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Terri Lipsey Scott

Civic leader Terri Lipsey Scott was born on April 13, 1959 in Savannah, Georgia to Dessie and Ralph Lipsey, Junior. Lipsey Scott attended Pearl Lee Smith Elementary School, Bartlett Junior High School and HV Jenkins High School where she graduated from in 1977. Lipsey Scott enrolled at Savannah State College and in 1981 relocated to Saint Petersburg, Florida where she would later receive her B.B.A. degree in business administration in 2004 from Eckerd College, in Saint Petersburg.

Lipsey Scott served as an intake counselor for Saint Petersburg Housing Authority from 1982 to 1985 and a loan officer at Saint Petersburg Credit Union from 1985 to 1987. Lipsey Scott then joined local government as an office administrator at the City of Saint Petersburg Office of the Mayor and City Council, where she worked for five mayors over a twenty seven year period from 1987 to 2014.

Lipsey Scott has served on local boards that include Aids Services Association of Pinellas, the St. Petersburg Branch of the NAACP, Co-Chair of Community Alliance, and Convener of St. Petersburg Together. Lipsey Scott served as board chair of the Dr. Carter G. Woodson African-American History Museum from 2008 to 2017 and was credited for her role and significant efforts to preserve the museum. From 2012 to 2014, she served as a board member for Alpha House of Tampa, the organization focused on services for homeless pregnant women and mothers with young children. From 2015 to 2017, she also served as board member for Women on the Way, a resource and support center developed to help women succeed in college. She was also active in the Junior League, Women of the Word, St. Petersburg Chapter of the Links, Inc., St. Petersburg Chapter of Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, and Colours of Culture.

Lipsey Scott has been honored by several organizations including the YWCA – Phenomenal Woman of the Year; Studio @ 620 - Studio Honors Award; The Gathering of Women – Woman of Distinction Award, Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) Role Model of the Year, H.V. Jenkins High School “Hall of Fame,” and Watermark’s “One of the Most Remarkable People of 2017” award. Her writing was recently published as the Foreword in the newly released Salt Creek Journal.

Terri and her husband Clarence Scott have two adult children and two grandchildren.

Terri Lipsey Scott was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on August 12, 2018.

Accession Number

A2018.186

Sex

Female

Interview Date

9/11/2018

Last Name

Lipsey Scott

Maker Category
Occupation
Organizations
First Name

Terri

Birth City, State, Country

Savannah

HM ID

SCO09

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Georgia

Favorite Vacation Destination

None

Favorite Quote

By God.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Florida

Birth Date

4/13/1959

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Tampa

Country

United States of America

Favorite Food

None

Short Description

Civic leader Terri Lipsey Scott (1959- ) was named executive director of the Carter G. Woodson African American Museum in 2017.

Favorite Color

Red

John Finney

Nonprofit executive John Finney was born on October 31, 1938, in Savannah, Georgia to Ellis Finney and Margaret Maynor Finney. Upon his graduation from Savannah’s Alfred E. Beach High School in 1957, Finney worked as a medical assistant at the Hospital for Special Surgery in New York City. He later returned to Savannah, where he began his studies at Savannah Stage College. Following his service in the Vietnam War, Finney earned his B.S. degree in sociology in 1967. He went on to receive his M.A. degree in sociology from Clark Atlanta University in 1971.

Finney worked at the NAACP Youth Council, Savannah Branch under the mentorship of Savannah civic leader and historian W.W. Law in the mid-1960s. Finney also worked at the segregated Memorial Medical Center in Savannah and then joined The Economic Opportunity Authority for Savannah-Chatham County Area, Inc. (EOA) in 1967. In 1972, Finney became the acting executive director of the EOA. He and local ministers organized a lunch program in memory of Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., which inspired the founding of the Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Observance Day Association. Finney was named the executive director of the EOA the next year, and served in this position until his retirement in 2017. During his tenure as executive director, Finney oversaw the development of Curtis V. Cooper Primary Health Care, Inc., which served the neighborhood of Woodville in Savannah, Georgia. He also partnered with the United Way to develop a clinic for sickle cell patients at Savannah’s Memorial Health University Medical Center; and provided a range of social services, including the housing facilities of the Tom D. Austin House, the Duffy Street SRO Homeless Shelter and the Peeler House. In the 2000s, Finney organized a program to educate community members about natural gas utility deregulation.

In addition to his work with the EOA, Finney served on the board of the Youth Futures Authority. He was involved in area healthcare initiatives like the Community Cardiovascular Council of Chatham County, Inc. and also worked with the Rape Crisis Center of the Coastal Empire and the Chatham-Savannah Voluntary Action Center, Inc.

Finney’s wife, Gwendolyn Young Finney, passed away on July 1, 2015. They had two children; Jondrea Finney and Sharyn Finney.

John Finney was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on February 11, 2017.

Accession Number

A2017.054

Sex

Male

Interview Date

02/11/2017

Last Name

Finney

Maker Category
Occupation
Organizations
Schools

Beach-Cuyler School

Savannah State University

Clark Atlanta University

Harvard University

Maple Street Elementary School

First Name

John

Birth City, State, Country

Savannah

HM ID

FIN04

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Georgia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Washington, D.C.

Favorite Quote

If You Don't Do It, It Won't Get Done.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Birth Date

10/31/1938

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Savannah

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Shrimp Creole And Rice

Short Description

Nonprofit executive John Finney (1938 - ) served as executive director of the Equal Opportunity Authority for Savannah-Chatham County Area Inc. (EOA) from 1973 to 2017.

Employment

EOA Savannah

Atlanta Southside

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:2890,31:7290,127:7840,133:11950,166:16450,239:27080,281:27480,286:29480,314:43570,362:59269,528:59774,534:60683,544:63208,568:66973,584:67459,592:76185,722:76685,727:81456,769:82224,778:103088,1065:103416,1070:103744,1075:104646,1091:105056,1098:109620,1137:111380,1160:112020,1170:113220,1185:113860,1195:114340,1204:117140,1248:118820,1286:124588,1346:124936,1354:131500,1432:138692,1568:139329,1577:148638,1633:149782,1643:150222,1649:153552,1670:161760,1734:163260,1752$0,0:1047,20:1830,30:3048,139:4527,160:5136,169:6180,182:25279,414:27354,461:36254,576:36590,581:41533,617:42527,638:50572,711:54014,748:54470,756:54850,762:60040,810:60530,818:60950,825:72520,961:76906,1009:78974,1043:79538,1050:83670,1089:89354,1153:89922,1173:97299,1244:101990,1288:105900,1309:109750,1334:111490,1378:111910,1386:124914,1509:125516,1517:133820,1573:139774,1627:140926,1645:145470,1744:151111,1796:152138,1811:153165,1829:153481,1834:159024,1904:164002,1961:164330,1966:165560,1985:165888,1990:181830,2153:182205,2160:205320,2361:205880,2371:206370,2380:209552,2423:214900,2570:219569,2645:219995,2653:220634,2666:221202,2676:234436,2786:234898,2794:250740,2956:274900,3221
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of John Finney's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - John Finney lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - John Finney describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - John Finney describes his maternal grandparents' education

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - John Finney describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - John Finney talks about how his parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - John Finney describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - John Finney remembers the Maple Street School in Savannah, Georgia

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - John Finney describes his teachers at Beach Cuyler Junior High School in Savannah, Georgia

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - John Finney talks about his extracurricular activities

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - John Finney describe his neighborhood in Savannah, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - John Finney describes the demographics of his neighborhood in Savannah, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - John Finney describes his home in Savannah, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - John Finney lists his siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - John Finney remembers developing an interest in basketball

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - John Finney remembers vacations and field trips

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - John Finney recalls his early aspirations

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - John Finney talks about Alfred E. Beach High School in Savannah, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - John Finney remembers joining the NAACP Youth Council in Savannah, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - John Finney describes his influences at Alfred E. Beach High School in Savannah, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - John Finney remembers Ella P. Law

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - John Finney remembers his senior prom

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - John Finney describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - John Finney describes his summer activities

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - John Finney recalls working as a medical assistant in New York City

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - John Finney recalls the civil rights demonstrations at Savannah State College in Savannah, Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - John Finney remembers serving in the Vietnam War

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - John Finney reflects upon his military service in the Vietnam War

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - John Finney describes the integration of public accommodations in Savannah, Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - John Finney remembers W.W. Law and Hosea Williams

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - John Finney talks about the difference between riots and demonstrations

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - John Finney talks about his experiences of racial discrimination in the workplace

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - John Finney recalls the integration of the Memorial Medical Center in Savannah, Georgia

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - John Finney remembers his graduation from Savannah State College in Savannah, Georgia

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - John Finney recalls his start at the Economic Opportunity Authority for Savannah-Chatham County Area, Inc.

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - John Finney talks about the anti-poverty efforts of the Economic Opportunity Authority for Savannah-Chatham County Area, Inc.

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - John Finney talks about the development of Curtis V. Cooper Primary Health Care, Inc.

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - John Finney describes his memorial initiative for Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - John Finney describes his memorial initiative for Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - John Finney talks about his educational program on gas utility deregulation

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - John Finney talks about the housing program at the Economic Opportunity Authority for Savannah-Chatham County Area, Inc.

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - John Finney talks about his support for sickle cell disease patients

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - John Finney describes his board memberships

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - John Finney talks about the social work program at Savannah State University in Savannah, Georgia

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - John Finney describes the Georgia Community Action Association

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - John Finney talks about his plans for a multicultural coalition in Savannah, Georgia

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - John Finney talks about his family and faith

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - John Finney remembers his fortieth wedding anniversary

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - John Finney reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - John Finney describes how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - John Finney recalls a lesson from his childhood

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - John Finney talks about his faith

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - John Finney narrates his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$4

DAStory

8$3

DATitle
John Finney remembers W.W. Law and Hosea Williams
John Finney recalls the integration of the Memorial Medical Center in Savannah, Georgia
Transcript
Talk to me about what you know about the NAACP [National Association for the Advancement of Colored People], and W.W. Law, and Hosea Williams and the two groups, and what the differences were, as you understood them.$$Okay. Same goal, but different approaches. Hosea Williams was more inclined to be a little bit more engaging in protests. Mr. Law believed in protest, but it had to be organized. Mr. Law did not believe in nighttime demonstrations. As a matter of fact, Mr. Law believed that not all of the elements in the black community were in tune with NAACP training. See, when we demonstrated in the '60s [1960s], and then tested the law [Civil Rights Act of 1964, Title II] again, you know, in '64 [1964], we knew what was at stake. If someone engaged in activity against you, you had to cover up and not really fight back. That was the philosophy of Mahatma Gandhi, which had been adopted by Dr. King [Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.], and Mr. Law was of the same opinion. And I'm not saying that Hosea was part of violent elements, but there were some people who were just a little bit more engaging, and they had differences of opinion about how demonstrations should be done and conducted. And Mr. Law believed that there were times--that there was a time for everything: there was a time to negotiate, and there also a time to demonstrate. So, eventually Hosea Williams became affiliated with the Chatham County Crusade for Voters and eventually SCLC [Southern Christian Leadership Conference] in Atlanta [Georgia], and Mr. Law continued on with his tenure as president of the NAACP. And W.W. Law was not just a, a civil rights crusader, but also a historian. And to a large extent, he was what you might call multifaceted.$But I worked in the emergency room [at Memorial Medical Center; Memorial Health University Medical Center, Savannah, Georgia], and on this particular day there were two incidents of patients that came in; a black female who was stabbed, and a black male who had a gunshot wound. And they called the doctor to come over and treat them, and when the doctor arrived, he said, "Mr. Finney [HistoryMaker John Finney], where are the patients?" And I showed him the patients and indicated to him that I had cleaned the wounds, and we were ready for him to begin treatment. And he said that they were not emergencies. He said, "These kind of things happen every weekend. These people do this all the time." And I indicated to him, I said, "Well, you have to treat everybody regardless of race, creed or color." Because that's what Hippocrates--that was the spirit of Hippocrates, that all doctors must take the Hippocratic Oath to treat people. And he said, "I know, but they just do this all the time." So, this was on the weekend, and that Monday when I arrived at work I had a note to come in for a conference. I was not terminated, but I was, you know, they asked me about the incident and said that the doctor had lodged a complaint and said that he was insulted. And I indicated that I was insulted, because there were other black employees who were there in the lobby when he said it. And it was just a matter, you know, that these people needed help regardless of what the situation was. So, the tension grew up on me, and then a letter was distributed to all medical center employees that any medical institution using Hill-Burton funds [Hospital Construction and Survey Act of 1946], that is governmental funds, had to integrate with all deliberate speed; that is, all vestiges of segregation or separation had to come down. That meant that black patients could be in the room with white patients. It meant that at lunchtime there were not two cash registers, but one cash register in the cafeteria. There was a partition that separated, you know, black employees from white employees, so they had to be removed. But my situation got worse, because I think they must have remembered the comment that I had made with the doctor. I was a good employee, but I guess that one incident just sent them over (laughter) the edge. And so I resigned, because I needed a course, I remember very distinctly, called criminology, in order to graduate [from Savannah State College; Savannah State University, Savannah, Georgia]. And if I didn't get that course it would have been twelve months before I could graduate, so I just, I had to resign, because they would not allow me to be five minutes late. I had to be there at 3:30 rather than 3:35, so I eventually resigned and I went to work at a place called Holsum bakery [Derst Baking Company, Savannah, Georgia]. And there at the bakery the hours were longer, but you know, there was nobody to support me in my family, so I had to take a job there at the bakery. And my hours were from four in the afternoon until 1:30 in the morning, and my first class was at 8:20. So, I had an hour to, hour to study and maybe a couple of hours to sleep, but I graduated.

Virginia Edwards Maynor

Educator Virginia Edwards Maynor was born on April 1, 1945 in Savannah, Georgia to Freddie Mae Jones-Williams and John Roger Williams. She graduated from Alfred Ely Beach High School in 1963. Maynor earned her B.S. degree from Savannah State University in Savannah, Georgia in 1968, her M.Ed. degree in history from Armstrong State University in Savannah, Georgia in 1974, and her Ed.S. degree from Georgia Southern University in Statesboro, Georgia in 1982. She also earned a leadership certificate from Harvard University’s Leadership Institute in 1985.

Maynor began her career in education as a third grade teacher in the Horry County School system. From 1969 to 1970, she taught in the Ridgeland South Carolina Public School system. Maynor then joined the Savannah-Chatham County Public School system as a teacher in 1970. She was promoted to the positions of assistant principal, principal, executive director of secondary schools, and deputy superintendent of instruction. In 1998, Maynor became the superintendent of Savannah-Chatham County Public Schools, where she remained until 2001. She was the school district’s first African American female superintendent. Maynor also represented the First Congressional District on the Georgia State Board of Education.

Maynor received the Outstanding Leadership Award from Savannah State University, the Omega Citizen of the Year Award from Omega Psi Phi Fraternity’s Mu Phi Chapter, the Outstanding Educator Award from the Georgia Retired Educators Association, the Citizen of the Year Award from the Mutual Benevolent Society, Inc., an Award of Appreciation from Myers Middle School P.T.A., the Spirit of Education Award from Alpha Kappa Alpha, and the Civil Rights Museum Award from the Ralph Mark Gilbert Civil Rights Museum.

Maynor was a member of the Chatham Retired Educators Association, BAPS, and Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Inc. She also served as president of the Savannah Chapter of The Links, Inc. from 1995 to 2015, as fund development chair of Greenbriar Children’s Center, Inc. from 2000 to 2012, on the Board of Directors for the Telfair Museum from 2009 to 2011, and on the Board of Directors for Hospice Savannah from 2008 to 2011.

Virginia Edwards Maynor was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on February 10, 2017.

Accession Number

A2017.050

Sex

Female

Interview Date

02/10/2017

Last Name

Maynor

Maker Category
Middle Name

Edwards

Occupation
Schools

George W. DeRenne Middle School

Alfred Ely Beach High School

Savannah State University

Georgia Southern University-Armstrong Campus

Georgia Southern University

Harvard University

First Name

Virginia

Birth City, State, Country

Savannah

HM ID

MAY08

Favorite Season

Late Summer and Early Fall

State

Georgia

Favorite Vacation Destination

None

Favorite Quote

I Wouldn't Take Nothing For My Journey.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Birth Date

4/1/1945

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Savannah

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Sweets

Short Description

Educator Virginia Edwards Maynor (1945 - ) served in various positions in the Savannah-Chatham County Public School system for over thirty years. She was the school district’s first African American female superintendent, from 1998 to her retirement in 2001.

Employment

Horry County Schools

Ridgeland South Carolina Public School System

Savannah -Chatham County Public Schools

Savannah-Chatham County Public Schools

Favorite Color

Pink

Timing Pairs
0,0:31865,415:41655,575:77708,841:82520,933:89560,985:91140,1098:92034,1105:109447,1338:109862,1344:122570,1476:123725,1488:127465,1541:160352,1875:177360,2050:180704,2067:205570,2293$0,0:3602,59:14625,227:16525,263:30260,393:30584,401:31151,410:32285,427:35930,488:49590,569:73068,756:76940,796:77540,803:85472,881:97580,1019:106700,1120:112402,1180:119719,1338:135850,1403:142198,1471:205113,1882:212766,2032:237912,2216:238266,2223:241190,2242:249770,2313:255276,2360:256196,2371:285340,2501:290646,2673:291248,2688:292538,2715:297096,2804:310570,2947
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Virginia Edwards Maynor's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Virginia Edwards Maynor lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Virginia Edwards Maynor describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Virginia Edwards Maynor describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Virginia Edwards Maynor describes her earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Virginia Edwards Maynor lists her siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Virginia Edwards Maynor remembers the Cann Park neighborhood of Savannah, Georgia, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Virginia Edwards Maynor remembers the Cann Park neighborhood of Savannah, Georgia, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Virginia Edwards Maynor talks about her extracurricular activities

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Virginia Edwards Maynor recalls her influential teachers

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Virginia Edwards Maynor remembers her early love of reading

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Virginia Edwards Maynor describes her early aspirations

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Virginia Edwards Maynor describes her family's Christmas traditions

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Virginia Edwards Maynor recalls the entertainment of her childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Virginia Edwards Maynor recalls her experiences at Cuyler Junior High School in Savannah, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Virginia Edwards Maynor remembers her aspiration to become a psychologist

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Virginia Edwards Maynor remembers joining the Presbyterian church

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Virginia Edwards Maynor describes her involvement at the Butler Presbyterian Church in Savannah, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Virginia Edwards Maynor recalls the construction of a middle school annex at Alfred E. Beach High School in Savannah, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Virginia Edwards Maynor remembers her social activities at Alfred E. Beach High School in Savannah, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Virginia Edwards Maynor describes the sights, sounds and smells of her childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Virginia Edwards Maynor remembers her prom

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Virginia Edwards Maynor recalls going to the movies at the Star Theatre in Savannah, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Virginia Edwards Maynor remembers attending high school football games in Savannah, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 13 - Virginia Edwards Maynor recalls her decision to attend Savannah State College in Savannah, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 14 - Virginia Edwards Maynor remembers registering to vote

Tape: 2 Story: 15 - Virginia Edwards Maynor recalls the assassination of President John Fitzgerald Kennedy

Tape: 2 Story: 16 - Virginia Edwards Maynor talks about the civil rights leadership in Savannah, Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Virginia Edwards Maynor remembers Savannah State College in Savannah, Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Virginia Edwards Maynor talks about her experiences of hiring discrimination in Myrtle Beach, South Carolina

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Virginia Edwards Maynor recalls her start as a teacher in Savannah, Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Virginia Edwards Maynor describes her experiences at Armstrong State College in Savannah, Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Virginia Edwards Maynor recalls her promotion to curriculum specialist

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Virginia Edwards Maynor remembers divorcing her first husband

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Virginia Edwards Maynor remembers filing a discrimination complaint against the Savannah-Chatham County Public Schools

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Virginia Edwards Maynor describes her transition from teaching to administration

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Virginia Edwards Maynor describes her involvement with the Greenbriar Children's Center in Savannah, Georgia

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Virginia Edwards Maynor talks about her civic activities

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Virginia Edwards Maynor describes her involvement with The Links, Incorporated

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Virginia Edwards Maynor talks about her book club

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Virginia Edwards Maynor describes the MOLES organization

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Virginia Edwards Maynor talks about her promotion to interim superintendent of the Savannah-Chatham County Public School System

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Virginia Edwards Maynor recalls her challenges from the board of the Savannah-Chatham County Public School System

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Virginia Edwards Maynor remembers her accomplishments in the Savannah-Chatham County Public School System

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Virginia Edwards Maynor talks about her role as a mentor

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Virginia Edwards Maynor describes her mentorship of young educators

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Virginia Edwards Maynor talks about her second marriage

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Virginia Edwards Maynor describes her travels

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Virginia Edwards Maynor reflects upon her life

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Virginia Edwards Maynor remembers the election of President Barack Obama

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Virginia Edwards Maynor reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Virginia Edwards Maynor shares a message to future generations

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Virginia Edwards Maynor narrates her photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$4

DAStory

5$8

DATitle
Virginia Edwards Maynor remembers joining the Presbyterian church
Virginia Edwards Maynor remembers her accomplishments in the Savannah-Chatham County Public School System
Transcript
Were you in- involved in church? What church did you attend?$$Butler Presbyterian Church [Butler Memorial Presbyterian Church, Savannah, Georgia] and what's interesting about that is, my family for years were Methodist, A.M.E. [African Methodist Episcopal], when they were on the Eastside. When they moved to the Westside, it changed. My family decided to become Catholic. I didn't want to be a Catholic, and I started attending Butler Presbyterian Church, which was in our neighborhood [Cann Park, Savannah, Georgia], actually, with some of my friends at school, Sunday school, and church was a church that welcomed young people and had quite a number of activities for young people, and I enjoyed the spiritual climate in the church. So I asked my mother [Freddie Mae Jones Williams] if I could become a Presbyterian, and they agreed that I could. So I became Presbyterian while they converted to Catholicism.$$And what were some of the activities that you were involved in at your church?$$Bible school, summer camp. I was chosen by our church to be one of the representatives to go to a summer retreat (clears throat) for--it was an interracial group. And in fact, it was not far from my mother's hometown, in--outside of Burke County [Georgia], Boggs Academy [Keysville, Georgia] (clears throat), excuse me, and that was the first experience I had in terms of any interracial interaction with the young people, and the white kids came to us from Indiana, and the interesting thing was, and this was another incident that stayed with me, was in Louisville, Georgia, was a slave market where slaves were tr- traded and the group, they planned a field trip and when we gathered for the field trip, outside of Boggs Academy we could not ride together. All the white kids had to be in one car and the black kids had to be in another car and, of course, we got to be friends, and we couldn't understand, well, why we can't ride together. You know, kids can't ride together, and they said we would be arrested. So, you know, those were hard things to fathom without developing (clears throat) some feelings of hate, you know, and that's where our parents came in to help us understand that you don't get anything accomplished by hating. You learn to think and plan and, so, you know.$Let's talk about as--let's just step back a little bit and because you're first deputy superintendent [of the Savannah-Chatham County Public School System] and I want you to talk about what it was that you accomplished in that position, if you might?$$One of the things I accomplished was im- implementing a reading warranty that guaranteed that the students would be reading by third grade. Some of that was happening at the time I became superintendent but it was dismissed, you know, because that--it was a political thing, you know, so the other is, I think, that principals felt supported and that I was a superintendent that was for the best benefit of the schools and as a deputy superintendent I worked to accomplish that. I also worked to train school leaders. We had an in- internal school leadership program. In fact I have a little plaque in there that some of the graduates, when they finished, remembered a lecture that I gave and they summarized it about tips on being a leader. I think my greatest contribution as a leader was being, setting a good example for what leadership was all about because programs come and go and they can be very political and the impact this made is actually in the schools with the principals and with the students and I think that the reading warranty was one of the things that we im- that was impacted and also I--we implemented the, what's it, the early childhood education program where we had family advocates for children in the kindergarten program. We--that was implemented. It was successful, too, because it helped to guaranty that kids would be ready to start school, first grade. Let me see. I think those would be two of the things that I would point to.$$Okay. So even though you've had a challenging term as superintendent, what are you most proud of as superintendent?$$I would say I'm most proud of the fact that I did not lose my dignity nor did I compromise my principles while I tried to do--and I won't say try, why I did the best for the schools in the school district and the children. There were gains made, there were accomplishments and I think I, not think, I walked away feeling that there were lessons learned and as--one of the things that stood out was when I was, I took the oath. The headline in the paper was "Dream the Impossible Dream" and I think that that was an impossible dream (laughter), a dream that I didn't think was possible and to walk away with, one, no money mismanaged, no scandals, the only thing that could be said is that there were some that just did not get along with Virginia Edwardss [HistoryMaker Virginia Edwardss Maynor] at the time and to me that--the most important thing was to leave that--a position as contentious as being a superin- and as political as being a superintendent. When you can walk out the door with your dignity intact, that's an accomplishment as far as I'm concerned because you have to live beyond that.

The Honorable Edna Jackson

Political official and civic leader Edna Jackson was born on September 18, 1944 in Savannah, Georgia to Henry Reid and Georgia Branch Dillard. She graduated from Alfred E. Beach High School in 1962, and then earned her B.S. degree in sociology in 1968, and her M.Ed. degree in political science education in 1972, both from Savannah State University. Having joined the NAACP Youth Council as a high school student, Jackson became active while at Savannah State, travelling throughout the South for voter registration drives and sit-in demonstrations.

Jackson began her career as a social worker with the Economic Opportunity Authority for Savannah-Chatham County Area, Inc. In 1971, Savannah State University President Prince Jackson, Jr. hired Jackson as the director of the university’s emergency school assistant program. During her time there, she also worked as the director of alumni affairs and coordinator of the Elderhostel Program before her retirement in 2001. Jackson then served as alderman at large on the City Council of Savannah for three terms, and mayor pro tempore of Savannah for two terms. In 2012, Jackson became the first African American woman to be elected as mayor of Savannah, serving for one term.

Jackson was the recipient of the A Working Woman in Need’s Top 10 Working Women of the Year Award. She was also named an Outstanding Alumnus by Savannah State University and one of the 2012 Power Women by GeorgiaTrend magazine.

Jackson also served as the southern regional vice president and national vice president of Savannah State University, as vice chairman of the Chatham County Democratic Executive Committee, as a member of the board of representatives for World Trade Center Savannah, and as a chairperson of the Chatham County Hospital Authority. She was also a member of Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Inc., St. Phillip A.M.E. Church, the U.S. Selective Board, and the Georgia Advisory Committee for the U.S. Global Leadership Coalition. U.S. Congressman John Barrow appointed Jackson to serve on the Military Academy Selection Committee and the Regional Committee of the U.S. Civil Rights Commission. She also served on the Board of Directors for the Savannah Regional Second Harvest Food Bank and on the board of the Equal Opportunity Authority.
Jackson has one son, Kevan Jackson.

Edna Jackson was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on February 8, 2017.

Accession Number

A2017.043

Sex

Female

Interview Date

02/08/2017

Last Name

Jackson

Maker Category
Occupation
Organizations
Schools

Florence Street Elementary School

Beach-Cuyler School

Alfred E. Beach High School

Savannah State University

First Name

Edna

Birth City, State, Country

Savannah

HM ID

JAC38

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Georgia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Africa

Favorite Quote

And This Too Shall Pass.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Birth Date

9/18/1944

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Savannah

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Seafood

Short Description

Political official and civic leader Edna Jackson (1944 - ) served in numerous positions at Savannah State University from 1971 to 2001, before becoming mayor of Savannah in 2012.

Employment

Economic Opportunity Authority for Savannah-Chatham County Area, Inc.

Emergency School Assistance Program

Savannah State University

City of Savannah

Favorite Color

Red

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of The Honorable Edna Jackson's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - The Honorable Edna Jackson lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - The Honorable Edna Jackson describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - The Honorable Edna Jackson remembers her maternal grandmother's family

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - The Honorable Edna Jackson describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - The Honorable Edna Jackson remembers her maternal uncle

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - The Honorable Edna Jackson describes her home in Savannah, Georgia

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - The Honorable Edna Jackson remembers her community in Savannah, Georgia

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - The Honorable Edna Jackson describes the sights, sounds and smells of her childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - The Honorable Edna Jackson describes her experiences at the Florence Street School in Savannah, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - The Honorable Edna Jackson recalls joining the NAACP

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - The Honorable Edna Jackson remembers the influence of W.W. Law

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - The Honorable Edna Jackson talks about Cuyler Junior High School in Savnnah, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - The Honorable Edna Jackson recalls the influence of Doris Pettigrew Little

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - The Honorable Edna Jackson talks about her interest in science and math

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - The Honorable Edna Jackson remembers her first protests with the NAACP, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - The Honorable Edna Jackson remembers her first protests with the NAACP, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - The Honorable Edna Jackson recalls her involvement in drama and music

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - The Honorable Edna Jackson remembers attending NAACP conventions with W.W. Law

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - The Honorable Edna Jackson describes her work as an NAACP field coordinator in Florida

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - The Honorable Edna Jackson remembers leading a group to the March on Washington

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - The Honorable Edna Jackson remembers her friends from her time as an organizer

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - The Honorable Edna Jackson talks about the organizers of the March on Washington

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - The Honorable Edna Jackson recalls her time as an NAACP field organizer in Alabama

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - The Honorable Edna Jackson remembers enrolling at Savannah State College in Savannah, Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - The Honorable Edna Jackson talks about her marriage and son

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - The Honorable Edna Jackson describes her start at the Economic Opportunity Authority for Savannah-Chatham County Area, Inc.

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - The Honorable Edna Jackson remembers working for the Economic Opportunity Authority for Savannah-Chatham County Area, Inc.

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - The Honorable Edna Jackson talks about working in the Emergency School Assistance Program

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - The Honorable Edna Jackson talks about the integration of Armstrong State College in Savannah, Georgia

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - The Honorable Edna Jackson recalls her roles at Savannah State College in Savannah, Georgia

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - The Honorable Edna Jackson talks about her time as chair of the Chatham County Hospital Authority in Savannah, Georgia

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - The Honorable Edna Jackson describes her role in the Chatham County Democratic Party

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - The Honorable Edna Jackson remembers her first elected office

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - The Honorable Edna Jackson talks about Mayor Otis Johnson's town hall meetings

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - The Honorable Edna Jackson recalls the challenges at the start of her mayoralty of Savannah, Georgia

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - The Honorable Edna Jackson recalls hiring Stephanie Cutter as city manager of Savannah, Georgia

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - The Honorable Edna Jackson remembers working with protesters following the shooting of Charles Smith

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - The Honorable Edna Jackson talks about losing her reelection campaign, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - The Honorable Edna Jackson talks about losing her reelection campaign, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - The Honorable Edna Jackson remembers her health problems during her mayoral term

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - The Honorable Edna Jackson reflects upon her life after her mayoralty

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - The Honorable Edna Jackson reflects upon her civic contributions

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - The Honorable Edna Jackson talks about her awards and honors

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - The Honorable Edna Jackson reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - The Honorable Edna Jackson talks about the need for social activism

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - The Honorable Edna Jackson narrates her photographs, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - The Honorable Edna Jackson narrates her photographs, pt. 2

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$5

DAStory

3$2

DATitle
The Honorable Edna Jackson describes her work as an NAACP field coordinator in Florida
The Honorable Edna Jackson remembers working with protesters following the shooting of Charles Smith
Transcript
(Simultaneous) See what happened, when I graduated from high school [Alfred E. Beach High School, Savannah, Georgia] it was known that I was going to college [at Savannah State College; Savannah State University, Savannah, Georgia]. Tuition was sixty-five dollars a quarter, and back then you didn't have financial aid and all that kind of stuff like our young people really don't realize. And they should appreciate now. So, my mom [Georgia Branch Dillard] would se- sent my sister's [Margie Reid Williams] and my tuition the first quarter, oh I went to school I didn't, you know, I was having me a good time too. And, but we had, my grandmother [Jackson's maternal grandmother, Sadie Royal Branch] decided she would take in a couple of college students. And my mother had sent the tuition for the second quarter, the winter quarter and my grandmamma went to get the money and there was no money. One of the students had stolen the money for my tuition and my sister's tuition. And they couldn't come up with tuition for me. Didn't bother me, you know. So, by that time Mr. Law [W.W. Law], they, the NAACP [National Association for the Advancement of Colored People] had chosen some young people to work all over the South and I knew, they asked me, I dropped out. And they sent me to North Carolina. This guy Edwards [James Edwards, Jr.] in South Carolina worked--'cause I came up around, with all these guys. Carolyn Quilloin [Carolyn Quilloin Coleman] stayed here in Georgia. But, it was my responsibility to organize civil rights workers across that State of Florida. The field director's office was right down the street from my mama's restaurant, Dillard's Restaurant [ph.]. We had arrived by then, my mother had re- remarried [to Mansfield Dillard] and she'd opened her restaurant. So, my assignment was a city called Live Oak, Florida. And we, my assignment was to go to meet with the ministers and all, remember now I was, I was just turned eighteen years old. That's September, so this was January. And there was another young man from Jacksonville [Florida], Bob, Bob, Bob, Bob, not Bob Saunders [Robert W. Saunders, Sr.] was the field director. Robert, Robert, I can't think of his name it will come. But, he, we met in Live Oak, Florida to get people to teach them how to demonstrate. And you had CORE and you also had the Congr- see, you had the Congress of Racial Equality, another one of the groups there. But ours was teach them how to demonstrate. Send them down there, and we had to set up for the attorneys to be ready to get them out of jail. And the field director, the group out of Jacksonville was working with us and we were able to do that. And I had to teach them non-violence. Left there and went to Pahokee, Florida, to work there. And we had to do several things, the same kinds of things, that's down in what they call the black muck. But, you do the same thing, but it was my work in Tampa [Florida] where we were also demonstrating, when they decided that we were going to go to the March on Washington. So, we had an integrated group of kids in the Youth Council [NAACP Youth Council] in Tampa. So, my boss Bob Saunders said, "Edna [HistoryMaker Edna Jackson]," I said, "Mr. Saunders we want to go to March on Washington." So, he said, "But you know how you gonna get there?" So, we said, "Well y'all can get us some cars and we'll drive." Well, long story short, we had three station wagons. And that's the only time my sister ever participated in demonstrating. Her thing was, "Well when you get yours I'll get mine." By that time she had moved to Tampa, because she graduated. Remember she was a senior, so she had graduated and she moved to Tampa to start, to become a teacher in Head Start down there. So we went to the March on Washington with an integrated group of kids driving station wagons. And here I was, eighteen years old, leading the group. I couldn't drive, you know, I was eighteen, 'cause the insurance would not cover, so we had to have drivers--older people. And a couple of years ago I was telling this story to someone else and we found the white couple, they were brother and sisters, David and David Bob, Boffet [ph.], and, I can't think of his sister and we found the brother and we later the found the, the bro- we found David. He's living in Colorado now. But, the good part about it is that we integrated Florida. And from there, Carolyn by that time was out of college and she was moving about. And we worked, I worked all over Florida and we would come in and out of Georgia as well. But, my assignment specifically at that time was Florida.$Then we had a white officer [David Jannot] to shoot a young man [Charles Smith]. It was on my birthday, two years ago, September 18th. (Background noise) I'm getting ready, we, oh. I'm getting ready to you know, to have city council meeting [of the Savannah City Council]. We get a call in our pre council meeting, "Edna, there has been a shooting in West Savannah [Savannah, Georgia], and a young man's life has been taken." So, West Savannah was Van Johnson's area. So, I said, "Van [Van R. Johnson II] go out there and call me right back." He went out there to look out, he was an alderman. He said, "It's bad." So, I said, "Okay, I said, "you come back and I'm on my way." Stephanie Cutter, the chief of police [Julie Tolbert] and I went out there, three females. You never heard anything about it. When I got out there along with Stephanie and the chief, I wouldn't--I didn't want any policemen around me. I didn't even want to go, want to stand under the railing. I talked to my people. Someone said to me, he said, "Miss," he said, "mayor, you don't need to go out there." I said, "Why not?" I said, "These are my people. This is in the African American neighborhood. If, I can come out of here and ask them to vote for me, then I can stand out here and talk to them." And they listened to me. They did night marches. The, the, the Black Panther Party came in here. Pastor Brown [HistoryMaker Reverend Matthew Southall Brown, Sr.] and I went out there. I don't know if he mentioned it. We've, we were in a meeting, I said, "Pastor Brown I need you." We went out there to sit down to eat some chicken wings and I was ju- we felt, we made a conversation like we didn't know we were doing, who that young man was and he told us. And I said, "Oh I'm [HistoryMaker] Edna Jackson the mayor of Savannah [Georgia], thank you for coming." I said, "And this is Pastor Brown," and we went on and on and we talked. And I said, "Let me tell you everything that has happened and where we're going with this." He said, "Well, we got them coming in from Waynesboro [Georgia]." I said, "Waynesboro." He said, "Yeah, that's my hometown." I said, "Oh my people from Wayne. Do you know So and So and So? My cousin is on the police force," so you know, just to open up the thing. Well, long story short they came in here, that night they had, they were having marches. They weren't, but they wanted to see how they were gonna march. This young man and--decided that he, he used to be a member of the Panther Party in Savannah. And he went down and he used the bullhorn to talk about a man where the grocery store was. This man was Ori- Indian, Indian. "Y'all need to run him out of the thing. Y'all need to do this," I said, "Oh hell no." I was up, back up by the other area. I walked out in the middle of street and when I down they said, "Oh there go the mayor." So, when I was g- halfway, almost halfway, all of a sudden I saw the Panthers do their little turn. And you know how they (gesture) do their thing like that, you know. So, I said to the young man, I said, "Oh, is the, you know, the protest over?" He said, "Mayor we're satisfied you have this in order. We don't act like that. We're leaving your city." No one ever knew that they came through here to be a part of all the disruptions. When they the dec- the people in the neighborhood decided that they were gonna march that, you know, every day, we say, "Okay, just tell me, give me your schedule. We'll make sure that you are protected by the police." They marched--first march they had they had these little kids at the beginning of the line. I pulled the leaders aside I said, "Now let me tell y'all about the art of marching. You never put the babies in the front." "Oh," I said, "So now, if y'all are--." I said, "First thing, y'all need to have them in the march. But, if you make sure you protect them by putting them in the back you have a right to march. But, now the minute y'all throw something through somebody's stuff I'm going to put you in jail." You never heard about it. Savannah State [Savannah State University, Savannah, Georgia] students laid out on the highway 80 [U.S. Route 80]. I was way up in North Georgia and they called me. I was at Georgia Municipal Association meeting. I got in my car, Lonnie [Alonzo Adams, Jr.] was with me. Got in my car and I said, "Tell them I'll meet them at twelve o'clock." Met them and I explained what my life was like. They never did it again. I said, "A fellow student was killed right out there on that street, for collecting scholarship money." I said, "So you need to know why you going, who's gonna get you out of jail? Y'all haven't done any of that." So, that was if you ask me of something that I was proud of, I was proud of that moment. When CNN came in here and said, "How did y'all do it? You are three women." We said, "That's how we did it. We're three women that can feel the pulse of the people. That can work with people. That are--," we do not antagonize people but they know w- they knew we were coming from. And they--so we worked together, that is what happened. It was all over the press. But, most of the time, it wasn't a covered story. Because we didn't have the outbreaks like they had out there, you know, in other areas.

The Honorable Otis Johnson

Political official and civic leader Otis Johnson was born on March 26, 1942 in Savannah, Georgia to Lillian Spencer and Otis S. Johnson, Sr. Johnson attended Paulsen Street Elementary School and Cuyler Street Junior High School in Savannah. He graduated from Alfred E. Beach High School in 1960. Johnson earned his A.A. degree in liberal arts from Armstrong State University in 1964, becoming the university’s first African American graduate. He earned his B.A. degree in history from the University of Georgia in 1967, and his M.S.W. degree in social work from Clark Atlanta University in 1969. Johnson received his Ph.D. degree in social welfare from Brandeis University in 1980.

Johnson served in the U.S. Navy Reserve from 1959 to 1965. Johnson worked for the Economic Opportunity Authority for Savannah-Chatham County Area, Inc. and the City of Savannah Model Cities Program before joining the faculty at Savannah State University in 1971. He was responsible for establishing the undergraduate program in social work at the university. Johnson served as the Alderman of District Two on the Savannah City Council from 1983 to 1988. He resigned in 1988 to become the executive director of the Chatham Savannah Youth Futures Authority. In 1998, he returned to Savannah State University as the dean of the College of Liberal Arts and Social Sciences. In the next year, Johnson joined the Savannah-Chatham County Board of Education, serving for four years. He was elected as mayor of Savannah in 2003, becoming the second African American to assume the role. After leaving the mayor’s office in 2012, Johnson became a scholar in residence and professor emeritus at Savannah State University. His autobiography, From ‘N Word’ to Mr. Mayor: Experiencing the American Dream, was published in 2016.

In 2001 and 2006, Johnson was featured in Georgia Trend magazine’s list of “Most Influential Georgians.” He was the recipient of Armstrong State University’s Distinguished Alumnus Award in 2005 as well as the Notable Alumnus Award in 2010.

Johnson served as chair of the board of trustees of the Mary Reynolds Babcock Foundation and MDC, Inc. He was also a member of the Aspen Institute’s Roundtable on Comprehensive Community Initiatives.

Johnson has one daughter, Alexis Williamson.

Otis Johnson was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on February 8, 2017.

Accession Number

A2017.024

Sex

Male

Interview Date

02/08/2017

Last Name

Johnson

Maker Category
Occupation
Organizations
Schools

Paulsen Street School

Beach-Cuyler School

Alfred E. Beach High School

Savannah State University

Georgia Southern University-Armstrong Campus

University of Georgia

Clark Atlanta University

Brandeis University

First Name

Otis

Birth City, State, Country

Savannah

HM ID

JOH51

Favorite Season

The warm months, spring/fall

State

Georgia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Wherever I haven't been. Africa most often.

Favorite Quote

Plan your work, work your plan. Power concedes nothing without a demand...

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Birth Date

3/26/1942

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Savannah

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Seafood

Short Description

Political official and civic leader Otis Johnson (1942 - ) served as the Alderman of District 2 on the Savannah City Council from 1982 to 1988, and as Mayor of Savannah from 2003 to 2012.

Favorite Color

Blue

Reverend Matthew Southall Brown, Sr.

Religious leader Reverend Mathew Southall Brown, Sr. was born on July 16, 1922 in Savannah, Georgia to Christopher Frederick Brown and Helen Robinson Brown. In 1943, Brown graduated from Cuyler-Beach High School in Savannah, Georgia and enlisted in the U.S. Army. He served in World War II as a non-commissioned officer and was assigned to a support unit. Following his military service, he attended Georgia State College and earned his B.D. degree from the American Baptist Seminary in Nashville, Tennessee in 1961. Brown also studied at the University of Miami, the Division of Addiction Sciences with a grant from the City of Savannah

Brown was ordained as a minister in 1961 in the Historic First African Baptist Church. The following year, he accepted a position as a pastor at First Smyrna Baptist Church in Savannah, Georgia. In 1963, Brown became a pastor at Royal Missionary Baptist Church and then St. John Baptist Church in Savannah, Georgia in 1969, where he led his congregation through the renovation of the church. In 1986, Brown dedicated St. John Villa, formerly the East Broad Street School, as a housing complex for the elderly and the handicapped. In 1988, the Matthew Southall Brown Resources and Learning Center was named in his honor. Brown then hosted a morning radio show called “Thought for the Day,” which aired on Clear Channel Radio Savannah, Georgia WSOK 1230 AM. In 1991, Brown then published, The Best of Pastor Matthew Southall Brown, Sr.’s 6:30 a.m. Meditative Thoughts. Brown retired as pastor of St. John Baptist Church in 2004 and became pastor emeritus. He founded the Boys’ Summit in 2010.

In 1971, Brown was appointed by Judge Alexander Lawrence as chairman of a biracial school advisory board. Brown also served as chair on the Emancipation Association beginning in 2013. He was also recognized and honored for his service to his community. In 2013, Brown was recognized by the National Baptist Convention for more than fifty years of service.

Brown has four children: Maxine Jones, Leonard Brown, Christa Stephens, and Matthew Southall Brown, Jr.

Matthew Southall Brown was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on February 7, 2017.

Accession Number

A2017.022

Sex

Male

Interview Date

02/07/2017

Last Name

Brown

Maker Category
Middle Name

Southall

Occupation
Schools

Florence Street Elementary School

Beach-Cuyler School

Alfred E. Beach High School

Savannah State University

American Baptist Theological Seminary

University of Miami

First Name

Matthew

Birth City, State, Country

Savannah

HM ID

BRO63

Favorite Season

July

State

Georgia

Favorite Vacation Destination

New York City

Favorite Quote

Failure is not found.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Birth Date

7/16/1922

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Savannah

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Spaghetti

Short Description

Religious leader Reverend Matthew Southall Brown, Sr. (1922 - ) a pastor of First Smyrna Baptist Church in Savannah in 1962, he also served as pastor of St. John’s Baptist Church in Savannah in 1969 for thirty-five years.

Employment

St. John Baptist Church

Nicholsonboro Baptist

Royal Missionary Baptist Church

Smyrna Baptist Church

Favorite Color

Brown

M. Brian Blake

Computer scientist and academic administrator M. Brian Blake was born in Savannah, Georgia. He graduated from Benedictine Military Academy in 1989 and then enrolled in the Georgia Institute of Technology where he graduated with his B.S. degree in electrical engineering in 1994. In 1997, Blake earned his M.S. degree in electrical engineering with a minor in software engineering and a graduate certificate in object-oriented analysis and design from Mercer University in Atlanta, Georgia. He went on to earn his Ph.D. degree in information technology and computer science from George Mason University in 2000.

Upon graduation, Blake spent six years in industry working as a software architect, technical lead, and expert developer with companies such as General Electric (GE), Lockheed Martin, General Dynamics, and The MITRE Corporation. Blake joined the department of computer science at Georgetown University in 1999 as an adjunct professor. After being promoted to associate professor in 2005, he became the youngest African American tenured computer science professor. In 2007, Blake was selected to chair Georgetown University’s computer science department, making him the first African American appointed to the position. Blake was then brought on at Notre Dame University in 2009 where he served the Associate Dean of Engineering for Research and Graduate Studies, and as professor of computer science and engineering. Blake was also the first African American tenured professor in Notre Dame’s College of Engineering. In May of 2012, Blake was named Vice Provost for Academic Affairs and Dean of the Graduate School at the University of Miami. His research interests include

Blake has published more than 150 refereed articles and publications in the area of software engineering and the integration of Web-based systems. He served as the Associate Editor-in-Chief of Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Internet Computing, and Associate Editor of IEEE Transactions on Service Computing. In 2006, he was selected to serve on the National Science Foundation Advisory Board for Computer, Information Science, and Engineering. Blake is also a senior member of the IEEE Computer Society.

In 2007, was honored by Diverse: Issues in Higher Education as “One of 10 Emerging Scholars.” He was the creator and founder of the Web Services Challenge, an initiative that evaluates software engineering techniques in the area of web service composition. As an undergraduate at the Georgia Institute of Technology, Blake was initiated in the ANAK Society and received the J. Erskine Love, Jr. Award. In 2003, US Black Engineer and Information Technology magazine and Lockheed Martin recognized him as the “Most Promising Engineer/Scientist in Industry.”

Blake is married to Bridget Blake, a mechanical engineer who earned her M.B.A. from The Johns Hopkins University and now serves as a consultant for The MITRE Corporation. They have two sons: Brendan Blake and Bryce Blake.

Brian M. Blake was interviewed y he HistoryMakers on June 3, 2013.

Accession Number

A2013.139

Sex

Male

Interview Date

6/3/2013

Last Name

Blake

Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Brian

Schools

George Mason University

Mercer University

Georgia Institute of Technology

Benedictine Military School

Shuman Middle School

Eli Whitney Elementary

First Name

M.

Birth City, State, Country

Savannah

HM ID

BLA15

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Georgia

Favorite Vacation Destination

New York, New York

Favorite Quote

Far better is it to dare mighty things, to win glorious triumphs, even though checkered by failure than to rank with those poor spirits who neither enjoy nor suffer much, because they live in a gray twilight that knows not victory nor defeat. - Theodore Roosevelt

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Florida

Birth Date

10/13/1971

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Coral Gables

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Pudding (Bread)

Short Description

Computer scientist and academic administrator M. Brian Blake (1971 - ) joined the faculty of Georgetown University in 1998, and went on to become the youngest African American tenured computer science professor and the first African American to become chair of the computer science department. He was also the first African American tenured professor in the College of Engineering at the University Notre Dame.

Employment

University of Miami

University of Notre Dame

Georgetown University

MITRE Corporation

Cleared Solutions

Lockheed Martin

General Electric Company

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of M. Brian Blake's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - M. Brian Blake lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - M. Brian Blake describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - M. Brian Blake talks about his mother's growing up in Estill, South Carolina

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - M. Brian Blake talks about his mother's entrepreneurial skills and her influence on him

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - M. Brian Blake describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - M. Brian Blake describes his father's growing up in Estill, South Carolina

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - M. Brian Blake talks about Estill, South Carolina

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - M. Brian Blake talks about how his parents met and married

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - M. Brian Blake talks about his father's entrepreneurship

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - M. Brian Blake describes his parents' personalities and who he takes after

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - M. Brian Blake talks about his siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - M. Brian Blake describes his childhood household

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - M. Brian Blake describes his childhood neighborhoods in Savannah, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - M. Brian Blake describes the sights, sounds and smells of growing up in Savannah, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - M. Brian Blake talks about attending Townsley Chapel AME Church in Savannah, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - M. Brian Blake describes his experience in grade school - part one

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - M. Brian Blake describes the changes in his childhood neighborhood in Savannah, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - M. Brian Blake describes his experience in grade school - part two

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - M. Brian Blake describes his experience in grade school - part three

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - M. Brian Blake describes his interest in mathematics in grade school, and his father encouraging him to apply math to entrepreneurial use

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - M. Brian Blake describes his early exposure to computers and programming - part one

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - M. Brian Blake describes his early exposure to computers and programming - part two

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - M. Brian Blake describes his experience in middle school

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - M. Brian Blake describes his experience at Benedictine Military Academy in Savannah, Georgia - part one

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - M. Brian Blake describes his experience at Benedictine Military Academy in Savannah, Georgia - part two

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - M. Brian Blake talks about his preparation in computer science in high school and his decision to major in electrical engineering at Georgia Tech

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - M. Brian Blake talks about graduating from high school and his extracurricular activities there

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - M. Brian Blake talks about his growth spurt in high school, and running track

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - M. Brian Blake talks about his parents attending his track meets

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - M. Brian Blake talks about attending a minority introduction to engineering program at Purdue University and his decision to attend Georgia Tech

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - M. Brian Blake describes his experience at the Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech)

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - M. Brian Blake talks about his mentors at the Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) and his experience as a research assistant

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - M. Brian Blake talks about his undergraduate research experience at the Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech)

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - M. Brian Blake talks about graduating from Georgia Tech as a member of the ANAK honor society

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - M. Brian Blake describes his decision to pursue the Edison Engineering Program at General Electric

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - M. Brian Blake describes his experience of working as a software engineering consultant at Lockheed Martin and also pursing his master's degree

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - M. Brian Blake describes his experience at Mercer University

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - M. Brian Blake describes his experience of pursuing his Ph.D. degree at George Mason University while working on a full-time job

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - M. Brian Blake describes his decision to become a professor at Georgetown University

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - M. Brian Blake describes his Ph.D. dissertation on workflow models, and his relationship with his mentor, Skip Ellis

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - M. Brian Blake describes the impact of his Ph.D. dissertation on workflow models

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - M. Brian Blake describes Workflow Automation through Agent-based Reflective Processes (WARP) and its applications

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - M. Brian Blake talks about his mentor at George Mason University, Professor Hassan Gomaa

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - M. Brian Blake describes his experience at Georgetown University

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - M. Brian Blake talks about serving as an expert witness

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - M. Brian Blake describes his experience working for MITRE Corporation

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - M. Brian Blake talks about his involvement in mentoring

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - M. Brian Blake talks about serving as the lead software process consultant for the Imaging Science and Information Systems Research Center

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - M. Brian Blake describes his experience as an administrator at Georgetown University

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - M. Brian Blake talks about Workflow Automation through Agent-based Reflective Processes (WARP) and working with the Department of Justice

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - M. Brian Blake talks about his involvement with the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)

Tape: 6 Story: 11 - M. Brian Blake talks about Beverly Magda at Georgetown University

Tape: 6 Story: 12 - M. Brian Blake describes how he was hired as a professor of computer science and engineering at the University of Notre Dame in 2009

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - M. Brian Blake describes his experience at the University of Notre Dame

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - M. Brian Blake describes his decision to become the vice provost for academic affairs and dean of the graduate school at the University of Miami

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - M. Brian Blake describes his experience at the University of Miami

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - M. Brian Blake describes his research focus in the area of service-oriented computing and cloud computing

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - M. Brian Blake talks about the cutting edge in computer science

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - M. Brian Blake describes his research collaboration with HistoryMakers Ayanna Howard and Andrew Williams

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - M. Brian Blake talks about his career goals for the future

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - M. Brian Blake reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - M. Brian Blake reflects upon his career

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - M. Brian Blake discusses his goals for the University of Miami

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - M. Brian Blake describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - M. Brian Blake talks about his family

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - M. Brian Blake talks about the University of Miami's football team

Tape: 8 Story: 6 - M. Brian Blake talks about starting a bank account at the age of eleven, buying his first house, and the importance of financial management

Tape: 8 Story: 7 - M. Brian Blake talks about how he would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$6

DAStory

2$1

DATitle
M. Brian Blake describes his early exposure to computers and programming - part one
M. Brian Blake describes Workflow Automation through Agent-based Reflective Processes (WARP) and its applications
Transcript
One of the interesting things I did, when I was in fifth grade, my dad [Malworsth Blake] bought this Apple IIe. It was one of the early MacIntosh, one of the early Apple machines. He said--he was so excited, he was like I'm going to use this to do all my accounting, it's going to save me time and all this stuff. I think he might have got on that thing maybe two months, before it started collecting dust. And we had a converted garage into a family room, so in fifth grade, I just picked it up and basically just started writing programs on it. I think by the time that I graduated from--we had a different machine by then, but by the time I was kind of in high school, I had hundreds of programs I'd written on that machine.$$Now, how did you get started with writing programs for an Apple IIe. Now, this is in the garage. Now, there's a missing part of this story, you just picked up and just started writing programs?$$I'll tell you the background. So the Apple IIe was there, and then I, in fifth grade, it had a couple of games on it, you could make these small programs to add things. The basic--it's interesting, the programming for Windows machine, it has like this DOS, very kind of rudimentary programming language, if you will, as the basic underneath the operating system. Those early machines, they just had basic programming language. So the programming language was actually the operating system language. So if your basic was the first programming language, most people learned it was kind of C, C++, basic, was just the foundation. So you could write small programs right from the command line on those Apple IIes. And I wrote a couple of things, I kind of add two numbers together and things like that. But how I really learned to program on that was that it had a couple of games on it and they were not games like we would know them today.$$What were the games?$$Yeah. Breakout was on there, which was like a bar and a couple of balls, and then it had other--so it had, what was it called, Westward Ho was a game on there. Most of the games were text-based. So this was a game that you had to move across the country with a lot of goods. It was kind of like a simulation, if you will, but you could decide what you were going to bring and what you're going to--it was kind of those societal games. There was another game on there that was a computer simulation for stocks. So you can-- another simulation of you had to make choices about what stocks to buy and what particular time, and the simulation would run, and you could actually grow different things. So, and I played those games, only a couple of those. So, you know, I got excited about games and particularly about, and these weren't like the games, like I said, this was not WE or Nintendo, or anything like that, these were like kind of text-based games, if you will. So I subscribed to, I think it was called PC Computing or PC World, it was a magazine. So back then, if you remember it, they had disk drives that were relatively new. They used to have a disk drive where the disk was about the size of a sheet of paper and then about the time I got on the machine, the disk was the size of--it was five and a quarter, so it was kind of like this size. (indicating) So, and those disk couldn't hold--they could hold some programs, but not so much. So what you would do is, you would order the magazine, and the magazine would come with all the programming language in it, and you'd have to type in the program line by line, and then you'd have the game. So that's kind of how you got--you could either buy it or you could actually subscribe to a magazine that would actually give you games.$$How did you get acquainted with PC World Magazine, was that at school?$$I guess so. I'm trying to think when--I started subscribing to that in fifth grade. My fifth grade was early for computers back then. Now, it's not so early. But I think I must have seen it somewhere. There was another buddy of mine in the neighborhood who also--I actually had Apple IIe and he had the Radio Shack version, it was a Tandy TR80, he had the other computer. So he and I would go back and forth about how you would do it. Probably some interaction there, we discovered the magazine. And once I got that, I think how I started learning the programs, I'd write this coding in, I knew nothing about what was going on, and then what would happen would be over time, it was all basic language, over time I'd begin to pick up what things mean. And the reason why you'd have to is because you're going to make mistakes when you type it in, and it wouldn't work, and you had to try to figure out--you could go line by line, but sometimes the program would be written wrong in the--so you would receive it wrong, so you couldn't get it to work because there was some error in it, so over time you would begin to realize, okay, I think I've caught all the errors, so it must be something else. And you begin to see some of the things that are breaking down, and you begin to read it a little closer, so it's almost--I think that's how people can pick up other languages, too. They watch TV and they look at text and over time, if you look at the subscripts that show on TV over time, you can kind of pick up what the language means because you're kind of comparing what happens to what's being said. And that was very similar for me, how I learned BASIC language basically through that, and over time, I just got better and started doing that.$Tell us about WARP [Workflow Automation through Agent-based Reflective Processes], I think we mentioned it in general, but not specifically?$$Right. So, WARP was this notion of--I think the acronym stands for Workflow Oriented Agent Base Reflective Processes is what it stood for, but the idea was--it was actually intelligent software using agents that could--reflective being that it could look--it could introspect on software that already exist and try to connect it into workflow automatically. So it was a--it really was sort of an expert system, if you will, that could actually assess already written code and develop workflows from that code. It was about I think it was like 15 or 20,000 lines of code I wrote during my dissertation, and it was really foundational to my early work. One of the interesting things about being a software engineer and being sort of self-proclaiming expert at programming was that when you do your dissertation you have all this theoretical stuff, you could actually--I could write my own software to kind of do a proof of concept and WARP was that proof of concept. And as I said later it extended to any number of projects that we had. We had a project with the Federal Aviation Administration where it actually served air traffic control data, had a project that served date through neuro informatics(sp) through the National Institute of Mental Health. We had another project where I used it for image guided surgery so the theory behind actually integrating the workflow and some of the modules we developed later, you know, based on that initial module were using any number of applications.$$Okay.

The Honorable Eva M. Clayton

U.S. congresswoman Eva M. Clayton was born in Savannah, Georgia on September 16, 1934. In 1955, Clayton received her B.S. degree in biology from Johnson C. Smith University. She then obtained her M.S. degree in biology and general science from North Carolina Central University in Durham, North Carolina in 1962. With the encouragement of civil rights activist and attorney Vernon Jordan, Clayton sought election to Congress in a north-central North Carolina district. Despite a losing bid, Clayton’s initial run generated black voter registration. In the early 1970s, she worked for several public and private ventures, including the North Carolina Health Manpower Development Program at the University of North Carolina. In 1974, she cofounded and served as the executive director of Soul City Foundation, a housing organization that renovated dilapidated buildings for use as homeless shelters and daycare centers. Clayton worked on the successful gubernatorial campaign of Jim Hunt, who later appointed Clayton the assistant secretary of the North Carolina department of natural resources and community development. Clayton served in that capacity from 1977 until 1981. In 1982 she won election to the Warren County Board of Commissioners, which she chaired until 1990.

When Representative Walter Jones, Sr. announced his retirement in 1992, Clayton entered the Democratic primary to fill his seat. She eventually won the special election to fill the last two months of Jones’s unexpired term in the 102nd Congress (1991–1993) and defeated Republican Ted Tyler for a full term in the 103rd Congress (1993–1995). Clayton became the first black woman elected to U.S. Congress in North Carolina. In her subsequent four bids for re-election, she won comfortably, with 60 percent or more of the vote. Clayton served with distinction for ten years as the U.S. Representative of North Carolina’s 1st Congressional District. While in Congress, she served on Agriculture and Budget Committees and as ranking member of the Agriculture Department’s Operations Oversight, Nutrition and Forestry Subcommittees. Clayton is the past chair of the Congressional Black Caucus Foundation. In 2003, her name was put forth as a possible Democratic vice-presidential candidate. Clayton completed a three year-assignment with the Food Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) in Rome, Italy in 2006 as Assistant Director-General and Special Adviser to the Director-General. In this post, Clayton helped to establish national alliances and partnerships in over 24 countries to fight hunger and poverty including the United States of America. She currently serves as the chairperson of Preserve Community Pharmacy Access NOW (PCPAN), a project of the Pharmacy Choice and Access Now (PCAN) coalition, which fights on behalf of patients to preserve access to quality and affordable health care and pharmacy services.

Clayton is the mother of four adult children, Joanne, Theaoseus, Jr., Martin and Reuben. She is married to Attorney Theaoseus T. Clayton, Sr. and they are proud grandparents of six grandchildren.

Eva M. Clayton was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on February 22, 2012.

Accession Number

A2012.059

Sex

Female

Interview Date

2/22/2012

Last Name

Clayton

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Occupation
Schools

North Carolina Central University

Johnson C. Smith University

Ursula Collins Elementary School

Lucy C. Laney High School

North Carolina Central University School of Law

University of North Carolina School of Law, Chapel Hill

First Name

Eva

Birth City, State, Country

Savannah

HM ID

CLA18

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Georgia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Mountains, Beaches

Favorite Quote

That Too Shall Come To Pass. Do Unto Others As You Would Have Them Do Unto You

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

North Carolina

Birth Date

9/16/1934

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Raleigh

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Corn, Cabbage, Okra, Tomato, Fried Chicken, Fish

Short Description

U.S. congresswoman The Honorable Eva M. Clayton (1934 - ) was the first black woman elected to U.S. Congress from North Carolina, serving with distinction for ten years as an advocate for programs for disadvantaged African Americans and rural and agricultural interests in her district.

Employment

Soul City Foundation

North Carolina Department of Natural Resources and Community Development

Warren County Board of Commissioners

United States Congress

UN Food and Agriculture Organization

Favorite Color

Purple

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of the Honorable Eva M. Clayton's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - The Honorable Eva M. Clayton lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - The Honorable Eva M. Clayton describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - The Honorable Eva M. Clayton describes her mother's upbringing

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - The Honorable Eva M. Clayton describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - The Honorable Eva M. Clayton talks about how her parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - The Honorable Eva M. Clayton describes her likeness to her parents

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - The Honorable Eva M. Clayton lists her siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - The Honorable Eva M. Clayton describes her earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - The Honorable Eva M. Clayton recalls her parents' community involvement

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - The Honorable Eva M. Clayton describes the sights, sounds and smells of her childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - The Honorable Eva M. Clayton recalls public school, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - The Honorable Eva M. Clayton remembers the Steed Street School in Augusta, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - The Honorable Eva M. Clayton talks about her role models

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - The Honorable Eva M. Clayton remembers her influential teachers

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - The Honorable Eva M. Clayton recalls matriculating at Johnson C. Smith University in Charlotte, North Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - The Honorable Eva M. Clayton remembers meeting her husband

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - The Honorable Eva M. Clayton remembers her influences at Johnson C. Smith University in Charlotte, North Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - The Honorable Eva M. Clayton recalls her activities at Johnson C. Smith University in Charlotte, North Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - The Honorable Eva M. Clayton talks about her early awareness of politics

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - The Honorable Eva M. Clayton recalls her introduction to civil rights activism

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - The Honorable Eva M. Clayton talks about her work with the American Friends Service Committee

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - The Honorable Eva M. Clayton recalls her graduation from Johnson C. Smith University

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - The Honorable Eva M. Clayton remembers James Brown

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - The Honorable Eva M. Clayton remembers moving to Durham, North Carolina

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - The Honorable Eva M. Clayton describes the political leadership in Durham, North Carolina

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - The Honorable Eva M. Clayton talks about the importance of black institutions

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - The Honorable Eva M. Clayton recalls moving to Warrenton, North Carolina

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - The Honorable Eva M. remembers becoming a community organizer

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - The Honorable Eva M. recalls attending the University of North Carolina School of Law in Chapel Hill, North Carolina

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - The Honorable Eva M. recalls her first campaign for the U.S. House of Representatives

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - The Honorable Eva M. describes her economic development work in North Carolina

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - The Honorable Eva M. Clayton talks about Soul City, North Carolina

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - The Honorable Eva M. Clayton remembers the Watergate scandal

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - The Honorable Eva M. Clayton recalls her role at the North Carolina Department of Natural Resources and Community Development

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - The Honorable Eva M. Clayton recalls her commissionership of Warren County, North Carolina

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - The Honorable Eva M. Clayton recalls her decision to run for the U.S. House of Representatives

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - The Honorable Eva M. Clayton remembers her first term in the U.S. Congress

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - The Honorable Eva M. Clayton recalls the Republican Revolution of 1994

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - The Honorable Eva M. Clayton talks about the U.S. Congress under President Barack Obama

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - The Honorable Eva M. Clayton talks about her leadership in the U.S. Congress

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - The Honorable Eva M. Clayton remembers the class action lawsuit of Pigford v. Glickman

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - The Honorable Eva M. Clayton recalls the solidarity among black women in the U.S. Congress

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - The Honorable Eva M. Clayton talks about the impact of Hurricane Floyd

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - The Honorable Eva M. Clayton remembers her decision not to seek reelection

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - The Honorable Eva M. Clayton recalls her service at the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - The Honorable Eva M. Clayton recalls projects from her terms in Congress

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - The Honorable Eva M. Clayton describes the Eva M. Clayton Fellows Program Act

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - The Honorable Eva M. Clayton describes her hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - The Honorable Eva M. Clayton reflects upon her life

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - The Honorable Eva M. Clayton reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - The Honorable Eva M. Clayton describes her children

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - The Honorable Eva M. Clayton describes how she would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$5

DAStory

6$7

DATitle
The Honorable Eva M. Clayton remembers her first term in the U.S. Congress
The Honorable Eva M. Clayton remembers her decision not to seek reelection
Transcript
Well, this must have been exciting, going to [U.S.] Congress?$$Oh, it was exciting.$$So--$$It was a brand new--as you say you live several lives. There was a--it was a brand new life, a brand new opening, brand new awareness. And, also a very new opportunity to serve, share, and, and to give back.$$Okay, so you come in with the Clinton [President William Jefferson "Bill" Clinton] administration, right?$$I did.$$Same time, so, so, just explain what was--how did you--well, what was your first day like in Congress?$$Well, I can't even remember, but exciting. So, you know, it was full of--well, the first day of my inauguration, you know, when everybody else came, was full of excitement and people giving briefings, and you getting to know new people. As I said, I met three of the people who had served as county commissioners so that started as a basis. There were a number of Afro Americans who were elected, more then than before so that was the highest number coming in at one time in 1993. Also significant, it was the largest number of women coming at one time to Congress in 1993. And, I think as a result of a combination of that, I was elected president of my class both with the women vote and I guess the black. I didn't go there to--in fact I didn't even know there was such a, an office as being president of the freshman class, but, anyhow, the freshman class was large freshman class. And, with a number of newcomers, and I was honored to serve as the president in--as co-president along with--now, Jim Clyburn [HistoryMaker James Clyburn] ran for it. I didn't, but both of us served as co- (unclear), we worked a compromised since I had the most votes, that we would serve as co-presidents of the freshman class. He's gone on now to be the whip, you know, Jim Clyburn is now the whip of the Democratic Party, Democratic congresspersons and is doing an exceedingly good job.$$That's true. Now, also, elected--was this Mel Watt's [HistoryMaker Melvin L. Watt] first term too?$$It was, two of us came from North Carolina.$$Mel Watt comes from Charlotte [North Carolina], right?$$Yeah, and he was very supportive of me and I supportive of him. We kind of were a tag team. I adopted him as my older, oldest son. You know, not that I'm that much older than he was. He, he's, he's doing a good job and we both came at the same time, both went through what we call redistricting here where our district (unclear) started off having about twenty-eight counties partial, you know, counties. He was gerrymandered obviously. And then they reduced it down to twenty-four, now it has twenty-two and, by the way, it's being redistricted again this year. It's going more urban now, it's moving more to Durham [North Carolina]. Before it came to Granville County [North Carolina] back to the coast and down. And the current congressman stops westward at Granville County and goes to (unclear). Now, he's losing the coastal counties and he's gaining 40 percent of his new congressional district will be in Durham, which would change the dynamics of the district. 'Cause, basically, when I went to Congress it was a rural area and I served on the agriculture committee [U.S. House Committee on Agriculture]. One, because we were a rural area and, of course, that served me well 'cause most of our people were in rural areas and we, we were able to do some things through agriculture.$$Okay, now, one of the things--now, this is the 103rd Congress?$$Um-hm.$$And, one of the things that you did was you voted against the North American Free Trade Agreement.$$I did.$$And, now, why did you vote against that? I know there were big demonstrations against it in Seattle [Washington] I think. Wasn't that in Seattle?$$Could've been. There were also demonstrations, smaller ones throughout, you know, the United States. Basically, I saw it as kind of a giveaway (unclear) the presidency away where it was, and, also the unions and the workers here were being put at a disadvantage I thought. And, the, and working with them I, I thought we should find ways of not outsourcing the jobs. And that's the real reason I voted for, 'cause I saw it as losing jobs here in the United States.$$Okay, did it adversely affect North Carolina?$$Oh, I thought it did. I mean, I saw there were a number of textile industries, a number of the manufacturer in furniture, others now find its way into foreign countries that could be produced there far less expensive. The workers cost less and they can ship it here. So, if you look through rural eastern North Carolina, you will find cotton mills, you will find textile industries no longer there because these jobs are now somewhere else.$$Okay, okay. Now, you're a, you're a member of the House agricultural committee like I said before and you were a member of the Congressional Black Caucus, right?$$I was, right.$$Now, what was the condition of Congressional Black Caucus when you arrived in Congress?$$Well, it became very strong because you had so many new ones come on at that time as, as one. And, the--I think they were not only a force but they also expanded their power in terms of exerting it. Obviously, it worked within the Democratic framework and to the extent that they were, you know, influencing change, they're more of the progressive arm of the Democratic Party, so I think that made a big, big difference in terms of the number of the bills they had.$Two-thousand one, now this is, I guess this is after the, a year after I guess the election of George Bush as, George W. Bush as president [President George Walker Bush], you declined to seek re-nomination for a sixth term.$$Um-hm.$$So, what, what was the--what went into your thinking about--$$In 2002 when I declined?$$Um-hm.$$Well, when I ran for congressman initially, I think I said publicly and privately that I did not run to serve a life term. I was gonna probably serve eight or ten years. Well, eight years came--oh, I think I might have paraphrased said I was gonna serve eight or ten years or as long as I was making a contribution and and enjoying it. Well, 2002 came I was still enjoying it and I was still making a contribution. But, if I was gonna kind of keep my word to myself and publicly, I thought it would be a--ten year made a good period of time that I would just step away and see what else the good Lord had for me to do.$$Now, this attitude is different from the attitude of a lot of people.$$Oh, sure.$$And, I guess (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Well, I'm Eva Clayton [HistoryMaker Eva M. Clayton]. I'm not everybody else.$$That's right, yes ma'am, but you know, you look at African countries, the presidents are elected and they stay until there is a coup d'etat, you know--$$That is so true.$$--so many times, you know, not everybody, Nyerere [Julius Kambarage Nyerere] stepped away, you know, other people have stepped away but, but--$$It's hard, you know, I empathize that it's, it's--it wasn't easy and it would be harder for me now to step away if I'd been there now eighteen years. I think that's what it would have been, eighteen. It's harder at eighteen years or twenty years than it is ten, you know, so I, I understand when people stay there longer. You, you see so much happening and you are engaged in and then you wanna, you wanna keep serving. But I do think there is something both for the individual and for the office. Both for me as the individual I think I've grown, having stepped away I miss it sometime but not much. And I, and I--it was a wonderful experience. I made a--and I made a significant contribution, you know. History would bear that out, but, and, also it was--it helped me. I grew in many ways. But, taking on a different challenge, I also found that I've had opportunities to new growth in a much broader way, honestly, than I could have done in [U.S.] Congress. Or, or put it another way because I had the experience of being a congressperson, I now had other opportunities to grow in a different way and, and to make a contribution. And, also for my district [1st Congressional District] I think people say they you know miss me and I believe they are sincere but they also have been benefitted by having people to follow me, that we do have other good people. And part of democracy is not that we just have one person who can serve but we have several people who are good. That doesn't diminish my value because you now have value, you know, and, and what we need to do is create a variety of places to serve, a variety of platforms to make a contribution, not just the elected positions, if that makes any sense, you know. At least it makes sense to me, may not make sense to anybody else.$$Okay, it makes sense to me.$$And especially someone who's had many lives, right? Like you have, I got you.$$All right, so, now, so, what did you do after not--well who took your place first of all? Who took your place in--$$Frank Ballance, oh yes (simultaneous).$$--(simultaneous) did, did you endorse them?$$Oh yes.$$Okay.$$I sure did.$$All right.$$I sure did.

Amelia Boynton Robinson

Civil rights pioneer Amelia Boynton Robinson was born on August 18, 1911, in Savannah, Georgia. As a young lady, Robinson became very active in women’s suffrage. In 1934, at the age of twenty-three, Robinson became one of the few registered African American voters. In an era where literacy tests were used to discriminate against African Americans seeking to vote, Robinson used her status as a registered voter to assist other African American applicants to become registered voters.

In 1930, while working as a home economics teacher in the rural south, Robinson became re-acquainted with Sam William Boynton, an extension agent for the county whom she had met while studying at Tuskegee Institute. They married and began to work together to bring education, a higher standard of living, and voting rights to the African American poor, most of whom worked as sharecroppers. In 1936, Robinson wrote a play entitled Through the Years, to raise money for a community center that would be open to African Americans in a then-racially segregated Selma, Alabama. Through the Years tells the story of Robert Smalls (one of Robinson’s ancestors), through the character of Joshua Terrell, a slave, who gains his freedom and goes on to serve in the U.S. Congress.

On February 29, 1964, Robinson became the first African American woman ever to seek a seat in Congress from Alabama. She was also the first woman to run for this office in the state, winning ten percent of the vote when only five percent of the registered voters were African American. In 1965, Robinson was one of the civil rights leaders that led the famous first march across the Edmund Pettus Bridge which resulted in that day being called Bloody Sunday. Robinson was gassed and beaten; a wire photo of her left for dead on Edmund Pettus Bridge went around the world and helped to spark an outpouring of support for the Civil Rights Movement.

Robinson was introduced to the LaRouche Movement in 1983, and a year later, she became a board member and then vice-chairperson of the Schiller Institute. The Schiller Institute was founded to defend the rights of all humanity. The Schiller Institute published her book Bridges over Jordan in 1991. In 1992, Robinson co-founded the International Civil Rights Solidarity Movement, and has received worldwide recognition for her sincere service to humanity. In 1990, Robinson was awarded the Martin Luther King, Jr. Foundation Medal of Freedom; in 2003 she was awarded the National Visionary Leadership Award; and in 2005, Robinson and her deceased husband, Sam Boynton, were honored on the Fortieth Anniversary of Bloody Sunday in Selma. Robinson spent the latter part of her career touring the nation and worldwide, speaking on the behalf of the Schiller Institute to promote civil and human rights.

Amelia Boynton Robinson passed away on August 28, 2015.

Accession Number

A2007.244

Sex

Female

Interview Date

9/4/2007

Last Name

Robinson

Maker Category
Middle Name

Boynton

Occupation
Organizations
Schools

Beach-Cuyler School

Savannah State University

Tuskegee University

First Name

Amelia

Birth City, State, Country

Savannah

HM ID

ROB16

Favorite Season

Fall, Spring

State

Georgia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Bahamas

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Alabama

Birth Date

8/18/1911

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Tuskegee

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Seafood

Death Date

8/26/2015

Short Description

Civil rights leader Amelia Boynton Robinson (1911 - 2015 ) was one of the civil rights leaders that led the famous first march across the Edmund Pettus Bridge, which became known as Bloody Sunday. She was also the first African American woman ever to seek a seat in Congress from Alabama.

Employment

Camden County Training School

Americus Institute

U.S. Department of Agriculture

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Amelia Boynton Robinson's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Amelia Boynton Robinson lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Amelia Boynton Robinson describes her mother's family background, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Amelia Boynton Robinson describes her mother's family background, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Amelia Boynton Robinson describes her mother's family background, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Amelia Boynton Robinson describes her maternal family's land

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Amelia Boynton Robinson describes her mother

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Amelia Boynton Robinson describes her mother's conflict in South Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Amelia Boynton Robinson describes her mother's activism

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Amelia Boynton Robinson describes her father's family background and personality

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Amelia Boynton Robinson describes her father's career

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Amelia Boynton Robinson describes her father's education and later life

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Amelia Boynton Robinson describes how her parents met

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Amelia Boynton Robinson talks about her father's travels

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Amelia Boynton Robinson remembers her father's death

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Amelia Boynton Robinson lists her siblings, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Amelia Boynton Robinson lists her siblings, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Amelia Boynton Robinson lists her siblings, pt. 3

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Amelia Boynton Robinson describes her earliest childhood memory

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Amelia Boynton Robinson remembers visiting the circus

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Amelia Boynton Robinson recalls her childhood activities

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Amelia Boynton Robinson describes her neighborhood in Savannah, Georgia, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Amelia Boynton Robinson describes her neighborhood in Savannah, Georgia, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Amelia Boynton Robinson describes her early education

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Amelia Boynton Robinson describes the sounds of her childhood

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Amelia Boynton Robinson describes her family's lodgers

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Amelia Boynton Robinson describes her college education

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Amelia Boynton Robinson remembers the Great Depression

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Amelia Boynton Robinson remembers the Camden County Training School in St. Marys, Georgia

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Amelia Boynton Robinson recalls her challenges at the Camden County Training School

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Amelia Boynton Robinson recalls leaving the Camden County Training School

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Amelia Boynton Robinson recalls visiting her family

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Amelia Boynton Robinson remembers the Americus Institute in Americus, Georgia

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Amelia Boynton Robinson recalls being offered work at the U.S. Department of Agriculture

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Amelia Boynton Robinson remembers leaving the Americus Institute

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Amelia Boynton Robinson remembers encountering her former boss

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Amelia Boynton Robinson describes her work with the U.S. Department of Agriculture, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Amelia Boynton Robinson describes her work with the U.S. Department of Agriculture, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Amelia Boynton Robinson remembers registering sharecroppers to vote

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Amelia Boynton Robinson recalls meeting her husband, Samuel Boynton

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Amelia Boynton Robinson describes her activities at the Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute in Tuskegee, Alabama

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Amelia Boynton Robinson recalls working at the Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Amelia Boynton Robinson remembers George Washington Carver, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Amelia Boynton Robinson remembers George Washington Carver, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Amelia Boynton Robinson talks about the Tom Huston Peanut Company

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Amelia Boynton Robinson describes her husband

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Amelia Boynton Robinson talks about voter registration in Selma, Alabama

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Amelia Boynton Robinson describes voter registration requirements

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Amelia Boynton Robinson recalls holding a community sing in Selma, Alabama

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Amelia Boynton Robinson remembers 'Through the Years'

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Amelia Boynton Robinson talks about Robert Smalls, pt. 1

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Amelia Boynton Robinson talks about Robert Smalls, pt. 2

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Amelia Boynton Robinson recalls building a community center in Selma, Alabama

Tape: 7 Story: 9 - Amelia Boynton Robinson describes her home in Selma, Alabama

DASession

1$1

DATape

6$7

DAStory

1$5

DATitle
Amelia Boynton Robinson remembers registering sharecroppers to vote
Amelia Boynton Robinson remembers 'Through the Years'
Transcript
So in your job, it wasn't part of your job description, but because of the plight of the people you felt that you needed to help them find their own properties and so what happened? You said there was a problem once you started getting--$$As long as we were helping them to improve their homes that was my job, and the county agent helping them to produce more cattle, produce more crops and better crops, oh it was great; they thought a whole lot of us. But as soon as they found out that these good farmers who were doing the producing that they were leaving their farms where they had nobody, because they didn't know anything about farming, then we became as nothing. And they said, "Boynton, you're doing the wrong thing, trying to teach--trying to help these people to get off the farm. They're satisfied by the way we live." Yes, they were satisfied because they knew nothing else. Their children couldn't go to school--three months in the year. They had no recreation or anything; it was just work, and then two and three of them would sleep in one bed because they didn't have any space there for them. And they didn't like it because some of the people were moving off of the farm. Then we told them, "Well, you know you have to keep from being taken advantage of. You've got to be a first class citizen." Now the men would have to work the roads for three days. That is in the place of paying income tax--no, not income tax, poll tax, and poll tax is the tax that they used to pay to be able to vote. Now these people couldn't--they had no money so they had to work the road but they couldn't vote so it was just a matter of using them to work the roads. And they got--we told them you just have to be where you can rise up and be somebody. As it is now you are not a first class citizen; you're chattel. Well what can we do? We're going to show you how to fill these blanks out, so you can register, and oh the racists got up in arms. No, you've got to go.$So I said to my husband--I mean he wasn't my husband then--I said to Bill [Samuel William Boynton], "I'll write a play ['Through the Years,' Amelia Boynton]." So I thought about, why don't I write a play of history? And I sat and wrote this play. It's two hours long, and in it there are twenty Negroes spirituals, and all the scenes are related to spirituals. So we had--we played it and we got some--we did fairly well. People didn't have any money. That's one thing. It was during the Depression [Great Depression], and they had no money but they did come--some of them did come to the play. My mother [Anna Hicks Platts] said, "Bring it up here to Philadelphia [Pennsylvania], and I'll see that you have it played where you can raise some money." We did and we raised some money. Okay now we're going to Washington, D.C. and plead with the agricultural department [U.S. Department of Agriculture] to appropriate money that we might be able to build a community center.$$This was the WPA [Works Progress Administration; Work Projects Administration] that you were asking for the money?$$Well we--yes, either the WPA or PWA [Public Works Administration]. And my husband went twice they turned him down by just some frivolous thing. "Well, we're running out of money," or, "We don't have any more applications." And so he came up with the idea, "I'll tell you what. Let's get a white man to go up there." So we did, we said, "Well, we'll get Reverend E.W. Gamble." He was a minister of the white Presbyterian [sic. Episcopal] church and he said yes I'll do it if you pay my way. So we raised some money and we paid his way. And he went up, and we got it just like that. We had to do like Jews do, had to have somebody to front us. So we got it (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) Though you--

Prince Jackson, Jr.

Prince Albert Jackson, Jr., was born on March 17, 1925, in Savannah, Georgia, to Julia and Prince Albert, Sr. Jackson graduated with honors from Beach-Cuyler High School in 1942 and joined the United States Naval Reserve. Jackson received his B.A. degree in mathematics from Savannah State University in 1949, and his M.A. degree from Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences from the New York University Graduate School of Arts and Sciences in 1950. Jackson later received his Ph.D. in philosophy with distinction from Boston College. While studying at Boston College, Jackson was named one of the school’s first six Distinguished Alumni.

In 1971, Jackson became the seventh President of Savannah State College. During his tenure as president, Jackson established the third Naval Reserve Officer Training Corp (NROTC) at a university; he also established the University’s radio station, WHCJ-FM, which was the fifth station established on an African American college campus. The observation of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Day was the result of Jackson’s initiative along with the increase in faculty and teachers holding doctorates. In 1978, Jackson stepped down as President of Savannah State University, but continued to serve as a member of the faculty until 1999 when he retired.

Jackson was the recipient of thirty-five academic awards and honors, and a member of twenty-nine professional and scholastic organizations. Jackson was also a lifetime member of the NAACP, where he served as President of the Savannah branch in 2003. Jackson authored over fourteen research and scholarly articles. After retiring in 1999, Jackson continued his active involvement in various community projects including being an advocate for the mentally challenged and the NAACP Voter Empowerment Project.

Jackson was married to the former Marilyn Striggles of Sylvania, Georgia; the couple had five children.

Accession Number

A2007.028

Sex

Male

Interview Date

1/24/2007

Last Name

Jackson

Maker Category
Middle Name

Albert

Occupation
Schools

Alfred E. Beach High School

Savannah State University

Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences

Boston College

St. Benedict the Moor Catholic School

First Name

Prince

Birth City, State, Country

Savannah

HM ID

JAC22

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Georgia

Favorite Vacation Destination

None

Favorite Quote

If You Want Your Prayers Answered, Get Up Off Your Knees And Hustle.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Birth Date

3/17/1925

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Savannah

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Beans (Lima)

Death Date

9/21/2010

Short Description

College president Prince Jackson, Jr. (1925 - 2010 ) was the seventh president of Savannah State College.

Employment

Savannah State College

Favorite Color

Green

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Prince Jackson, Jr.'s interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Prince Jackson, Jr. lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Prince Jackson, Jr. describes his father's background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Prince Jackson, Jr. describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Prince Jackson, Sr. lists his siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Prince Jackson, Jr. describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Prince Jackson, Jr. recalls his upbringing in Savannah, Georgia

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Prince Jackson, Jr. describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Prince Jackson, Jr. recalls St. Patrick's Day celebrations in Savannah, Georgia

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Prince Jackson, Jr. describes his childhood community in Savannah, Georgia

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Prince Jackson, Jr. recalls his Catholic schooling in Savannah, Georgia

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Prince Jackson, Jr. remembers St. Benedict the Moor Catholic School

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Prince Jackson, Jr. recalls graduating from Beach-Cuyler High School in Savannah, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Prince Jackson, Jr. recalls his experience in the U.S. Navy

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Prince Jackson, Jr. recalls when his mother saved the money he earned from the U.S. Navy

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Prince Jackson, Jr. recalls his U.S. Navy training

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Prince Jackson, Jr. recalls graduating from Savannah's Georgia State College

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Prince Jackson, Jr. describes his education at Georgia State College in Savannah, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Prince Jackson, Jr. recalls being hired to teach at Georgia State College

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Prince Jackson, Jr. recalls his activities at Georgia State College

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Prince Jackson, Jr. remembers the Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences in New York City

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Prince Jackson, Jr. describes his early teaching career

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Prince Jackson, Jr. recalls being fired due to his NAACP involvement

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Prince Jackson, Jr. recalls serving as the athletic director of Savannah's St. Pius X High School

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Prince Jackson, Jr. recalls applying to Boston College's Ph.D. degree program

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Prince Jackson, Jr. describes his decision to return to Savannah State College's faculty

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Prince Jackson, Jr. recalls the impact of the Civil Rights Movement on Savannah State College

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Prince Jackson, Jr. talks about his family members

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Prince Jackson, Jr. recalls hiring faculty at Savannah State College

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Prince Jackson, Jr. recalls founding Savannah State College's WHCJ Radio

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Prince Jackson, Jr. recalls establishing a Naval Reserve Officers' Training Corps program

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Prince Jackson, Jr. recalls the desegregation of Savannah-Chatham County Public Schools, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Prince Jackson, Jr. recalls the desegregation of Savannah-Chatham County Public Schools, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Prince Jackson, Jr. describes the impact of integration on Savannah State College

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Prince Jackson, Jr. recalls the construction of the Asa H. Gordon Library

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Prince Jackson, Jr. remembers his NAACP involvement in Savannah, Georgia

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Prince Jackson, Jr. recalls his work with Shirley James at Savannah State College

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Prince Jackson, Jr. remembers Professor Hanes Walton, Jr.

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Prince Jackson, Jr. recalls how he allocated funds at Savannah State College

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Prince Jackson, Jr. remembers returning to the faculty of Savannah State College

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Prince Jackson, Jr. describes his organizational activities in Savannah, Georgia

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Prince Jackson, Jr. describes his involvement in the Roman Catholic Diocese of Savannah

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Prince Jackson, Jr. talks about his children and grandchildren

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Prince Jackson, Jr. recalls integrating the Knights of Columbus in Savannah, Georgia

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Prince Jackson, Jr. talks about the African American Catholic leadership

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Prince Jackson, Jr. reflects upon his life

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Prince Jackson, Jr. talks about destinations he plans to visit

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Prince Jackson, Jr. describes his hopes for African American youth

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Prince Jackson, Jr. describes how he would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$3

DAStory

1$8

DATitle
Prince Jackson, Jr. recalls being fired due to his NAACP involvement
Prince Jackson, Jr. recalls founding Savannah State College's WHCJ Radio
Transcript
All right, so we were talking about the fact that you, because of your NAACP [National Association for the Advancement of Colored People] activities, you were fired from William James High School [William James Middle School, Statesboro, Georgia].$$Yes, uh-huh.$$Okay, and you called--$$President Payne [William K. Payne].$$--President Payne.$$Yeah, uh-huh.$$Okay, so, so tell me what happens?$$Yeah, I'll tell you. Just let me step back a minute and tell you--$$Okay.$$--why I was fired.$$Okay.$$I invited Ralph Mark Gilbert. There, there's a museum down the street that's named for him, Ralph Mark Gilbert Civil Rights Museum [Savannah, Georgia], right down the street there that's named for him.$$Ralph Mar-?$$Ralph Mark Gilbert.$$Okay.$$He was probably the greatest NAACP worker in Georgia. And had invited him up to speak to my class. I was senior class advisor. And he told me ahead of time, he said you, you know, the way I speak, you might get into trouble. I told well, then let it be, so be it (laughter). And he came up, and he talked about the [U.S.] Supreme Court decision [Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 1954] and for African American families to start getting ready because their children were going to go to those white schools, and he pa- particularly said Statesboro High School [Statesboro, Georgia] and all that. Well, the superintendent was also at that commencement. And I could look at him and tell that he didn't appreciate what Ralph Mark Gilbert was saying. And he thanked me as one of the NAACP workers and that sort of thing that I had invited him, him up there, and so they fired me. It was just--it, it, it wasn't no big deal. As a matter of fact, Denise [Denise Gines], the letter that the superintendent used to fire me, I used it several times when I was president at Savannah State College [Savannah State University, Savannah, Georgia] 'cause it was just so smooth. I had just never seen a letter written quite that (laughter), quite that way. They'd simply reorganized the school, and they organized me out of position. So, after I got fired, I, I called and, and, and put in my application to President Payne. And I, I told him that, that, you know, that I'd left Statesboro [Georgia] under mysterious conditions. I was fired. It's the way he knew it. He said, "Well, Mr. Jackson [HistoryMaker Prince Jackson, Jr.]," said, "I know," said, "this news gets out," and said, "Well, I'm, I'm proud of you." And I'd, I'd been in his office all that morning talking to him. And about one o'clock that day when I got home, C.V. Troup, Cornelius V. Troup, who was president of Fort Valley State College [Fort Valley State University, Fort Valley, Georgia], had also learned that I had been fired, and he called me at home. And see, he wanted me to come to Fort Valley State to join his, his mathematics department too, but I'd already committed to Savannah State. So that's how I ended up at Savannah State rather than at Fort Valley State. And I became an instructor of mathematics and alumni secretary at Savannah State when that happened.$And then I found out that Clark College [Clark Atlanta University] in Atlanta [Georgia] beca- Clark College in Atlanta was setting up a, a radio station on their campus. Then I did some research, and I found out that Clark College was, had been only the fourth African American school [HBCU] that had its own radio station. And so I came back, and I talked to the chancellor about setting up our radio station. And he said, "Well, you don't have the money, and we can't give you the money for that." He said, "You can set it up, if you can find the money." Well, providence is a funny thing. I was on a program at B.C. [Benedictine Military School, Savannah, Georgia] to receive, they call it the Benedictine Gold Medal of Excellence. The bishop was going to receive--one of the bishop of Diocese of Savannah [Roman Catholic Diocese of Savannah] was also receiving one. And then there was another white gentleman who owned Savannah Marina [Thunderbolt Marina Inc., Savannah, Georgia], whose name was William Honey [William E. Honey]. He was also receiving--there were three of us who were gonna receive the Benedictine Gold Medal of Excellence. I sat next to him, Denise [Denise Gines], and you're gonna laugh when I tell you this. I found out he was a Lutheran. And I said to myself, now when a Catholic school is giving a Lutheran the highest honor, there can only be one reason for it. He must have given them a whole lot of money or had done something good for them 'cause, you know, Martin Luther was the thing that, that split us.$$Right.$$And so I talked to him, and I told him about this radio station that I wanted and all, and I just couldn't get the money, and that I was trying to get the money. He didn't say a word, he didn't, he didn't, he didn't. He just told me, he wished me luck and that sort of thing. This was on a Saturday night. And so the three of us, the bishop of the Diocese of Savannah, myself, and Mr. Hon- Honey, we all got Medal of Excellence. And we went to the receptions, and people pat us on the back and all of that. Well, when I went to my office on that Monday, about 10:30 that morning, somebody told me that somebody was riding up in front of the building in a raggedy 1967 Lincoln Continental. And they were getting ready to give him a ticket 'cause he was in a yellow line area. And I went down there, and I saw it was Mr. Honey. And I told the chief, my chief of police, if he put a ticket on that car, I would fire him on the spot (laughter). Well, I rushed back to my office 'cause I didn't want Mr. Honey to see me. Mr. Honey came in, and he gave my secretary an envelope. He said, "Give this to Dr. Jackson [HistoryMaker Prince Jackson, Jr.]," and he left out. He didn't wait. He say, "Give this to Dr. Jackson for me," and he left out. And so she brought the envelope into me, and I opened the envelope, and it was $10,000. It was--I told him I was gonna need about $10,000 startup money. That man had written over the weekend a check for $10,000. He brought it to me. He--when I got to the front to thank him, he had already gone off in that raggedy 1967 (laughter) Lincoln, this man with all this money. Then later on, he (unclear) came back when I did finally get him to come back. He came back to me and offered to build--we had a creek behind the college [Savannah State College; Savannah State University, Savannah, Georgia]. He wanted to build a dock. He wanted to--he was gonna chain his dredges in there to dredge out the, the creek and all that so that we could start a marine biology program and all that. But, so I built that radio station. At first I had called--asked for the call letters WSSC, but that was already taken. And then I said I have to honor this man somewhere. They didn't--at that time the State of Georgia would not let you name anything for anybody living. So I went to the telephone book, and I looked at the telephone book, and I found all the last names in there that had the most. And it was WHC and J, and so I named our radio station WHCJ [WHCJ Radio, Savannah, Georgia] but mostly the H because of Honey. I had to get him in there somewhere. And the reason why it's named WHCJ because those call letters had the most entry in the Savannah [Georgia] phone directory. And so we named it WHCJ, and so we became the fifth radio station on an African American campus.