Johnston Elementary School

Wilkinsburg High School

University of Chicago

University of Chicago Law School

First Name

Justin

Birth City, State, Country

Wilkinsburg

HM ID

JOH35

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Pennsylvania

Favorite Vacation Destination

None

Favorite Quote

Choose This Day And We Shall Serve. As For Me And My House, We Will Serve The Lord.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Pennsylvania

Birth Date

8/19/1933

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Pittsburgh

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Ice Cream

Short Description

Judge The Honorable Justin Johnson (1933 - ) was the second African American judge appointed to Pennsylvania’s Superior Court in twenty-seven years. He was chairman of the Pennsylvania Board of Examiners from 1983 to 1989, and a trustee of Carnegie Mellon University and Princeton Theological Seminary.

Employment

United States Air Force

National Bar Association

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:17728,236:26699,431:27238,439:31242,566:32320,585:33937,610:34399,617:35092,630:42751,694:47399,772:49308,796:49640,801:50719,815:60657,918:61394,930:61662,935:61997,941:68295,1107:69836,1132:70171,1138:70707,1148:70975,1153:78121,1218:78456,1224:79260,1242:79528,1247:80131,1259:80600,1268:81605,1290:84486,1347:86295,1394:86630,1402:98455,1625:98715,1630:98975,1635:100925,1676:112730,1885:113718,1933:120634,2018:121698,2036:122990,2057:123294,2062:135426,2207:136362,2219:141760,2280$0,0:1824,39:6840,139:10108,206:21980,347:22780,361:23660,371:24140,380:25900,423:27020,433:27660,444:28540,457:29260,469:29900,479:34060,553:43430,676:44340,686:45810,714:48120,749:51200,811:53300,859:56450,912:56800,918:62692,969:63210,978:70018,1130:70314,1135:73691,1199:73975,1204:74330,1211:80152,1336:81785,1366:83702,1420:84341,1432:85122,1447:85548,1454:86045,1464:86542,1472:95460,1607:96612,1628:98628,1684:99276,1700:105567,1807:106395,1824:108051,1890:117573,2091:120333,2163:120609,2168:127000,2209:127595,2218:128275,2227:134470,2315:136140,2354
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of The Honorable Justin Johnson's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - The Honorable Justin Johnson lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - The Honorable Justin Johnson talks about his maternal grandfather

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - The Honorable Justin Johnson describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - The Honorable Justin Johnson talks about his mother's upbringing

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - The Honorable Justin Johnson describes his mother's education

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - The Honorable Justin Johnson describes the origins of his father's name

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - The Honorable Justin Johnson describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - The Honorable Justin Johnson talks about his father's education

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - The Honorable Justin Johnson describes his father's U.S. military service

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - The Honorable Justin Johnson describes his father's education at the University of Pittsburgh School of Law

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - The Honorable Justin Johnson describes how his parents met

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - The Honorable Justin Johnson describes his parents' personalities and his likeness to them

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - The Honorable Justin Johnson describes his father's legal practice

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - The Honorable Justin Johnson describes his parents' marriage

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - The Honorable Justin Johnson remembers the African American attorneys in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - The Honorable Justin Johnson describes his earliest childhood memories

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - The Honorable Justin Johnson recalls the death of his oldest brother

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - The Honorable Justin Johnson lists his siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - The Honorable Justin Johnson describes race relations in Wilkinsburg, Pennsylvania

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - The Honorable Justin Johnson describes the sights and smells of his childhood

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - The Honorable Justin Johnson recalls attending the St. Mark A.M.E. Church in Wilkinsburg, Pennsylvania

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - The Honorable Justin Johnson recalls his interest in the ministry

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - The Honorable Justin Johnson describes his religious influences

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - The Honorable Justin Johnson describes his social life during high school

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - The Honorable Justin Johnson talks about his experiences of racial discrimination

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - The Honorable Justin Johnson recalls his influential teachers

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - The Honorable Justin Johnson remembers the music of his youth

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - The Honorable Justin Johnson recalls the integrated theaters in Wilkinsburg, Pennsylvania

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - The Honorable Justin Johnson describes segregation in Wilkinsburg, Pennsylvania

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - The Honorable Justin Johnson recalls his disinterest in becoming a lawyer

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - The Honorable Justin Johnson recalls his interest in pilotry

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - The Honorable Justin Johnson remembers matriculating at the University of Chicago

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - The Honorable Justin Johnson describes the black professional community in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - The Honorable Justin Johnson describes his social life at the University of Chicago

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - The Honorable Justin Johnson recalls the protests at the University of Chicago

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - The Honorable Justin Johnson remembers his friendship with Fred Hubbard

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - The Honorable Justin Johnson recalls the center of black social life at the University of Chicago

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - The Honorable Justin Johnson describes his academic experiences at the University of Chicago

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - The Honorable Justin Johnson recalls his decision to enlist in the U.S. Air Force

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - The Honorable Justin Johnson remembers his training in the U.S. Air Force

Tape: 4 Story: 12 - The Honorable Justin Johnson talks about his brother's experience in the U.S. Air Force

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - The Honorable Justin Johnson recalls his residence in Honolulu, Hawaii

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - The Honorable Justin Johnson recalls meeting and marrying his wife

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - The Honorable Justin Johnson recalls the birth of his first child

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - The Honorable Justin Johnson recalls working at the post office

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - The Honorable Justin Johnson recalls interviewing for a clerkship with Judge Raymond Pace Alexander

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - The Honorable Justin Johnson recalls his brother's civil rights activities

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - The Honorable Justin Johnson remembers representing civil rights protesters

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - The Honorable Justin Johnson describes his brother, Livingstone Johnson

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - The Honorable Justin Johnson describes the United Negro Protest Committee

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$3

DAStory

7$10

DATitle
The Honorable Justin Johnson recalls his influential teachers
The Honorable Justin Johnson describes segregation in Wilkinsburg, Pennsylvania
Transcript
Now, were there any teachers in school, or, well, who were your--yeah (simultaneous)$$(Simultaneous) I had one teacher in school whom I really--two. Two. Really loved and admired. One was Gwen Mothersbaugh who was a counselor in the high school [Wilkinsburg High School, Wilkinsburg, Pennsylvania]. And I'll go to the end and then come back. When she was in a nursing home in Wilkinsburg [Pennsylvania], coincidentally, maybe fifteen years ago, she would have been up in years, needless to say. Florence [Johnson's wife, Florence Lester Johnson] and I went to visit her, and she remembered me. And I'll always remember her because, as I remembered, Gwen Mothersbaugh was one of very few people in the high school who saw me as an individual, and who saw that I had potential. And she may have come to me to apologize about my not going to the dance. She may have, I, I know that it was clear to me she saw me differently than other members of the faculty, and I'll always remember her as being a genuine person. And I certainly wouldn't have gone to the nursing home to see her if she'd just been another person. And the other person in high school was Irma Hamilton who was my Latin teacher. I had, I had three years of Latin in high school, two years of Spanish. It was Mrs. Hamilton who encouraged me to apply to the University of Chicago [Chicago, Illinois]. Had she not done that, I probably would have matriculated at Howard University [Washington, D.C.] where both my father [Oliver Johnson] and my brother, Livingstone [Livingstone Johnson], had gone. And I, I don't want to be misunderstood as saying that that wouldn't have been a good education, but certainly the opportunity to go to Chicago, which, on an academic scholarship, my parents wouldn't have had that kind of money. But the opportunity to go to Chicago, was something that, everybody doesn't get that chance, and I'm just fortunate. I'm happy that I had that chance to go to a school where you could meet people from around the country, and from other countries, who were primarily occupied with trying to get a good education, or trying to have some fun. But it was, it was more the development of their individual potentials, which may not have been true (laughter) at Howard University.$Now, did, did black folks sit anywhere they wanted in the theater?$$Yeah. I--that never occurred to me. Yeah, yeah. Well, there weren't that many black folks. And I'm trying to think if the--apart from that bowling alley--oh, now let me be clear. I was gonna say apart from the bowling alley there was no disres- that's not true. We knew as young Johnson children, that you could go into Isaly's [Isaly's LLC]. Now, this is a large, ice cream dairy, which is no longer in business. They, they sold the name, so someone else is using the Isoly's name, but we had two Isaly's in Wilkinsburg [Pennsylvania], and they were throughout Alleghany County [Pennsylvania]. You could buy deli stuff in there and ice cream, et cetera. We knew that we could go in there and order a sandwich. But if you ordered a sandwich, we weren't supposed to, or we weren't allowed to, sit in one of the chairs in Isaly's. We would have to take it out. You could go in and order as much ice cream or chip chopped ham, or whatever that you wanted, but you weren't allowed to sit there. There was a Harvey's Restaurant [ph.] one block from the high school [Wilkinsburg High School, Wilkinsburg, Pennsylvania]. I knew that I could not go into Harvey's to eat. Maybe I could go in to say--I couldn't go in there for any reason, Harvey's Restaurant. Growing up, if I went down to visit my dad [Oliver Johnson] where my dad took me in town to his office, and we wanted lunch, we went up into the Hill District [Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania] to Dimling's [Dimling's Candy Company] or another little tea room, a black tea room, because there was no place in downtown Pittsburgh [Pennsylvania]. Now, this would have been through the '30s [1930s], I want to say through the '40s [1940s], certainly through the '40s [1940s]. You could not eat in downtown Pittsburgh. Donahoe's [Donahoe's Market and Cafeteria], which was like a dairy, where you could buy butter, they'd cut out a--you could buy two pounds of butter in a big slice, you know, 'cause they had tubs of butter. They had tubs of fish and everything fresh. Donahoe's, they had a very nice restaurant on the second floor, only blacks couldn't eat there. There was no place in downtown Pittsburgh that I'm aware of, that blacks could--that was before fast food places. The restaurants, don't even think about it.

The Honorable Hugh Barrington Clarke, Jr.

Judge Hugh Barrington Clarke, Jr. was born on July 14, 1954, in Detroit, Michigan, to Gwendolyn and Hugh Barrington Clarke, Sr. As a young boy, Clarke enjoyed playing baseball and was influenced by Detroit’s “Motown Sound,” often performing in his school’s talent shows. He attended Pattengill Elementary School and Dixon Elementary School before attending Webber Junior High School as an adolescent. In 1967, during a time of great social and political upheaval, Clarke witnessed the Detroit Riots from his front porch. He went on to graduate at the age of sixteen from Cass Technical High School.

In 1971, Clarke enrolled at Oakland Community College. Afterwards, he pursued his B.S. degree in criminal justice at Wayne State University. Clarke followed his career path by attending the Detroit City Police Academy. However, in 1976, due to a lack of city funding, he accepted a managing position at a women’s clothing store before enrolling at Thomas M. Cooley Law School. While in law school, Clarke worked on the drafting of the Revised Michigan Probate Code and various amendments to the Michigan Code of Criminal Procedure. He graduated in 1979 with his J.D. degree and went on to work for the Associate General Counsel for the State Senate. Then, in 1981, Clarke went to work at the law firm of Rosenbaum and Holland. The firm later added another attorney and changed its name to Rosenbaum, Holland, Clarke and Foster. In 1989, Clarke founded Hugh Clarke and Associates and began working on high profile criminal cases including providing legal services for rapper Tupac Shakur and NFL football player Muhsin Muhammad.

In 2000, Clarke married former Olympic track and field silver medalist, Judith Brown. The married couple went on to have a baby boy, Hugh Barrington Clarke, IV. Clarke became a member of the Lansing Board of Education in 2003 and served as its president in 2007. During that time, he served as chair of the superintendent search committee and chair of the personnel search. In 2010, Clarke was appointed as a judge on the 54-A District Court in Lansing, Michigan.

Accession Number

A2008.040

Sex

Male

Interview Date

2/29/2008

Last Name

Clarke

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Barrington

Occupation
Schools

Cass Technical High School

Pattengill Elementary School

Wayne State University

Webber Middle School

Western Michigan University Cooley Law School

First Name

Hugh

Birth City, State, Country

Detroit

HM ID

CLA16

Favorite Season

Summer

Sponsor

Boule Foundation

State

Michigan

Favorite Vacation Destination

Jamaica

Favorite Quote

Grow Up To Be Somebody.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Michigan

Birth Date

7/14/1954

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Lansing

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Goat (Curried)

Short Description

Defense lawyer and judge The Honorable Hugh Barrington Clarke, Jr. (1954 - ) represented high profile clients like rapper Tupac Shakur and NFL football player Mushin Muhammad.

Employment

Hugh B. Clarke and Associates

54-A Judicial District Court

Main Sponsor
Favorite Color

Red

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of The Honorable Hugh Barrington Clarke, Jr.'s interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - The Honorable Hugh Barrington Clarke, Jr. lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - The Honorable Hugh Barrington Clarke, Jr. describes his mother's family background, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - The Honorable Hugh Barrington Clarke, Jr describes his mother's family background, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - The Honorable Hugh Barrington Clarke, Jr. talks about his mother's upbringing

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - The Honorable Hugh Barrington Clarke, Jr. talks about the West Indian immigrant community

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - The Honorable Hugh Barrington Clarke, Jr. describes his father's family background, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - The Honorable Hugh Barrington Clarke remembers his trips to Jamaica

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - The Honorable Hugh Barrington Clarke, Jr. remembers Marcus Garvey

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - The Honorable Hugh Barrington Clarke, Jr. talks about the changes in postcolonial Jamaica

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - The Honorable Hugh Barrington Clarke describes his father's personality

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - The Honorable Hugh Barrington Clarke, Jr. describes his likeness to his father

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - The Honorable Hugh Barrington Clarke, Jr. describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - The Honorable Hugh Barrington Clarke, Jr. remembers his neighborhood on the east side of Detroit, Michigan

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - The Honorable Hugh Barrington Clarke, Jr. remembers his interest in baseball

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - The Honorable Hugh Barrington Clarke, Jr. recalls the fashions of his youth

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - The Honorable Hugh Barrington Clarke, Jr. recalls the notable figures in Detroit, Michigan

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - The Honorable Hugh Barrington Clarke, Jr. remembers the civil unrest in Detroit, Michigan

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - The Honorable Hugh Barrington Clarke, Jr. recalls moving to the northwest side of Detroit, Michigan

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - The Honorable Hugh Barrington Clarke, Jr. remembers the black community in Detroit, Michigan

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - The Honorable Hugh Barrington Clarke, Jr. describes his early education

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - The Honorable Hugh Barrington Clarke, Jr. recalls his experiences of school desegregation, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - The Honorable Hugh Barrington Clarke, Jr. recalls his experiences of school desegregation, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - The Honorable Hugh Barrington Clarke, Jr. remembers Webber Middle School in Detroit, Michigan

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - The Honorable Hugh Barrington Clarke, Jr. describes his teachers at Cass Technical High School in Detroit, Michigan

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - The Honorable Hugh Barrington Clarke, Jr. recalls how he secured a job at the Mutual Benefit Life Insurance Company

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - The Honorable Hugh Barrington Clarke, Jr. describes his social life

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - The Honorable Hugh Barrington Clarke, Jr. recalls his interest in the Black Panther Party

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - The Honorable Hugh Barrington Clarke, Jr. describes his early aspiration to become a lawyer

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - The Honorable Hugh Barrington Clarke, Jr. recalls the Oakland Community College in Farmington Hills, Michigan

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - The Honorable Hugh Barrington Clarke, Jr. remembers his arrest for an unpaid ticket

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - The Honorable Hugh Barrington Clarke, Jr. describes his experiences at the Thomas M. Cooley Law School in Lansing, Michigan, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - The Honorable Hugh Barrington Clarke, Jr. describes his experiences at the Thomas M. Cooley Law School in Lansing, Michigan, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - The Honorable Hugh Barrington recalls the notable figures at the Thomas M. Cooley Law School in Lansing, Michigan

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - The Honorable Hugh Barrington Clarke, Jr. remembers Willie Horton

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - The Honorable Hugh Barrington Clarke, Jr. recalls his start as a criminal defense lawyer

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - The Honorable Hugh Barrington Clarke, Jr. describes the founding of the Lansing Black Lawyers Association

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - The Honorable Hugh Barrington Clarke, Jr. talks about the African American community in Lansing, Michigan

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - The Honorable Hugh Barrington Clarke, Jr. remembers defending Tupac Shakur

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - The Honorable Hugh Barrington Clarke, Jr. remembers representing Muhsin Muhammad

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - The Honorable Hugh Barrington Clarke, Jr. talks about the case of Claude McCollum, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - The Honorable Hugh Barrington Clarke, Jr. talks about the case of Claude McCollum, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - The Honorable Hugh Barrington Clarke, Jr. talks about his presidency of the Lansing Board of Education

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - The Honorable Hugh Barrington Clarke, Jr. describes his concerns for the public schools in Lansing, Michigan

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - The Honorable Hugh Barrington Clarke, Jr. describes his concerns for the African American community

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - The Honorable Hugh Barrington Clarke, Jr. talks about his plans for the future

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - The Honorable Hugh Barrington Clarke, Jr. reflects upon his life

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - The Honorable Hugh Barrington Clarke, Jr. reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - The Honorable Hugh Barrington Clarke, Jr. talks about his family

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - The Honorable Hugh Barrington Clarke, Jr. describes how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - The Honorable Hugh Barrington Clarke, Jr. narrates his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$5

DAStory

7$4

DATitle
The Honorable Hugh Barrington Clarke, Jr. remembers his interest in baseball
The Honorable Hugh Barrington Clarke, Jr. remembers defending Tupac Shakur
Transcript
A lot of it revolved around sports and mostly playing baseball because there were a number of us that lived in the neighborhood, right there on the street, within a few houses of each other. In those days when you went to a ballgame a lot of times you got all your equipment by going to special days at Tiger Stadium [Detroit, Michigan]. They had bat day, they had ball day, they had hat day so usually by sometime in July you had a baseball bat, you had a ball and I don't mean a softball you had an official hardball and you had your hat and we'd play baseball on the street or in the alley behind the house but a lot of times it was right there in the street. We didn't have any parks or schools nearby and during the day you'd play. I know the street had a bend in it at one point and if you hit it down there that far that was just automatically a homerun but if you hit it towards somebody house, man, it was funny you'd watch all the kids scatter and everybody's yelling and hollering no chips on windows and if you didn't want to hit the ball you're the one left standing there. So somebody generally paid your parents a visit to get their window fixed.$$You were playing with a hardball in the street.$$Absolutely but we were good players we could catch, we could throw. I think the difference between kids nowadays we didn't have all those video games but we learned how to take things, make things and play for our self. So if you didn't have a hardball you'd play baseball and if you didn't have anybody to play with that day you played catch. You took a tennis ball and you throw it against the stairs. Well the ball is going to go in a different direction so you learn good lateral movement and you'd watch the Tigers [Detroit Tigers], you wanted to be like Dick McAuliffe and make some of those dives of backhand pickup. Shortstops knew those things and we would immolate those guys when we played. In the '60s [1960s] when Willie Horton who was a big hero in Detroit [Michigan], product of Northwestern High School [Detroit, Michigan] would play number twenty-three and that big bat. I used to love when I got the Willie Horton bat. I didn't like the LK line bats because they were small and a little skinnier but when it was bat day and you got that Willie Horton bat man you had a bat because that was a bigger bat--big fat head on that bat 'cause Willie used to swat them out the ballpark and it was just great when you had one of those. I think some of my fondest memories are bat day at Tiger Stadium because when you'd start to rally, you got maybe ten, twelve however many thousand kids in the stands with a baseball bat pounded that bat up and down the concrete and you would just hear that whole ballpark reverberate, man. I swear sometimes you could see the stadium moving, we just had it rocking and going in there. When you go there in the winter Thanksgiving games I would get to go to as the women in the house were cooking dinner--Thanksgiving dinner and I would go my Uncle Al [Allen Clarke (ph.)] would take me. I remember we'd sit there and it's cold out there and you'd have on your--I don't know how I could even move there 'cause I was so stuffed up with clothes and sitting there kind of like this but it was great to be there. So those are some of the better memories and some of the more fond memories I have.$I want to talk about some of your I guess--there are some noted, notable cases here some are notable because of the people involved more so but just walk us through maybe three cases of some significance (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) I have three clients that stand out. One of them was the late rapper Tupac Shakur; Tupac is a former client. Tupac was on the campus of Michigan State [Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan] several years ago. He did a concert and an incident occurred--$$This is like back in the '90s [1990s] I guess right?$$Yes and an incident occurred where he was arrested and charged with felonious assault which is a four year felony offense. The allegation was he threatened somebody with a baseball bat. I had a young African American woman working for me as my secretary. I remember I came in one day and she was calling me and she was--I came in and she was just so excited to tell me that Watani Tchyemba called from Atlanta, Georgia and wanted me to represent Tupac Shakur and I'm looking at her like who, to do what? I won't take the Fifth [Fifth Amendment], I didn't know who Tupac Shakur was and she was busy trying to explain to me who he was and some of the movies he had done and I said, "Well, okay we'll see." She really encouraged me to take the case. So I called this gentleman back in Atlanta who actually happened to be Mr. Shakur's agent or lawyer and he filled me in on some of the details and I went out to the police station in East Lansing [Michigan] lockup. I talked to him, got him through the arraignment, got him bailed out and we ended up resolving the case over the next few months. It took us a few months because of the notoriety to get the case resolved to where it should have been. It was right after he walked out of court here at a sentencing that he went to New York [New York] to face some criminal sexual conduct charges there that he got convicted in New York. Actually during the trial I believe at one point, he was shot several times but he ended up being convicted of criminal sexual assault in New York and was sentenced to prison. We exchanged a couple of letters during that time. Then there was of course the time he got out and he was in Las Vegas [Nevada] and was shot and killed which was I think unfortunate. It was always let's be on high alert when Tupac was coming 'cause once we got the call--he knew when he had to be here for court appearances. I'd pick him up at the airport and get him settled in the hotel, kind of keep an eye on him and make sure he wasn't getting into any trouble while he was here on my watch.$$What was your impression of Tupac Shakur as a person basically?$$You know if you stripped away that gangster rap persona mentality he was really kind of a quiet, thoughtful guy. We had times to discuss where he wanted his movie career to go, the roles he wanted to play. He wanted to play an attorney; he wanted to play a lawyer in a movie. He didn't mind some of the parts he had undertaken; obviously, it was rather lucrative for him. But he wanted to expand his horizon and kind of get out of that on the acting piece and I just thought that was real interesting some of those kinds of conversations that we would have. But he would come in--he'd come to town, we'd get him checked in the hotel, he'd have a travelling partner with him his road manager I guess he was, and he caused me no trouble, no problems, nothing. I mean it was always fun when he came if he had a new something coming out he'd bring me some demo CDs to listen to and we'd talk--we'd chat about the industry, his life and his music. I think he wanted to turn some things around. He'd expressed concern about his record and I mean his criminal record and we would have some talks and with Tupac you have to kind of leave some of this public nonsense alone. You don't have to emulate and do what you talk about in your music. So we unfortunately just never got a chance to see him fully develop and go in the direction he wanted to go from the film industry point of view.$$Okay you were telling me before we rolled that sometimes when you're angry you play Tupac.$$I do that and I have done that for years. I'll get a little angry and ticked off and if I want to blow off some steam of course a lot of times I make sure there is nobody home or I put my headphones on because obviously some of the language in his songs are kind of raw, misogynistic at times but I'll just put it on and crank it up and just get it out of my system that way. So somehow his music is therapeutic for me.$$And you didn't know who he was in the beginning?$$I had no idea so we went from being a stranger to, to this day he's still kind of my therapist.$$It's interesting at one time you were perpetrating [sic.] being a Panther with the beret and black leather jacket and his mother Afeni Shakur who is a Black Panther [Black Panther Party] in New York (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) Right.