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Karen Hill-Scott

Educator and consultant Karen Hill-Scott received her M.A. and Ed.D. degrees in education from the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA). As a student, she was awarded both the Danforth and Chancellor’s Fellowships. Upon graduation, Hill-Scott received the “Outstanding Graduate Student” honor from UCLA’s School of Education.

Hill-Scott co-founded Crystal Stairs, one of California’s largest non-profit child development agencies, served as an adjunct professor at the UCLA School of Management, and has consistently contributed to child development policy through consulting and public service. She founded and served as president of Karen Hill-Scott, Inc., where she has worked to translate theory into practical content. Hill-Scott is the chief educational consultant for NBC/ION Networks and has previously consulted for Baby Einstein Company, Discovery Kids (on NBC), Nickelodeon, the Disney Channel, and the Jim Henson Company. She was the principal consultant for the TRW (now Northrop Grumman) work-family programs, and developed the on-site child development center for the company.

Hill-Scott’s publications include book chapters in the historical volume NBC: America's Network (2007), The Handbook of Children's Television (2001), Managing Quality in Child Development Programs (2000), and several technical reports on child care management and inter-agency collaboration. Hill-Scott was chair of the State of California School Readiness Work Group and the Universal Pre-school Task Force, where she was involved in the writing of several published reports including “The California School Readiness Master Plan” (2002), and “Ready to Learn: Universal Pre-school in California” (1999). She has also authored “The Sky’s the Limit: the Los Angeles Universal Preschool Master Plan.”

Hill-Scott has served as chair of the State of California School Readiness Master Plan for the State Senate Joint Committee, co-chair of the Universal Preschool Task Force for the California Department of Education, and served on the National Pre-Kindergarten Committee for the Education Commission of the States. Hill Scott was also appointed to the State of California First 5 Commission, as well as the board of directors for the Foundation for Child Development and Crystal Stairs, Inc.

Hill-Scott has been consistently recognized for her outstanding service to the Los Angeles community. She was named the Preschool California’s Hero of Month in October 2006. Hill-Scott is the recipient of the Proven Achievers Award from KJLH and the Walt Disney Company, the John Harvard Award for Community Service, the SCLC-Rosa Parks Award for Social Justice, a Woman of the Year Award from the County Commission on the Status of Women, a Woman of History Award from KCET Television, a Woman of the Year Award from the Santa Monica YWCA, an Inspirational Woman of the Year from NAWBO-LA, and the Tom Bradley Alumnus of the Year Award from UCLA.

A resident of Los Angeles, Hill-Scott is married to Dr. T.V. Scott, an ophthalmologist. They have four children, and eight grandchildren.

Karen Hill-Scott was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on December 16, 2013.

Accession Number

A2013.356

Sex

Female

Interview Date

12/16/2013

Last Name

Hill-Scott

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Schools

University of California, Los Angeles

Pepperdine University

Mark Twain Elementary School

Enterprise Middle School

Centennial High School

First Name

Karen

Birth City, State, Country

Chicago

HM ID

SCO08

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Illinois

Favorite Vacation Destination

Anywhere Warm

Favorite Quote

Do The Best You Can With What You Have.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

California

Birth Date

12/5/1946

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Los Angeles

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Spicy Food

Short Description

Educator and education consultant Karen Hill-Scott (1946 - ) was the founder of Karen Hill-Scott, Inc. and the cofounder of Crystal Stairs. She served as an educational consultant for companies like NBC/ION Networks, Baby Einstein Company, Discovery Kids, Nickelodeon, Disney Channel, Jim Henson Company, and TRW.

Employment

Crystal Stairs

University of California, Los Angeles School of Management

Karen Hill-Scott, Inc.

NBC

Baby Einstein Company

Discovery Kids

Nickelodeon

Disney Channel

Jim Henson Company

TRW (Northrop Grumman)

Favorite Color

Warm Fall Colors

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Karen Hill-Scott's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Karen Hill-Scott list her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Karen Hill-Scott describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Karen Hill-Scott talks about racial passing in her maternal family, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Karen Hill-Scott talks about racial passing in her maternal family, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Karen Hill-Scott describes her maternal grandmother's career

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Karen Hill-Scott describes her mother's community in Columbia, Missouri

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Karen Hill-Scott talks about her mother's childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Karen Hill-Scott describes her grandmother's work in Los Angeles, California

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Karen Hill-Scott remembers her maternal aunt's funeral

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Karen Hill-Scott talks about her connection with Shirlee Haizlip's memoir

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Karen Hill-Scott describes her father's family background

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Karen Hill-Scott talks about her father's upbringing in Oklahoma

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Karen Hill-Scott her paternal relatives' emphasis on education

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Karen Hill-Scott describes her father's career prior to World War II

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Karen Hill-Scott talks about her father's military service in World War II

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Karen Hill-Scott remembers the official recognition of the 761st Tank Battalion

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Karen Hill-Scott recalls her father's stories of World War II

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Karen Hill-Scott talks about her father's career as a mechanic

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Karen Hill-Scott talks about her parents' marriage

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Karen Hill-Scott describes her parent's personalities and who she takes after

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Karen Hill-Scott lists her siblings

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Karen Hill-Scott describes her siblings' careers

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Karen Hill-Scott describes her mother's emphasis on higher education

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Karen Hill-Scott describes her earliest childhood memory

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Karen Hill-Scott remembers her neighborhood in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Karen Hill-Scott remembers contracting polio, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Karen Hill-Scott remembers contracting polio, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Karen Hill-Scott recalls her early understanding of race

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Karen Hill-Scott remembers moving to South Central Los Angeles, California

Tape: 3 Story: 12 - Karen Hill-Scott describes her community in Los Angeles, California

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Karen Hill-Scott remembers the South Los Angeles Chapter of Jack and Jill of America, Inc.

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Karen Hill-Scott describes her early experiences of religion

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Karen Hill-Scott remembers her piano training

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Karen Hill-Scott recalls her mother's emphasis on classical music

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Karen Hill-Scott remembers competing on the television game show 'Quiz Down'

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Karen Hill-Scott talks about her mother's plan for her education

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Karen Hill-Scott recalls her celebrity neighbors

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Karen Hill-Scott remembers her influential elementary school teachers

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Karen Hill-Scott remembers Centennial High School in Compton, California

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Karen Hill-Scott remembers learning about her mother's acting career

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Karen Hill-Scott recalls lessons from her parents about the entertainment industry

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Karen Hill-Scott reflects upon the baby boom generation

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Karen Hill-Scott remembers enrolling at George Pepperdine College in Los Angeles, California

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Karen Hill-Scott recalls her involvement in the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Karen Hill-Scott describes the conservatism at George Pepperdine College

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Karen Hill-Scott recalls her decision to stop playing piano

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Karen Hill-Scott remembers the events following her graduation from George Pepperdine College

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Karen Hill-Scott remembers the discrimination against black students at George Pepperdine College

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Karen Hill-Scott describes her activism at the University of California, Los Angeles

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Karen Hill-Scott remembers Maulana Karenga

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Karen Hill-Scott recalls the start of her interest in children's television

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Karen Hill-Scott talks about her master's thesis on 'Sesame Street'

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Karen Hill-Scott describes her start in the children's television industry

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Karen Hill-Scott recalls the changes in children's television regulations

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Karen Hill-Scott describes the Action for Children's Television organization

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Karen Hill-Scott remembers the debates about violence on public television

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Karen Hill-Scott talks about the lack of black characters on television

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Karen Hill-Scott talks about the depictions of women on television

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - Karen Hill-Scott talks about her influence on children's television, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 11 - Karen Hill-Scott talks about her influence on children's television, pt. 2

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Karen Hill-Scott recalls the changes in children's television programming

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Karen Hill-Scott remembers the emergence of twenty-four hour cartoon channels

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Karen Hill-Scott describes her diversity work for cartoon programs

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Karen Hill-Scott talks about public television programming for preschoolers

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Karen Hill-Scott remembers her work on 'Blue's Clues'

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Karen Hill-Scott talks about 'Schoolhouse Rock!'

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Karen Hill-Scott describes the founding of Crystal Stairs, Inc., pt. 1

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Karen Hill-Scott describes the founding of Crystal Stairs, Inc., pt. 2

Tape: 7 Story: 9 - Karen Hill-Scott remembers her policy work

Tape: 7 Story: 10 - Karen Hill-Scott remembers developing early education plans

Tape: 7 Story: 11 - Karen Hill-Scott talks about illiteracy in the African American community

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Karen Hill-Scott talks about her board service

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Karen Hill-Scott describes her plans for the future

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Karen Hill-Scott talks about her family

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - Karen Hill-Scott describes her style of parenting

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - Karen Hill-Scott reflects upon her life

Tape: 8 Story: 6 - Karen Hill-Scott reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 8 Story: 7 - Karen Hill-Scott describes how she would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

5$7

DAStory

9$5

DATitle
Karen Hill-Scott remembers the discrimination against black students at George Pepperdine College
Karen Hill-Scott remembers her work on 'Blue's Clues'
Transcript
Sixty-eight [1968] was the year the Dr. King [Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.] was assassinated (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) Um-hm. Um-hm.$$And, now, we skipped by the, the riots in L.A. [Los Angeles, California] in '65 [1965] or sixty--$$ No, they were in '66 [sic. 1965].$$Sixty-six [1966].$$ That happened while I was at Pepperdine [George Pepperdine College; Pepperdine University].$$Okay.$$ Oh, my god, white people just had a hissy conniption fit. That's one of the reason they started working on that land out in, out in Malibu Beach [Malibu, California]. It was a gift from a, you know, an ultra right wing family, the Seaver family.$$Now, at Pepperdine was it well known that you were black? Or did peop- most people not, seem not to--?$$ No. I think that, well, I made a big point of it when I found out how prejudiced they were, you know. How prejudiced the students were and the faculty. I, you know, I would make a big deal of it. I don't think anybody knew, even though they ask for race on the, on the, on your application. And, they wanted to send, wanted you to send a picture 'cause they did wanna know who was, who was what. And, I got this job, actually, my mother [Hope Morris Hill] and the dean conspired to get me this job in the registrar's office because my mother told me that you have to earn enough money to, you know, pay for your miscellaneous expenses. So, I always had a job as a pianist at the school, as a rehearsal pianist for the school musicals and I would play for receptions, like at the president's house. But, I was missing chapel a little too frequently. And, so, my mother suggested to the dean that maybe if I had a job on campus they could tell me, they could excuse me to go to chapel and I would be there on a regular basis. So, 'cause you had to go to chapel. So, I worked in the registrar's office. And, oh, my god, now that was a revelation because I had access to all the transcripts, and all the grades, and all the ways that they used to find ways to identify who was black and who was not. And, I was shocked and appalled to find out that they had pink pieces of paper, I mean, this is in an era of when these reporting requirements that we have today did not exist. You didn't identify people by race. Everything was supposed to be colorblind at that time. And, so, they would surreptitiously collect data on race. But, they would collect data on race to really--to affirm their belief that black students were inferior to everyone else. So, I discovered in the transcript files that they had a list on pink paper called the N List. And, it was Negroes on academic probation. And, they tracked all the black student who were on probation. I made up my mind right then I would never be on that list. I would never let my grades slip. I would never not be serious about getting my school work done. It was a real, you know, just like when my mother said, "That chapter in your life is over. Now you're on to a new chapter." Then, I really go into it. When I saw that, I went, "I will--I am--I'm not getting a C. I am not gonna, I'm not, let alone fall below a C average. Oh, no." Unh-uh, I know what these people think about black students. I'm not gonna be there. I am not going to conform to any expectation that they have for a black student.$Do you have a favorite show of, I guess the show (simultaneous)--$$ (Simultaneous) Of all the preschool shows?$$--television show for preschoolers?$$ I think I've worked on far too many of them to name one as favorite. I mean, I, I would say that 'Blue's Clues' was, was one, the only show, the first show that I worked on that was totally grounded in child development as opposed to television. I mean, everything about the show, the pacing on the show was what will kids want to do? What--how will kids like it? It wasn't based on suppositions about kids but more on the ground, real research on what kids were thinking, doing, and how fast they processed information. And, I can remember, to myself, and I'm sure the staff of the show were much more intent about it than I was, sort of praying that that show would be a hit. Because the naysayers in television were, "If we did it your way, the way you academics say kids would, would wanna learn, the show won't be successful. We know what makes for laughs. We know what," you know. In other words, our tried and true formula is the one that kids want. And, if you put this boring educational stuff on television, nobody's gonna watch it.$$(Unclear).$$ That's right. And, 'Blue's Clues' hit, and it really hit big. And, it just, that would be the one that stands out to me of the shows I've worked on that was really tremendously significant because it was based completely on these boring--things that everybody thought would be too boring for TV. And, when done creatively, it turned out to be evergreen, absolutely evergreen. And, almost everybody's favorite TV show.

Frances Frazier

Education consultant and life coach Frances Curtis Frazier was born on May 19, 1948 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania to Patsy Thompson Curtis, a homemaker and William Henry Curtis, a building manager. In 1966, she graduated from Little Flower Catholic High School. After high school, Fran applied to become a Vista Volunteer, the national forerunner of the current Vista Program. She was in one of the first groups of this national initiative for young people to become part of “The Great America”. She studied at John Hopkins University and worked with maternal deprivation babies. Later she was sent to Portsmouth, Virginia in a small community to help residents who were being harassed by the Klu Klux Klan. Fran taught peanut farmers how to read and write. It was after her Vista experience that with the help of a local school principal she entered Norfolk State University and in 1972 received her B.S. degree in special education. Fran received a Master/Doctoral fellowship to attend The Ohio State University and graduated with her M.A. degree in learning disabilities and behavioral disorders in 1973.

In 1986, Frazier was a special education teacher for Columbus City Schools, working primarily with seventh and eighth graders. After working as a special needs coordinator for the National Assault Prevention Center of Columbus, Ohio from 1985 to 1987, Frazier was hired to the executive staff for the Director of the Ohio Department of Human Services. While at the Department of Human Services, Frazier worked for the Office of Minority Family Preservation and Prevention Services and served as an administrator for cultural initiatives. She has also served as an education and school climate consultant for universities, colleges, professional associations, school districts, and social service agencies across the country. Since 1979, Frazier has established programs, conducted retreats and given presentations on issues of sisterhood, spiritual development and self-empowerment.

In her current role, Frazier is the principal investigator of “Rise Sister Rise,” a research study on trauma and resiliency in African American girls that was developed in partnership with the Ohio Department of Mental Health and women’s organizations across the state. Additionally, Frazier serves as a senior associate for Everyday Democracy, an organization that promotes public dialogue and civic engagement in communities and workplaces.

Frazier has received numerous awards and commendations for her work including the Black Family Award from the Columbus Urban League for co-creating “Black Family Week” in the state of Ohio; the “Woman of the Year” Award from the Eldon W. Ward YMCA; the “Women Making A Difference Award for Community Leadership” from the Ohio Department of Health; from Triedstone Missionary Baptist Church she received the “Remarkable Women’s Award” for her work in the Columbus community. She has also garnered the YWCA “Woman of Achievement Award” in Racial Justice and recognition from the State of Ohio for engaging state employees to participate in workplace dialogues on racism. Frazier has received the “Golden Rulers Award” from the Columbus, Ohio School Board. She is also a recipient of the “Living Faith” Award from the Columbus Metropolitan Area Church Council.

Frances Curtis Frazier was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on April 6, 2012.

Accession Number

A2012.078

Sex

Female

Interview Date

4/4/2012 |and| 5/10/2013

Last Name

Frazier

Maker Category
Middle Name

Curtis

Schools

The Ohio State University

Norfolk State University

Little Flower Catholic High School

St. Elizabeth's Parochial School

The DePaul Catholic School

Speakers Bureau

Yes

Speakers Bureau Availability

Days

First Name

Frances

Birth City, State, Country

Philadelphia

HM ID

FRA08

Speakers Bureau Preferred Audience

5th - 12th grade African american girls; adults

Speakers Bureau Honorarium

Yes - $100

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Pennsylvania

Favorite Vacation Destination

Anywhere Near Water, Nature

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Ohio

Birth Date

5/19/1948

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Columbus

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Pastries

Short Description

Social activist and education consultant Frances Frazier (1948 - ) is an education and civic leader in the State of Ohio, having established programs, conducted retreats and given presentations on issues of sisterhood, spiritual development and self-empowerment across the country. She is the principal investigator for the ground-breaking research on trauma and resiliency in African American girls in Ohio, “Rise Sister Rise.”

Employment

Freelance Work

Everyday Democracy

Ohio Department of Human Services

Buckeye Boys Ranch

Columbus City Schools

National Assault Prevention Center

Favorite Color

Orange

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Frances Frazier's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Frances Frazier lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Frances Frazier talks about her mother

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Frances Frazier describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Frances Frazier talks about her maternal grandparents

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Frances Frazier talks about how her mother and how her parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Frances Frazier recalls advice her mother shared with her as a teenager

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Frances Frazier talks about her father, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Frances Frazier talks about her father, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Frances Frazier talks about her parents' employment as a maid and butler in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Frances Frazier describes her parents' personalities and who she takes after

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Frances Frazier describes her earliest childhood memories

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Frances Frazier describes her childhood personality

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Frances Frazier describes the sights, sounds and smells of her childhood in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Frances Frazier talks about her childhood neighborhood in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Frances Frazier talks about her siblings and attending a Catholic elementary school in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Frances Frazier recalls her experience at St. Elizabeth's Parochial School in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Frances Frazier talks about moving to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania's Nicetown neighborhood and attending Catholic schools

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Frances Frazier talks about attending St. Francis of Assisi Catholic School in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania's Nicetown neighborhood

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Frances Frazier talks about her desire as a teenager to become a nun

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Frances Frazier talks about Little Flower Catholic High School for Girls in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Frances Frazier talks about her taste in music as a teenager

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Frances Frazier talks about a turbulent period of her youth and moving into a federal housing project in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Frances Frazier explains how observing domestic violence as an adolescent affected her personality

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Frances Frazier talks about her home life during her high school years

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Frances Frazier talks about writing short stories and plays as a teenager

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Frances Frazier talks about how the 1963 March on Washington influenced her plans for the future

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Frances Frazier talks about her decision to join VISTA after graduating from high school

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Frances Frazier talks about joining the VISTA program in 1963

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Frances Frazier talks about a year of service with the VISTA program in the Mount Hermon community of Portsmouth, Virginia

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Frances Frazier recalls being threatened by Ku Klux Klan members while serving in the VISTA program in Portsmouth, Virginia

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Frances Frazier talks about VISTA training and teaching in Portsmouth, Virginia

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Frances Frazier talks about her decision to enroll at Norfolk State College in Norfolk, Virginia

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Frances Frazier talks about mentors and her mother's reaction to her rebellious behavior

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Frances Frazier talks about social mores at Norfolk State College during the late 1960s and early 1970s

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Frances Frazier talks about black college basketball players during the late 1960s and early 1970s

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Frances Frazier talks about the special education program at Norfolk State College in Norfolk, Virginia

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Frances Frazier recalls the assassination of Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Frances Frazier talks about volunteering in Norfolk, Virginia's Ghent neighborhood while a student at Norfolk State College

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Frances Frazier talks about enrolling in a master's program at The Ohio State University in Columbus, Ohio

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Frances Frazier talks about Dr. Frank Hale and his efforts to increase diversity at The Ohio State University in Columbus, Ohio

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Frances Frazier talks about the transition from Norfolk State College to The Ohio State University in Columbus, Ohio

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Frances Frazier talks about applying theories in special education to her work with children with learning and behavioral disorders

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Frances Frazier talks about her decision not to complete her doctoral studies at The Ohio State University in Columbus, Ohio

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Frances Frazier talks about teaching boys with behavioral disorders at Buckeye Boys Ranch

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Frances Frazier recounts a spiritual experience she had after her husband's death

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Frances Frazier describes physical and psychological changes she felt after having a spiritual experience

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Frances Frazier talks about the origins of her women's group, A Quality of Sharing

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Frances Frazier talks about the inspiration for and the philosophy of her women's group, A Quality of Change

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Frances Frazier talks about reading women's literature and the early meetings of her women's group, A Quality of Sharing

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Slating of Frances Frazier's interview, session two

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Frances Frazier talks about the philosophy of her women's group, A Quality of Sharing

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Frances Frazier talks about community responses to her women's group, A Quality of Sharing

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Frances Frazier talks about working for the Ohio Association for Retarded Citizens

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Frances Frazier talks about the origins and development of Black Youth Week and Black Family Week in Columbus, Ohio

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Frances Frazier talks about Reverend Dr. Charles Booth and her Sunday morning radio show, Focus on the Family

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Frances Frazier talks about her Sunday morning radio show, Focus on the Family

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Frances Frazier talks about her working for the Child Assault Prevention Project

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Frances Frazier talks about the impact of Grace Williams and HistoryMaker Dorothy Height on the YWCA

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Frances Frazier explains her definition of womanism and how it informed the activities of her women's group, A Quality of Sharing

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Frances Frazier talks about African American women leaders of the 19th century

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - Frances Frazier talks about attending the Third World Conference on Women in Nairobi, Kenya in 1985

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - Frances Frazier describes her experience at the Third World Conference on Women in Nairobi, Kenya

Tape: 8 Story: 6 - Frances Frazier talks about organizing around women's health issues in Columbus, Ohio

Tape: 8 Story: 7 - Frances Frazier talks about attending a women's summit in Moscow, Soviet Union and working for the Ohio Department of Human Services

Tape: 9 Story: 1 - Frances Frazier talks about a spiritual calling that influenced her plans for the future

Tape: 9 Story: 2 - Frances Frazier explains the role of spiritual directors within the Catholic church

Tape: 9 Story: 3 - Frances Frazier talks about the end of her career at the Ohio Department of Human Services

Tape: 9 Story: 4 - Frances Frazier talks about the origins of the Women's Day of Prayer in Columbus, Ohio

Tape: 9 Story: 5 - Frances Frazier talks about Reverend Dr. Leon Troy and Second Baptist Church in Columbus, Ohio

Tape: 9 Story: 6 - Frances Frazier talks about her relationship with Reverend Dr. Leon Troy

Tape: 9 Story: 7 - Frances Frazier describes husbands' reactions to her women's empowerment activities

Tape: 9 Story: 8 - Frances Frazier recalls the incident that inspired her to organize a national women's conference

Tape: 10 Story: 1 - Frances Frazier explains her motivations for organizing the Conference for the Awakened Woman

Tape: 10 Story: 2 - Frances Frazier explains how the Women's Movement stifled the political empowerment of black women, pt. 1

Tape: 10 Story: 3 - Frances Frazier explains how the Women's Movement stifled the political empowerment of black women, pt. 2

Tape: 10 Story: 4 - Frances Frazier talks about the sabotage of the Conference for Awakened Women in the early 2000s

Tape: 10 Story: 5 - Frances Frazier talks about the relationship between the African American community and immigrant groups in Columbus, Ohio

Tape: 10 Story: 6 - Frances Frazier talks about the purpose of federal refugee funds

Tape: 10 Story: 7 - Frances Frazier talks about early experiences working with girls on issues of aggression and victimization

Tape: 11 Story: 1 - Frances Frazier talks about her various professional roles, including consultant and community organizer

Tape: 11 Story: 2 - Frances Frazier talks about the origins of the research study, Rise Sister Rise, pt. 1

Tape: 11 Story: 3 - Frances Frazier talks about the origins of the research study, Rise Sister Rise, pt. 2

Tape: 11 Story: 4 - Frances Frazier talks about the planning period for the research study, Rise Sister Rise

Tape: 11 Story: 5 - Frances Frazier talks about the Ohio cities selected for the research study, Rise Sister Rise

Tape: 11 Story: 6 - Frances Frazier details the findings of her research study, Rise Sister Rise, pt. 1

Tape: 11 Story: 7 - Frances Frazier details the findings of her research study, Rise Sister Rise, pt. 2

Tape: 12 Story: 1 - Frances Frazier talks about the Search Institute's 40 Developmental Assets for Adolescents

Tape: 12 Story: 2 - Frances Frazier talks about the participant selection process and survey criteria for the research study, Rise Sister Rise

Tape: 12 Story: 3 - Frances Frazier talks about partnerships and events organized in the wake of the Rise Sister Rise research study findings

Tape: 12 Story: 4 - Frances Frazier talks about her hopes for the research study, Rise Sister Rise

Tape: 12 Story: 5 - Frances Frazier talks about partner organizations and funding for the research study, Rise Sister Rise

Tape: 12 Story: 6 - Frances Frazier talks about her future plans for the research study, Rise Sister Rise

Tape: 12 Story: 7 - Frances Frazier talks about a future event she would like to organize

Tape: 12 Story: 8 - Frances Frazier talks about what she would have done differently in life

Tape: 12 Story: 9 - Frances Frazier reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 13 Story: 1 - Frances Frazier talks about women she has mentored

Tape: 13 Story: 2 - Frances Frazier reflects upon her life

Tape: 13 Story: 3 - Frances Frazier describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 13 Story: 4 - Frances Frazier narrates her photographs, pt. 1

Tape: 13 Story: 5 - Frances Frazier narrates her photographs, pt. 2

DASession

1$1

DATape

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DAStory

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DATitle
Frances Frazier recalls being threatened by Ku Klux Klan members while serving in the VISTA program in Portsmouth, Virginia
Frances Frazier talks about the inspiration for and the philosophy of her women's group, A Quality of Change
Transcript
Now, tell us that story now about the [Ku Klux] Klan [KKK] shooting at you. There's gotta be a whole story to that.$$It was. Well, they didn't necessarily want us in this community [Mount Hermon, Portsmouth, Virginia]. And we were at a--we were doing our shopping like at a Kroger, but it wasn't as sophisticated as a Kroger but, and a group of Klan members started walking around the--inside the parking lot.$$Now, how did you know they were Klan members?$$Because they were dressed in white.$$With the hoods?$$With the hoods.$$That's a good--$$It's a good way to know.$$Yes.$$So I just happened to look out there, and I said, "Marcia [ph.], look." So we both look out, and we see these guys walking around in the parking center. (Laughter) And we didn't take our groceries out of the shopping cart. We just paid and drove the shopping cart home. And we peed in our pants all the way home. We were scared to death. We pulled the blinds and the shades and stuff down, just really scared. So we called--I even remember this woman's name, but I won't call it. But she was with VISTA [Volunteers in Service to America, later, AmeriCorps VISTA]. She was like our VISTA contact. So we called her and said, "You know, the Klan's in our neighborhood and just need to know what to do." And we didn't get--I can't remember what she said, "Don't leave your community. Stay with your community." And so we're thinking, it might not be good to stay with our community because we had really gotten to know these people. And we felt that they could burn their houses down. You know, I knew they were coming to burn our house down. They could burn them or they could really harm the people. If they were looking for us, then it might be better if we left our neighborhood. So we--you know, when I think about it now, it's like, was this real? But anyway, we put scarves on our heads. We tried to disguise ourselves and you had, then, you had to take a ferry from Portsmouth [Virginia] to Norfolk [Virginia]. So that's what we did. And there were VISTAS in Norfolk, so we stayed with them. And the Feds caught a carload of these Klan members and they had Molotov cocktails. They had guns. They were really gonna try to kill us. So then this woman, who is our rep [representative], comes to Norfolk to see us. And like, she's like, "You should not have left your community. Stay in your community." And we're like, "We're nineteen years old now," you know? "We're doing the best we can. We're scared to death," and we didn't want our commun- we didn't want people in our community to--I mean they could've bombed, you could have blown our house down with a good wind. So we just didn't wanna jeopardize, jeopardize our community. So eventually we went back and opened up a little daycare center for our community. And I continued working with peanut farmers, and we had our graduation. But then I was ready to go to college then.$Now explain to us what the crisis was where this would be necessary.$$Well, it was after Vietnam [War]. A lot of our men who were in college or who might have been considerable desirable mates, most of them had been killed in the Vietnam War, or when they had come back, they were suffering terribly from posttraumatic stress syndrome, or were now on heavy drugs. And it was just--our community had been decimated by the Vietnam War. And life for African American women during this time was awful. And Haki's [HM Haki Madhubuti] theory was that women are the light of the world and if women were not healthy mentally, emotionally, physically and spiritually that neither would communities and neither would children, and eventually it would be our destruction. And he felt that our men, who were healthy, who were able-bodied, who were whole needed to step up and be those second husbands. Well, and June Jordan had subsequently had written about this as well. I read the article. I read the book. And I was kind of fixated on the article and I said to myself, "This won't happen." But I knew it was happening, and it was happening more than we knew in many places. And I think certainly man-sharing was happening even if it wasn't approved. But if I looked at it as a, as a potential possibility that might help our community, I wasn't sure it would be sanctioned by our community. Maybe a great idea, but not wholeheartedly approved of because I knew women would have a rough time with that, especially if you had a really great man who now felt that he should help two or three of the other women in the neighborhood with their children or with anything that a man might be needed for to help stabilize a family. So what I thought about was if women could learn how to really be friends with each other, actually learn how to love each other and care for each other, and create real sisterhood, that maybe that might help in stabilizing our communities and so A Quality of Sharing was our attempt at helping black women to learn how to love themselves, so that they would be comfortable enough to learn how to really create friendship and bonds of sisterhood with other women to get work done, to literally become change agents right in our own communities, so that became my work.

Adrienne Bailey

Educational consultant Adrienne Yvonne Bailey was born on November 24, 1944 in Chicago, Illinois to Julia Spalding Bailey and Leroy Bailey. Bailey received her B.A. degree from Mundelein College in 1966 and her M.A. degree in education from Wayne State University in 1969. Bailey received her Ph.D. from Northwestern University in 1973.

In Chicago, Bailey taught social studies, English, French and mathematics at Deneen Elementary School and was the neighborhood youth corps supervisor at the South Shore YMCA and the program coordinator for the Circle Maxwell YMCA in the late 1960s. Bailey then worked as the education coordinator at the Government Office of Human Resources from 1969 to 1971 and as the university coordinator of the Northwestern Community Education Project at Northwestern University from 1972 to 1973. In 1973, Bailey was appointed to a six-year term on the State Board of Education, and from 1973 to 1981, Bailey was a senior staff associate at Chicago Community Trust. She has also served as vice president of the National Association of State Boards of Education. Bailey was the Vice President of Academic Affairs for the College Board of New York in 1981 and on the Education and Career Development Advisory Committee of the Urban League in 1982. Bailey then served on the Government Educational Advancement Committee from 1983 through 1987, while also serving on the National Committee on Secondary Schooling for Hispanics from 1983 to 1985.

Bailey is currently serving as an ExEL (Executive Leadership Program for Urban Education) at Harvard University.

Bailey was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on November 4, 2008.

Accession Number

A2008.121

Sex

Female

Interview Date

11/4/2008

Last Name

Bailey

Maker Category
Schools

Holy Cross Elementary School

St Dorothy Elementary School

Mercy High School

Northwestern University

Central State University

Wayne State University

Mundelein College

First Name

Adrienne

Birth City, State, Country

Chicago

HM ID

BAI07

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Illinois

Favorite Vacation Destination

South Africa

Favorite Quote

It Is What You Get To Know, That's Where It Is At.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Illinois

Birth Date

11/24/1944

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Chicago

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Fish

Short Description

Education consultant Adrienne Bailey (1944 - ) dedicated her career to education, served as a teacher, education coordinator at the Government Office of Human Resources, and as the university coordinator of the Northwestern Community Education Project. Bailey also served a six-year appointment on State Board of Education, and served on the Government Educational Advancement Committee.

Employment

South Shore YMCA

Circle Maxwell YMCA

Detroit Board of Education

Illinois Board of Education

Governor's Office of Human Resources

The Chicago Community Trust

The College Board

Board of Education of the City of Chicago

Stupski Foundation

Strategic Philanthropy, Ltd.

Harvard University Graduate School of Education

Chicago Public Schools

Favorite Color

Purple

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Adrienne Bailey's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Adrienne Bailey lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Adrienne Bailey describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Adrienne Bailey describes her maternal grandparents

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Adrienne Bailey describes her mother's childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Adrienne Bailey describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Adrienne Bailey describes her father's education and career

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Adrienne Bailey describes her parents' personalities

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Adrienne Bailey describes her earliest childhood memories

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Adrienne Bailey recalls the neighborhood of Woodlawn in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Adrienne Bailey recalls her move to Park Manor in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Adrienne Bailey describes the sights, sounds and smells of her childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Adrienne Bailey recalls her early education

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Adrienne Bailey remembers Mercy High School in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Adrienne Bailey recalls entertainment of her youth

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Adrienne Bailey remembers her summers in Columbus, Ohio

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Adrienne Bailey remembers Sister Mary Leonette

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Adrienne Bailey remembers studying the French language

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Adrienne Bailey recalls studying abroad in France, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Adrienne Bailey recalls studying abroad in France, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Adrienne Bailey describes her first teaching position

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Adrienne Bailey reflects upon her travels in France

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Adrienne Bailey recalls her work at the Circle Maxwell YMCA in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Adrienne Bailey describes her involvement in the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Adrienne Bailey talks about the West Side and South Side of Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Adrienne Bailey remembers the riots after Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr.'s assassination

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Adrienne Bailey remembers Wayne State University in Detroit, Michigan

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Adrienne Bailey describes her experiences in Detroit, Michigan

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Adrienne Bailey recalls her Ph.D. program at Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Adrienne Bailey describes her experiences at Northwestern University

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Adrienne Bailey remembers being hired at the Chicago Community Trust

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Adrienne Bailey recalls her appointment to the Illinois State Board of Education

Tape: 3 Story: 12 - Adrienne Bailey remembers leading a delegation to Japan

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Adrienne Bailey recalls her presidency of the National Association of State Boards of Education

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Adrienne Bailey talks about the national standards of education

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Adrienne Bailey recalls her trip to China

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Adrienne Bailey describes her multicultural education policy

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Adrienne Bailey recalls her position at the College Board

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Adrienne Bailey reflects upon her achievements at the College Board

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Adrienne Bailey describes her involvement on education advisory boards

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Adrienne Bailey recalls her appointment as Chicago Public Schools deputy superintendent

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Adrienne Bailey talks about the Chicago School Reform Act of 1988

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Adrienne Bailey describes her work as an education consultant

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - Adrienne Bailey describes her education initiatives in Mississippi, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 12 - Adrienne Bailey describes her education initiatives in Mississippi, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Adrienne Bailey describes her work with the U.S. Department of Education

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Adrienne Bailey recalls her work for the United States Agency for International Development

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Adrienne Bailey describes her work for the Harvard University Graduate School of Education

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Adrienne Bailey talks about notable activists in education

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Adrienne Bailey describes her plans for the future

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Adrienne Bailey describes her hopes and concerns for education in the African American community

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Adrienne Bailey talks about the challenges in public education

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Adrienne Bailey talks about the future of public education in the African American community

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Adrienne Bailey describes her philosophy of education

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Adrienne Bailey reflects upon her life

Tape: 5 Story: 11 - Adrienne Bailey reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 12 - Adrienne Bailey talks about her family

Tape: 5 Story: 13 - Adrienne Bailey describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 5 Story: 14 - Adrienne Bailey narrates her photographs

DASession

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DATape

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DAStory

11$11

DATitle
Adrienne Bailey recalls her appointment to the Illinois State Board of Education
Adrienne Bailey describes her education initiatives in Mississippi, pt. 1
Transcript
The other thing that came to me during that time is that we were moving away from, in Illinois from an elected constitutional officer and state superintendent. There had been a constitutional convention, none of like what's on the ballet today, to get away from that elected position and there was, at that time, Governor Dan Walker was creating the first appointed Illinois State Board of Education. It's interesting enough because it was the private sector and the legislation assigned the state board responsibilities over both public and private education. So, unbeknownst to me there was a group that had promoted my name, primarily because of my experience in private education, as a representative they wanted to advance to the government for appointment. Now part of the appointment criteria is you cannot be, you see, an employed educator, so you can't work for a school system, so I had a unique background in that I was trained as an educator, had a strong educational set of experiences, but I was, I fit the criteria so I was appointed then as one of, let's see, two or three African Americans to the first appointed Illinois Board of Education in about 1973 or 1974. I served on that board for eight years, leaving it in 1980 as its vice president. During that time my career also jettisoned. I would say that was probably the time that I was just on the move, thanks to many great advocates and supporters of me, but my career just kind of took off. I then became the president of the National Association of State Boards of Education, and became well acquainted, therefore, with state board members and chief state school officers in all fifty states and at the same time I was invited by the governor to be a commissioner, a member of the Education Commission of the States, which involves the fifty states but in each state it involves the governor, the heads of the two legislative parties, usually someone from the state board and someone from the state education leader side.$$Let us go back and get some dates. I don't want to mess up here.$$Okay.$$So you were appointed to the Illinois State Board of Education?$$Right, and probably in about 1973 or 1974.$$Seventy-four [1974], okay. And then you became president of the national state board of education.$$Probably about '78 [1978] or '79 [1979], because I'm just back from the fiftieth year anniversary of that organization in Washington [D.C.] two weeks ago.$I worked in Mississippi for a period of two or three years around the grassroots community initiative for, you know, focusing on academic rigor and training parents about you know, about what it meant to be able to look at quality and, as I recall, that was just so touching because we actually trained people who had never spoken in front of groups. They developed you know, preparations and note cards and they would begin their opening about, so we had decided that because we are doing this as a collaboration between this community organization [Mississippi Action for Community Education, Inc., Greenville, Mississippi] and parents and the state education department, that we didn't want the participants to listen to a group of talking heads about the state. Education people couldn't get up first, and so it was parents getting up to greet people in which they, opening comments were, "I want to tell you why quality education is important for your children in Mississippi," and they would use examples that were in their own life about how you judge quality, what is going to a grocery store, and had come to understand, therefore, about how having discernment around quality in their own children's education was an important attribute that they needed to acquire, so we did that in probably about twenty-two communities in preparation for Mississippi's subsequent accountability law, which was going to put pretty strict constraints on testing and eventually graduation requirements. So, I can remember that even though that was several years ago, that adage to the parents was don't worry, that's not going to catch up with you right now but guess what? Today, Mississippi has graduation tests that you must pass, so the whole ideal to parents was that you don't start at the ninth or the tenth grade to figure out that you've got to get over this hurdle, that it really begins back in your early elementary and middle school, to know whether or not there is this high quality instruction in the teaching and the learning that your student is getting, but not only from letting the schools define it for you, but you being able to capture this in terms of your own understanding of the kind of education your child is receiving.

Joyce Moore Gray

Educational specialist Joyce Moore Gray was born in Portsmouth, Virginia, in 1943. As a child, Gray played the clarinet and was encouraged by her mother and music instructor to become a teacher. She attended Southwestern Elementary School and graduated from Crestwood High School in 1961. Gray received a scholarship to attend Virginia State University where she graduated with her B.S. degree in music. She went on to earn her M.A. degree in education from the University of Nevada, Las Vegas.

After graduating from college, Gray began her career as a music teacher in Clark County School District, Las Vegas, Nevada. In 1981, she moved to Salt Lake City, Utah, where for one year she taught instrumental music at West Lake Junior High School, Granite School District. The following year, Gray was appointed to serve as that district’s Multicultural Programs Coordinator. While serving in that capacity, she also filled the position as Assistant Principal at Central Junior High School.

In 1984, Gray broke the color barrier in educational administration by becoming the first African American principal in the State of Utah. She was selected to be the Principal of Arcadia Elementary School in the Granite School District, Taylorsville, Utah. After six years, Gray continued to defy the odds when she was appointed Principal of Granite School District’s Roosevelt Elementary School. During her second year at that school, she was approached by an Assistant Superintendent in Salt Lake City School District and requested to apply to be principal of an intermediate school. In 1992, Gray became Principal of Bryant Intermediate School, Salt Lake City School District, Salt Lake City, Utah. Bryant Intermediate School became one of the nation’s top schools and was recognized as a National Blue Ribbon School of Excellence. Gray and her school team were invited to the White House to receive this award. During their Washington, D.C. visit, they met President and Mrs. Bill Clinton.

In 1995, Gray’s ambition led her to enroll in a doctorate program in Educational Leadership and Policy at the University of Utah. She continued to pursue professional goals and applied for a high school principalship. Another moment in history occurred in 1996 when Gray was selected to be principal of West High School, Salt Lake City School District. Thus, Gray became the first African American high school principal in the State of Utah. Gray’s outstanding leadership skills led her to become Utah Principal of the Year in 1999.

Gray earned her doctorate in education from the University of Utah in 2001. She went on to become Director for Career and Technical Education in Salt Lake City School District for two years prior to her retirement in 2005. Gray is now an Educational Consultant and Founder and President of her own company, Jam G Consulting, Inc.

Gray has earned numerous awards during her professional journey. These include: the NAACP Rosa Parks Award, UASCD Educator of The Year, NCCJ Community Award, YWCA Outstanding Achievement Award in Education and the UWEAA President’s Award. Her work in the Utah community included: Board member of the United Way of the Greater Salt Lake Area; YWCA Board member; Chair, Utah Governor’s Black Advisory Council; Board of Lay Editors for Salt Lake Tribune’s “Common Carrier” column; Minister of Music and Director at New Pilgrim Baptist Church; Youth Director, NPBC; Chartering President for the Utah Alliance of Black School Educators. Gray is also a chartering member of Upsilon Beta Omega Chapter of Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Inc. She currently serves as that chapter’s President.

Gray and her husband, Lloyd, reside in Murray, Utah. They have three children and eight grand children

Accession Number

A2008.046

Sex

Female

Interview Date

3/13/2008

Last Name

Gray

Maker Category
Middle Name

Moore

Schools

Crestwood High School

Southwestern Elementary School

Virginia State University

Chestnut Street School

University of Nevada, Las Vegas

University of Utah

First Name

Joyce

Birth City, State, Country

Portsmouth

HM ID

GRA09

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Virginia

Favorite Vacation Destination

San Diego, California

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Utah

Birth Date

8/3/1943

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Salt Lake City

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Seafood

Short Description

Education consultant and principal Joyce Moore Gray (1943 - ) was the first African American principal in the history of the State of Utah. She was also founder and president of her own educational consulting company, Jam G Consulting, Inc.

Employment

Clark County School District

Granite School District

Arcadia Elementary School

Simmons Associates - The Education Company

Jam G Consulting, Inc.

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Joyce Moore Gray's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Joyce Moore Gray lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Joyce Moore Gray describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Joyce Moore Gray talks about her mother's childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Joyce Moore Gray describes her mother's education and career

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Joyce Moore Gray describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Joyce Moore Gray describes her parents' emphasis on education

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Joyce Moore Gray describes how her parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Joyce Moore Gray describes her likeness to her mother

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Joyce Moore Gray talks about her father's service in the U.S. Navy

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Joyce Moore Gray describes her earliest childhood memories

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Joyce Moore Gray remembers segregation in Portsmouth, Virginia

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Joyce Moore Gray describes the sights, sounds and smells of her childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Joyce Moore Gray describes her family's house in Portsmouth, Virginia

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Joyce Moore Gray remembers her first trip to Washington, D.C.

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Joyce Moore Gray describes Victory Manor in Portsmouth, Virginia

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Joyce Moore Gray describes her early educational experiences

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Joyce Moore Gray talks about her early interest in music

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Joyce Moore Gray lists her elementary and high schools

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Joyce Moore Gray recalls her activities at Crestwood High School in Chesapeake, Virginia

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Joyce Moore Gray talks about the segregated school system in Chesapeake, Virginia

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Joyce Moore Gray narrates her photographs, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Joyce Moore Gray remembers the music of her youth

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Joyce Moore Gray remembers the segregated movie theater in Portsmouth, Virginia

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Joyce Moore Gray describes her early religious experiences

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Joyce Moore Gray remembers her early aspirations

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Joyce Moore Gray describes her first year at Virginia State College in Petersburg, Virginia

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Joyce Moore Gray remembers F. Nathaniel Gatlin

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Joyce Moore Gray describes her activities at Virginia State College

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Joyce Moore Gray talks about her experiences of racial discrimination

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Joyce Moore Gray remembers the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Joyce Moore Gray remembers learning to play brass, string and percussion instruments

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Joyce Moore Gray recalls being hired at Jo Mackey Elementary School in North Las Vegas, Nevada

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Joyce Moore Gray describes her teaching experiences in Las Vegas, Nevada

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Joyce Moore Gray remembers the music scene in Las Vegas, Nevada

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Joyce Moore Gray describes her experiences at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Joyce Moore Gray remembers her courtship with her husband

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Joyce Moore Gray describes her early teaching career

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Joyce Moore Gray recalls her work for the Granite School District

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Joyce Moore Gray describes her early experiences as an elementary school principal

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Joyce Moore Gray describes the challenges she faced at Arcadia Elementary School in Salt Lake City, Utah

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Joyce Moore Gray narrates her photographs, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Joyce Moore Gray recalls becoming the principal of Roosevelt Elementary School in Salt Lake City, Utah

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Joyce Moore Gray describes her work at Bryant Intermediate School in Salt Lake City, Utah

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Joyce Moore Gray describes the National Blue Ribbon Schools Program

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Joyce Moore Gray recalls becoming the principal of West High School in Salt Lake City, Utah

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Joyce Moore Gray describes her start as the principal of West High School

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Joyce Moore Gray remembers developing the I CARE program

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Joyce Moore Gray describes the demographics of West High School's student body

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Joyce Moore Gray talks about her Ed.D. degree program

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Joyce Moore Gray describes the academic programs at West High School in Salt Lake City, Utah, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Joyce Moore Gray describes the academic programs at West High School in Salt Lake City, Utah, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Joyce Moore Gray describes her work as a educational consultant

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Joyce Moore Gray describes her awards and honors

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Joyce Moore Gray talks about her organizational involvement

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Joyce Moore Gray describes her involvement with the Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Joyce Moore Gray talks about diversity in the State of Utah

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Joyce Moore Gray describes her philosophy of education

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Joyce Moore Gray describes her concerns for the African American community

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Joyce Moore Gray reflects upon her life

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - Joyce Moore Gray reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 6 Story: 11 - Joyce Moore Gray talks about her family

Tape: 6 Story: 12 - Joyce Moore Gray describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 6 Story: 13 - Joyce Moore Gray narrates her photographs, pt. 3

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$4

DAStory

7$8

DATitle
Joyce Moore Gray describes her early experiences as an elementary school principal
Joyce Moore Gray describes the challenges she faced at Arcadia Elementary School in Salt Lake City, Utah
Transcript
Now here's where the story starts.$$(Laughter) Okay.$$(Laughter).$$Go ahead (laughter).$$Well, in this situation, now that I'm the person that's in charge of the school [Arcadia Elementary School, Salt Lake City, Utah], it's a little bit different than being a teacher. So, I mean, the race--racists began to surface in the community and at the school, from the teachers, from the students, and from the parents. And it was, it was difficult that first year because, first of all, parents were looking at me and saying, "Is she qualified to be at the school? Does she really have the credentials? We want to see her creden- ." They actually said this to my assistant superintendent: "We want to see her credentials." And then, there were a group of parents that were very, very racist. Some of them pulled their kids out of the school, went to other schools, but yet they still had--they were noisy enough to create havoc in the school that I was in. There were students that actually called me a nigger. There were parents that actually called me nigger. And it was, it was not a happy time. I was at that school for six years, and it probably took three good years to really, you know, get myself situated in that school.$$How did you handle, you know, that, the name calling and that sort of thing?$$I think I handled it--I had a, I had a secretary, a white lady was my secretary, but very supportive of me and she was always there for me. I had, I had people at my church [New Pilgrim Baptist Church, Salt Lake City, Utah], and I had Lloyd [Gray's husband, Lloyd Gray] that I would talk to. The way I handled it, I knew that I had to do a good job, and I knew I had to always do what was best for the children. And so, what I would do is I would put my focus on doing what was best for the kids. Because parents wanted to come after me, and say that I wasn't doing what was best for the kids, you know, that I was misusing funds, that I was assigning students to the wrong teachers or just--. But I knew, and so I just kept focusing on what I knew was right. But the other--I think the strongest thing that came out that my first or second year, was the fact that it was, this was a small group, the racist group, the people that were basically trying to get me out of the school. They, they had gone to the school board and everything, but there was a silent majority out there that really supported what I was doing. And what they did was they came together, and they put together a manual of support letters that were given to the board of education saying that they wanted me in the school and that, you know, they didn't represent the minority; they represented the large majority. And that was probably my salvation in terms of--. And it turned out to be a good situation. I mean, by my third, my, my fourth, fifth, and sixth year, I didn't want to move. The parents didn't want me out. The teachers that were still there with me didn't want me gone, and the students loved me, so I didn't want to go. But in that district [Granite School District] at that time, they make changes every six to eight years. And my sixth year was up, so the school board made--put me in another assignment at another school. But, yeah, that was, that was a pretty rough time.$I was wondering if you had any preparation for that kind of thing. Did you anticipate it at all, or did anybody try to warn you about what might happen or?$$Nope, nope, there was no warning. It just came full force. There was no preparation and I don't even know if they, if anyone knew how to prepare, prepare the community for a black woman coming in to be principal of their school, or prepare the school [Arcadia Elementary School, Salt Lake City, Utah]. Now what, what the people at the school and what the people at, in the community wanted to do, they wanted me to change who I was in order to be their principal. And changing who I was meant giving parents what they wanted, each parent, giving teachers what they wanted, whether they were right or wrong, buying into that system. I had, I had one person to say to me--because I, you know, I didn't get angry with them. I didn't curse anyone out. I just did my job, and I did it well, and I did my homework, and I was very firm in what I believed. And I had one person to say to me one time, "You're such a good person, you should be a Mormon." So, I said, "Are you saying that only Mormons, or people that are LDS [The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints] can be good people?" "Well, I really didn't mean that way." I said, "Well, that's how it came off." I'm not Mormon. I'm Baptist, you know, and I'm a person. I'm who I am, and I can't change that. The assistant superintendent said to me one time, "What can I do to help you?" I said, "Well, you've got to support who I am, and what I'm doing." And I said, "You can't change me. I'm a black woman, an African American woman; you can't change that. It's what it is, it's who I am. And you have to, you know, you have to respect that. That's the only thing you can do to help me. Support the work that I do, you know, don't let my race or my gender interfere with what I'm doing professionally."

Floretta Dukes McKenzie

Floretta McKenzie has a distinguished record of more than forty years of service to education as both a school administrator and educational consultant. Born in Lakeland, Florida, on August 19, 1935, she went on to earn her B.A. degree from D.C. Teachers College in 1956 and her M.Ed. degree from Howard University in 1957 before beginning her career as a teacher in Maryland. McKenzie later rose through the Washington, D.C., school system and became deputy superintendent in 1973. In 1974, she returned to Maryland and was hired as area assistant superintendent for Montgomery County Public Schools. McKenzie worked for the U.S. Department of Education as a deputy assistant secretary in the Office of School Improvement, managing fifteen federal education discretionary programs and initiatives. She also served as the U.S. delegate to the UNESCO General Conference in Yugoslavia.

In 1981, McKenzie returned to D.C. Public Schools as the superintendent of schools and chief state school officer. In this capacity, she oversaw the country's twenty-first-largest school system, managing 89,000 students, 13,000 employees and a $400 million budget. Under her leadership, the district established several public and private partnerships to improve instructional programs and district management. McKenzie also oversaw the implementation of the Five-Year Computer Literacy Plan, one of the country's first long-range programs for integrating technology into the public school curriculum.

McKenzie left her position in 1988 to form her own company, The McKenzie Group, an educational consulting firm. She served as its first president until 1997, when she became the company's chairperson. The McKenzie Group specializes in educational management and planning.

McKenzie served on several boards of directors, including the National Geographic Society, Marriott International, the White House Historical Association, Howard University and the Johns Hopkins Leadership Development Program. She also lectured in the American University's Graduate School of Education.

Floretta McKenzie passed away on March 23, 2015 at the age of 79.

Accession Number

A2003.253

Sex

Female

Interview Date

9/12/2003

Last Name

McKenzie

Maker Category
Middle Name

Dukes

Organizations
Schools

Paul Laurence Dunbar High School

University of the District of Columbia

Howard University

First Name

Floretta

Birth City, State, Country

Lakeland

HM ID

MCK04

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Florida

Favorite Vacation Destination

Solomons Island, Maryland

Favorite Quote

I'm Doing The Best I Can.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

8/19/1935

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Chicken

Death Date

3/23/2015

Short Description

School superintendent and education consultant Floretta Dukes McKenzie (1935 - 2015 ) oversaw Public Schools of the District of Columbia from 1981 to 1988 before founding The McKenzie Group, an educational consulting firm.

Employment

District of Columbia Public Schools

Montgomery County Public Schools

United States Department of Education

McKenzie Group

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:7196,136:15918,261:16630,271:21310,286:21630,291:22590,307:24190,337:27230,387:28430,418:35335,473:35860,482:36985,503:37285,508:37960,520:38410,527:41560,574:42235,584:45978,604:55022,745:55706,755:68937,872:74772,910:75546,921:76750,938:78470,961:80104,980:82670,993:96062,1187:101946,1248:106576,1306:108016,1328:109600,1361:110248,1379:110680,1386:112768,1418:113200,1425:123881,1498:124379,1505:124877,1513:125707,1527:130272,1613:150210,1833:152010,1864:152460,1871:153210,1886:158954,1936:159486,1944:163818,2014:164122,2019:167466,2061:169062,2067:173929,2103:174370,2112:175693,2134:175945,2139:180630,2203:189677,2316:193582,2378:194008,2385:196351,2436:198623,2461:199333,2472:205012,2542:205328,2547:207224,2585:207935,2596:208488,2604:209673,2629:239390,2953:239901,2961:269986,3240:276528,3298:277649,3337:283158,3414:284890,3445$0,0:2646,38:4318,70:6166,103:7310,126:7838,133:10038,170:18090,230:19062,242:21168,274:24894,336:27891,377:28620,388:32674,407:37750,484:38972,509:39818,519:40288,525:42826,561:50446,631:50730,636:51227,644:53144,673:54848,706:66412,810:82210,959:85728,979:86096,984:86648,991:97540,1131:100465,1182:101050,1195:117085,1341:117835,1353:118360,1361:126032,1451:135730,1560:141765,1666:142360,1674:147624,1709:158082,1853:168186,1952:172320,2028:172866,2036:183049,2131:185257,2166:186775,2198:187051,2203:187327,2208:187879,2218:193452,2264:206250,2381:213740,2454
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Floretta Dukes McKenzie's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Floretta Dukes McKenzie lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Floretta Dukes McKenzie names her parents

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Floretta Dukes McKenzie describes her mother's family background and how her parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Floretta Dukes McKenzie describes her maternal grandfather's value for education

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Floretta Dukes McKenzie talks about her family's relationship with Mary McLeod Bethune

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Floretta Dukes McKenzie describes the sights, sounds, and smells of her childhood in Lakeland, Florida

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Floretta Dukes McKenzie talks about her paternal grandparents' medical practice

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Floretta Dukes McKenzie describes her father's personality

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Floretta Dukes McKenzie describes her experience at Washington Park Elementary School

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Floretta Dukes McKenzie talks about her childhood interests in geography and social science

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Floretta Dukes McKenzie talks about playing trombone in the Washington Park High School marching band

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Floretta Dukes McKenzie talks about her childhood involvement in the church

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Floretta Dukes McKenzie describes her father's relationship with Mary McLeod Bethune

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Floretta Dukes McKenzie describes moving from Lakeland, Florida to Washington D.C. in her senior year of high school

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Floretta Dukes McKenzie describes the sociopolitical climate of America in 1952 Washington D.C.

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Floretta Dukes McKenzie describes her decision to attend the District of Columbia Teachers College

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Floretta Dukes McKenzie describes earning a graduate fellowship at Howard University in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Floretta Dukes McKenzie describes her graduate school experience at Howard University, in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Floretta Dukes McKenzie lists notable professors at Howard University in 1956

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Floretta Dukes McKenzie talks about visiting the Howard Theatre in the 1950s

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Floretta Dukes McKenzie talks about Howard University's role in the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Floretta Dukes McKenzie talks about teaching in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Floretta Dukes McKenzie describes the issues she observed as a teacher and administrator in the Washington, D.C. public school system

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Floretta Dukes McKenzie talks about civil rights activity in 1963 Washington D.C.

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Floretta Dukes McKenzie talks about Washington, D.C.'s role in civil rights organizing during the 1960s

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Floretta Dukes McKenzie describes her career in public school administration, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Floretta Dukes McKenzie describes her career in public school administration, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Floretta Dukes McKenzie talks about leaving the public school system to start an education consulting firm

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Floretta Dukes McKenzie considers what changes could help improve urban school districts

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Floretta Dukes McKenzie remembers lessons as an administrator in an urban school district

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Floretta Dukes McKenzie reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Floretta Dukes McKenzie talks about her hopes and concerns for the black community

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Floretta Dukes McKenzie describes how she would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$3

DAStory

2$4

DATitle
Floretta Dukes McKenzie describes her career in public school administration, pt. 1
Floretta Dukes McKenzie talks about leaving the public school system to start an education consulting firm
Transcript
Well tell, tell me about your career as a school administrator. Now you, you went back to school at a certain point.$$Well--$$Well you started administrating before you--$$Yeah, yeah I was teaching and heard about TRIO Program looking for a director and I was already a counselor at a high school, getting kids into college and getting financial aid, so I did that for a while. Then I decided that maybe after about three years of that, my place--I could better serve by being in school systems, so I came back to the school system, applied for a job as a, an exec in the secondary school office. Had never been a principal, but got the job supervising principals. Stayed in that for maybe a year, turned over to superintendent, I became an Executive Assistant to the new superintendent who was Hugh Scott from Detroit [Michigan]. And Hugh had a, a kind of--it was a rocky time with the board and, and he decided to make me a deputy superintendent. I was about thirty-three then. And I accepted. Then Hugh decided that he was tired of the battles with the board and accepted a position at Hunter College [New York City, New York], and recommended me to be acting superintendent, about thirty-three, thirty-four. And I accepted and I was a ninety day wonder. I managed the school district, opened schools and all. And they were doing a superintendent search. And [HM] Marion Barry had--was president of the school board. So Marion said, "Flo, why don't you compete for superintendent? You're doing a good job." I said you guys will eat me up and spit me out in the little time. I said I don't have enough experience, you know, I didn't have enough grounding. I didn't think I was ready, so I refused to be considered. And then Barbara Sizemore was selected, and I became her deputy superintendent because I knew the system and generally could get things done. And one thing, an op--I was an operations type. You know getting things done, getting books and you know people, and so I still didn't feel that I had enough experience to be at the level that I'd managed to, to get to. So folks in Montgomery County had been talking to me about coming over there. And so they were--every position they would have, they'd call and say you interested in this? And finally they offered me a, a regional superintendent's job, assistant superintendent. So I took my career from a deputy superintendent, number two, to about number three job over in Montgomery County [Maryland] 'cause I did hear that one of the board members had said that you--that we wouldn't have these positions, African Americans, if we weren't working in a blue, a black system. So I said I don't believe that's true; I think I'm pretty good. And if I'm--you know I've got to go and test it. And if I'm not good, you know, I'm just not good. But I need to go and find out if I am. So I accepted the job in Montgomery County. And served very successfully running schools there. So much so until it was a superintendent of Philly [Philadelphia, Pennsylvania]--his name--Hornbeck, invited me to the state to be the number three person at the Maryland State Department of Ed. [education]. So I did that. But then I looked outside and I said I have no constituency at the state, and you use to knowing who you work for and the folks, if they didn't like what you're doing, they let you know. But I didn't have a, you know it didn't have that kind of thing.$So the system was doing well. People said well why are you going? I said some of the problems that I thought I'd solved are coming back. And I think you need somebody fresh to try to make a go at it. And then a major law firm here had an educational litigation section, said, "Flo if you want to run your own consulting firm, we'll back you with it and you can support our efforts in litigation." So I said hey, 'bout time I try running something, a business on my own because I always thought--you know educators think that they can only teach or only do education type stuff. But I think skills are transferrable. And I'd been working with the private sector on a couple of corporate boards, so I said I'll try that. And so I decided in '88 [1988] that I would set up the consulting firm and the law firm supported, funded, you know funded it. And I of course had part ownership. And so we were doing good. But the American Bar Association [ABA] said law firms, you guys cannot have consulting firms, it's not ethical. And they had made me a partner in the law firm. And so they said you gotta, you know, get rid of this consulting firm. So I said well fine. So we worked out a separation agreement that really worked in my favor. And that I was in their very plush quarters, so I moved down here and we've been here and I think we do quality work. We do a lot of what we want to do in education. Sometimes we don't make any money because we take some of those projects that--where they think you're, you know, you do charity work, but hey that's, that's the way we are. So while we've--don't make a lot of money, we've managed to stay open for sixteen years and it's still very exciting work. It's very different. No project is the same; we work for EPA, the Environmental Protection Agency, helping them with curriculum on--for skin cancer. We work with organ donors to try to get people who treat--teach driver's ed., to get kids to sign or people to sign their organs over. We work for the National Science Foundation in trying to improve achievement in math and science. So it's just a wide range of things. One time we were training superintendents, trying to make sure that women and minorities got more leadership. So it's been quite a, a, an opportunity for a little girl from Florida started out very, very poor. I'm not affluent now, but to really get some wonderful experiences and work with some exciting people.

Sandra Johnson

A versatile scholar, educator and administrator, Sandra Ford Johnson has been a proactive advocate for children with special needs. Born in Chicago in 1938, Johnson was one of the first African Americans selected to attend the University of Chicago's prestigious Laboratory School.

At the age of fifteen, Johnson enrolled at the University of Chicago, where she earned a B.A. in 1958. After graduation, Johnson moved to Los Angeles, where she taught in Hollywood and Studio City. Seeking new challenges, she moved to Heidelberg, Germany, in 1967 as part of the Department of Defense's Overseas Dependent Schools program. Johnson later earned her M.Ed. from the University of Southern California and in 1976 received her Ph.D. in educational administration from the University of Kansas, specializing in improving communication and networking in the public school system.

Johnson put her knowledge and experience to excellent use as assistant superintendent of the Washington, D.C. school system. As an administrator, she implemented programs in social work, school psychology, health, counseling, guidance and attendance for 140,000 students. Additionally, she created and produced Positive Plus, a cable TV program that featured school success stories. Johnson ultimately was promoted to state director for special education, with oversight of all policies and programs for students with disabilities in the District of Columbia.

In 1997, Johnson formed her own consulting company, SE3, providing services to both government and business. She has consulted and advised Native American tribes; performed research in Kenya for the U.S. Agency for International Development; and worked as a legislative liaison and public policy advocate for the National Association of Pupil Services Administrators. Her well-respected work also earned her an assignment in the office of New York Senator Hillary Rodham Clinton. Johnson lives in Washington, D.C., with her husband, Harry Johnson.

Accession Number

A2003.229

Sex

Female

Interview Date

9/17/2003

Last Name

Johnson

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Ford

Schools

University of Chicago Laboratory Schools

University of Chicago

University of Southern California

University of Kansas

First Name

Sandra

Birth City, State, Country

Chicago

HM ID

JOH15

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Illinois

Favorite Vacation Destination

Caribbean

Favorite Quote

Do Unto Others As You Would Have Them Do Unto You.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

1/7/1938

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Spaghetti, Ice Cream

Death Date

8/23/2010

Short Description

Education consultant and special education administrator Sandra Johnson (1938 - 2010 ) is the former director of special education for the Washington D.C. public schools and is the owner of an educational consulting firm.

Employment

United States Department of Defense

University of Kansas

District of Columbia Public Schools

SE3

Favorite Color

Yellow

Timing Pairs
0,0:2152,20:5596,78:11460,129:13062,138:13596,145:15376,185:15821,191:21930,257:22530,266:23055,274:23655,285:24555,302:25905,333:26205,338:28005,370:29280,391:30255,414:30630,420:31005,426:31530,434:31830,439:32355,453:32655,458:33180,466:34605,491:35205,505:35805,519:36330,532:36780,539:47395,616:49010,637:49485,643:54170,679:60030,732:62541,783:66858,819:67781,837:68562,851:69627,874:70905,900:71189,905:73035,941:73390,957:75023,991:75307,996:77863,1055:78573,1066:79425,1083:79709,1088:80064,1094:86250,1155:86530,1160:87980,1171$0,0:679,8:1940,19:3007,33:3589,39:6402,70:6984,79:7857,87:8342,93:8924,100:19725,195:22958,210:23522,217:24180,233:24744,239:25214,245:28990,274:30052,285:33356,329:34300,343:34772,348:37645,367:38113,372:39283,383:43185,420:45660,461:45960,466:46260,471:46635,477:50812,504:60081,601:62214,631:62688,638:63083,644:64426,667:64742,720:66480,759:66954,765:71615,836:71931,841:72563,851:75802,917:83374,954:85449,996:86030,1004:86943,1019:88271,1043:88852,1053:89184,1058:89682,1065:92753,1121:99124,1172:99682,1182:99992,1188:100426,1196:100860,1206:101356,1218:101666,1224:101976,1233:102348,1240:103650,1273:104084,1281:104642,1293:105138,1305:105572,1314:105882,1320:106130,1325:109380,1336:110850,1372:111200,1378:115748,1434:119168,1473:119564,1480:119960,1487:120554,1499:121082,1509:121874,1522:125306,1590:125768,1598:126098,1604:126824,1618:127220,1624:127748,1642:128144,1650:128936,1664:132723,1682:135492,1727:136344,1740:138119,1770:140533,1815:141101,1824:141669,1853:143728,1884:144367,1896:145148,1910:145503,1916:151346,1936:154440,1976
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Sandra Johnson's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Sandra Johnson lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Sandra Johnson states her parents' names, birthdates, and places of birth

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Sandra Johnson talks about her paternal family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Sandra Johnson talks about her lack of knowledge about her family history and her family's ties to the Episcopal Church

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Sandra Johnson describes her close relationship to her maternal grandmother and extended paternal family

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Sandra Johnson explains how her parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Sandra Johnson talks about her maternal family in Missouri

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Sandra Johnson describes her childhood in Chicago, Illinois and her acceptance into the University of Chicago Laboratory Schools

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Sandra Johnson talks about the area of the South Side of Chicago, Illinois that she grew up in

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Sandra Johnson talks about sports she participated in and other activities

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Sandra Johnson remembers her time at the University of Chicago Laboratory Schools in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Sandra Johnson talks about difficulties in history class at the University of Chicago Laboratory Schools

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Sandra Johnson talks about how she learned to read quickly and her love for reading and writing

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Sandra Johnson talks about attending the University of Chicago as an undergraduate

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Sandra Johnson talks about her studies at the University of Chicago in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Sandra Johnson explains her childhood career ambitions

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Sandra Johnson talks about beginning to work after graduating from the University of Chicago in Chicago, Illinois at nineteen

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Sandra Johnson talks about moving to Los Angeles, California and working as a counselor for juveniles

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Sandra Johnson talks about working as a counselor for juveniles

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Sandra Johnson describes being discriminated against while trying to find teaching jobs

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Sandra Johnson remembers being hired to teach in Studio City in Los Angeles, California

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Sandra Johnson talks about her experience teaching in Studio City in Los Angeles, California

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Sandra Johnson talks about teaching in Studio City in Los Angeles, California

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Sandra Johnson recalls a student trying to set her up with an actor and advice from her principal

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Sandra Johnson talks about applying to teach overseas

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Sandra Johnson recalls being accepted as a teacher for Overseas Dependents Schools in Germany

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Sandra Johnson talks about living in Germany and teaching

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Sandra Johnson describes meeting her husband

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Sandra Johnson recalls the assassination of Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Sandra Johnson remembers her return to the United States in the early 1970s

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Sandra Johnson talks about studying and working at the University of Kansas in Lawrence, Kansas

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Sandra Johnson recalls becoming principal of a high school in Fort Leavenworth, Kansas

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Sandra Johnson talks about moving to Washington, D.C. in 1978 and being a position at the White House Office of Presidential Correspondence

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Sandra Johnson talks about advocating for students with disabilities and special needs

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Sandra Johnson recalls working with HistoryMaker Floretta McKenzie and how D.C. politics affected her work

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Sandra Johnson talks about starting her own educational consulting firm in 1996

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Sandra Johnson recalls returning to the White House when Bill Clinton was elected

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Sandra Johnson recalls Bill Clinton's infidelity and going to work for Hillary Clinton

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Sandra Johnson talks about her participation in Democratic politics

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Sandra Johnson describes her hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Sandra Johnson talks about her current activities

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Sandra Johnson reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Sandra Johnson considers what she would have done differently in her life

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Sandra Johnson narrates her photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$5

DAStory

5$7

DATitle
Sandra Johnson talks about working as a counselor for juveniles
Sandra Johnson recalls returning to the White House when Bill Clinton was elected
Transcript
But now I'm meeting people that for some reason, and I'm, I'm, you know, like nineteen or twenty, and they're like eighteen. At eighteen that's when juvenile hall stops, and you go to adult detention. You see, so I'm not much older than them. And--but I couldn't believe what I was hearing half the time. Well, I must say, I was very successful though, in that job, because I was a good listener. I mean I've never heard stories like this, so it's like hearing somebody tell you a, you know, they're telling you a novel. It's almost unbelievable. And--but I was just very cool about the whole thing. And the more you--the more I acted like I really, this was just water, water off, you know, the ducks back, the more they'd tell. I was very--and, and I don't know if it was because I had this kind of yeah, so what attitude, or because I was almost their age, that they spilled things to me that they wouldn't tell to some of these older pe--older women in the place. And so I was very successful. They list--see, I'd just had these, all these psychology classes. And so they would listen to me, you know, in trying to counsel them, and I was very successful.$Tell us about your return to the White House and--$$What happened was that, of course, Jimmy Carter lost that election in, was it '80 [1980]? Anyway--$$Yes, '80 [1980] to Ronald Reagan.$$And at that point, it wasn't that I left the White House because I--you know, another person was elected, but the--Ronald--during the Reagan years and the Bush years, they didn't have volunteers that worked in the evenings. All of their volunteers came in the day. They, they were women that didn't work. And so, consequently, I couldn't work in the day, so--'cause I had my job, my, my wonderful job--and so, therefore, I, I, wasn't there during those years. But the minute Bill Clinton was elected, I called the White House. That was in November, and I called the White House. They said well, he hasn't gotten here yet, so. They said call back after the first of the year, so I did. And I had a desk in the White House before Bill Clinton did. I was back there as a vol--as a nighttime volunteer, because immediately he started getting lots of mail, and they wanted somebody to handle it. I read the president's mail. I mean, I read it, and I answered it, and I, I still sometimes can't believe that, you know, I was doing this. I really enjoyed my job. I made a lot of friends while I was there. I'm still in touch with them. And most of us stayed for all the eight years that he was in office. Toward the end, as we all know, things got a little--matter of fact, I didn't always work in the Office of Presidential Correspondence. I worked in the gift shop. I worked in, worked in several other places in the White House. There are lots of different job assignments. But toward the end, I, I wasn't so much enjoying Presidential Correspondence. The mail got ugly. So I sought out another job, and I, I stumbled into a job. They said they, they would love for me to come work in the office of the First Lady. So I went to work in Mrs. [Hillary] Clinton's office.

Lula Cole Dawson

Lula Cole Dawson was born on April 15, 1931, in Jonesboro, Louisiana. After graduating from high school, Dawson earned an A.B. degree in sociology and counseling in 1952 from Southern University in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. She then interned at Andover Newton Seminary in Andover, Massachusetts. In the fall of 1952 she began graduate studies in sociology at Boston University, where she earned her master’s degree in 1953.

Dawson began her career in 1954 working as the director of student activities at the student center of Southern University. In 1958, Dawson was hired as an interviewer with the Employment Security Commission in Raleigh, North Carolina, where she worked until 1960. Between 1960 and 1972, Dawson traveled with her husband, diplomat Horace Dawson, and was involved in a number of volunteer projects throughout Africa. She sponsored galas to benefit orphanages and organized a craft shop for young girls in Nigeria. She partnered with Victoria Tolbert, wife of the president of Liberia, to build a hostel for young women and organized a self-help program for mothers of children at Mulago Hospital in Uganda.

Dawson returned to the United States with her husband in 1972, and was hired as a field coordinator by the Tennessee State University Training Coordination Center to help identify and train teachers who had been displaced by the desegregation of Tennessee schools. Two years later, she was hired as a consultant to the D.C. Citizens for Better Public Education, where she focused her efforts on providing better educational opportunities for the disadvantaged. Returning overseas with her husband, Dawson served as chairman of the organizing committee of the Friends of the Cultural Center of the Philippines from 1977 to 1979. After her husband’s appointment by President Jimmy Carter as the ambassador to Botswana, Dawson became honorary chairperson of the Child-to-Child Foundation of Botswana and chairperson of the First Lady’s Charity Ball in Botswana.

After returning from Africa, Dawson worked as a consultant for the Washington, D.C. Public School System, the Department of Health and Human Services, St. Augustine’s College International Studies and Foreign Language Learning program and the State Department’s Agency for International Development. She served on the board of the Friends of the Museum of African Art and was presented with the Republic of Botswana Award for Outstanding Public Service. Dawson passed away on January 14, 2004 at the age of 72.

Accession Number

A2003.123

Sex

Female

Interview Date

6/6/2003

Last Name

Dawson

Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Cole

Organizations
First Name

Lula

Birth City, State, Country

Jonesboro

HM ID

DAW01

Favorite Season

None

State

Louisiana

Favorite Vacation Destination

None

Favorite Quote

This Too Shall Pass.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

4/15/1931

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Chicken

Death Date

1/14/2004

Short Description

Education consultant and government consultant Lula Cole Dawson (1931 - 2004 ) , wife of ambassador Horace G. Dawson, Jr., was involved in a number of volunteer projects throughout Africa and became honorary chairperson of the Child-to-Child Foundation of Botswana. She later worked as a consultant in the Washington D.C. area until her death in 2004.

Employment

Southern University

Employment Security Commission

Tennessee State University

D.C. Citizens for Better Public Education

Favorite Color

Yellow

Timing Pairs
0,0:17660,227:34046,392:64770,737:68174,776:68966,846:71702,891:72710,940:82014,1023:86752,1123:103341,1272:121686,1493:125514,1540:127072,1572:130400,1594:135474,1647:138664,1673:161060,1951:175320,2089:187850,2205:190054,2256:190286,2261:190518,2266:206049,2467:225330,2635:231165,2675:232440,2720:235740,2758:264870,3095$0,0:4142,59:20130,337:31111,446:32470,461:39978,541:49264,634:52790,692:58680,721:68472,810:68964,817:76152,912:90910,1099:94164,1108:97110,1116:97502,1121:98678,1137:99266,1146:108278,1215:130985,1436:131253,1441:138510,1515:147016,1607:167124,1825:168580,1854:169028,1859:173901,1908:174999,1977:209493,2275:218472,2375:219056,2385:231240,2526:243958,2677:254024,2769:260690,2831:262610,2844:263890,2870:267040,2907:285638,3149:293058,3276:297930,3328:300045,3357:303738,3390:304002,3395:304332,3401:304596,3406:304992,3414:323768,3618:326400,3651:334722,3746:336968,3761:337694,3775:338090,3782:339880,3803:340279,3812:340507,3817:351720,3914
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Lula Cole Dawson's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Lula Cole Dawson lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Lula Cole Dawson describes her paternal family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Lula Cole Dawson describes her maternal family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Lula Cole Dawson remembers Huey Long visiting her family reunions

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Lula Cole Dawson describes her father, Jerry Cole

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Lula Cole Dawson describes her love of reading as a child

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Lula Cole Dawson talks about Professor Hawk and Jonesboro Colored School

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Lula Cole Dawson shares her memories of attending Jonesboro Public School and growing up with racism

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Lula Cole Dawson recalls her favorite teachers at Jonesboro Public School

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Lula Cole Dawson remembers listening to the radio in the 1930s

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Lula Cole Dawson remembers when her father sold land to the government

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Lula Cole Dawson recalls the night the KKK came to her house to confront her parents

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Lula Cole Dawson describes attending Browngrove Baptist Church

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Lula Cole Dawson describes her father's generosity

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Lula Cole Dawson describes her decision to attend Southern University in Baton Rouge, Louisiana

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Lula Cole Dawson describes attending Southern University in Baton Rouge, Louisiana

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Lula Cole Dawson describes her activities at Southern University in Baton Rouge, Louisiana

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Lula Cole Dawson talks about race at Southern University in Baton Rouge, Louisiana

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Lula Cole Dawson talks about white men who had secret black families, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Lula Cole Dawson talks about white men who had secret black families, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Lula Cole Dawson describes attending Boston University for graduate school

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Lula Cole Dawson talks about why she decided not to become a social worker

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Lula Cole Dawson describes her professors at Boston University in Boston, Massachusetts

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Lula Cole Dawson talks about meeting Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. at Boston University

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Lula Cole Dawson describes how she met her husband, HistoryMaker Horace Dawson

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Lula Cole Dawson talks about marrying her husband and moving to North Carolina

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Lula Cole Dawson recalls Doug E. Moore's move to Africa

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Lula Cole Dawson describes meeting Edward R. Murrow, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Lula Cole Dawson describes meeting Edward R. Murrow, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Lula Cole Dawson talks about the difficulty of finding suitable housing in Washington, D.C. in 1960

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Lula Cole Dawson talks about living in Uganda in 1961

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Lula Cole Dawson talks about being a diplomat's wife in Uganda in the early 1960s

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Lula Cole Dawson talks about Ugandans' reaction to the 16th Street Baptist Church bombing in Birmingham, Alabama in 1963

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Lula Cole Dawson talks about challenging white Americans in Uganda

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Lula Cole Dawson describes her role as a foreign diplomat's wife

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Lula Cole Dawson describes African political leaders in the 1960s

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Lula Cole Dawson talks about issues faced by Nigeria

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Lula Cole Dawson recalls attending an event with Cecil Dennis in Liberia

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Lula Cole Dawson talks about Liberian Presidents William Tubman and William Tolbert

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Lula Cole Dawson describes serving in the Philippines

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Lula Cole Dawson describes President Seretse and Ruth Williams Khama in Botswana

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Lula Cole Dawson talks about getting to know the Botswanan people

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Lula Cole Dawson talks about helping First Lady of Botswana, Gladys Molefi Olebile

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Lula Cole Dawson describes organizing the First Lady's Charity Ball in Botswana

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Lula Cole Dawson describes her legacy in Africa

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Lula Cole Dawson describes her activities after returning to the United States

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Lula Cole Dawson describes her hopes and concerns for the black community

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Lula Cole Dawson reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Lula Cole Dawson describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Lula Cole Dawson narrates her photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$5

DAStory

7$5

DATitle
Lula Cole Dawson talks about Ugandans' reaction to the 16th Street Baptist Church bombing in Birmingham, Alabama in 1963
Lula Cole Dawson talks about Liberian Presidents William Tubman and William Tolbert
Transcript
But Africans, I mean Americans--let me tell you this story in Uganda--when those four little girls were killed, that hurt me.$$That's in '63 [1963]?$$That was '63 [1963]. That really got me and that's when I really went in to think what am I doing-what is my life going to be. We had an excellent ambassador and his wife was one of those rich gals and we were very best of friends, she was just marvelous and she didn't stay in the country much. So the ambassador was sensible enough to use me in a lot of the areas when she wasn't there because the Ugandans really did like me and respect me. So when this happened--the ambassador used to have for the wives, for the senior wives a meeting at least once a month so that meant about twenty women went to his office and he would sit and tell you what the policy of the government had been for that month, the kinds of things they had and then he would start with each of you to say what kind of problems that had you had and let's talk about them which was a good thing really. Of course, we were all spouses, we weren't working for the government but he brought us in like that. At that time, it was, you did that. This day about two or three weeks after the four little girls in Birmingham had been killed he went around and I happened to be near the end. So he asked each of us what had we faced, did we need help with it and all that kind of stuff. So when he got to me he said Lula I know you really have a story to tell, tell us what has happened. I told them about what had happened during this time. And what happened was the Ugandans acted as if these four little girls were my family, our family and in Africa, that part of Africa-in Uganda people would come to you and they'd sit around, they'd stay there three or four hours, they'd come and go. We had hundreds of people come and sit and we had put a book out there and they signed their names. But it's part of their culture which they wouldn't do for the whites but they did for us. In fact, it became such a burden until the ambassador heard about it and sent drinks and food and stuff you know for us to have around which is their tradition and he helped us with it. It was shocking to me because he had never faced anything like that before. But anyway we were very pleased and everything. So we got through that then near the end of the week we went to the British High Commissioner for a cocktail party. Going through a receiving line he, the High Commissioner stopped me and my husband right there with me, Oh Lula we are just so, so sad, we are just--those Americans are just awful killing those four little girls. Those Americans, you know, My husband became very upset, I became very upset, we are Americans. I knew what he meant but just the idea and how you are going to face this. So I told him and my husband was being more diplomatic than I did, he dealt with it better. But we both were very upset because that's insulting us and my country. But how can you, you know. He's trying to be kind. What can you do, how are you going to do with this?$So after the, after this giving thing, gift giving and all that the president [William Tubman] sent for me. So here is the president sitting on this big chair and they've got two chairs on the side, I'm sitting in this chair and the president used to call me Louisiana girl, "Okay Louisiana girl I saw you laughing at my men." "No Mr. President, you know I would not"--(laughter). He went on and he found it you know sort of funny. So he got serious and he said, "Let me tell you something, your country is trying to convince me to take some of these young guys and come to the United States to be trained for a proper army." He said, "Now let me tell you something, I'm not going to do that at all until these boys have something to lose other than their lives." He was serious and it made sense and we talked about it. So he said, "You can go back and tell your husband that they can stop talking to me about sending some of our boys to the states, they are not ready, and this country isn't ready." I went home and I told my husband what he said and all that kind of stuff and we laughed about it then we came home in another year, he died. See, Tubman never killed anybody, he would put you in jail for life but you never went to the electric chair or hanging or anything under Tubman. Then the other guy was president, what is his name?$$Tolbert.$$Tolbert became president. The first order of business for Tolbert was to take some of those guys off of death row and electrocute them. The second act that Tolbert did was gather up a lot of boys including Doe and sends them to the states for training as an army. Need I say more? He did not understand his people.$$He set the stage for--(simultaneous) (unclear).$$He set the stage for what's happening now.$$That's something.$$Yeah, see you don't read about that kind of stuff. All you read about is Tubman they say he is the father of his country having all these outside children. Sure that's true, he did have a lot of outside children. I have been in Tubman's company. When he, every Thursday he would have an open house and anybody in that country could go there and he had this big chair with his (unclear) with a footlocker with nothing but hundred dollar crisp new bills. A footlocker--I've seen this myself. You go there and when your time comes you go in and you give him your problem. If he agreed to that, he would tell them to give him a thousand dollars--American dollars--give him whatever. Want to go and say my child is in Birmingham, Alabama for schooling, we need money--give him x. My wife needs an operation--he'd listen to it. He heard all stories. I went there twice, one time with the vice president's wife. We were having what you would call a--I found ways to make money all the time. We had what we called a calendar tea and that was for your birthday--your birth month you gave you know whatever for that. So we had this calendar tea and raised about five thousand dollars which was a heck of a lot of money for them and bring to him and told him about what we were doing and what money we were building hostels for women, students--college students because there were a lot of girls who didn't have a place to stay for school and all that kind of stuff. So we built these places and he gave us a thousand dollars--two thousand dollars cash money, hundred dollar bills. You don't read about that kind of thing, he did a lot of good. Sure he was whatever but he did a lot of good, people respected him, people liked him and in his way he was dealing with the situation that they had. Tolbert changed all of that and you see what Liberia is today.$$Yeah it's really a lawless--(simultaneous) (unclear).$$Completely now I am hoping that eventually the right kind of people will go in there and bring it back together but it is awful now. All my friends--all Americo Liberians I knew over here--suffering.

Leonard Dawson

Educational consultant and former college president Leonard E. Dawson was born on February 5, 1934, in Augusta, Georgia. His parents, through hard work, managed to send all five of their children to college on a modest income. Dawson first attended Morris Brown College in Atlanta, where he earned a B.A. in English in 1954. He would later earn an M.A. in guidance and counseling from Columbia University in 1961 and an Ed.D. from George Washington University with a focus on counselor education in 1974.

Following his graduation from Morris Brown College, Dawson found a job teaching at Carver High School in Hamilton, Georgia, and in 1956 he joined the U.S. Army. Following an honorable discharge, Dawson returned to teaching, and by 1964, he was the head counselor at Johnson Junior High School in his hometown of Augusta. In 1967, Dawson joined the staff of Paine College, where he became the dean of academics in 1969. He went to work for the United States Department of Education in 1970, and the following year he became a senior program officer at the R.R. Moten Memorial Institute, working extensively with the federal government and Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs). Dawson became the executive vice president of the Moton Institute in 1977, and in 1980, he left to become the director of special projects for the United Negro College Fund. In 1985, Dawson was named president of Voorhees College, where he served until retiring in 2001. While at Voorhees, Dawson worked to erase a massive deficit along with doubling the size of Voorhees’ student enrollment. In 2001, Dawson was named a senior consultant to the White House Initiative on HBCUs.

Dawson is active in a number of professional and civic organizations, including the National Association for Equal Opportunity in Higher Education, the National Education Association and the Third Street Bethel African Methodist Episcopal Church. In 2001, he was awarded the Order of the Palmetto, the highest civilian honor in the state, by the governor of South Carolina.

Dawson was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on November 13, 2003.

Accession Number

A2003.265

Sex

Male

Interview Date

11/13/2003

Last Name

Dawson

Maker Category
Organizations
Schools

Morris Brown College

Teachers College, Columbia University

George Washington University

First Name

Leonard

Birth City, State, Country

Augusta

HM ID

DAW02

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Georgia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Hilton Head, South Carolina

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Virginia

Birth Date

2/5/1934

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Richmond

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Greens (Collard)

Short Description

Academic administrator and education consultant Leonard Dawson (1934 - ) is the former president of Voorhees College.

Employment

Carver High School

Johnson Junior High School

Paine College

United States Department of Education

R.R. Moton Memorial Institute

United Negro College Fund

Voorhees College

Favorite Color

Red

Timing Pairs
0,0:20880,175:21980,193:27323,204:28324,212:32782,270:39247,401:41179,436:42628,462:43111,470:43387,475:43870,483:55475,625:55900,631:56240,636:58620,652:65165,739:65675,746:66270,759:71710,848:72560,859:87240,972:87870,982:88230,987:88590,993:89040,999:104190,1219:105310,1237:105630,1244:106430,1257:108190,1271:113470,1338:121220,1389:121804,1399:123330,1451$0,0:19776,319:20286,325:21714,343:35260,523:36070,533:40390,596:40840,602:41830,614:42460,622:42820,627:43360,635:58074,767:59172,777:64040,846:64488,855:75460,980:76552,994:78330,1017:79565,1032:98588,1196:101750,1259:106461,1299:108178,1320:108582,1325:109693,1338:111511,1353:111915,1358:112622,1367:114036,1384:117440,1389:117895,1395:118623,1406:119533,1417:120534,1435:127996,1579:129270,1594:132273,1639:139117,1660:145674,1792:146543,1806:151125,1894:157970,1999:163976,2081:164324,2086:169195,2146:175027,2232:175432,2258:176809,2284:180024,2292:180636,2299:181350,2308:182268,2323:185532,2379:185940,2384:188490,2416:189918,2448:195986,2506:198098,2534:198626,2541:198978,2546:199330,2551:201990,2577
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Leonard Dawson's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Leonard Dawson lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Leonard Dawson talks about his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Leonard Dawson talks about his father and paternal family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Leonard Dawson talks about his parents' move to Augusta, Georgia

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Leonard Dawson describes his mother

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Leonard Dawson talks about his parents' schooling

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Leonard Dawson lists his siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Leonard Dawson describes growing up in Augusta, Georgia, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Leonard Dawson describes growing up in Augusta, Georgia, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Leonard Dawson recalls being a mischievous child

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Leonard Dawson remembers growing up in a segregated community and attending an A.M.E. church

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Leonard Dawson talks about R&B musician James Brown

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Leonard Dawson talks about the educational opportunities available to black students in Augusta, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Leonard Dawson talks about attending Charles T. Walker Elementary School in Augusta, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Leonard Dawson talks about attending Haines Institute in Augusta, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Leonard Dawson recalls the faculty at Haines Institute in Augusta, Georgia pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Leonard Dawson recalls the faculty at Haines Institute in Augusta, Georgia pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Leonard Dawson talks about his high school activities

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Leonard Dawson talks about growing up in an all-black community in Augusta, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Leonard Dawson talks about the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Leonard Dawson talks about attending Morris Brown College in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Leonard Dawson talks about his professors at Morris Brown College in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Leonard Dawson describes teaching and serving in the U.S. Army after graduating from Morris Brown College in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Leonard Dawson talks about receiving his M.A. degree from Columbia University in New York City

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Leonard Dawson talks about counseling and directing the Upward Bound program at Paine College in Augusta, Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Leonard Dawson talks about the Moton Memorial Institute

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Leonard Dawson talks about working for the United Negro College Fund

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Leonard Dawson talks about becoming the president of Voorhees College in Denmark, South Carolina

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Leonard Dawson describes the start of Voorhees College in Denmark, South Carolina

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Leonard Dawson describes how Voorhees College in Denmark, South Carolina became an Episcopal school

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Leonard Dawson describes the problems at Voorhees College in Denmark, South Carolina when he arrived in 1985

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Leonard Dawson describes working to improve the financial standing of Voorhees College in Denmark, South Carolina as president

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Leonard Dawson talks about campus improvements and increased enrollment at during his tenure at Voorhees College in Denmark, South Carolina

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Leonard Dawson talks about retiring from Voorhees College and being invited to work for the U.S. Department of Education

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Leonard Dawson describes his work at the U.S. Department of Education

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Leonard Dawson describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Leonard Dawson considers his legacy

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Leonard Dawson considers what he might have done differently

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Leonard Dawson describes how he would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$4

DAStory

5$5

DATitle
Leonard Dawson talks about working for the United Negro College Fund
Leonard Dawson describes his work at the U.S. Department of Education
Transcript
I left the [Robert R. Moton Memorial] Institute in '79 [1979] or so, maybe '80 [1980], probably '78 [1978], '79 [1979] and joined the United Negro College Fund. I opened the Washington [D.C.] office for federal relations and for the College Fund. The College Fund has regional offices--fundraising. An office in Chicago [Illinois]. An office in Atlanta [Georgia]. Office--offices Dallas [Texas], office around the country with the fundraising offices. The College Fund started getting into federal advocacy stuff--policy stuff and needed an office here in Washington [D.C.], which I was into at that time. So I made a shift into policy and left fundraising and came on the policy side. And so I started the first federal relations policy work here in Washington for the United Negro College Fund. And so I stayed there and we did a lot of management activities with the schools during those years. That was the height of our interaction with the UNCF schools of which, at that time, there were forty-one. We've since lost, two I think, there are thirty-nine but we would--we did a lot of management activities with those schools. A lot of financial aid management, improvement programs, work with governing boards and all of that. That was the height of the work that the College Fund did during those days. And so I stayed with the College Fund until '85 [1985], when I was called to come to Voorhees [College, Denmark, South Carolina].$Okay, so what's a--how would you define your job now with the [U.S.] Department of Education?$$My job now is one of doing what I did at Voorhees [College, Denmark, South Carolina] for 105 schools. The 105 HBCUs [historically black colleges and universities] that participate in our program. And our job, in the White House Initiative, is to encourage thirty-one agencies--that thirty-one agencies that relate to us, [U.S.] Department of Agriculture, [U.S.] Department of Treasury, Department of Education, the thirty-one different agencies that are part of our program, our job is to encourage these agencies to provide more access, more dollars, more support, more grants, more contracts, to HBCUs, that's our job. So, the assumption is that the HBCUs provide an excellent opportunity for the students that they serve within the country. So national resource is to the country's advantage and to its benefit to support these institutions and our job is to see to it that the Department of Defense, for instance, looks into its programs and divide those dollars up and to make sure that the HBCUs get their fair share. That's our role, and we take it very seriously.$$Okay. Do you have any stories or victories in this regard to, you know--$$No, I, you know, I've been here a year and a half, I've seen--I've seen some instances in which agencies have begun to understand a bit more about what it is that we're about. Ours is a constant selling job. I'm very pleased that our new chair, chair of our board--the White House Initiative is a presidentially appointed--has a presidentially appointed board. President [George W.] Bush appointed twenty-one members to a board, to oversee the work that we do. And [HM] Dr. Louis Sullivan, who was president emeritus of Morehouse School of Medicine, was appointed as our chair, and he's taken this very seriously so much so that he has asked each cabinet head, Secretary [Donald] Rumsfeld, Secretary [sic, Attorney General John] Ashcroft, to meet with him, individually, to talk to him about what they are doing for HBCUs. He's made seventeen of those visits already and I'm encouraged by the reception that he's gotten, I'm encouraged by the interest that has been shown by the other secretaries and the agency heads and I'm sure that it cannot help but benefit in the long run because these guys control the purse strings. What happens to the dollars that get into the pipeline to help these schools? And I'm responsible as liaison to the board for organizing those visits and making sure that they happen.$$Okay.$$Yeah.

Sherman Beverly

Professor of history Sherman Beverly, Jr., was born in Port Arthur, Texas, on August 3, 1927. Beverly attended Bishop College in Texas, where he earned his B.A. in history and political science, and then attended the Chicago Teachers College to obtain teacher certification. He would later earn an M.A. from Illinois Teachers College and a Ph.D. in social studies education from Northwestern University.

After earning his bachelor's degree, Beverly began teaching adult education classes in Port Arthur in 1951 and remained there for two years. After relocating to Chicago, he began working for the Chicago Board of Education in 1957, and he would remain there for the next twelve years, with the exception of a single year off to work as an elementary teacher. In 1969, Beverly took a position with Malcolm X College in Chicago as an associate professor of history, as well as a position at Kendall College as an instructor in the African American Studies Department. He remained at Kendall for the next four years before taking a position with Union Graduate School in Cincinnati, Ohio, as a part-time consulting faculty member and a full-time position with Northeastern Illinois University in Chicago. Beverly remained at Northeastern until his retirement in 1992, teaching education courses in inner-city studies social studies. Today, he is the senior consultant and owner of Making Schools Educational, Inc.

Beverly is a prolific reader, and serves on the board of the Caxton Club, a group of book collectors. He directed the Sigma Pi Phi fraternity Men of the Future program for five years, where he met with young men from the Chicago area to encourage them to develop into well-rounded citizens. He is a founder of the Bluestem Festival of Arts and Humanities and a board member of the Society for Values in Higher Education. He has written numerous articles and continues to be involved in speaking engagements on diverse topics. Beverly and his wife, Eve, live near Chicago. They have three children.

Accession Number

A2003.204

Sex

Male

Interview Date

8/25/2003

Last Name

Beverly

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Schools

Bishop College

Chicago State University

Northwestern University

Memorial High School

First Name

Sherman

Birth City, State, Country

Port Arthur

HM ID

BEV02

Favorite Season

Summer

Speaker Bureau Notes

Professor. Teaches non violence (Dr. King and Ghandi) North Shore Humanitarian Awardee. Historian. Retired from Northeastern Illinois U. Worked with Wayne Watson on a history of Blacks on the North Shore. Beverly taught oral history at Northeastern and has a collection of audio tapes.

State

Texas

Favorite Vacation Destination

Anywhere

Favorite Quote

Yeah. Ok.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Washington

Birth Date

8/3/1927

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Seattle

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Pork Chops

Short Description

Education consultant and education professor Sherman Beverly (1927 - ) is the senior consultant and owner of Making Schools Educational, Inc., and has had a long standing career as an educator, with eleven years of service with the Chicago Board of Education, and as a professor at Kendall College and Northeastern Illinois University.

Employment

Port Arthur Independent School District

Deerfield School District 110

Chicago Board of Education

Malcolm X College

National College of Education

Kendall College

Union Graduate School

Northeastern Illinois University

University of Illinois, Chicago

MSE, Inc.

Favorite Color

Brown, Tan

Timing Pairs
0,0:900,13:1410,42:8996,102:12200,155:12645,161:13535,180:13891,185:14870,198:17540,231:18697,248:25300,322:26420,327:26740,332:28340,355:28900,363:29460,371:34660,392:41024,458:41510,465:41996,473:42482,481:45560,527:47180,546:53448,582:55392,600:58976,617:59732,628:61580,634:62532,643:63722,654:71640,722$0,0:1760,23:3973,60:6019,179:7600,210:12622,310:15319,350:22392,396:22836,401:32626,483:36671,496:40570,522:45340,574:45760,581:46250,588:46810,597:48070,622:48490,629:48840,635:49120,647:56616,696:56992,701:65427,777:78600,874:79104,881:80364,901:84564,960:90686,997:91116,1003:96190,1081:98820,1087:99600,1100:106009,1154:109410,1184:114900,1243:115980,1248:125709,1320:126001,1325:128410,1372:141065,1574:144551,1637:144883,1642:145547,1655:146294,1667:151618,1691:151998,1697:152454,1705:158514,1789:158854,1795:159194,1802:160146,1823:160486,1829:167981,1919:168629,1929:168953,1934:169682,1953:171545,1990:173651,2022:177096,2042:181878,2113:182838,2124:183606,2135:193523,2252:193985,2259:196218,2289:199920,2295:200200,2300:200830,2310:210779,2419:212675,2507:234236,2790:247066,2896:247978,2905:252424,2956:252994,2963:254134,2976:260510,3018
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Sherman Beverly's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Sherman Beverly lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Sherman Beverly talks about his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Sherman Beverly talks about his mother's family background, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Sherman Beverly describes his mother's work and personality

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Sherman Beverly describes his father's family background, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Sherman Beverly describes his father's family background, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Sherman Beverly recalls one of his earliest childhood memories, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Sherman Beverly recalls one of his earliest childhood memories, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Sherman Beverly describes the sights, sounds and smells of growing up in Port Arthur, Texas

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Sherman Beverly talks about some of his favorite activities growing up

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Sherman Beverly talks about his favorite teachers and school subjects growing up in Port Arthur, Texas

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Sherman Beverly recalls the first family radio and his father's strict rules about listening to music

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Sherman Beverly describes attending Rock Island Baptist Church in Port Arthur, Texas, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Sherman Beverly describes attending Rock Island Baptist Church in Port Arthur, Texas, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Sherman Beverly talks about his views on religion

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Sherman Beverly describes Abraham Lincoln High School in Port Arthur, Texas

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Sherman Beverly describes his activities at Abraham Lincoln High School in Port Arthur, Texas

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Sherman Beverly describes Mr. Alton, his teacher at Abraham Lincoln High School in Port Arthur, Texas

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Sherman Beverly describes his chemistry and algebra classes at Abraham Lincoln High School in Port Arthur, Texas

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Sherman Beverly talks about his career ambitions as a student at Abraham Lincoln High School in Port Arthur, Texas

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Sherman Beverly talks about attending Prairie View Normal and Industrial College in Prairie View, Texas before being drafted

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Sherman Beverly talks about his experience in the U.S. Army Air Forces

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Sherman Beverly talks about working for the Chicago Transit Authority following his graduation from Bishop College in 1954

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Sherman Beverly describes his initial teaching experiences in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Sherman Beverly talks about the demographics of Deerfield, Illinois in 1967

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Sherman Beverly talks about teaching in Deerfield, Illinois in 1967

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Sherman Beverly describes how his family came to live in Deerfield, Illinois, including its history

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Sherman Beverly talks about his career experiences working at Kendall College in Evanston, Illinois, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Sherman Beverly talks about his career experiences working at Kendall College in Evanston, Illinois, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Sherman Beverly talks about Northeastern Illinois University's Center for Inner City Studies, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Sherman Beverly talks about Northeastern Illinois University's Center for Inner City Studies, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Sherman Beverly reflects on courses he taught at Northeastern Illinois University, including a course on the black church

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Sherman Beverly describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Sherman Beverly describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Sherman Beverly describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community, pt. 3

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Sherman Beverly reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Sherman Beverly describes how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Sherman Beverly narrates his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$3

DAStory

1$7

DATitle
Sherman Beverly recalls one of his earliest childhood memories, pt. 2
Sherman Beverly talks about attending Prairie View Normal and Industrial College in Prairie View, Texas before being drafted
Transcript
You know, my mother [Katie Smart Beverly] said, "He wasn't talking to me, I'm a lady." Well, it does something to a young fellow--I think I may have been about seven or eight--it does something to know that his mother is--to know that the man was talking to her, and yet she is telling me that he wasn't, you know, and I know that it's not true that she doesn't believe that, and, you know, that kind of confuses a young fellow. Now, in retrospect, and it didn't take me long to realize what she was doing--you know, she was protecting me, and also her own dignity, you know, but that's one of the first memories I have about being directly confronted with, you know, that kind of attitude--that kind of racist attitude.$Now how did you choose Bishop College [Marshall, Texas]?$$I didn't, I went to Prairie View [Normal and Industrial College later, Prairie View A&M University, Prairie View, Texas] first. I went to Prairie View first and interesting--(simultaneous)$$(Simultaneous) Prairie View is in Texas?$$Prairie View is in Texas.$$Prairie View A&M.$$Prairie View University, now. It was Prairie View AM&N at that time.$$AM&N?$$AM&N--agriculture, mechanical and normal, I guess, because that was teaching. I went to Prairie View--I-- graduated [from high school] in January '45 [1945], that's when I finished school. I didn't get my degree until June [1945] because they didn't have midterm graduations and went straight to Prairie View; in February I was in school at Prairie View. The first semester there I made the honor roll, the dean's list, the second I discovered girls and, unlike most kids where the first semester is the one where they blow, well I blew the second one and, was threatened with being kicked out or what have you. So I--the third semester I made the dean's list again which was an indication I could do it when I put my mind to it and made up my mind to do it. And then my mother called me and wrote me-yeah, she called and said that I had a draft letter and I said, "Okay." I didn't go home and she kept telling me, and I said, "Okay I'll be home for Christmas." So when I got home for the holidays, I went down to the draft board and said, "I understand you've been looking for me." They said, "What's your name," and I told them who I was, and they said, "Yes, where have you been?" I said, "I was in school; I just came here to find out if there is any need of my going back to school after the holidays." They said, "No, you're going right to the service; the first thing: smoking," those were their words. I said, "Where," they said I was going to Fort Benning, Georgia. I walked out of there and went down to the [U.S.] Army Air Force[s] [USAAF] recruiting station and volunteered for the Army Air Force. My wife [Eve Beverly] as I told her that story she said, "Well," "on the record you would be a volunteer." I said, (laughter) "That is true, but anybody that knows me, I wouldn't volunteer for the service," but that's exactly how the record shows, which says something about historiography, too--true history and that kind of thing.$$That's right, you're actually going down in history on the record as someone who (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) As a volunteer--$$Someone who took the initiative rather than as someone who had to be forced into it (simultaneous)--$$Right, I would go down in history as a volunteer, (laughter) I'm glad we're having HistoryMakers so that we can get that straight, you know. Actually, I did volunteer, and I stayed eighteen months, only eighteen months. This was in '46 [1946] when I went in and I got out in 1947 after spending eighteen months. But-- and it was in the Army Air Force, there was no independent [U.S.] Air Force at that time.

Josie Johnson

Born in 1931, Josie Robinson Johnson has played an active role in the civil rights movement since her teenage years, when she and her father canvassed her hometown of Houston to gather signatures on an anti-poll tax petition.

In the early 1960s, Johnson lobbied professionally for passage of bills concerning such issues as fair housing and employment opportunities. In 1964, she traveled from Minneapolis to Mississippi with an integrated group of women to witness and take part in the struggle there. After visiting an open-air freedom school where blacks were organizing, the group learned the school was bombed later that day. Johnson became a community organizer for Project ENABLE, a pioneering effort in developing parenting skills and strengthening family life in 1965. A member of the Minneapolis Urban League, she served as acting director between 1967 and 1968.

Johnson worked with elected officials many times over the years. In 1968, she became a legislative liaison and community liaison as a mayoral aide in Minneapolis during a time of trouble for African Americans in the town. The executive assistant to the lieutenant governor of Colorado from 1975 to 1978, Johnson went back to Texas in 1978 and supervised Judson Robinson's campaign staff. In 1980, she served as deputy campaign manager for the Jimmy Carter presidential campaign in Tennessee.

Johnson has also had an ongoing relationship with the University of Minnesota. Between 1971 and 1973, she served on the University's Board of Regents. She earned a B.A. in Sociology at Fisk University in Nashville, Tennessee, and an M.A. and Ed.D. at the University of Massachusetts-Amherst. The University of Minnesota offered her a senior fellowship in 1987. Johnson directed its All-University Forum as diversity director from 1990 to 1992. That year, she became responsible for minority affairs and diversity at the college as the associate vice president for academic affairs. The University of Minnesota established the annual Josie Robinson Johnson Human Rights and Social Justice Award in her honor.

Johnson founded Josie Robinson Johnson and Associates in 1996. She is a Minneapolis Institute of Arts trustee, a Minnesota Medical Foundation trustee and sits on the advisory board of the Harriet Tubman Center. She is a recipient of the Committed to the Vision Award from the Minneapolis Department of Civil Rights and the African American Community Endowment Fund Award.

Josie Johnson
CivicMaker
Educator
b. 1931
151 words

Josie Johnson was born on October 7, 1930, in Houston. As the daughter of Houston civil rights pioneers, she grew up with a deep concern for social justice and civil rights. After receiving her B.A. in sociology from Fisk University and her M.A. in education from the University of Massachusetts, Johnson went to work in 1956 as a lobbyist to help pass Minnesota's anti-discrimination laws. In 1967, she served one year as the acting director for the Minneapolis Urban League. In 1971, after teaching in the African American Studies Department at the University of Minnesota, she was appointed to the Minnesota Board of Regents, where she served until 1973. In 1992, she accepted the position as associate vice president in charge of minority affairs and directed their All-University Forum as diversity director. The University of Minnesota established the Annual Josie Robinson Johnson Human Rights and Social Justice Award in her honor.

Accession Number

A2002.143

Sex

Female

Interview Date

8/11/2002

Last Name

Johnson

Maker Category
Organizations
Schools

Fisk University

First Name

Josie

Birth City, State, Country

San Antonio

HM ID

JOH06

Favorite Season

Fall

Sponsor

Knight Foundation

State

Texas

Favorite Vacation Destination

Hawaii

Favorite Quote

I Feel Blessed For What Privileges That I Have.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Minnesota

Birth Date

10/7/1930

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Minneapolis/St. Paul

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Salmon, Salad

Short Description

Academic administrator and education consultant Josie Johnson (1930 - ) was the founder of the Black Studies department at University of Minnesota and a member of the Minnesota Board of Regents.

Employment

Minneapolis Urban League

City of Minneapolis

Lieutenant Governor of Colorado

University of Minnesota

Main Sponsor
Favorite Color

Purple

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Josie Johnson's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Josie Johnson lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Josie Johnson talks about her mother and father

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Josie Johnson describes her family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Josie Johnson remembers her great-grandfather

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Josie Johnson describes the sights, sounds, and smells of Houston, Texas

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Josie Johnson describes her childhood personality

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Josie Johnson describes attending St. Nicholas Catholic School in Houston, Texas

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Josie Johnson describes her parents' personalities

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Josie Johnson describes attending high school at St. Nicholas Catholic School

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Josie Johnson talks about how her family taught her to cope with racism

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Josie Johnson describes her high school activities

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Josie Johnson talks about changing her major at Fisk University in Nashville, Tennessee

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Josie Johnson describes attending Fisk University in Nashville, Tennessee

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Josie Johnson talks about living in various cities as a young adult

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Josie Johnson describes her community involvement in Minneapolis, Minnesota

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Josie Johnson recalls working with Mahmoud El-Kati in Minneapolis, Minnesota

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Josie Johnson talks about the black community in Minnesota

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Josie Johnson talks about visiting Mississippi in 1964

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Josie Johnson shares her firsthand experiences of Mississippi in 1964

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Josie Johnson describes founding the African American Studies Department at the University of Minnesota

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Josie Johnson describes the current state of the African American Studies Department at the University of Minnesota

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Josie Johnson describes the importance of African American Studies

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Josie Johnson talks about her teaching and political career

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Josie Johnson describes serving as Chief of Staff for HistoryMaker Lieutenant Governor George Brown in Denver, Colorado

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Josie Johnson explains why she moved back to Minnesota in 1985

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Josie Johnson describes the context and rationale for busing to integrate schools

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Josie Johnson talks about the busing controversy in Minneapolis, Minnesota

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Josie Johnson talks about her hopes and concerns for African American children

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Josie Johnson describes problems facing the black community, pt.1

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Josie Johnson describes problems facing the black community, pt.2

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Josie Johnson talks about the destructive racial system in the United States

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Josie Johnson describes working to bridge the divide between the African American and Jewish communities at the University of Minnesota

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Josie Johnson talks about becoming the Associate Vice President for Academic Affairs at the University of Minnesota

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Josie Johnson discusses diversity in higher education

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Josie Johnson reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Josie Johnson describes her parents' pride in her success

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Josie Johnson describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Josie Johnson narrates her photographs, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Josie Johnson narrates her photographs, pt. 2

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$4

DAStory

4$4

DATitle
Josie Johnson describes founding the African American Studies Department at the University of Minnesota
Josie Johnson talks about the busing controversy in Minneapolis, Minnesota
Transcript
Well back to the African American Studies Department you founded.$$Yes.$$Now, when this was founded, I mean what was your role as a community person that wanted to see this done. I mean, what did you do?$$Well, my -- because my background was sociology and I'd been working with black families and doing some research in that area, when the Department was organized a woman by the name of Lillian Anthony, who now lives in Kentucky, Louisville, Kentucky was the Chair of the Program, and Mahmoud El-Kati was part of the teaching staff and he taught history and we had another political person who is dead now, Earl Craig who was a teacher and then there were Black musicians who taught and I taught Black Families in White America, and Dr. Billingsley, I don't know if you know that name who is--.$$Andrew Billingsley?$$Andrew Billingsley had just published a book. He -- I had gone to a conference in New Orleans of the Urban League and met Dr. Billingsley there and he had just published a book about Black Families in White America and that was a class I was going to teach at the University of Minnesota [Minneapolis, Minnesota] and he came to Minnesota and assisted me in developing the curriculum for that. I mean it was a time when Black people across the country shared whatever they had, knowledge they had, information they had to help things happen. So I taught that class and I taught one on Blacks and the Welfare System, and then we had Swahili and we had music and we had history and then we had a course on the community and Black people and -- so we had quite an array of courses and we called ourselves a "Program of Town and Gown". We were very serious about bringing the community to the University and the University to the community. So we did a lot of things like the first graduation of Black students. We held that in a church after the Department was organized in the community so that the students came there. We took courses, we took -- we made an arrangement between the Still Water Prison in Minnesota and the University of Minnesota to teach classes there. We went every week and taught the brothers in the prison and those credits were applied through the University of Minnesota so that that they could have credit for the courses that we taught. So we were very much a community of people who wanted the University to be more involved in the community and the community involved in helping to shape policy and program at the University.$$Okay, so this is really the start of your career at the University of Minnesota--?$$Right.$$And you just keep moving out there--.$$Yes.$$At the University of Minnesota doing bigger things.$What we're learning and what the Mayor is talking about is that that is not happening. What's happening is that our schools are becoming more and more discriminated -- reflecting the discrimination in this society. The numbers of young children in our schools -- I mean if you could imagine a school in Minneapolis [Minnesota] being seventy percent children and color in a community that at one time had less than one percent of its population. So what the Mayor is saying is, until you can do housing and employment integration and fairness, you then have to deal with the community where children are, and you strengthen those. You strengthen your community schools. So it's almost going back to what I knew as a girl, (laughter) and that is a strong neighborhood school with support and quality teachers and your building. Not that our materials were that quality when I was growing up, but at least we were, we thought they were and we did not know that they were not and no one treated you in a way that made you feel you were inferior or that your education was less than quality. So what the Mayor and what many others, and we're looking, that's why you've got all of the charter schools and the Afrocentric schools and the American Indian schools. People are trying to figure out why our children are still at the bottom of the information curve. They're still the least able to perform, they still do least well than other children and the question is, it's almost like living as long as I have, it's like a repeat of history. You just keep trying to figure out how to overcome a system that is -- that is based on prejudice and discrimination. So the NAACP still believes and they one of things you said was that Thurgood Marshall truly believed that if people followed the law, they would -- if the law said that there shall be no discrimination that people wouldn't discriminate, but what we know is that that's just not true. The law may say it, but the system and its attitude towards us is so strong that it will discriminate any way. So that -- that debate will continue and the NAACP won a suit that is now being tested to see, you know, trying to get children -- but you can't -- you can't disperse them, cause children -- these -- the schools can decide whether they will admit our children or not and they have to pay transportation and, you know from school line to some other place and our schools are all so -- in such a deficit position as far as salaries and transportation monies and extra-curricular, so it's a real serious set of issues right now and we don't -- I don't know how it's going to come out. The big -- the thing that needs to be evaluated is "are our children learning?" If not, why not and that's the big issue that both positions are trying to get an answer to.$$I think part of the NAACP's argument is that if there are separate Black schools or schools that are predominately Black, they won't get their resources because of the --$$That's right.$$Because of the depth of discrimination (simultaneous.)--$$Discrimination, yes. Exactly, because that's what the history has taught us.