The Nation’s Largest African American Video Oral History Collection Mobile search icon Mobile close search icon
Advanced Biography Search
Mobile navigation icon Close mobile navigation icon

city

Delano Stewart

Lawyer Delano Stewart was born on November 9, 1935 in Tampa, Florida to Beatrice Hill Stewart and Garland V. Stewart. He went on to earn his B.A degree in political science at his father’s alma mater, Morehouse College in Atlanta, Georgia. From there, he attended Howard University School of Law in Washington, D.C., during which time he attended the March on Washington in 1963. He also served in the U.S. Air Force. Upon graduating in 1964, Stewart returned to Tampa, Florida, where he became the first African American board member for the Hillsborough County Young Democrats.

After graduating from Howard’s Law School, Stewart returned to Tampa to enter private practice with Francisco Rodriguez and S.J. Kenneth Rogers. Stewart also became the first African American Assistant Public Defender for the Thirteenth Judicial Circuit in Hillsborough County. Stewart expanded his law practice to add fellow Howard Law graduate George Edgecomb and Arthenia Joyner, the first African American female to practice law in Hillsborough County. Edgecomb became Tampa’s first African American assistant state attorney and county court judge. The local George Edgecomb Bar Association bears his name and awards the Delano Stewart Diversity Award annually. In 1970, Stewart became the first attorney to head an integrated law firm in Florida. His civil rights and activist clients included Otha Favors (Askia Muhammad Aquil) and Connie Tucker. In 1967, Stewart played a critical role when the riots in Tampa ensued after the shooting of teenager Martin Chambers by a white police officer. After fifty years of practicing law, Stewart retired in 2015.

Stewart had a stellar career as a criminal and civil trial lawyer. He served as the first president of the George Edgecomb Bar Association from 1982 to 1983. Stewart was elected as the first African American on the Hillsborough County Bar Association Board of Directors.  He continued his community and political activism by running for the Florida House of Representatives in 1966 and Tampa City Council in 1970. Undeterred by these unsuccessful races, he continued to spend his Saturdays registering African American voters. Stewart is a Founder of the Tampa Organization of Black Affairs (1980), and the first African American member of the Rough Riders civic organization, of which he is a life member. He is also a member of the National Bar Association’s Hall of Fame.

Stewart is married to Carolyn House Stewart, who was the first African American female assistant state’s attorney in Hillsborough County. He has six daughters, eight grandchildren, and one great grandson.

Delano Stewart was interviewed The HistoryMakers on September 10, 2018.

Accession Number

A2018.183

Sex

Male

Interview Date

9/10/2018

Last Name

Stewart

Maker Category
Occupation
Organizations
First Name

Delano

Birth City, State, Country

Tampa

HM ID

STE22

Favorite Season

None

State

Florida

Favorite Vacation Destination

St. Kitts

Favorite Quote

N/A

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Florida

Birth Date

11/9/1935

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Tampa

Country

United States of America

Favorite Food

Fish And Grits

Short Description

Lawyer Delano Stewart (1935 - ) was the first African American assistant public defender in Hillsborough County, where he also ran a successful law firm for fifty years.

Favorite Color

Tan

Jeraldine Williams

Journalist and lawyer Jeraldine Williams was born on January 14, 1946 in Ybor City, Florida to Mildred Williams and Judge Williams. Williams graduated from George S. Middleton High School in 1963, and enrolled at the University of Florida, where she and thirteen other African American students integrated the College of Journalism. Williams received her B.S. degree in journalism and communication in 1967, and was the first African American to be awarded the Hearst Journalism Award. Upon graduating, she accepted a position as a general assignment reporter at The St. Petersburg Times. Williams earned her M.B.A. degree from Atlanta University in 1972.

During the early 1970s, Williams worked as an assistant manager at First Federal Savings and Loan before becoming the first African American female manager of Freedom Savings and Loan in Tampa, Florida in 1973. She also worked as an education planner and state coordinator with the Model Cities Program for the City of Tampa. Williams enrolled at the Florida State University College of Law in 1977, earning her J.D. degree in 1981. She was then hired by the Florida Department of Insurance, where she worked as a staff attorney. In 1982, she became the owner and publisher of the Capitol Outlook newspaper in Tallahassee, Florida. In the early 1990s, Williams moved to South Africa, where she worked as a writer for Ebony - South Africa. She also established Management Consultancies and conceptualized her book Up to the Bottom while living in Johannesburg, South Africa. Upon returning to the United States in the late 1990s, Williams practiced law with her daughter, Salesia Smith-Gordon, in Palm Beach, Florida before moving to Hillsborough County, Florida, where she worked as an attorney in the 13th Judicial Circuit Court.

Williams helped to establish the Greater Tampa Chapter of Jack and Jill of America, Inc., and served on the board of the Bob Gilbertson Central City Family YMCA. She also served on the board of the Joshua House, Infants and Young Children of West Central Florida, Inc. and founded the East Ybor Historic & Civic Association, Inc. She was also a marathon runner, participating in a Lymphoma and Leukemia marathon in 2001, the 60-mile walk for Breast Cancer in 2006, and the Egyptian Pyramids Marathon for Infants and Young Children of West Central Florida, Inc. in 2011. Williams received the Tampa NAACP’s Living Legend Award in 2015 and the Griot Drum Award from the Tampa Bay Association of Black Journalists in 2017.

Williams has one daughter, Salesia Smith-Gordon, one son, Walter L. Smith, II, and one grandson, Walter L. Smith, III.

Jeraldine Williams was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on September 9, 2018.

Accession Number

A2018.182

Sex

Female

Interview Date

9/9/2018

Last Name

Williams

Maker Category
Occupation
Organizations
First Name

Jeraldine

Birth City, State, Country

Tampa

HM ID

WIL86

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Florida

Favorite Vacation Destination

South Africa

Favorite Quote

I Lift Up My Eyes Into The Hills, From Whence Cometh My Help. My Help Cometh From The Lord, Which Made Heaven And Earth.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Florida

Birth Date

1/14/1946

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Tampa

Country

United States of America

Favorite Food

Guava

Short Description

Journalist and lawyer Jeraldine Williams (1946 - ) was the owner of the newspaper Capitol Outlook, in addition to practicing law for over thirty years.

Favorite Color

Earth Tones

Jose Griñan

Broadcast journalist José Griñán was born on July 24, 1952 in Tampa, Florida. His father was a native Cuban; his mother, a first generation Cuban-American. Griñán studied speech and theatre at the University of South Florida, but his interest in broadcasting resulted from his filming and helping to produce documentaries for the U.S. Army.

In 1975, Griñán was hired as a reporter and weekend anchor for KTSM AM-FM-TV in El Paso, Texas. From 1978 to 1982, he worked as a news reporter and anchor for Miami, Florida’s WCKT-TV (now WSVN-TV). Griñán worked as a news anchor for the now defunct Satellite News Channel in 1982 and 1983, before being hired by WTVJ-TV in Miami in 1984, where he stayed until 1990. From 1990 to 1993, he was a correspondent/host for Crime Watch Tonight, and served as a freelance correspondent and researcher for CNN, and other broadcast services. In 1991, he anchored and reported for KDFW-TV in Dallas, Texas, and then, in August of 1993, Griñán joined FOX’s KRIV-TV in Houston, Texas, where he is the senior morning news anchor for the 6:00 a.m., 7:00 a.m., 8:00 a.m. and 12 noon newscasts.

Throughout his career, Griñán has covered major events of all types, including floods, hurricanes, the sewer explosion in Guadalajara, Mexico, and the Branch Davidian siege in Waco, Texas, where he was one of the first reporters on the scene. In addition, Griñán has produced a variety of special series reports, and has hosted two public affairs programs for KRIV-TV: “The Black Voice” and “Hola Houston.”

Griñán has been active in the community and has served as a volunteer for the National Kidney Foundation, The Cystic Fibrosis Foundation, Special Olympics and the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation, among others. Griñán is also a board member of the Dive Pirate Foundation, the Houston READ Commission, and Keep Houston Beautiful/Clean City America.

Griñán has been a member of the National Association of Black Journalists since 1978, and maintains membership in the National Association of Hispanic Journalists and the Southwest Alternate Media Project. He is the father of two adult girls.

José Griñán was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on May 8, 2014.

Accession Number

A2014.132

Sex

Male

Interview Date

5/8/2014

Last Name

Grinan

Maker Category
Schools

University of South Florida

Henry B. Plant High School

Jesuit High School

George Washington Carver Junior High School

Meacham Alternative School

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Jose

Birth City, State, Country

Tampa

HM ID

GRI10

Favorite Season

Christmas

State

Florida

Favorite Vacation Destination

Cayman Brac

Favorite Quote

For All Your Days Prepare, And Meet Them Ever Alike; When You Are The Anvil, Bear; When You Are The Hammer, Strike.$

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Texas

Birth Date

7/24/1952

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Houston

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Latino, Creole

Short Description

Broadcast journalist Jose Griñan (1952 - ) was the senior morning news anchor on KRIV-TV Fox 26, where he worked from 1993.

Employment

KTSM

WCKT-TV (WSVN-TV)

Satellite News Channel

WTVJ-TV

Crime Watch Tonight

CNN

KDFW-TV

KRIV-TV

Favorite Color

Red

Timing Pairs
0,0:1100,10:9248,187:11600,239:12188,248:19720,357:20024,362:20784,374:21316,382:22076,394:22912,409:26408,466:27396,480:28308,494:28688,500:30208,522:32260,551:32716,558:37945,572:38285,577:38880,586:39220,591:39560,596:40240,607:41515,628:43968,641:45336,664:53570,763:53878,768:55572,798:56188,813:57728,846:66760,957:73649,1086:74313,1101:74977,1110:75558,1119:76305,1131:78961,1165:83591,1187:87314,1223:90714,1302:91122,1309:91870,1322:92414,1338:94182,1367:106260,1531:108290,1586:113192,1627:115250,1636:115646,1643:116900,1672:127490,1846:133580,1906:133780,1911:139502,1964:143948,2089:155081,2268:155697,2279:170889,2425:172563,2446:178808,2516:180131,2541:180887,2555:181328,2563:186472,2611:190685,2686:213548,2979:214016,2986:223640,3074:224333,3086:229328,3136:238357,3202:238784,3210:252768,3394:253265,3403:263064,3564:279070,3697:279610,3704:314062,4138:314358,4143:322898,4291:327976,4392:333880,4473$0,0:17523,226:17871,231:21647,279:23190,286:23676,294:24324,304:24648,309:24972,314:28434,348:30259,388:30697,396:31208,405:35323,439:36653,454:40728,473:41330,481:50050,655:56083,739:60980,781:62809,835:63045,840:63812,868:64048,874:64461,882:64756,892:64992,897:65523,909:65759,914:72335,958:78242,1051:79606,1088:80164,1098:80412,1103:81404,1135:81900,1145:82644,1162:84442,1209:84814,1217:85062,1222:86302,1250:92010,1279:92430,1291:99210,1359:101630,1365:102494,1376:111320,1442:114932,1471:115490,1482:115738,1487:115986,1492:116730,1507:126107,1630:129770,1646:130514,1665:131072,1680:131568,1690:132250,1717:132622,1726:133800,1751:141040,1815:142009,1838:143434,1873:144061,1886:144289,1891:146569,1948:151068,1975:152368,2008:153880,2014:164700,2123:169520,2171:170122,2179:171240,2199:171670,2205:179738,2347:180014,2352:180290,2357:180704,2364:181187,2373:183843,2383:184624,2395:185192,2405:185760,2414:188845,2478:192075,2537:192525,2544:195761,2577:198572,2606:228031,2935:237071,2986:241648,3006:244689,3060:247559,3094:248670,3125
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Jose Grinan's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Jose Grinan lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Jose Grinan describes his mother's family background, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Jose Grinan describes his community in Tampa, Florida

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Jose Grinan describes his mother's family background, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Jose Grinan talks about his experiences of discrimination as a black Cuban American

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Jose Grinan describes the history of racial discrimination in Cuba

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Jose Grinan talks about the experiences of black Cubans under Fidel Castro and Fulgencio Batista

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Jose Grinan describes how his parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Jose Grinan talks about his family's roots in Cuba

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Jose Grinan talks about the Spanish American War

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Jose Grinan talks about Antonio Maceo Grajales

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Jose Grinan talks about his mother's education

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Jose Grinan describes his father's family background

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Jose Grinan describes his parents' personalities and who he takes after

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Jose Grinan talks about his father's education and career

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Jose Grinan talks about the brutality of slavery in Cuba

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Jose Grinan lists his siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Jose Grinan describes his home life in Tampa, Florida

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Jose Grinan describes the sights and smells of his childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Jose Grinan remembers Meacham Elementary School in Tampa, Florida

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Jose Grinan remembers visiting Cuba

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Jose Grinan talks about the history of baseball in Tampa, Florida

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Jose Grinan describes his early education

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Jose Grinan remembers his godfather, Francisco A. Rodriguez

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Jose Grinan talks about his experiences at Jesuit High School in Tampa, Florida

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Jose Grinan talks about his mentors and his aspirations to become a lawyer

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Jose Grinan remembers his mentor at Jesuit High School in Tampa, Florida

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Jose Grinan recalls his early exposure to black theater and screen acting

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Jose Grinan remembers the growth of the Black Power movement

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Jose Grinan remembers moving out of his parent's home

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Jose Grinan talks about the counterculture of the early 1970s

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Jose Grinan recalls his draft orders from the U.S. military, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Jose Grinan remembers appearing in 'The Daredevil'

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Jose Grinan recalls his draft orders from the U.S. military, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Jose Grinan describes his start in film production, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Jose Grinan describes his start in film production, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Jose Grinan describes the film production process

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Jose Grinan describes his duties at the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Jose Grinan remembers becoming a reporter at KTSM-TV in El Paso, Texas

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Jose Grinan remembers becoming a radio host at KTSM Radio

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Jose Grinan remembers advocating for undercover officer Frank Percy

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Jose Grinan recalls joining WCKT-TV in Miami, Florida

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Jose Grinan talks about the migration of Cubans to Miami, Florida

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Jose Grinan remembers the riots of 1980 in Miami, Florida

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Jose Grinan recalls working for the Satellite News Channel in Stamford, Connecticut

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Jose Grinan remembers his work on 'Crime Watch Tonight'

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Jose Grinan talks about his first marriage

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Jose Grinan talks about his role as an advocate for minority communities

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Jose Grinan remembers the drug wars in Miami, Florida

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Jose Grinan talks about the height of drugs and crime in Miami, Florida

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Jose Grinan talks about the Mariel boatlift in Miami, Florida

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Jose Grinan remembers Bishop Agustin Roman's peace negotiations at the federal prison in Oakdale, Louisiana

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Jose Grinan recalls the aftermath of the prison riot in Oakdale, Louisiana

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Jose Grinan recalls his transition to KDFW-TV and KRIV-TV in Dallas, Texas

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Jose Grinan remembers the mass killings of the early 1990s

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Jose Grinan remembers the Branch Davidian siege in Waco, Texas

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Jose Grinan remembers joining KRIV-TV in Houston, Texas

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Jose Grinan talks about the local stations affiliated with FOX

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Jose Grinan talks about working at KRIV-TV in Houston, Texas

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Jose Grinan talks about his work with minority journalist organizations

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Jose Grinan remembers covering the Rodney King riots in Los Angeles, California

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Jose Grinan reflects upon his career as a journalist

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Jose Grinan remembers saving a woman from a burning car

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Jose Grinan talks about the aftermath of saving a person's life

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Jose Grinan remembers Hurricane Ike and Hurricane Katrina

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Jose Grinan remembers experiencing a stroke on the air

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Jose Grinan talks about working at KRIV-TV in Houston, Texas

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Jose Grinan talks about the importance of community relationships

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Jose Grinan remembers interviewing Minister Louis Farrakhan

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - Jose Grinan describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - Jose Grinan talks about his father's legacy

Tape: 8 Story: 6 - Jose Grinan talks about his plans to write a book about his mother

Tape: 8 Story: 7 - Jose Grinan reflects upon his life and legacy

Tape: 8 Story: 8 - Jose Grinan talks about his daughters, pt. 1

Tape: 8 Story: 9 - Jose Grinan remembers vacations with his daughters

Tape: 8 Story: 10 - Jose Grinan talks about his daughters, pt. 2

Tape: 8 Story: 11 - Jose Grinan talks about his wife, Kathryn Griffin Grinan

Tape: 8 Story: 12 - Jose Grinan describes how he would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$6

DAStory

11$3

DATitle
Jose Grinan remembers visiting Cuba
Jose Grinan remembers Bishop Agustin Roman's peace negotiations at the federal prison in Oakdale, Louisiana
Transcript
Okay. And meanwhile, now, you're born in '52 [1952]?$$Yes.$$But in, was it '56 1956], that's when the Cuban Revolution ends?$$In '59 [1959].$$Fifty-nine [1959], yeah.$$Yeah.$$The traffic back and forth, you know.$$Well, you used to travel back and forth. In fact, I was there in '58 [1958].$$Okay.$$Before--because my father [Jose Grinan] (laughter)--it's very strange and unusual right now. Because, okay, last year I went to Cuba looking for distant relatives. Because I had addresses and phone numbers that I hadn't called and used in more than twenty years. But I went with the hope that they would still be in the same place. I go back. Yes, I find the grandchildren of the people I knew. And they're amazed that I know so much about them. I knew so much about their grandmother. But what I haven't told them is that, "I think your grandmother was my daddy's girlfriend for a while before he got married to my mother [Sylvia Grillo Grinan]." Because they both came from the same town, Remedios [Cuba], and they both moved to Havana [Cuba]. And they just stayed in touch when they were students going to school, and afterwards. And when I went as a journalist in 1978, I think we had gone to a Cuban prison called El Combinado del Este [Havana, Cuba]. I had gone through a lot of high school yearbooks in Miami [Florida] just to look to see, and see what names--, "Okay, he was captured." So when I went to the prison I could say, "Your name is Yoenio [ph.], no?" "Yes, how do you know that?" "Well, your daddy told me to tell you hello, and he's looking forward to your returning." Emotional moments in a prison. Coming back from the prison we were staying in el Hotel Nacional [Hotel Nacional de Cuba, Havana, Cuba]. At that time, Cubans were not allowed inside. So, we were getting off the bus and this little old lady just stood right in front of me, stopped my path, "You look just like your papa." "Excuse me?" And then she started running down my pedigree. She knew my grandfather [Antonio Grillo], she knew my mother's mother [Amparo Valdez Grillo]; she knew my grandmother on my father's side [Luisa Falero Grinan]. She just knew everybody. And it's like, "Who are you?" "Well, I'm Amelia [ph.]. Don't you remember coming to my house as a child?" "Are you the lady who had canaries?" "Yes, yes." You don't know what stuff like that does to somebody's mind. Very, very, emotional. Because it's tapping into a past that you really didn't know about. Now, I had to bribe a taxi driver to go to her neighborhood, because this was in 1978. You weren't supposed to walk around in Cuba if you were an American. You know, everybody's going to be watching you. And I could tell you some stories about being watched in Cuba. Amelia cooked me rice, beans and pork. And I had to ask her, "Where did you get all of this?" "We have our ways, Jose [HistoryMaker Jose Grinan], we have our ways." And she gave me a silver dollar, a Jose Marti silver dollar [Cuban peso] to give to my father, and I did that when I came back. But Amelia, interesting story. In I want to say the late '30s [1930s] or early 1940s, Communists had truckloads of food, and they would go through neighborhoods. "You want a bag of food? You could feed your family for two weeks with this, but you have to sign this paper." A lot of people signed the paper. In 1960 when Amelia left her house with her bags and went to the airport to get on a plane to go to Miami, they pulled out this piece of paper and said, "Is that your signature?" "Yes, but that was so long ago." "We don't admit Communists to the United States." So, she had to turn around and go back home. Now, if she didn't have her son staying in that house and her grandchildren staying in that house, she would have been homeless, have no place to go to. I asked her in 1980 when I was there, "What happened?" That was '78 [1978]. "What happened to the canaries? You know, I remember some, you know, all these canaries. You had a patio, you had all of these cages--big, two big cages." She said, "Jose, I was not going to let that man profit off my hard work." She's talking about Castro [Fidel Castro]. So, what she did was open all of the cages and let the birds go free. Because she was not, she wouldn't have been able to make any money on them, because the society was changing into a Socialist society.$$Okay.$$So, she said, "You know, I can't be free, but I'll let them go."$So, do you think the drugs and the, you know, there's the connection here (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) The Cocaine Cowboys?$$Yeah, the Cocaine Cowboys and the Mariel situation [Mariel boatlift].$$Because many of those who came from Mariel--and this was, okay, let me explain this. Many of those who came were criminal, but some were not. But they had to engage in criminal activity here in order to feed their families. The guy who negotiated the peace at--it was a federal prison in Oakdale, Louisiana [Federal Correctional Institution, Oakdale]. The guy who negotiated the peace was a lieutenant in the Cuban Navy [Cuban Revolutionary Navy] who defected to come to the U.S. But he couldn't find a job because he didn't have any documents. So, he dealt cocaine. He got arrested, sent to prison. He was getting ready to be sent back, but then they stopped that, because those who were going to be sent back were going to be persecuted. He was a good man, but he had to feed his family, so he did something wrong. And there were a lot of folks who were in the prison who did something like that, got caught, and they were thrown in prison. Now, if they had a job, if they had all of these other things, they would not have had to go to prison. But it was, it was, that was an interesting time. I think that was '88 [1988].$$Okay.$$And then in fact, that ended with Bishop Agustin Roman who--remember when I said sometimes you just have to help people? I should not have done something as a journalist, but I did it as a human being. People in Oakdale, Louisiana, they didn't have Bishop Agustin Roman's personal number. I did, because he was the bishop for the Cubans in Miami [Florida]. I had to have it, because he was one of my contacts. So, I wrote the number down in my book, and I put my book at the end of the table and told Carla Dudeck--and I remember her name because she was the attorney who was representing all of them, "Carla, there may be something down at the end of the table that you could use." And they went, looked, called the bishop, and he was there the next day. And it ended that day. Nobody else got hurt. And it was an amazing thing to see all of these hard core inmates--I mean they had ripped up the inside of the prison. They had made weapons out of the beds; they had done everything. And they were really ready to fight the corrections officers, National Guard [National Guard of the United States], anybody. But they didn't. And when the Bishop came, he got on the back of a pickup truck and rode the circumference around the gate. And it was amazing to see all these tough guys drop their weapons in a pile, get on their knees. And the Bishop blessed them all, went to another group--blessed them all. And they dropped the weapons. Was I wrong in leaving the number? I think I did the right thing, because I didn't want to see a blood bath, and they were ready for a blood bath (pause). I guess I'd think twice about doing it now, but I thought I was helping people. I didn't want to see a massacre, because that's what the National Guard would have done.

Sylvester James Gates, Jr.

Physicist and physics professor Sylvester James Gates, Jr. was born on December 15, 1950 in Tampa, Florida to Charlie Engels and Sylvester James Gates, Sr. His father worked for the U.S. Army, causing the family to move many times. Gates had lived in six cities by the time he reached the sixth grade. His parents always stressed the importance of education and his father bought him a Encyclopedia Britannica set when he was just eight years old, sparking his interest in science. Gates graduated from High School in 1969. With the encouragement of his father, Gates applied and was admitted to Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). He earned his B.S. degrees in mathematics and physics in 1973. Gates remained at MIT for four more years, earning his Ph.D. degree in physics in 1977. His thesis, “Symmetry Principles in Selected Problems of Field Theory,” was the first at MIT to deal with supersymmetry.

In 1977, Gates went on to attend Harvard University as a junior fellow in the Harvard Society of Fellows. He remained at Harvard until 1980, when he moved to California to work as a research fellow with the California Institute of Technology. In 1982, Gates accepted a position as an assistant professor of applied mathematics at MIT. During this time, he also served as director of the Office of Minority Education. Gates joined the University of Maryland as an associate professor of physics in 1984, and became a full professor in 1988. He briefly served as a professor of physics at Howard University from 1990-1993, before returning to teach exclusively at the University of Maryland in 1994. While at Howard, Gates served as the director of the Center for the Study of Terrestrial and Extraterrestrial Atmospheres. In 1998, Gates was named the John S. Toll Professor of Physics at the University of Maryland, becoming the first African American to hold an endowed chair in physics at a major research university in the United States.

Gates’s work in mathematics and theoretical physics has greatly contributed to knowledge about supersymmetry, supergravity and string theory. He has written or co-written over 120 research papers and articles. Working with M.T. Gisaru, M. Rocek, and W. Siegel, Gates co-authored Superspace or 1001 Lessons in Supersymmetry, a standard textbook on the topic of supersymmetry. Gates received numerous honors and awards, including being the first recipient of the American Physical Society’s Edward A. Bouchet Award. In 2009, President Barack Obama named Gates a member of the President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology. In addition to his research, Gates is known for advocating the importance of education and being able to easily explain complex physics theories to a non-physics audience.

Sylvester James Gates, Jr was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on August 30, 2012.

Accession Number

A2012.143

Sex

Male

Interview Date

8/30/2012

Last Name

Gates

Middle Name

James

Schools

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Sylvester

Birth City, State, Country

Tampa

HM ID

GAT02

Favorite Season

Winter

State

Florida

Favorite Vacation Destination

None

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

12/15/1950

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Ham

Short Description

Physicist and physics professor Sylvester James Gates, Jr. (1950 - ) is known for his work in supersymmetry, supergravity and string theory. He co-authored the textbook Superspace or 1001 Lessons in Supersymmetry.

Employment

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

University of Maryland, College Park

Howard University

Harvard University

California Institute of Technology

Favorite Color

Green

Timing Pairs
0,0:7534,75:12349,145:12673,150:13726,175:27380,278:27788,286:28060,291:30345,305:30783,335:31659,350:32389,362:38075,432:38856,445:40631,482:40915,487:41554,499:48346,589:49120,601:50152,623:50840,633:52904,666:59440,722:60028,731:61036,747:64271,767:64595,772:65243,781:67025,809:67430,815:69050,844:69779,856:70346,871:70670,876:74655,887:75645,895:77712,909:83835,977:84215,982:89903,1039:90308,1045:90632,1050:94115,1108:95006,1125:101566,1202:112687,1304:116395,1356:117013,1363:117837,1373:122967,1397:126417,1472:126969,1482:131488,1545:133094,1574:133678,1583:137620,1659:142868,1707:143273,1713:143840,1722:146837,1778:147323,1785:149267,1817:153000,1822:155448,1865:158010,1883:159130,1899:162815,1957:163277,1968:163893,1977:164509,1986:191575,2315:198628,2428:199236,2437:199540,2442:200984,2480:201592,2490:209634,2544:210530,2554:216336,2616:216952,2625:217832,2637:220860,2669:232548,2833:234186,2866:234576,2872:235200,2878:235746,2887:236682,2901:237306,2910:237618,2915:240816,2978:241908,3081:242220,3086:242532,3091:243000,3098:243936,3112:247859,3123:249246,3148:249757,3156:251071,3180:251801,3193:256692,3273:257349,3284:262296,3316:263672,3331:264016,3336:265134,3362:266510,3383:267542,3400:270810,3448:271154,3453:271498,3458:280557,3540:284375,3619:285122,3634:286533,3664:290642,3681:295378,3794:295634,3799:300540,3852$0,0:3794,12:5998,46:17095,200:17620,208:18220,219:19870,244:20320,251:21295,279:22345,299:24145,333:28154,355:28649,361:29540,372:30233,381:34492,440:34804,445:35428,454:36130,466:38386,480:39492,500:41309,539:41783,546:42178,552:42968,613:47708,669:52824,715:53116,720:54357,747:55014,757:55306,762:59523,805:62367,866:62920,874:63236,883:66150,908:67700,941:68444,954:69312,972:70180,992:70738,1002:71420,1015:71916,1026:72474,1038:72722,1043:74272,1074:74830,1085:75388,1112:81670,1153:82702,1167:83734,1191:84594,1202:84938,1207:85368,1213:87174,1250:87690,1260:88636,1272:89582,1288:89926,1293:93296,1309:95918,1317:96488,1323:101410,1375:101836,1387:105318,1437:105894,1447:106982,1501:108070,1523:108582,1584:109542,1589:117221,1689:120602,1764:120878,1769:121361,1783:121637,1788:130512,1881:143203,2065:143851,2132:145309,2156:146767,2183:147091,2188:147496,2194:153130,2233:154534,2262:155722,2287:155938,2292:156154,2297:157126,2319:164656,2390:165184,2401:165646,2409:170964,2479:171482,2485:172074,2495:172740,2505:173406,2517:174368,2535:174664,2540:175256,2549:176218,2576:180930,2643:182250,2662:183130,2671:186954,2701:188535,2724:188907,2729:197296,2809:204902,2876:205197,2882:205610,2893:206318,2917:206790,2926:207026,2931:207262,2936:210622,2954:217940,2998:219156,3023:222196,3099:222652,3106:223032,3117:223564,3133:227630,3143:229258,3182:239554,3343:239842,3348:240202,3354:242820,3362:243160,3369:243636,3445:252210,3520:256616,3581:259340,3594:259851,3621:260508,3634:261019,3643:263680,3684:264130,3690:269298,3739:272562,3824:273906,3850:274290,3861:274674,3869:274994,3875:276594,3911:279954,3933:280557,3943:284108,4010:284644,4019:287170,4036
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Sylvester Gates' interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Sylvester Gates lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Sylvester Gates describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Sylvester Gates talks about his mother

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Sylvester Gates describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Sylvester Gates talks about his father's experience in the U.S. Army and his passion for education

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Sylvester Gates talks about his father's passion for education

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Sylvester Gates talks about how his parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Sylvester Gates talks about his father's experience serving in the U.S. Army and the Red Ball Express

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Sylvester Gates talks about realizing the vast range of skin tones among African Americans

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Sylvester Gates describes his parents' personalities and who he takes after

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Sylvester Gates talks about the "beauty" of mathematics

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Sylvester Gates talks about his siblings and his growing up as a military child

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Sylvester Gates talks about losing his mother to breast cancer

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Sylvester Gates describes his earliest childhood memories

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Sylvester Gates talks about his early interest in science and his impetus to become a scientist

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Sylvester Gates talks about his interest in space and airplanes

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Sylvester Gates talks about his interest in science and science fiction television shows

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Sylvester Gates talks about the artistry of Jack Kirby

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Sylvester Gates talks about culture and his first encounter with racism

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Sylvester Gates talks about growing up in Orlando, Florida

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Sylvester Gates talks about his high school physics teacher, Mr. Freeman Coney

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Sylvester Gates talks about his teenage interests

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Sylvester Gates talks about his involvement in sports during high school

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Sylvester Gates talks about his valedictorian address

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Sylvester Gates talks about his speech as valedictorian of his high school

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Sylvester Gates talks about his decision to attend the Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Sylvester Gates talks about race relations in Boston and the assassinations of political figures during the 1960s

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Sylvester Gates talks about his academic struggles at MIT

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Sylvester Gates describes the dream that helped him overcome his academic struggles

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Sylvester Gates talks about his experiences at MIT - part 1

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Sylvester Gates talks about his experiences at MIT - part 2

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Sylvester Gates talks about his experiences at MIT - part 3

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Sylvester Gates talks about balancing his studies with his personal life during college

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Sylvester Gates talks about his mentors

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Sylvester Gates talks about his mentors and his decision to continue his graduate studies at MIT

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Sylvester Gates talks about his Ph.D. advisor, James Edward Young

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Sylvester Gates talks about his graduate school experience and working with Ronald McNair

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Sylvester Gates talks about his journey towards choosing his Ph.D. advisor

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Sylvester Gates talks about his process for choosing the subject for his doctoral thesis

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Sylvester Gates talks about the process of his defending his thesis at MIT

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Sylvester Gates talks about the history of supersymmetry and his interest in the topic

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Sylvester Gates talks about his work with supersymmetrical equations and their implications

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Sylvester Gates talks about string theory

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Sylvester Gates talks about theoretical science and mathematics

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Sylvester Gates talks about human understanding of nature and the universe

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Sylvester Gates talks about the public's skepticism of science and the knowledge gap

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Sylvester Gates talks about the limitations of science

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Sylvester Gates talks about his post-doctoral research activities and Richard Phillips Feynman's sense of humor

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Sylvester Gates talks about his professional activities

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Sylvester Gates talks about Abdus Salam

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Sylvester Gates talks about his work at the University of Maryland

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Sylvester Gates talks about STEM education in the United States - part 1

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Sylvester Gates talks about STEM education in the United States - part 2

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Sylvester Gates talks about his hopes and concerns for the black community

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Sylvester Gates talks about his family

Tape: 7 Story: 9 - Sylvester Gates talks about his relationship with his father

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Sylvester Gates reflects on his legacy

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Sylvester Gates reflects on his life choices

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Sylvester Gates talks about his experience flying in Australia

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - Sylvester Gates talks about how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - Sylvester Gates describes his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$6

DAStory

7$3

DATitle
Sylvester Gates talks about his early interest in science and his impetus to become a scientist
Sylvester Gates talks about his work with supersymmetrical equations and their implications
Transcript
Now would you consider yourself to have a photographic memory or--?$$All I know is I have a memory that's peculiar, that I do know. I, one of my most important memory--well a couple of very important memories led to my becoming a scientist. So let me describe those. When I was four or five years old, my mother [Charlie Anglin Gates] bundled up her children to take them to a movie. And I remember standing in line and us huddling together and going into this darkened room and in fact this is the first time I believe I had ever been to a movie theater. And we entered the movie and sat down and we watched it and I have almost no recollections of what we watched except for a few. Among the recollections I do have was seeing a countdown for a rocket blast off. I also remember seeing a man and a woman in space suits with their helmets off inside of a rocket hugging each other. And this in fact, was the first clue in my life that I would go on to become a scientist. For many years I puzzled over what that movie might have been and about five years ago with the aide of the internet, I began making a search trying to figure out what it was and I went down a couple of dead-end leads. About two years ago I found a movie called Spaceways starring Howard Duff and Eva Bartok and I rented the movie from Netflix and the scenes that I still have in my memory banks are there in that movie. It also answered a, it answered a question for me which was very puzzling for years and years about my development. My mother as I had described was a person who was interested in artistic endeavors. She had no interest at all as far as I could tell in science and technology. So I had wondered for years why she would take her children to go see a movie about space rockets? And the answer turns out to be as far as I can tell because one of the stars of that movie was Howard Duff. Well Howard Duff was married to a woman named Ida Lupino and Ida Lupino was my father and mother's favorite actress and so it made perfect sense that she would go to this movie to see the husband of her favorite actress. And that's probably why we wound up being in that audience.$$That's interesting you know all the connections.$$Yeah. So I'm going--I actually have some things in the photographs that I'm going to give you related to that cause I figured you might want those things.$$Okay.$$You asked me about other childhood movies--memories. I remember what sort of really made me wake up to the desire to become a scientist. So in 1958 or '59 [1959], we were living in Fort Bliss in El Paso and one day my father brought home some books on rockets and space travel. He had remembered that his four year old son had come home excited from the movies one day and tried to explain to him about rockets and countdowns and blast offs. And so he figured this child who was you know four years older might be interested in learning more about these things. So he brought home four books by an author named Willy Ley [Willy Otto Oskar Ley, German-American writer, spaceflight advocate and historian] and they were called Adventures in Space. And from reading his books I learned that the little dots of light in the night sky were places to which one might travel. And in my, between my own ears because of this, I had sort of a big bang. That is, I had some idea as an eight year old child of how big the universe must be because if those dots of lights were places and they were that small, then how big must this place be in which we live. And so I thought it might be interesting to go to those places and I knew that astronauts were the people who did that and so I wanted to be an astronaut. But I also knew that science had something to do to get to you to those places and so simultaneous those--simultaneous with that I had the wish to grow up to become a scientist.$So from the early 70s [1970s] in this kind of mathematics that I do, there have been some problems that no one has been able to solve and now it's going on almost four years. So in the 90s [1990s], I decided that I was officially mature that I didn't care what other people were going to say. I was going to return to these unsolved problems. Many people think that I was crazy or whatever but I've been at it and it has in fact led to the most creative parts of my career. So we have found that for example buried in these equations that people can't solve, we have found computer code, not just any old kind of computer code but the kind of computer code that lets a browser work, totally stunning. We have found that these, that parts of these equations that people have not been able to solve lead to pictures that allow you to do algebra and calculus simply by playing with the pictures. You're playing with them but they correspond to mathematical operations. So we have found a way to visualize equations in such a way that we are more efficient at understanding the essence of equations than any methods that other people have ever invented. We currently are still in the process of struggling with these problems but we have found whole new pieces of mathematics that no one has ever used before and some of these results boggle the mind quite frankly. So let me go back to the computer codes.$$Well what--maybe, what are these questions anyway? Maybe you can outline--$$There are systems of equations that no one knows how to answer--$$Okay, alright.$$--find the answer to. It's like you know you write a simple equation like say the square of a number is equal to 4. What's the number? Well the answer is 2 because 2 x 2 equals 4. So there are problems like that, they're more complicated but they're essentially of that character that nobody knows how to answer. So we have found these new tools and this whole new point of view and I'm, in a few more years I'm pretty sure I'm going to be able to solve some of these problems because it takes years to actually develop these things. But the new viewpoint is absolutely critical to actually do that. But the fact that we find these pictures in equations stuns people. We call these pictures adinkras after a traditional word from West Africa. An adinkra is essentially a, an aphorism and that is a saying about a--it's a symbol that has a meaning behind it and so we thought that was an appropriate name to attach to these images of equations that we can generate and give very definite rules to and that's what I actually drew on the blackboard back here is one of them. The fact that we have found computer code of a certain type in the equations has prompted some people to ask the question, who put it, who put the code there and, to at least suggest that the answer is the creator of the universe. So for the first time in my life I've actually done research that some people say raises religious questions.$$So you're saying that this, these codes you've discovered could only have been placed there by someone (unclear)?$$I'm not saying that but I know people who have said that. And in fact if you go to YouTube right now, that's not a site that I endorse by any means because someone else put it together but there's a video running on YouTube that within the last month, last three months, half a million people have watched on this subject and it involves me. I mean some people have taken some images and words I've said and some of these people definitely believe that this is evidence of a creator. Other people argue that no it's not. But I've never done a piece of research that has prompted people to ask these kinds of questions.$$I don't--I wish I knew more about what it was so I could ask a good question. But I don't--$$Well I've written a popular level article for people who want to learn about this. It's called "Symbols of Power". It's actually available online so if you just type my name and the word adinkra, you could probably find the article.

Delores P. Aldridge

Grace Towns Hamilton Distinguished Professor of Sociology and African American Studies at Emory University, Delores Patricia Aldridge was born on June 8, 1941, in Tampa, Florida, to Mary Ellen Bennett Aldridge and Willie Lee Aldridge. She had private schooling at Allen Temple A.M.E. Church. She then attended Meacham Elementary School; and Booker T. Washington Junior High School; and was valedictorian of Middleton High School in 1959. At Atlanta’s Clark College, Aldridge received her B.S. degree in sociology and Spanish. Aldridge earned her M.A. degree in social work from Atlanta University in 1966. In 1967, she obtained her certificate in child psychology from University College Dublin. In 1968, she studied family treatment techniques at the University of Montreal. Aldridge earned her Ph.D. in sociology from Purdue University in 1971. She went on to study African art and politics at the University of Ghana at Legon in 1972 and completed postgraduate study at Georgetown University in 1979.

In 1971, Aldridge became the first African American woman faculty member of Emory University and founding director of the first African American and African Studies degree-granting program in the South, which she administered until 1990. In 1988 and 1992, she studied gender and race issues in the Soviet Union and Brazil. Aldridge served as national president of four separate national organizations including an unprecedented two terms as president of the National Council for Black Studies. She has been chairman of the board of a number of organizations including the International Black Women’s Congress (IBWC). As chair of the IBWC, she organized international conferences on issues related to the health of Africana women. Aldridge also published Toward Integrating Africana Women into Africana Studies in 1992 and co-edited River of Tears: The Politics of Black Women’s Health in 1993. She is popularly known for her 1994 work, Focusing: Black Male Female Relationships.

Aldridge is the recipient of over one hundred awards and was consultant for over ninety foreign governments. She is the author and editor of over one hundred sixty commentaries, articles, and monographs on race, gender, politics, family diversity, multiculturalism and cultural democracy. Aldridge’s latest work is The Invisible Pioneers: Black Women Sociologists, and she is working on a partnership with the Georgia State Legislature and Georgia Coalition of Black Women to develop an encyclopedic volume, The Social and Economic Contributions of Georgia Women.

Accession Number

A2006.111

Sex

Female

Interview Date

10/10/2006

Last Name

Aldridge

Maker Category
Middle Name

P.

Schools

Clark Atlanta University

Meacham Alternative School

George S. Middleton High School

Purdue University

First Name

Delores

Birth City, State, Country

Tampa

HM ID

ALD01

Favorite Season

Fall, Spring

State

Florida

Favorite Vacation Destination

Ghana; Barbados

Favorite Quote

Others May Have Done More. Others May Have Done Less, But I've Done My Very Best And Now I Have No Regrets.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Birth Date

6/8/1941

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Atlanta

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Gari

Short Description

African american studies professor Delores P. Aldridge (1941 - ) authored Focusing: Black Male Female Relationships. The Grace Towns Hamilton Distinguished Professor of Sociology and African American Studies at Emory University, she founded the first African American and African Studies degree-granting program in the South, twice served as president of the National Council for Black Studies, and chaired the International Black Women’s Congress.

Employment

Emory University

Favorite Color

Brown

Timing Pairs
0,0:4080,125:10650,388:16680,523:17040,528:26972,637:27832,651:30498,703:32472,725:33018,732:33655,741:37932,810:38387,816:40207,835:41481,861:47963,888:48530,897:51203,950:70221,1188:72646,1222:80018,1311:94350,1607:94825,1613:106790,1694$0,0:2100,63:4760,163:6720,214:10920,406:12880,473:14000,490:14560,498:16590,538:17150,547:18270,566:18830,574:19600,591:20090,599:28678,649:29138,655:29874,663:34382,808:35118,817:36222,837:42142,904:42716,913:46980,1002:47308,1007:48948,1037:50342,1061:56396,1118:58116,1151:59062,1171:60008,1186:60438,1192:63448,1230:66974,1280:74640,1366:87924,1557:88984,1685:105506,1949:119790,2118:120470,2128:123615,2178:128428,2227:140799,2476:149014,2545:149898,2577:157718,2796:160710,2885:161118,2893:176595,3056:176943,3061:177291,3144:197110,3377:199575,3437:200000,3444:200680,3471:203230,3517:203655,3523:204080,3529:204760,3541:213776,3676:222945,3802:223596,3827:241079,4072:244775,4146:245237,4154:245776,4166:247085,4188:254940,4244
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Delores P. Aldridge's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Delores P. Aldridge lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Delores P. Aldridge describes her mother's side of the family

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Delores P. Aldridge describes her mother's upbringing

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Delores P. Aldridge describes her father's background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Delores P. Aldridge remembers her maternal great grandmother

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Delores Aldridge describes her father's background

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Delores P. Aldridge recalls how her parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Delores P. Aldridge describes her parents' personalities

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Delores P. Aldridge describes her earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Delores P. Aldridge describes her siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Delores P. Aldridge describes the smells of her childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Delores P. Aldridge describes Tampa, Florida's Cuban population

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Delores P. Aldridge remembers the impact of Major League Baseball

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Delores P. Aldridge remembers her family's housing in Tampa, Florida

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Delores P. Aldridge recalls her schooling at Tampa's Allen Temple A.M.E. Church

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Delores P. Aldridge describes her time at Tampa's Meacham Elementary School

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Delores P. Aldridge recalls her time at Tampa's Booker T. Washington Junior High School

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Delores P. Aldridge describes her childhood activities

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Delores P. Aldridge recalls her activities at Tampa's George S. Middleton High School

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Delores P. Aldridge describes her father's passion for civil rights

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Delores P. Aldridge recalls hearing Mary McLeod Bethune speak in Daytona Beach, Florida

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Delores P. Aldridge recalls her English teacher at Tampa's George S. Middleton High School

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Delores P. Aldridge describes her maternal grandmother

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Delores P. Aldridge recalls her decision to attend Atlanta's Clark College

Tape: 2 Story: 13 - Delores P. Aldridge describes Clark College in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 14 - Delores P. Aldridge recalls her participation in the Civil Rights Movement in Atlanta

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Delores P. Aldridge describes her civil rights activism in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Delores P. Aldridge recalls her parents' support for her civil rights activities

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Delores P. Aldridge recalls faculty support during the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Delores P. Aldridge recalls white people's reactions to sit-in demonstrations

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Delores P. Aldridge recalls Queen Mother Moore, Malcolm X and Betty Shabazz

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Delores P. Aldridge recalls her decision to attend the Atlanta University School of Social Work

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Delores P. Aldridge describes her memorable social science instructors

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Delores P. Aldridge describes her studies at the Atlanta University School of Social Work

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Delores P. Aldridge remembers attending the University of Ireland in Dublin

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Delores P. Aldridge describes Ireland's class stratification

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Delores P. Aldridge recalls her decision to pursue a Ph.D. degree

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Delores P. Aldridge recalls her decision to attend Purdue University in West Lafayette, Indiana

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Delores P. Aldridge describes her Ph.D. studies at Purdue University

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Delores P. Aldridge describes her social work in Indiana

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Delores P. Aldridge recalls becoming Emory University's African American studies coordinator

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Delores P. Aldridge recalls founding Emory University's African American studies department

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Delores P. Aldridge describes the development of Emory University's African American studies department

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Delores P. Aldridge reflects upon the black studies movement

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Delores P. Aldridge describes the importance of diversity in the social sciences

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Delores P. Aldridge reflects upon the development of black sociology

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Delores P. Aldridge describes her committee involvement

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Delores P. Aldridge talks about her publications

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Delores P. Aldridge describes her book, 'Out of the Revolution: The Development of Africana Studies'

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Delores P. Aldridge describes the field of Africana studies

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Delores P. Aldridge describes her foundation work in Ghana

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Delores P. Aldridge describes her work on black male-female relationships

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Delores P. Aldridge describes her future plans, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Delores P. Aldridge describes her future plans, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Delores P. Aldridge describes her hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Delores P. Aldridge reflects upon her life and legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 11 - Delores P. Aldridge describes her family

Tape: 5 Story: 12 - Delores P. Aldridge describes her life's defining moments

Tape: 5 Story: 13 - Delores P. Aldridge describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 5 Story: 14 - Delores P. Aldridge narrates her photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$4

DAStory

8$5

DATitle
Delores P. Aldridge describes her father's passion for civil rights
Delores P. Aldridge recalls founding Emory University's African American studies department
Transcript
Did your family discuss the Civil Rights Movement at home a lot 'cause a lot of that was in the news for the first time on a national level when you had like, Brown versus Board [Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 1954] (simultaneous)?$$(Simultaneous) Well, my daddy [Willie Lee Aldridge, Sr.] was very political. I mean, he loved to talk politics, and him and his friends would get together. You know, there was a local drugstore on Central Avenue [Tampa, Florida], and all the men almost stopped there on their way from work. And they would go there, and they'd brag about their kids, or how smart they were, or how they played basketball or football, or the like. And, of course, they talked about this, the whole social scene in terms of black-white relations and, and the like of, and they talked about that often. In my home, we certainly talked about the Brown versus the Board of Education decision 'cause I was sitting in my civics class when the decision was passed down. We had the radio on in the civics class. And after that, you know, we were definitely talking about that in '55 [1955] and Rosa Parks, and all of that. But you see, if you back-step, my dad was always one who, who was concerned about equity and equality because he, you know, his, his heroes, or his heroine, and his hero were Haile Selassie of Ethiopia, and Mary McLeod Bethune. I mean, he thought the sun rose and set in Ms. Bethune of, who founded Bethune-Cookman College [Daytona Literary and Industrial Training School for Negro Girls; Bethune-Cookman University, Daytona Beach, Florida]. And so, he put a great deal of value on both men and women and their part in changing social conditions.$Yeah, when you look at your history, of all the other, all the things that you had accomplished, and all the places that you've been--$$Um-hm, um-hm.$$--you know, before, and it would seem logical, but what--well, what happened here? Now, you were the founding coordinator (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Founding director--$$--of the black studies department.$$--yeah, the founding coordinator of black studies at Emory [Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia], which later became Africana, African American studies. And now, we have two separate constituencies, an African American, and an African studies. I came here in 1971, but I was also the first African American in the arts and sciences in the college [Emory College of Arts and Sciences, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia], and the first African American woman in the entire university. So, that was a challenge for a young African American woman to come to a school in the Deep South that had never had an African American woman, and had only white males in administrative positions in one of the most conservative regions of the country. And on top of that, to establish a program for which there were no models because black studies had only begun to come on the scene in a formal way in 1968. And this was only three years later. So, it was, it was a tremendous challenge and, and I think that's probably what, in the final analysis, brought me here because it was a challenge.$$Now, did you have any idea of how to model this pro-, I mean, was there a model for this pro-, this program that you were trying (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) There were no models--$$Yeah.$$--there were no model. But my idea, Emory offered me two thousand dollars for my, my budget. That was not my salary--my budget--and they told me I could sit in the center of the Candler [Candler School of Theology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia] library building at a desk after I got here. Well, I said, "Why, I don't think so. I, I think that I'm going to have a suite of offices." And they did, we did get a suite of offices. And I took the money, and hired two people to teach two courses, rather than just simply having people to visit and give a lecture. Because the idea was, this will ride itself out, and these students are up in arms, but after a year or two, they'll go away or fade away. So, we'll give a little money here, and you can have a few lectures on campus to do this and the lec-, but I didn't have that image in my mind. See, my image was that, if you're going to a university, and you're going to start an academic unit, it's going to be like all other academic units. It's going to have faculty come in. It's going to have secretaries. It's going to have all of the support system. And you're going to model it that way. You're going to have courses through the curriculum that everybody's going to have to take, or can take. So, that's, that was my, my model, modelling it just like everything else was modelled that was in the institution. And it has finally become just like everything else is in the institution.$$Now did you have, was it, students or your allies in fighting for these things, or did you have to basically do it yourself, on, by yourself, or what?$$There were students. My, my students were my allies. And there were white students and black students. And, and the white students, of course, you, you have to understand that when I came here, there were only thirteen black students on the entire campus, which means that for my classes to, to go for you to have a program, you had to have majority white students. You had to have a bunch of them, 'cause I could walk across campus, and not even see a black student for days. So, the allies were students, but they, but they were not the only allies. There were some right-thinking white men here. And they stood by me in the very beginning years, in terms of getting supplies, getting resources, et cetera. And they, they are my friends until today. There're a number of them that are my friends. They came to my wedding, you know, I've gone to their kids' weddings, all that kind of thing. So, there were some that, that had been by my side in good times and in bad times.