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JoAnn Price

Investment executive JoAnn Price was born on January 7, 1950 in North Wales, Pennsylvania. She received her B.A. degree from Howard University in Washington, D.C. in 1971.

After graduation, Price worked as a legislative assistant to Pennsylvania Senator Richard Schweiker for seven years. In 1978, she became vice president of the American Association of Minority Enterprise Small Business Investment Companies, later becoming the National Association of Investment Companies (NAIC). In 1983, she was appointed its president, where she led state and national policy initiatives in support of member investment companies.

In 1992, Price led the formation of a strategic partnership between the NAIC and Bigler Crossroads Investment Management Corp., a nationally recognized private equity fund-of-funds based in Farmington, Connecticut. The purpose of this partnership was to create a vehicle that could successfully intermediate capital between institutional investors and underserved markets. In 1994, after two and a half years, the partnership was formed and funded as Fairview Capital Partners, with Price, and Laurence C. Morse, as its founders. Fairview initially closed with $100 million of capital under management. Fairview manages nearly $10 billion in committed capital with expanded investment strategies that include mainstream and customized venture programs, private equity, co-investment, and secondary portfolios.
 
Price has served on the advisory boards of several private equity funds in which Fairview has invested, including Robert L. Johnson (RLJ) Equity Partners, Syncom, Inc., and Black Enterprise/Greenwich Street Corporate Growth Partners. An active philanthropist and supporter of community service organization, Price chairs the board of directors of the Hartford Foundation for Public Giving and also serves as director of the Apollo Theater Foundation and the Howard University School of Business Board of Visitors. She also served as chairperson for the Amistad Center for Art & Culture in Hartford, Connecticut, and was appointed director of the Connecticut Board of Regents for Higher Education by Governor Dannel P. Mallory. In 2012, she was honored by the YMCA of Greater Hartford with the R.C. Knox Award for Distinguished Leadership.

Price is an active member of Union Baptist Church in Hartford, Connecticut. She served in a number of capacities, leading to her ordination as deacon in 2012. Price and her husband, James Price, a retired attorney, have three children.
 
JoAnn Price was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on November 20, 2018.

Accession Number

A2018.217

Sex

Female

Interview Date

11/20/2018

Last Name

Price

Maker Category
Organizations
First Name

JoAnn

Birth City, State, Country

North Wales

HM ID

PRI11

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Pennsylvania

Favorite Vacation Destination

Everywhere

Favorite Quote

N/A

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Connecticut

Birth Date

12/7/1950

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Hartford

Favorite Food

N/A

Short Description

Investment executive JoAnn Price (1950 - ) was the co-founder of Fairview Capital Partners, Inc., prior to serving as president of the American Association of Minority Enterprise Small Business Investment Companies (AAMESBIC).

Favorite Color

Red

Laurence Morse

Investment executive Laurence Morse was born on July 2, 1951. He attended Howard University in Washington, D.C., where he was awarded the Luard Scholarship and spent his junior year at the London School of Economics (LSE). After obtaining his B.A. degree in economics from Howard University in 1973, Morse earned his M.A. degree in 1978 and his Ph.D. degree in economics in 1980, both from Princeton University. He also completed a postdoctoral fellowship at Harvard University in 1983.

Morse began his career as an analyst at the venture capital investment firm, UNC Ventures, based in Boston, Massachusetts, where he was eventually promoted to associate and investment officer positions. Morse became a vice president of Equico Capital Corporation, a subsidiary of The Equitable Life Insurance Company of America in 1988. In May of 1992, president Duane Hill and vice presidents Divakar Kamath, Cleveland Christophe and Morse purchased the subsidiary from its parent company and renamed the entity TSG Ventures. In January of 1994, Morse was retained as a senior venture capital advisor for Coopers & Lybrand International Consulting Services, to advise on the establishment of a proposed $100 million USAID-sponsored Africa Enterprise Development Fund to be based in South Africa. Morse and JoAnn H. Price then founded Fairview Capital Partners, Inc. in September of 1994, where Morse oversaw the investment of over $3 billion in more than one hundred traditional and specialized venture capital and private equity limited partnerships. In 2004, Morse was appointed director of Webster Financial Corp. and Webster Bank, N.A.

In 2000, Morse began serving on the board of directors of the English-Speaking Union. He also served three terms on the board of trustees of the Princeton University Investment Company, and joined the Princeton University Board of Trustees in 2012. Morse has also served on the advisory boards of venture capital partnerships, including U.S. Venture Partners (USVP), Battery Ventures, Sierra Ventures, ICV Capital Partners and Trinity Ventures. In 2013, Morse became a trustee of Harris Associates Investment Trust, which oversees the Oakmark Family of Mutual Funds. In 2014, Morse became a trustee of Howard University.

In 2003, Morse was named one of “The Top Ten Minds in Small Business” by Fortune Small Business magazine. Morse also authored the novel, Sundial, while attending Princeton University. The book, inspired by Morse’s experiences at Howard University in the 1970s, was published in 1986.

Laurence Morse was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on November 20, 2018.

Accession Number

A2018.216

Sex

Male

Interview Date

11/20/2018

Last Name

Morse

Maker Category
Middle Name

C.

Organizations
First Name

Laurence

Birth City, State, Country

Birmingham

HM ID

MOR20

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Alabama

Favorite Vacation Destination

Martha's Vineyard

Favorite Quote

Never Give Up.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Connecticut

Birth Date

7/2/1951

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Hartford

Favorite Food

Crab Cakes

Short Description

Investment executive Laurence Morse (1951 - ) was the founding principal of the TSG Ventures investment fund under the TSG Capital Group. He also co-founded Fairview Capital Partners, Inc., a venture capital investment firm.

Favorite Color

Blue

Roslyn Watson

Investment executive Roslyn Watson was born on October 29, 1949 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania to Charles and Christine Watson. She attended Joseph Pennell Elementary School and General Louis Wagner Junior High School. Watson graduated from The Philadelphia High School for Girls in 1967 and received her B.A. degree in political science and government from Simmons College in Boston, Massachusetts in 1971. She attended Boston University School of Law in Boston, Massachusetts from 1972 to 1973, and later became an Alfred P. Sloan Fellow and received her M.B.A. degree from MIT-Sloan School of Management in Cambridge, Massachusetts in 1986.

After her first year of law school, Watson worked at the law firm of Hale & Dorr in Boston in 1973. She was then hired by the Massachusetts Port Authority in 1979 and was promoted to general manager in 1982, where she was responsible for leasing commercial properties held by Massport, the construction and leasing of the Park Plaza Massachusetts Transportation Building, and the redevelopment of the historic Commonwealth Pier Five, which became the World Trade Center Boston. In 1982, she was a co-founder of CREW Boston, the region’s leading professional organization for women in commercial real estate. Watson served as vice president at Gunwyn Company in Cambridge from 1986 to 1992 and was named trustee of mutual funds at Dreyfus in New York City in 1990. She established Watson Ventures and served as its founder and president in 1992.

Watson served as Hyams Foundation trustee from 1981 to 2015 and as an independent corporate director of American Express Bank, FSB and vice chair of the board of directors at Pathfinder International. She was named to the board of directors for Dreyfus Alcentra Global Credit Income 2024 Target Term Fund, Inc in 2017. She has also served as member of the board of directors at Hydro One Inc., and as director of SBLI USA Mutual Life Insurance Company, Inc.

Watson received the Boston Big Sister Association Woman of Achievement Award, Boston YMCA Boston Black Achiever and Working Woman Magazine’s Working Woman of the Year.

Roslyn Watson was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on October 24, 2018.

Accession Number

A2018.201

Sex

Female

Interview Date

10/24/2018

Last Name

Watson

Maker Category
Organizations
First Name

Roslyn

Birth City, State, Country

Philadelphia

HM ID

WAT20

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Pennsylvania

Favorite Vacation Destination

Venice, Italy

Favorite Quote

N/A

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Massachusetts

Birth Date

10/29/1949

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Boston

Favorite Food

Food that I Cook

Short Description

Investment executive Roslyn Watson (1949- ) was founder and president at Watson Ventures. She was a co-founder of CREW Boston and served as vice president of Gunwyn Company.

Favorite Color

Black

Alvin Marley

Investment executive Alvin Marley was born on October 31, 1947 in Vicksburg, Mississippi. Marley served as president of the Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity Beta Omicron Chapter in 1967 during his junior year at Tennessee State University in Nashville before graduating from Tennessee State University with his B.S. degree in mathematics in 1968. He served in the United States Air Force as a captain and mathematician from 1968 to 1971 before receiving his M.B.A. degree from Indiana University’s Kelley School of Business in 1973 in Bloomington, Indiana.

Marley began his career in finance at First National Bank of Chicago as an investment equity analyst before working as a portfolio manager and vice president from 1973 to 1989. He then joined Brinson Partners, which became part of Swiss Bank Corporation, as a partner and portfolio manager where he worked from 1989 to 1997. When Swiss Bank Corporation merged with the United Bank of Switzerland, Marley was named managing director and head of small cap equities investment at the newly formed UBS where he worked from 1997 to 2004. In 2005, Marley was named equity partner and senior portfolio manager for small capitalization equities at Lombardia Capital Partners, LLC. He was then promoted to serve as Lombardia Capital’s chief executive officer in 2013 and served in that capacity until 2017, when he stepped down as CEO. However, he retained his position as Lombardia’s senior portfolio manager for the small-cap core value and the small-cap value strategies.

An alumni supporter of his undergraduate alma mater, Marley established two scholarship programs in his name at Tennessee State University. He is also the recipient of numerous awards including the Wallace L. Jones Alumni Lifetime Achievement Award of the Consortium for Graduate Study in Management in 2013. In 2016, he also was selected as a Kelley School of Business Academy of Alumni Fellow.

A supporter of the Black Ensemble Theatre in Chicago, and a member of the Chicago’s NAACP Chapter and the Chicago Urban League, Alvin has mentored many over his forty year business career.

Marley has one adult daughter, Lisa, and three grandchildren.

Alvin Marley was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on February 20, 2018.

Accession Number

A2018.017

Sex

Male

Interview Date

2/20/2018

Last Name

Marley

Maker Category
Marital Status

Divorced

Middle Name

W

Schools

Tennessee State University

Kelley School of Business

Rosa A. Temple High School

First Name

Alvin

Birth City, State, Country

Vicksburg

HM ID

MAR21

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Mississippi

Favorite Vacation Destination

Florida

Favorite Quote

Common Sense Is Not So Common.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Illinois

Birth Date

10/31/1947

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Chicago

Country

United States of America

Favorite Food

Spaghetti

Short Description

Investment executive Alvin Marley (1947- ) served at Lombardia Capital Partners LLC CEO from 2013 to 2017 after serving as managing director and head of small cap equities investment at UBS from 1997 to 2004.

Employment

Lombardia Capital Partners

Swiss Bank

Brinson Partners

First National Bank of Chicago

Favorite Color

Gray and Blue

David Grain

Investment executive David Grain was born on May 31, 1962 in Brooklyn, New York to Dora Grain and Walter Grain. Grain attended Vineyard Regional High School in Oak Bluffs, Massachusetts and graduated from the College of the Holy Cross in Worchester, Massachusetts in 1984 and earned his M.B.A. degree from Dartmouth College, Tuck School of Business in Hanover, New Hampshire in 1989.

Grain began his professional career in 1989 at Drexel Burnham Lambert, and, after a year at Drexel Burnham Lambert, he accepted a position with Morgan Stanley, where he was promoted to principal after only two years with the company. Grain’s work focused on telecommunications, media, and technology companies. In 2000, he joined AT&T Broadband Corporation as the senior vice president for the New England region. Only two years later, Grain became a director at Newcastle Investment Corporation, as well as president at Pinnacle Holdings, Inc. During his presidency at Pinnacle Holdings, Grain led the company out of bankruptcy and grew the company’s portfolio from approximately 2,000 communication sites to over 11,000. After Crown Caste International acquired Pinnacle Holdings in 2006, Grain left the company and founded Grain Communications Group, Inc. The following year, he founded Grain Management, LLC, which invested in the wireless communications sector.

Grain was named by the Boston Business Journal as one of Boston’s “Top 40 leaders under 40” and was awarded the Ten Outstanding Young Leaders Award by the Boston Jaycees. His company, Grain Management, LLC, was also named as Black Enterprise’s Financial Services Company of the Year in 2005.

In addition to his own businesses, Grain has served in leadership roles for many other organizations as well. In 2009, he was appointed to the Florida State Board of Administration’s Investment Advisory Council and, two years later, was appointed by President Barack Obama to the National Infrastructure Advisory Council of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Grain was also selected by Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld to participate in the U.S. Joint Civilian Orientation Conference. He served on the board of trustees for Emerson College and the College of the Holy Cross. Grain was the founder of the Grain Fellows Program, which provides students from low-income families with funding for SAT preparation classes, college application fees, and financial aid negotiation.

Grain and his wife, Lisa Butler Grain, have two children, Chelsea Grain and David Grain, Jr.

David Grain was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on August 17, 2017.

Accession Number

A2017.132

Sex

Male

Interview Date

08/17/2017

Last Name

Grain

Maker Category
Organizations
First Name

David

Birth City, State, Country

Brooklyn

HM ID

GRA18

Favorite Season

Summer

Sponsor

Dorothy Terrell

State

New York

Favorite Vacation Destination

Martha's Vineyard

Favorite Quote

The harder I work the luckier I get.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Florida

Birth Date

5/31/1962

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Sarasota

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Organic chicken

Short Description

Investment executive David Grain (1962 - ) founded Grain Communications Group, Inc. and Grain Management, Inc.

Main Sponsor
Favorite Color

Green

Lloyd G. Trotter

Corporate executive Lloyd G. Trotter was born on April 9, 1945 in Cleveland, Ohio to Lillian Trotter and Reverend Lee Trotter, Sr. He graduated from John Adams High School in 1963, and entered an apprenticeship program with Cleveland Twist Drill. He studied at Cleveland State University while working at Cleveland Twist Drill, graduating in 1972 with his B.A. degree in business administration.

Trotter was promoted to a full-time product design and application engineer at Cleveland Twist Drill in 1967. He began working for General Electric (GE) as a field service engineer in 1970, where he was named vice president and general manager of manufacturing for the Electric, Distribution and Control division (ED&C) in 1990. That same year, he helped found the GE African American Forum, a mentor group for African American GE employees. While working in management at GE, he invented the Trotter Matrix, a tool for evaluating standards across various plants which was quickly adopted throughout the company. In 1991, Trotter became the president and CEO of the Electric, Distribution and Control division, and then to president and CEO of GE Industrial Solutions in 1998. In 2003, Trotter became senior vice president of GE Industrial, followed by executive vice president of operations at in 2005. In 2008, after almost forty years, Trotter left GE to become a managing partner at the private equity firm GenNx360 Capital Partners, which he founded with Ronald Blaylock, Arthur Harper and James Shepard.

Starting in 2008, Trotter served on the board of directors of PepsiCo as well as Textron, Inc., Meritor, Inc. and Daimler AG. Trotter also served on the boards of the National Association of Manufacturers (NAM), National Action Council for Minorities in Engineering, and National Electrical Manufacturers Association. He received the 2001 Lifetime Achievement Award from GE Chairman and CEO Jeff Immelt, and the GE Chairman’s Award for three consecutive years from 2003 to 2005. Trotter received an honorary doctorate degree from his alma mater, Cleveland State University, North Carolina A&T School of Business and Saint Augustine University. The National Society of Black Engineers (NSBE) honored Trotter with a schoarlship established in his name, and the Harlem YMCA presented him the Black Achievers in Industry Award.

Trotter and his wife, Teri, have three children.

Lloyd G. Trotter was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on October 25, 2016.

Accession Number

A2016.036

Sex

Male

Interview Date

10/24/2016

Last Name

Trotter

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

George

Schools

Cleveland State University

Bolton Elementary School

Andrew J. Rickoff Elementary School

John Adams High School

First Name

Lloyd

Birth City, State, Country

Cleveland

HM ID

TRO02

Favorite Season

Fall in US

State

Ohio

Favorite Vacation Destination

Martha's Vineyard - Sandy Lane

Favorite Quote

God Grant Me Patience, And I Want It Right Now.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Birth Date

4/9/1945

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New York

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Southern cuisine

Short Description

Corporate executive Lloyd G. Trotter (1945- ) worked for GE for nearly forty years, where he served as a president and vice chairman of GE Industrial. In 2008, he became the full-time managing partner of the private equity firm, GenNx360 Capital Partners.

Employment

GenNx360 Capital Partners

General Electric

General Electric Industrial

Cleveland Twist Drill Company

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Lloyd G. Trotter's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Lloyd G. Trotter lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Lloyd G. Trotter describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Lloyd G. Trotter describes his parents' move to Nashville, Tennessee

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Lloyd G. Trotter recalls experiencing racial discrimination as a child

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Lloyd G. Trotter describes his paternal family history

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Lloyd G. Trotter describes his immediate family

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Lloyd G. Trotter remembers his childhood neighborhood

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Lloyd G. Trotter describes his religious upbringing

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Lloyd G. Trotter talks about his childhood personality

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Lloyd G. Trotter describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Lloyd G. Trotter recalls the racial demographics of the neighborhoods in Cleveland, Ohio

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Lloyd G. Trotter remembers the election of Cleveland Mayor Carl Stokes

Tape: 1 Story: 14 - Lloyd G. Trotter talks about race relations at John Adams High School

Tape: 1 Story: 15 - Lloyd G. Trotter recalls accepting an apprenticeship at Cleveland Twist Drill Company

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Lloyd G. Trotter describes his apprenticeship at Cleveland Twist Drill Company

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Lloyd G. Trotter recalls his promotion at Cleveland Twist Drill Company

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Lloyd G. Trotter remembers being hired at General Electric

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Lloyd G. Trotter describes his roles as field service engineer and project lead

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Lloyd G. Trotter recalls working in Brazil

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Lloyd G. Trotter describes the scope of his work at General Electric

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Lloyd G. Trotter recalls interviewing at Honeywell International, Inc.

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Lloyd G. Trotter talks about his brief career at Honeywell International, Inc.

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Lloyd G. Trotter recalls his first executive job at General Electric

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Lloyd G. Trotter talks about African American managers at General Electric

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Lloyd G. Trotter remembers Jack Welch's leadership style

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Lloyd G. Trotter recalls working as a general manager at General Electric

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Lloyd G. Trotter talks about his experiences as General Electric's first African American executive

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Lloyd G. Trotter describes the Trotter Matrix

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Lloyd G. Trotter remembers his relationship with Jack Welch

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Lloyd G. Trotter recalls pushing for greater diversity at General Electric

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Lloyd G. Trotter talks about the founding of the African American Forum

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Lloyd G. Trotter describes his relationship with NBC executives

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Lloyd G. Trotter describes the African American Forum

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Lloyd G. Trotter talks about the changes at General Electric during the 1990s

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Lloyd G. Trotter explains General Electric's business strategy

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Lloyd G. Trotter describes his sources of support at General Electric

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Lloyd G. Trotter remembers his challenges at General Electric

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Lloyd G. Trotter describes his interactions with government officials

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Lloyd G. Trotter talks about his involvement on non-profit boards

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Lloyd G. Trotter talks about the leadership of Jack Welch and Jeffrey R. Immelt

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Lloyd G. Trotter remembers the founding members of GenNX 360 Capital Partners

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Lloyd G. Trotter recalls working as director of Genpact Limited at General Electric

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Lloyd G. Trotter describes his roles at GenNX360 Capital Partners and General Electric

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Lloyd G. Trotter talks about the success of GenNX360 Capital Partners

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Lloyd G. Trotter describes the effect of government on GenNX360 Capital Partners

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Lloyd G. Trotter talks about his relationship with General Electric after retirement

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Lloyd G. Trotter describes his involvement in the National Association of Guardsmen, Inc.

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Lloyd G. Trotter talks about his philosophy on mentorships

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Lloyd G. Trotter reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Lloyd G. Trotter shares his advice to young professionals

Tape: 5 Story: 11 - Lloyd G. Trotter reflects upon his life

Tape: 5 Story: 12 - Lloyd G. Trotter talks about his family

Tape: 5 Story: 13 - Lloyd G. Trotter describes his plans for the future

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$4

DAStory

3$4

DATitle
Lloyd G. Trotter remembers being hired at General Electric
Lloyd G. Trotter describes his sources of support at General Electric
Transcript
You start selling these tools that you have previously made and then designed and come across GE [General Electric]. Tell us about that (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) Right. Well, what happened there was and I say selling but we were the technical support behind the distributors who had sales guys and one of our distributors had sold some tools to GE that made specialty equipment for making light bulbs. We call them lamps because you can get more money in margin by changing the name of it. But they sold light bulbs and they built this piece of equipment that was going to cut aluminum and it wasn't working and they were blaming it all on the tool. I got a call from our distributor; I need some technical help here. I went out and looked at it and I said, "Yeah the tools are not right for your application and I'll fix that for you but this is got to be your first chip cutting application that you've ever done." They guy on the other end of the conversation was a GE employee and he said, "How would you know that?" And I said, "Well the tools aren't right that's for sure but your speeds and feeds the way you're holding the part, the coolant that you're using to cool down the part they are all wrong too," (laughter) you know, kind of thing. And he looked at me and he says, "You sound like you know what you're doing," and I said, "Well let me tell you about my background," and he said, "Well would you be willing to help us?" I said, "I live down the street why don't every Monday we do a debrief and I'd tell you what I would do if in fact I was doing this application." They probably accepted 90 percent of my ideas.$$And you volunteered to do this?$$Well it's part of the job, you know. I want to sell more tools, I want my distributor to sell more tools and that was a part of the technical support for what you do. So they then had a run off date, we had the new tools there and so on and it went really, really well and what I noticed is it was over a six month period at a time, you know. So I noticed that there were a lot of more white suits and ties around for this run off than there was for the first one that failed. The guy that I worked with for that six month period at a time, he says, "I want you to meet my bosses' boss," and I said, "I'm glad to meet you and I hope we didn't let you down, we really want more of your business. The distributor here who ultimately is supporting you, he says they have a really great relationship so help us." He says, "Well let me talk to you one on one." He said, "Would you feel offended if I offered you a job?" I said, "Yeah I would, I have a job. If you're talking about a career I'd be willing to listen but I'm not out looking at all." He said, "I meant a career," and I said, "Well, let me make sure you understand. I don't have a resume I can put something together and I don't have a college degree at this point and I'm not starting over." He said, "Are you committed to getting a college degree?" I said, "I am not for you or not for anybody else because that's what I know I need to do." He said, "Well we want to talk to you about a career," and it was like I don't know three months later I got an offer and I was a GE employee as a field service engineer for their lighting division at Nela Park in Cleveland [Ohio] and that started my career.$As you are growing in your position [at General Electric], because you--it's at a pretty fast clip.$$Yeah.$$I mean you are being promoted almost every year it looks like. Who are your mentors?$$Well a lot; once you become a senior executive ban really Fairfield [Connecticut] takes over on placement and what you're going to do next. So a lot of the mentors that would maybe make a difference are in Fairfield the Jack Welch's of the world, the Ben Heinemans [Benjamin W. Heineman] of the world, you know people like that. But then on the sideline there are individuals who are your peers that you're also taking coaching from and having to get advice. But more importantly by then--by the time I got to leading a bigger business there were other officers of the company--twelve of them in fact that were in similar positions where we could mentor each other. Just because I was maybe a step ahead or whatever doesn't mean that they can't give you great advice and you can capitalize on what they're seeing and mold it into what you ought to be thinking about. So it comes from people below you, from people who are peers and people above you. Some of the best help I ever got in my manufacturing career was from hourly employees who gave me advice about you better watch your back (laughter). Now I remember early on in my career where I was an industrial engineer at a manufacturing plant and literally I had this brilliant idea that now in retrospect it wasn't that brilliant, it was really pretty bad and the plant they were threatening a strike, they were doing this and all of a sudden magically it started working and I'm standing there at a machine where I had done this it was like reduce the workforce by a third. They didn't get laid off, they went to other areas of the plant but we were going to do three times as much work with a third of the people and I thought it was great. I thought I had really thought it through and this young lady, Sadie [ph.] I remember her. She was a twenty-five year employee, African American female and I'm standing there watching it work, smiling and she said, "You're pretty proud of yourself aren't you?" I said, "Yeah it's finally beginning to gel and it's working." And she said, "You are really proud of yourself aren't you?" I said, "Yeah, I am." She says, "Well the reason it's working has nothing to do about you." I said, "Yeah? Tell me about it." She said, "Look they were getting ready to go out on strike, I've been here for twenty-five years and we had a meeting in the ladies' room." 60, 70 percent of the employees in the lighting plant are female. I said, "What went on in the ladies' room?" She said, "I told them we have dumb ideas for white folks, we're going to do dumb ideas for this black kid so get out there, we ain't going on strike, go to work." And she was the turning point. She was the turning point. I said, "Why would you do that for me?" She said, "I have a grandson about your age and he's out there doing dumb ideas too and I hope somebody saves his butt" (laughter). But all my life I've had secretaries and people like that who I had gotten to know who from different ways helped me, saved me, if you will, in some cases. If you are so arrogant you're not listening, you won't see that you know, kind of thing. But I've had people again below that were huge supporters and they did it in their own way. People who were peers who have been huge, huge supporters and they did it in their own way and then people from the top pulling me up. So it was that triangulation that really was the difference I think.

Cleveland Christophe

Venture capitalist and accomplished businessman Cleveland A. Christophe was born on January 1, 1946 in Savannah, Georgia. The son of a college professor and public school teacher, Christophe grew up in Pine Bluff, Arkansas. Christophe was studious growing up and received a National Science Foundation summer grant to study at Howard University after his junior year in high school. He went on to attend and graduate from Howard University in 1966 with his B.S. degree in business administration. He subsequently obtained his M.B.A. from the University of Michigan Business School in 1967. He was the only Black among the School’s 800 M.B.A. students.

Christophe began his career with First National City Bank (now Citicorp) in the firm’s prestigious Investment Research Department. Less than two years later, at the age of 22, he became one of First National City Bank’s (FNCB) youngest officers ever. Christophe left FNCB in 1969 to join Kenton Corporation, a retail conglomerate. There, he worked for the company’s chairman and gained his initial experience in acquiring businesses. In 1970, Christophe became chairman and CEO of his own restaurant called Soul Stop located in New York’s Harlem. He and his partners had plans to open multiple restaurant units and expand by franchising. A year later, Christophe decided the restaurant business was not his forte. He and his attorney, Reginald F. Lewis, succeeded in selling Soul Stop to another restaurant chain.

Christophe returned to FNCB in January of 1971, this time as an officer in FNCB Capital Corporation, the Bank’s venture capital subsidiary. In 1974, Christophe was promoted to Vice President of FNCB, having rejoined the Investment Research Department. In 1975, he told the head of FNCB’s International Bank that he wanted to obtain experience in commercial banking including operations, treasury, and credit -- preferably abroad so as to concomitantly gain cross cultural experience. Later that year, he moved to FNCB’s office in Paris, France, where he worked for four years. He was the Bank’s Country Operations Head for France for the latter two years. In 1980, Christophe relocated to FNCB’s (now Citibank) San Francisco office, where he became a credit officer and head of corporate banking for the high technology industries, notably Silicon Valley. In 1983, Christophe again moved abroad, this time to Kingston, Jamaica, as Citibank’s Country Head in charge of all the Bank’s business in Jamaica. In 1985, having succeeded in restructuring Citibank’s Jamaican business during the height of the third world debt crisis, he was awarded a larger and more complex assignment as Country Head for Colombia located in Bogota.

In 1987, Christophe left banking to join his friend and former attorney, Reginald F. Lewis. Several days after joining Lewis’s TLC Group as Senior Vice President, the two partners bid one billion dollars to acquire the Beatrice International Food Company, a transaction successfully consummated later that year.

Christophe left TLC in 1988 to pursue a vision of building his own company. In 1990, he joined Equico Capital Corp. the venture capital subsidiary of Equitable Life Assurance Company. On May 14, 1992, a day Christophe calls Emancipation Day, Christophe and his partners Duane E. Hill, Lawrence C. Morse and Divakar R. Kamath acquired control of Equico and changed the name to TSG Ventures, Inc. A Specialized Small Business Investment Company licensed by the US Small Business Administration, TSG Ventures was among the largest and most successful firms investing in minority controlled businesses. In 1994, Christophe and Hill organized TSG Capital Group and raised a $225 million buyout fund. A subsequent $515 million fund was raised in 1998. TSG Capital Group’s investment strategy focused on underserved ethnic markets (African Americans and Hispanics) and the company's access to ethnic entrepreneurs and managers who represent a largely untapped base of talent. By February of 1999, TSG Capital could invest up to $100 million of equity in single deals with all decision making coming from inside the firm. TSG had become one of the largest minority-run firms in the United States.

Christophe resides in Stamford, Connecticut.

Christophe was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on November 20, 2006.

Accession Number

A2006.146

Sex

Male

Interview Date

11/20/2006

Last Name

Christophe

Maker Category
Marital Status

married

Schools

St Peter Catholic School

Merrill Junior High School

University of Michigan

Indiana Street School

Southeast Middle School

J.C. Corbin Laboratory School

Howard University

First Name

Cleveland

Birth City, State, Country

Savannah

HM ID

CHR02

Favorite Season

September, October

State

Georgia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Hawaii

Favorite Quote

I Can, I Will, I Must.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

South Carolina

Birth Date

1/1/1946

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Greenville

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Barbecue Ribs

Short Description

Bank executive and investment executive Cleveland Christophe (1946 - ) co-founded the TSG Capital Group, one of the largest minority-run firms in the United States.

Employment

First National City Corporation

Soul Stop, Inc.

Kenton Corporation

Citibank

Citibank, N.A.

TLC Group

TSG Ventures, Inc.

Favorite Color

Light Blue

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Cleveland Christophe's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Cleveland Christophe lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Cleveland Christophe describes his mother's upbringing

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Cleveland Christophe describes his maternal grandparents' occupations

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Cleveland Christophe describes his mother's family farm

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Cleveland Christophe talks about his maternal grandfather

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Cleveland Christophe describes his mother's education

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Cleveland Christophe talks about his father's upbringing

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Cleveland Christophe describes his parents' move to Pine Bluff, Arkansas

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Cleveland Christophe remembers his neighborhood in Pine Bluff, Arkansas

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Cleveland Christophe describes his paper route

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Cleveland Christophe recalls his mother's social life in Pine Bluff, Arkansas

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Cleveland Christophe describes his parents' political philosophies

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Cleveland Christophe recalls his father's friendship with Wiley Branton

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Cleveland Christophe describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Cleveland Christophe remembers visiting his father in South Dakota

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Cleveland Christophe describes segregation in Pine Bluff, Arkansas

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Cleveland Christophe shares his perspective on integration

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Cleveland Christophe describes his father's teaching career

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Cleveland Christophe describes his early education

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Cleveland Christophe remembers the Indiana Street School in Pine Bluff, Arkansas

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Cleveland Christophe recalls transferring to Southeast Junior-Senior High School in Pine Bluff, Arkansas

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Cleveland Christophe remembers his early aspirations

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Cleveland Christophe talks about his early experiences of religion

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Cleveland Christophe recalls the integration of Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Cleveland Christophe recalls his decision to attend Howard University

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Cleveland Christophe remembers Howard University in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Cleveland Christophe remembers meeting his wife

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Cleveland Christophe recalls developing an interest in economics

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Cleveland Christophe recalls his experiences at Howard University in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Cleveland Christophe remembers his summer work experiences

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Cleveland Christophe recalls joining the Alpha Phi Omega Fraternity

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Cleveland Christophe remembers H. Naylor Fitzhugh

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Cleveland Christophe describes his business education at Howard University

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Cleveland Christophe recalls his decision to apply to M.B.A. programs

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Cleveland Christophe reflects upon his success as a student and businessman

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Cleveland Christophe recalls his decision to enroll at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, Michigan

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Cleveland Christophe recalls his social life at the University of Michigan

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Cleveland Christophe remembers the advice of Wiley Branton

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Cleveland Christophe explains his decision to pursue investment research

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Cleveland Christophe recalls being offered a position at J.P. Morgan and Co.

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Cleveland Christophe recalls joining the First National City Corporation

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Cleveland Christophe describes his work at the First National City Corporation

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Cleveland Christophe describes his values

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Cleveland Christophe remembers working for the Kenton Corporation

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Cleveland Christophe remembers being hired by Soul Stop, Inc.

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Cleveland Christophe describes the business model of Soul Stop, Inc.

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Cleveland Christophe talks about his first attempt at entrepreneurship

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Cleveland Christophe remembers his leadership of Soul Stop, Inc.

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Cleveland Christophe describes lessons he learned at Soul Stop, Inc.

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Cleveland Christophe remembers meeting Reginald F. Lewis

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Cleveland Christophe remembers selling Soul Stop, Inc.

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Cleveland Christophe recalls being rehired at First National City Corporation

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Cleveland Christophe recalls working in venture capital at the First National City Corporation

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Cleveland Christophe remembers writing 'Competition and Financial Services,' pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - Cleveland Christophe remembers writing 'Competition and Financial Services,' pt. 2

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Cleveland Christophe describes the success of his research

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Cleveland Christophe remembers being promoted at the First National City Corporation

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Cleveland Christophe describes his mentorship of junior colleagues

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Cleveland Christophe reflects upon his career at the First National City Corporation, pt. 1

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Cleveland Christophe reflects upon his career at the First National City Corporation, pt. 2

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Cleveland Christophe talks about interracial dating

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Cleveland Christophe recalls working abroad for the First National City Corporation

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Cleveland Christophe remembers moving to San Francisco, California

Tape: 7 Story: 9 - Cleveland Christophe recalls considering leaving the First National City Corporation, pt.1

Tape: 7 Story: 10 - Cleveland Christophe recalls considering leaving the First National City Corporation, pt. 2

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Cleveland Christophe recalls his leadership of Citibank, N.A. in Jamaica

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Cleveland Christophe describes his leadership of Citibank, N.A. in Colombia

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Cleveland Christophe recalls his decision to leave Citibank, N.A.

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - Cleveland Christophe remembers resigning from Citibank, N.A.

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - Cleveland Christophe describes his relationship with Reginald F. Lewis

Tape: 8 Story: 6 - Cleveland Christophe remembers concealing his intent to resign

Tape: 8 Story: 7 - Cleveland Christophe recalls Reginald F. Lewis' business proposition

Tape: 8 Story: 8 - Cleveland Christophe talks about his move to Stamford, Connecticut

Tape: 8 Story: 9 - Cleveland Christophe recalls his business partnership with Reginald F. Lewis

Tape: 9 Story: 1 - Cleveland Christophe describes Reginald F. Lewis' law career

Tape: 9 Story: 2 - Cleveland Christophe recalls Reginald F. Lewis' start in venture capitalism

Tape: 9 Story: 3 - Cleveland Christophe recalls Reginald F. Lewis' acquisition of McCall Pattern Company, Inc.

Tape: 9 Story: 4 - Cleveland Christophe describes his partnership with Reginald F. Lewis

Tape: 9 Story: 5 - Cleveland Christophe recalls his acquisition of Beatrice Foods TLC, pt. 1

Tape: 9 Story: 6 - Cleveland Christophe recalls his acquisition of Beatrice Foods TLC, pt. 2

Tape: 9 Story: 7 - Cleveland Christophe recalls ending his partnership with Reginald F. Lewis, pt. 1

Tape: 9 Story: 8 - Cleveland Christophe recalls ending his partnership with Reginald F. Lewis, pt. 2

Tape: 10 Story: 1 - Cleveland Christophe remembers parting ways with Reginald F. Lewis

Tape: 10 Story: 2 - Cleveland Christophe remembers limiting his contact with Reginald F. Lewis

Tape: 10 Story: 3 - Cleveland Christophe recalls joining the Equico Capital Corporation

Tape: 10 Story: 4 - Cleveland Christophe talks about his decision to join the Equico Capital Corporation

Tape: 10 Story: 5 - Cleveland Christophe recalls his offer to buy the Equico Capital Corporation

Tape: 10 Story: 6 - Cleveland Christophe describes his relationships with supervisors

Tape: 10 Story: 7 - Cleveland Christophe remembers acquiring the Equico Capital Corporation

Tape: 10 Story: 8 - Cleveland Christophe talks about his loan from the Boston Bank of Commerce

Tape: 10 Story: 9 - Cleveland Christopher describes his strategy for acquiring the Equico Capital Corporation

Tape: 11 Story: 1 - Cleveland Christophe describes the history of the Equico Capital Corporation

Tape: 11 Story: 2 - Cleveland Christophe talks about the early years of TSG Ventures, Inc.

Tape: 11 Story: 3 - Cleveland Christophe lists the initial acquisitions by TSG Ventures Inc.

Tape: 11 Story: 4 - Cleveland Christophe describes the life of his investments with TSG Ventures, Inc.

Tape: 11 Story: 5 - Cleveland Christophe describes his work with Stamford Hospital in Stamford, Connecticut

Tape: 11 Story: 6 - Cleveland Christophe describes his involvement with the Waterside School in Stamford, Connecticut

Tape: 11 Story: 7 - Cleveland Christophe talks about the Business Council of Fairfield County

Tape: 11 Story: 8 - Cleveland Christophe describes his pastimes

Tape: 11 Story: 9 - Cleveland Christophe remembers the death of his oldest son

Tape: 11 Story: 10 - Cleveland Christophe describes his children

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$8

DAStory

4$9

DATitle
Cleveland Christophe remembers H. Naylor Fitzhugh
Cleveland Christophe recalls his business partnership with Reginald F. Lewis
Transcript
So during that time, you had--during the time you were at Howard [Howard University, Washington D.C.], the influences. Who became your, your role models? Who were you looking up to at the time?$$The person that most singularly impacted me was Naylor Fitzhugh [H. Naylor Fitzhugh]. Naylor was a professor of marketing, and again unlike anyone that I had ever been exposed to. Fitz as we called him, and after I had graduated and he was no longer Professor Fitzhugh, Fitz impacted a lot of lives over the years. It's a name that you'll hear time and time again. Fitz was a Harvard Business School [Boston, Massachusetts] grad and he graduated from Harvard when, you know, blacks didn't go there. I wanna say it may have been in the '40s [1940s], but Fitz was just, he was a student of business, he was an outstanding professor. He cared deeply about his students. And he inspired a number of us to pursue careers in, in, in, in business. And Fitz just had a way of--he carried himself that he was the first African American that I had ever been exposed to who you had a sense that, that he was--could be a part of and was comfortable in interacting with the broader business community. And, and, and not simply the, the segregated African American business community. So Fitz more than anybody else, just had a very profound impact on me.$The following day I went back into the city to meet with Reg [Reginald F. Lewis], and we're now into the very early part of June of 1987, and on June 15, 1987 I joined Reg at 99 Wall Street [New York, New York]. Three days later, he walked into--I could, I could dignify what was my office by calling it an office, but really it was the mail room where I had a card table as a desk. And Reg walked in and tossed over a sheaf of papers that was a Xerox copy of the divestiture memorandum for Beatrice International [Beatrice Foods TLC; Beatrice International Foods]. And he said, "I'm not supposed to have this, but I do. You know, why don't you take a look at it," and he said, "it's probably not gonna make any sense. But I'd like your thoughts on it." Took it home, caught the train, subway first to Grand Central [Grand Central Terminal, New York, New York], then all the way up here and then drove to my home. And I stayed up all night. I looked at it and read it and then I pulled out my computer, I was one of the few guys that had computers then. And I modeled the whole thing out. And the following day I went in and I said, "This makes a lot of sense." And the price is $950 million. And three days later we bid $950 million for Beatrice International Foods.$$How does it work? Where do you get $950 million?$$(Laughter) We were asked that question. We were asked that question. Reg and I ran--we ran a process that I even marvel at to this day. And I can't do justice to it, not in a single seating. But if you look at Reg's biography--'Why Should White Guys Have All The Fun?' ['Why Should White Guys Have All The Fun?' How Reginald Lewis Created a Billion-Dollar Business Empire' Reginald F. Lewis and Blair S. Walker] It is very well chronicled in there, very well chronicled. There were some pivotal moments. Three days after we bid $950 million, Reg was on an airplane heading out to Beverly Hills [California] to meet with Mike Milken [Michael Milken] and I get the call from--what was Gordon's [Gordon W. Lawson] last name? Can't remember right now, a young guy over at Salomon Brothers. And he said, "Is this Cleve Christophe [HistoryMaker Cleveland Christophe]?" I said, "Yes." He introduced himself and he said, "I'm, I'm with Solomon Brothers and I'm working on the divestiture, the sale of Beatrice International." I said, "Okay." He said, "We have a, a letter proposing to compete in the auction for this property, a letter from you for $950 million." I said, "Yes." He said, "We have a slight problem." I said, "What's that?" He said, "Nobody knows who the hell you guys are." And I said, "Well I guess we have to do something about that." And we sat down and started talking about it. The following day called back and he said, "Apologize, I thought we had a good and constructive meeting yesterday, but there are two investment banks that are involved in this sale process. The other one is Morgan Stanley, and you're gonna have to sit and have a similar conversation with them." And that was kind of the beginning of it all. There was credibility at least at the surface level because of Reg's success in acquiring McCall [McCall Pattern Company, Inc.]. And fortunately The New York Times had just the prior week written a major article about Reg and what appeared to be the success of, of the McCall acquisition. And as far as we were concerned, that was just currency because we played it up big time. And, and you know and then, and then Reg had worked over the years to kind of cultivate this relationship with people out in Beverly Hills at, at Drexel [Drexel Burnham Lambert], and ultimately a relationship with Michael. And we traded on that.

Carla Harris

Investment banker and gospel singer Carla Ann Harris was born on October 28, 1962, in Port Arthur, Texas. She was raised in Jacksonville, Florida. Harris began singing at an early age, and by the time she was thirteen years old, she was singing in both Catholic and Baptist choirs. After high school graduation, Harris left Jacksonville and entered Harvard University where she graduated magna cum laude with her A.B. degree in economics and received her M.A. degree in business administration from Harvard Business School. While at Harvard, she sang with the world renowned Radcliffe Chorale Society, the oldest women’s singing group at Harvard and in her own band called Rhythm Company.

In 1987, Harris began her career as an investment banker at Morgan Stanley in the Mergers & Acquisitions department. She has become Managing Director in Global Capital Markets for the firm. She is responsible for the structuring, marketing and execution of public and private equity financings. She is also the active chair of the firm’s Private Placement Commitment Equity Committee. And, for more than a decade, she was a senior member of the Equity Syndicate desk, where she executed such transactions as initial public offerings for UPS, Martha Stewart Living Omnimedia, and the $3.2 billion common stock transaction for Immunex Corporation, the largest biotechnology follow-on offering in U.S. history.

Harris has been named by Fortune magazine among The 50 Most Powerful Black Executives in Corporate America. Black Enterprise named her one of the Top 50 African Americans on Wall Street. Essence magazine named her among The 50 Women Who are Shaping the World. Harvard’s Black Men’s Forum named her Woman of the Year in 2004.

As a gospel singer, in 2000, Harris performed a solo concert at Carnegie Hall and released her first album, Carla’s First Christmas. The album was featured on The Evening News with Dan Rather and was one of the top selling albums on Amazon.com in New York City. In 2006, Harris released her second album, entitled Joy is Waiting. She donated the proceeds to two high schools.

Accession Number

A2006.097

Sex

Female

Interview Date

7/22/2006

Last Name

Harris

Maker Category
Organizations
Schools

Bishop Kenny High School

Harvard University

Harvard Business School

First Name

Carla

Birth City, State, Country

Port Arthur

HM ID

HAR20

Favorite Season

Christmas, Summer

State

Texas

Favorite Vacation Destination

None

Favorite Quote

I Can Do All Things Through Christ That Strengthens Me.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Birth Date

10/28/1962

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New York

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Hamburgers

Short Description

Investment executive Carla Harris (1962 - ) is managing director in Global Capital Markets at Morgan Stanley and Company, where she has also served as a senior member of the Equity Syndicate desk and chair of the firm’s Private Placement Commitment Equity Committee. Her gospel albums include Carla's First Christmas and Joy is Waiting.

Favorite Color

Black

Timing Pairs
0,0:9248,215:9552,220:10312,232:12136,297:24312,405:27795,469:35636,564:36316,575:36928,591:37268,597:37744,609:38356,621:39036,634:41756,752:47332,838:57098,941:57764,957:59466,990:63906,1074:64350,1081:69012,1254:79400,1361:94590,1632:95570,1652:100980,1681:102120,1704:102576,1712:103108,1720:116196,1920:121080,2036:121476,2043:123456,2095:124182,2113:125238,2142:131030,2198$0,0:3408,106:13176,214:15696,281:18504,336:20016,362:20304,367:36758,637:39656,800:44900,886:45452,895:47798,972:48074,977:49247,1013:57608,1144:62541,1237:63094,1249:77254,1586:78674,1614:79313,1637:79881,1651:86787,1722:87753,1744:88926,1792:103014,1999:104230,2039:109006,2119:118918,2251:130008,2508:130656,2517:136326,2650:136650,2655:142708,2720:144436,2766:144884,2779:146868,2846:151220,2999:151604,3081:171566,3285:178601,3433:179137,3446:181750,3455
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Carla Harris' interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Carla Harris lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Carla Harris describes her mother's childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Carla Harris describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Carla Harris talks about her mother's childhood community and role models

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Carla Harris talks about her father's occupation and how her parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Carla Harris talks about her paternal grandmother

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Carla Harris describes her earliest childhood memories in Port Arthur, Texas

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Carla Harris describes the black community in Jacksonville, Florida during her childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Carla Harris describes her experience in Claudezeal Alvin's bowling league in Jacksonville, Florida

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Carla Harris talks about her teachers

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Carla Harris talks about how her mother inspired her, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Carla Harris talks about how her mother inspired her, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Carla Harris reflects upon how her generation has failed to pass on their sense of determination to their children

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Carla Harris describes the sights, sounds, and smells of her childhood in Jacksonville, Florida

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Carla Harris recalls her consciousness of race in elementary school

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Carla Harris recalls her expanding consciousness of race at Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Carla Harris shares her opinions about the use of the N-word and recalls a racist experience at Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Carla Harris describes her decision to attend Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Carla Harris describes her decision to attend Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Carla Harris recalls discovering that she could sing

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Carla Harris describes her experience in the Radcliffe Choral Society at Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Carla Harris talks about how she became interested in finance at Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Carla Harris describes her experience on Wall Street and her decision to become an investment banker

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Carla Harris talks about beginning her career at Morgan Stanley in 1987

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Carla Harris talks about the importance of mentors and sponsors

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Carla Harris talks about the challenges of working on Wall Street as a black woman

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Carla Harris describes her experience working on UPS's IPO with Morgan Stanley in 1999

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Carla Harris talks about recording her first CD and being promoted to managing director of Morgan Stanley in 1999

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Carla Harris talks about her mentor, William Wright, II

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Carla Harris describes her positions at Morgan Stanley

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Carla Harris talks about the longevity of her career at Morgan Stanley

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Carla Harris describes the growing diversity of Wall Street during her career

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Carla Harris reflects on her career accolades

Tape: 3 Story: 12 - Carla Harris describes her experience performing at Carnegie Hall in New York City, New York, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Carla Harris describes her experience performing at Carnegie Hall in New York City, New York pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Carla Harris reflects upon her biggest achievements

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Carla Harris reflects on the importance of her faith in her personal life and business success

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Carla Harris talks about the people she admires

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Carla Harris talks about the lack of an organization for all African Americans on Wall Street

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Carla Harris talks about her CDs and some of her organizational involvements

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Carla Harris describes her hopes for her investment banking career

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Carla Harris describes her plans for her music and her book

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Carla Harris concludes her interview

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$3

DAStory

5$12

DATitle
Carla Harris describes her experience working on UPS's IPO with Morgan Stanley in 1999
Carla Harris describes her experience performing at Carnegie Hall in New York City, New York, pt. 1
Transcript
Talk--let's talk about some of your achievements. You know, you were part of the largest acqui--was, was it the, the public--$$At the time--$$Yeah.$$At the time, it was the largest IPO [Initial Public Offering] in U.S. history and that was the IPO of United Parcel Service, UPS.$$UPS.$$Yes. And that was--I'd say that was a hallmark in my career for a number of reasons. Number one, it was the largest deal that--the largest IPO that had ever happened in the United States.$$What year was that?$$That was in 1999. Number two, it was, it was really a wonderful experience because for the first time, I had worked on a company that people knew. I mean, you--everyone knows "Brown," as they say today, "What can Brown do for you?" But there's no one that hasn't been touched by a UPS truck or hasn't seen a UPS truck, so to work with a company that, at that point, had been a ninety-two-year-old private company, it was a big deal for the company and its employees and its retirees to be coming to, to, to come to the public market, to become a public company. So it was really exciting to me just to be a part of that evolution in the company's history. The third thing, there was a wonderful management team, and a lot of the, the management teams that I've worked, worked with and worked for have been absolutely terrific. In fact, I can't think of any that haven't been, but again, maybe I was associating the warm and fuzzies of working with the UPS, with this management team. But the CEO, the CFO, and most importantly, there was a woman who was a senior woman, her name is Lea Soupata, and she's still the most senior person in the human resources area. She was the first woman that I had come in contact with at a major corporation who really had a lot of power and who I connected with right away. Now, I had worked with other women who were CEOs, but this woman's power transcended her, her title and that was--again, that was a big deal for me. And it was also an opportunity for me to work with a number of senior people within Morgan Stanley that I hadn't had a chance to work with before, that finally had a chance to really see what I could do, so that was important to me.$How did you get to Carnegie Hall [New York City, New York]?$$As the commercial says, "Practice, practice, practice." Well, I'll tell you, the, the whole Carnegie Hall process was one of divine intervention, and I believe that you get divine appointments, and especially if you're looking for them and God will speak to you through all kinds of people. June of last year [2005], I had gone to an event at The Apollo [Theater], and I'm on The Apollo Theater Foundation Board, and there was a man there, and forgive me because I'm blanking on his name. And, in fact, I just saw his poster at Carnegie Hall; and he said to me, he said--I said something about, "Yeah, one day, Carnegie Hall." And he said--and this--I had never met this man before in my life, you have to understand it, this is why I said this was divine appointment. He happened to be standing there, I happened to be standing here, we happened to start a conversation, somehow we talked--oh, I had sung that night, and he said, "Oh, you have a nice voice," blah, blah, blah. And I said, "Yeah, maybe one day Carnegie Hall." He said, "I do concerts at Carnegie Hall all the time." And I said, "Really?" He said, "Yes. I just go and I rent the hall and I just do a concert for free for my friends. I do it, every year because I'm a renowned singer, I've sung all over the world," blah, blah, blah, blah, blah. And you know, I call them those cayenne pepper moments; you know, Oprah calls them the "aha moments," but for me they're the cayenne--you know, how when you have cayenne pepper, everything opens up? I thought to myself, "What if it's that easy?" I've only had that feeling one other time in my life when my pastor was giving--Monsignor Wallace Harris at St. Charles Borromeo, he was giving a sermon and he said, "Go have an extraordinary life. God intended for all of us to have extraordinary lives." And I remember sitting in the pew saying, "What if it's that easy? What if all you have to do is just decide that you're gonna have an extraordinary life?" Well, that's what happened to me that moment. I thought, "What if it's that easy? What if you just decide you're gonna give a concert at Carnegie Hall?" So I talked to him a little bit more and that's when the idea was born. And then I kept sort of chewing on it and then I went out on my friend's boat with the Monsignor and I said, "What about Carnegie Hall?" I said, "You know, I've, I've cut," by that point I had recorded my second album, and all the proceeds from the albums that I sell go to these two schools; St. Charles Borromeo up in Harlem, New York, and the other down in Bishop Kenny High School [Jacksonville, Florida], my alma mater. And I said, "But this would be a way of getting a big chunk of money to the schools instead of record by record by record." Because record by record is only a certain portion of the sales that actually go to the school. So I said--because you got distribution costs, you have all of that, so I said, "Okay. Let me think about it." And I remember feeling it in my heart, and that was the Holy Spirit said, "We can sell out. We can sell out," but I didn't know how because in the world of Gospel music right now, I'm nobody, so how could I sell out Carnegie Hall? And I started looking into it and decided I'd go talk to people at Carnegie Hall. Before you know it, I was in Zankel Hall, we got a band together, I put a show together, we sold out.

Napoleon Brandford, III

The oldest of three children, Napoleon Brandford III was born in East Chicago, Indiana, on February 23, 1952. After graduating from high school in 1970, Brandford briefly attended the University of Nevada at Reno before moving closer to home, completing his B.A. at Purdue University in 1974. Returning west, Brandford attended the University of Southern California where he earned an M.P.A. in 1978.

After completing his graduate work, Brandford became an assistant finance director in the Dade County Finance Department, where he remained until 1982. That year he joined Shearson Lehman Brothers, Inc., as the vice president of public finance in the San Francisco office. In 1985, Brandford partnered with Calvin Grigsby to form Grigsby Brandford & Co., which became one of the nation's premier investment banking firms. While there, Ebony named Brandford one of its Young Tycoons in 1988. In 1997, Brandford and another partner from Grigsby Brandford & Co., Suzanne Shank, joined with Muriel Siebert to form Siebert Brandford Shank, Inc. Today, it is one of the largest female- and minority-owned investment banking firms in the world, with Brandford serving as chairman.

Brandford holds the distinction of being named the youngest African American partner on Wall Street, and he is active with a number of organizations. He serves on the boards of the National Collegiate Athletic Association's Finance and Investment Committee, the Western Region of the Boy Scouts of America and the Los Angeles American Heart Association. Brandford is also active in the National Forum of Black Public Administrators and the National Association of Security Professionals. Brandford and his wife, Sharon, live in California.

Accession Number

A2003.167

Sex

Male

Interview Date

7/24/2003

Last Name

Brandford

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Organizations
Schools

Carrie Gosch Elementary School

East Chicago Roosevelt High School

University of Nevada, Reno

First Name

Napoleon

Birth City, State, Country

East Chicago

HM ID

BRA04

Favorite Season

Fall, Summer

Speaker Bureau Notes

Board of the California Healthcare Foundation; Andrea Rogers (assistant)

State

Indiana

Favorite Vacation Destination

French Riviera

Favorite Quote

Never Pass Up The Opportunity To Keep Your Mouth Shut.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

California

Birth Date

2/23/1952

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Bay Area/Oakland

Country

United States

Favorite Food

French Food, Foie Gras

Short Description

Investment executive Napoleon Brandford, III (1952 - ) co-founded Grigsby Brandford & Co., which became one of the nation's premier investment banking firms. In 1997, Brandford and two partners formed Siebert Brandford Shank, Inc., one of the largest female and minority owned investment banking firms in the world, with Brandford serving as chairman. Brandford holds the distinction of being named the youngest African American partner on Wall Street.

Employment

Dade County Finance Department

Lehman Brothers

Grigsby Brandford & Co.

Siebert Brandford Shank

Favorite Color

Purple

Timing Pairs
0,0:20290,324:44889,673:50853,805:73244,1203:74036,1219:86278,1363:98460,1512:99280,1524:99608,1529:100018,1544:104118,1625:127674,2051:143942,2345:160025,2534:160285,2539:165720,2617:174800,2769:225955,3459:227720,3495$0,0:1774,4:2512,17:5464,67:6776,85:34612,510:63930,968:79190,1219:89850,1395:110185,1704:110915,1714:116964,1768:120260,1780
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Napoleon Brandford's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Napoleon Brandford lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Napoleon Brandford talks about his parents' background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Napoleon Brandford describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Napoleon Brandford talks about his childhood neighborhood in East Chicago, Indiana

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Napoleon Brandford shares memories from his childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Napoleon Brandford talks about his family history

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Napoleon Brandford describes the sights, sounds, and smells of his childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Napoleon Brandford describes his love of baseball as a young boy

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Napoleon Brandford talks about his family's involvement in the A.M.E. Zion church

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Napoleon Brandford describes his childhood personality

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Napoleon Brandford describes his elementary school years and his teachers

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Napoleon Brandford talks about his childhood interest in American history

Tape: 1 Story: 14 - Napoleon Brandford describes his childhood community

Tape: 1 Story: 15 - Napoleon Brandford talks about how Loyola's NCAA Championship in 1963 inspired him to become a basketball player

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Napoleon Brandford talks about the influence of Cazzie Russell

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Napoleon Brandford talks about his basketball career at East Chicago Roosevelt High School in East Chicago, Indiana

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Napoleon Brandford talks about his basketball coach, Hank Zawacki

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Napoleon Brandford describes race relations in East Chicago, Indiana during the 1960s

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Napoleon Brandford talks about playing sports in high school

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Napoleon Brandford describes winning the 1970 Indiana Boys State Basketball title

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Napoleon Brandford describes being recruited by the University of Nevada in Reno, Nevada to play basketball

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Napoleon Brandford talks about a summer job at the Union Carbide Corporation and the steel mill culture of East Chicago, Indiana

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Napoleon Brandford talks about his mentors as a youth

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Napoleon Brandford talks about playing basketball at the University of Nevada in Reno, Nevada

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Napoleon Brandford describes his appreciation for the San Francisco Bay Area

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Napoleon Brandford talks about his studies and political activism at the University of Nevada in Reno, Nevada

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Napoleon Brandford describes the consequences of his political activism at the University of Nevada in Reno, Nevada

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Napoleon Brandford explains why he gave up his dream of professional basketball

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Napoleon Brandford talks about how his grandmother inspired his dedication to his studies

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Napoleon Brandford talks about his law school studies and his political aspirations

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Napoleon Brandford describes meeting C. Delores Tucker

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Napoleon Brandford talks about the Dade County Managers Program

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Napoleon Brandford talks about his wife, Sharon Brandford

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Napoleon Brandford talks about working in city government under mentor Bill Erickson in the finance department

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Napoleon Brandford talks about lessons he learned in Dade County and his interest in the finance sector

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Napoleon Brandford talks about working at Shearson/American Express

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Napoleon Brandford describes how he learned investment banking

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Napoleon Brandford talks about seeking advice from the network of African Americans in California

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Napoleon Brandford talks about minority firms in the 1980s including his own, Grigsby Brandford

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Napoleon Brandford talks about Mayor Harold Washington and Albert "Al" Johnson's support of the minority investment banking community

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Napoleon Brandford talks about bond deals in the City of Chicago

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Napoleon Brandford talks about his business strategy and mayoral supporters of black business

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Napoleon Brandford talks about the rise and decline of minority investment banking firms

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Napoleon Brandford talks about the National Association of Securities Professionals and Travers Bell

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Napoleon Brandford talks about his firm's growth strategy and the top tier minority firms

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - Napoleon Brandford talks about winning a

504 million L.A. Convention Center deal against competitor Goldman Sachs

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Napoleon Brandford talks about the municipal bond arena and investing in the infrastructure of his firm

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Napoleon Brandford reflects upon highlights from his investment banking career

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Napoleon Brandford talks about working with municipalities and the growth under Mayor Eugene Sawyer

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Napoleon Brandford talks about his partner's indictment and forming a new firm, Siebert Brandford Shank

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Napoleon Brandford talks about the downturn in the African American securities industry

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Napoleon Brandford describes his passion for public finance

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Napoleon Brandford talks about politics in financing

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Napoleon Brandford talks about his firm's focus and ranking

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Napoleon Brandford talks about the future of his firm, Siebert Brandford Shank

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Napoleon Brandford talks about the investment banking industry

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Napoleon Brandford talks about his book, "Hoosiers, Too: The Road Warriors"

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Napoleon Brandford talks about the importance of an education for athletes

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Napoleon Brandford talks about his role on the NCAA Leadership Advisory Board

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Napoleon Brandford describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Napoleon Brandford talks about the importance of African American history

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Napoleon Brandford talks about how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Napoleon Brandford talks about his mother and grandfather

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Napoleon Brandford narrates his photographs, pt.1

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Napoleon Brandford narrates his photographs, pt.2

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$4

DAStory

11$5

DATitle
Napoleon Brandford talks about lessons he learned in Dade County and his interest in the finance sector
Napoleon Brandford talks about Mayor Harold Washington and Albert "Al" Johnson's support of the minority investment banking community
Transcript
So what are some of the things you learned?$$The first thing [Dick] Montalbano told me was really interesting. I never forgot these things either, he said, "First of all working in government don't expect anybody to pat you on the back until you do a good job. Two, don't sign your name to anything other than your check. Three, if I want your opinion I'll give it to you." So I never forgot those things. And so that was my introduction into government. And then I learned from him, he was trying to focus on finance not taking into consideration the political things where the county--the deputy county manager was a gentleman name Dewey Knight and he ran the human resources and the welfare section of the [Dade] County government. And so this hospital is not producing that much called Lutheran Medical Center and Montalbano wanted to shut it down to save money. And so he sent me down as a sacrificial lamb to Dewey Knight. And Dewey Knight became one of my mentors and one of my friends, but he just devastated me with his comments. See I'm a young kid trying to figure out this is really the thing to do and he said, boy, don't you know what white folks have been trying to do for black folks all these years and yadi, yadi, yadi, ya, had me in tears. And people couldn't believe that he had done that to me. But it taught me a very good lesson that whatever Montalbano tell me to do, I'd do the opposite. And so I lived by that philosophy. I would never do that again.$$So when you--are you learning at this point, I mean, what kind of deals are you working?$$I'm working on bond deals. See this intern program, this guy from Springfield, Illinois, his name is Reed, I can't think of his first name, maybe Mike Reed (ph.), but anyway he said, Napoleon, you get out of this intern program what you want, you can skate through and get a good job or you can do exactly what you want to do and get out as much as you wanted to, and so I did exactly that. They give me assignments I wouldn't do those assignments, I would do exactly what I wanted to do 'cause I was trying to get to the finance department 'cause I understood these bond deals was--I didn't know what a bond deal was, I thought it was like most people, I thought it was either bail bondsman or a performance bond, I didn't know there was securities. I learned that at school. So it was strictly on-the-job training. But there was this tax revolt at the time in Dade County, and make a long story short, the tax revolt was to cut taxes by 99 and a half percent and 43 percent of the people who had voted to wipe out government. I said wow this a scary thing. California didn't do this. I come to Florida so this is obviously not a growth employment sector so I need to get out of this. And so--and I need to get out of Florida and to get back to California, so how do you do that. And so I met a gentleman, I met several gentlemen, but I met an African American that was the highest ranking black at E.F. Hutton, he was an investment banker.$$What was his name?$$T. M. Alexander, Jr. And T.M. sort of took me under his wing. And I sit down and talked to him about what was it like to be an investment banker and he start telling me he said, "man, I just got a $70,000 bonus last year." I said you got what, he said, "I got a $70,000 bonus." He said, "I'm making you know close to half a million dollars." I said I want to do what you do. And so I began to try to work in finance and get out of this-$And what are you thinking your client base is going to be, are you concentrating you know among the--$$At Grigsby [Brandford]?$$--Yes.$$Oh, I thought my client base was going to be the African American community. And so the African American community and the you know--the Los Angeles [California] thing encouraged it, but the real champion for African American investment banking community was [Mayor] Harold Washington. And so it was back during that time a friend of mine was working--this young lady was working for Harold Washington as deputy comptroller named Jane Thompson. And Jane, I said, Jane, I really want to get business in Chicago [Illinois], she said well, there's a meeting tonight, I need to introduce you to this gentleman [Albert "Al" Johnson]. And said you probably heard of him. I'd heard of him, but I never met him. He said-'cause I used to listen to Operation PUSH on the radio all the time when it was sponsored by Al Johnson Cadillac, Johnson Products, Grove Fence Orange Juice, he was one of the top black business people in America. And so I came down to, somewhere on the South Side of Chicago, not too far from here, to a meeting of the Political Action Committee of Illinois, and there was Al and Bill Barry and so on and so forth. So I met up Al and he sort of took me under his wing. And shortly thereafter he came to San Francisco [California] and we were having dinner and we were talking about my birthday was coming up real soon. And then I pulled up and he said, "when is your birthday?" and I says it's February 23rd. He forced me to take out my driver's license 'cause his birthday was February 23rd. And so out of that, among other things, we became real good friends. He adopted me as affectionately known as Al Johnson, Jr.

Ernest Green

Ernest G. Green was born in Little Rock, Arkansas, on September 22, 1941 to Lothaire S. and Ernest G. Green, Sr. His parents instilled in him confidence and self-respect that helped him to become a leader among his peers and a civil rights advocate. He was one of the first black students to integrate at Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas, following the Supreme Court ruling to desegregate in 1954. Green is the oldest of the "Little Rock Nine," a group of high school students who entered Central High School on the morning of September 25, 1957, with an escort of paratroopers. Governor Orval Faubus had summoned National Guardsmen to turn away the black pupils in direct defiance of the federal government, which had already approved a desegregation plan for the school. President Dwight D. Eisenhower, for the first time since Reconstruction, sent in federal troops to protect the rights of the beleaguered students, and the students ultimately prevailed.Green graduated from Michigan State University with a B.A. in 1962 and an M.A. in 1964.

In 1965, Green became involved in employment law with a building-trade apprenticeship for the Adolph Institute, a project to help minority women in the South find opportunities for professional careers. He then directed the A. Phillip Randolph Education Fund from 1968 to 1976. Between 1977 and 1981, he served as assistant secretary in the Labor Department under President Jimmy Carter. Since 1981, Green has worked in the private sector for consulting firms. He was a partner for Green and Herman from 1981 to 1985, owned E. Green and Associates from 1985 to 1986, and has been with Lehman Brothers since 1985.

Green has been on the boards of various organizations, such as the Winthrop Rockefeller Foundation, AfriCare and the African Development Foundation. He has received numerous awards and honors for his work, including the NAACP Spingarn Award, the Rockefeller Public Service Award, and honorary doctorates from Tougaloo College, Michigan State University, and Central State University.

He is married to Phyllis Green and they have three children, Adam, Jessica and McKenzie.

Accession Number

A2003.013

Sex

Male

Interview Date

1/22/2003

Last Name

Green

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Organizations
Schools

Central High School

Horace Mann High School

Michigan State University

First Name

Ernest

Birth City, State, Country

Little Rock

HM ID

GRE04

Favorite Season

September

State

Arkansas

Favorite Vacation Destination

Rome, Italy

Favorite Quote

Little Rock.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

9/22/1941

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Gumbo

Short Description

Investment executive and civil rights leader Ernest Green (1941 - ) was one of the "Little Rock Nine," the first group of black students to integrate Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas.

Employment

Adolph Institute

A. Phillip Randolph Education Fund

United States Department of Labor

Green and Herman

E. Green and Associates

Lehman Brothers

Favorite Color

None

Timing Pairs
0,0:767,9:8486,137:9150,149:10395,170:19537,238:20846,260:21385,268:22232,287:22848,294:27930,376:43740,557:44702,573:45294,583:46922,614:48920,651:55990,701:56620,709:66240,817:66960,830:76514,927:77048,934:78739,972:80252,996:80608,1011:86876,1044:94895,1221:117600,1439:118265,1448:120070,1481:121210,1495:145404,1748:145748,1753:146092,1758:146780,1768:147382,1783:149274,1811:156738,1866:157530,1886:159114,1913:161930,1918:162550,1923:164710,1929:179160,2080:182563,2095:193996,2166:200850,2242:201280,2248:202140,2270:213166,2350:227810,2514$0,0:273,4:17348,284:22220,356:22724,363:23144,373:23564,379:35180,525:38436,564:39052,578:81604,992:81928,997:83224,1015:94362,1163:119520,1392
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Ernest Green's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Ernest Green lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Ernest Green describes his paternal family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Ernest Green describes his father

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Ernest Green describes his maternal family background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Ernest Green describes his family's involvement in a lawsuit against the Little Rock School District, led by Sue Cowan Williams

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Ernest Green describes his mother

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Ernest Green describes how the media in Arkansas responded to the "Brown v. Board of Education" decision in 1954

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Ernest Green describes his perception of the "Brown v. Board of Education" decision as a youth

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Ernest Green talks about his siblings and his upbringing

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Ernest Green describes his earliest childhood memories

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Ernest Green describes his childhood neighborhood in Little Rock, Arkansas

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Ernest Green describes his youth in Little Rock, Arkansas

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Ernest Green describes his childhood personality and interest in music

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Ernest Green describes his experiences traveling to the North for the first time

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Ernest Green describes his perception of the murder of Emmett Till

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Ernest Green describes how national and local civil rights activities affected him as a youth

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Ernest Green describes the influence of mother's educational experiences on his desire to enact change Little Rock, Arkansas

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Ernest Green describes his neighbor's negative reaction to his integrating Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Ernest Green describes his family's activism during the 1940s

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Ernest Green describes what motivated him to transfer to Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Ernest Green describes meeting with the Little Rock School Board prior to transferring to Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Ernest Green describes his experiences the summer prior to enrolling at Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Ernest Green describes the events leading up to his helping to integrate Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Ernest Green comments on the selection process of the Little Rock Nine

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Ernest Green describes his friends' reactions to his integrating Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Ernest Green describes the implications of integrating Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Ernest Green talks about Governor Orval Faubus' response to the integration of Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Ernest Green describes his first day at Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Ernest Green compares Central High School and Horace Mann High School in Little Rock, Arkansas

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Ernest Green describes his experiences studying physics at Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Ernest Green describes how attending Central High School affected his performance as a student

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Ernest Green describes his two semesters at Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Ernest Green describes the interaction between he and his white peers at Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Ernest Green describes graduating from Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Ernest Green describes enrolling at Michigan State University

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Ernest Green describes spending the summer in New York City, New York, prior to his undergraduate studies at Michigan State University

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Ernest Green describes the attention he received upon enrolling at Michigan State University in East Lansing, Michigan

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Ernest Green describes his experiences attending Michigan State University in East Lansing, Michigan

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Ernest Green considers his father's possible reaction to his integrating Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Ernest Green describes what motivated him to become involved in the Labor Movement

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Ernest Green describes his internship with "Look" Magazine, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Ernest Green describes his internship with "Look" Magazine, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Ernest Green describes the impact of the Workers Defense League's apprenticeship program

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - Ernest Green describes how integrating Central High School benefitted him as a young adult

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Ernest Green describes serving as director of the A. Philip Randolph Education Fund

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Ernest Green talks about introducing HistoryMaker Alexis Herman to her first labor-related experience in Pascagoula, Mississippi

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Ernest Green talks about being appointed as Assistant U.S. Secretary of Labor

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Ernest Green describes what he learned from Bayard Rustin

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Ernest Green talks about Bayard Rustin's role in the March on Washington

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Ernest Green talks about his accomplishments as Assistant U.S. Secretary of Labor

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Ernest Green describes his consulting firm with HistoryMaker Alexis Herman and being hired as an investment banker for Shearson Lehman Brothers

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Ernest Green describes how his educational background and networking skills benefitted him as an investment banker

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Ernest Green describes the impact of networking and building relationships

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Ernest Green describes how President William "Bill" Clinton was influenced by the Little Rock Nine

Tape: 5 Story: 11 - Ernest Green describes helping President William "Bill" Clinton strategize for the Illinois Primary during his presidential campaign

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Ernest Green notes how President William "Bill" Clinton built strategic relationships with the African American community

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Ernest Green describes his relationship with HistoryMaker Reverend Jesse Jackson

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Ernest Green describes his expectations of HistoryMaker Reverend Jesse Jackson's presidential campaign

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Ernest Green describes the turning point of HistoryMaker Reverend Jesse Jackson's presidential campaign

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Ernest Green comments on taking risks

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Ernest Green describes "The Ernest Green Story" biopic

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Ernest Green talks about the importance of recognizing and sharing the story of the Little Rock Nine

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Ernest Green talks about building a life beyond his experiences integrating Central High School

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Ernest Green comments on the state of the black community, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - Ernest Green comments on the state of the black community, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 11 - Ernest Green talks about his plans for the future

Tape: 6 Story: 12 - Ernest Green talks about the importance of highlighting contemporary African American achievers

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Ernest Green comments on the benefits of being a member of the Little Rock Nine

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Ernest Green comments on the importance of acknowledging the Little Rock Nine's experiences integrating Central High School

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Ernest Green talks about how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Ernest Green comments on integration and school bussing

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Ernest Green narrates his photographs

DASession

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DATape

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DAStory

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DATitle
Ernest Green describes his first day at Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas
Ernest Green describes his expectations of HistoryMaker Reverend Jesse Jackson's presidential campaign
Transcript
Now your first day at school, when you finally, you know, got in. You were taken in through the, the side door.$$Right.$$What--did much happen that first day?$$Well the first day I was, I mean my focus those three weeks--cause I was the senior. I was really getting worried that I was losing time and wouldn't graduate. I mean I was--my main focus was graduating from high school and going to college. I didn't know where. I mean I hadn't picked a college. But I saw this time that I was losing really impacting negatively on my being able to get the credits and the hours and classes and all that. So that first day when we finally got in the school and stayed half a day, I think I was in my physics class and they sent a monitor to, to, to get--you heard some of the noise, depends on where you were in the school. The school is a huge building. And the--they sent a monitor to pull us out of class, this was right before noon. And we went to the principal's office and when--that's when they said they were having trouble keeping control of the mob out front and they wanted us to leave for our own safety. Well you know first I thought it was a ruse. I mean I'd spent three weeks trying to get into this school and now I'm finally in class and now they telling me I'm gone have to leave again. You know, but being a, a good, good boy, I followed orders. So when we got into the cars and sped out, we were all shocked at what was going on. And you know the, the hostility and anger on these people's faces. So when I finally got home again, the power of television, and saw you know, the turning over the police barricades and trying to run through them and overrun the Little Rock policemen, I, I really was beginning to worry that we'd never get back into this school 'cause Little Rock's local policemen were never gonna be powerful enough to protect us against, against these people. And then that night received the telegram from President [Dwight] Eisenhower. This was--let's see--my birthday, I turned--my birthday is on the 22nd of September. And I turned, turned seventeen, did I? No, I turned, yeah I turned sixteen because I was a year, I was a year advanced compared to my peers. So it was--I was fifteen going into the senior year, sixteen in '57 [1957], yeah, 'cause '41 [1941]. Yeah, so it would be--I turned sixteen that September. Anyway, the telegram came the night of my birthday and the 23rd was when we finally went into Central [High School, Little Rock, Arkansas].$Now when you got involved with Reverend [Jesse] Jackson [HM], what were you wanting to see happen? I mean what was the--sort of the game plan? What did--$$Well I wanted--you know I didn't know whether we could win the presidency, but I, I did think they underestimated Jesse's both personal ability and his political relationships. And it turned out--I always tell this story that the--a lot of the news organizations attached journalists to Jesse's campaign 'cause they figured it was gonna blow up and go away. Well it turned out that Jesse was the only one that went the distance. In fact he had a lot to do with a lot of, of journalistic careers. Jack White [HM], Boyd who's managing "New York Times". A lot of them began their career covering Jesse's political campaign. My expectation that he was gonna help democratize the Democratic party. I thought that in many ways, and probably is still the case, the black vote doesn't get its proper due. And that really it was--I was also interested in the mechanics of campaigning; the people who were running it. And so now you look at Donna Brazile [HM], Charles Duncan, people who have become--built reputations on, on how to run a campaign. Jesse was terribly important to create that and to create widening opportunities. So what I saw was again, raising the bar, widening the door and I think Reverend Jackson achieved that.