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Philip Hart

Civic leader and professor Philip Hart was born on June 12, 1944 in Denver, Colorado to Murlee Shaw Hart and Judson Hart. He received an athletic scholarship to attend Colorado College and transferred to the University of Colorado Boulder where he received his B.A. degree and graduated with honors as a student athlete in 1966, and was later inducted into the University’s Distinguished Alumni Gallery in 1995. He received his M.A. degree in social psychology and his Ph.D. degree in sociology from Michigan State University in 1974. There, Hart worked for the Greater Lansing Urban League and the Center for Urban Affairs.

In 1966, Hart joined the staff of the Office of Economic Opportunity in Washington, D.C. In 1971, he was recruited to lead the Joint Center for Inner City Change located in Boston's Roxbury neighborhood. Hart then served as superintendent of the Federation of Boston Community Schools. In 1974, Hart cofounded the College of Public and Community Service at the University of Massachusetts Boston. From 1974 to 2002, Hart served as a professor of sociology, department chairman and director of the William Monroe Trotter Institute for the Study of Black Culture.

In 1980, Hart along with business partner Marvin Gilmore, Jr. developed CrossTown Industrial Park in Roxbury with Fortune 500 technology company Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) as anchor tenant. In 1989, they repurposed an industrial building across from the DEC plant into a biotechnology facility with Boston University School of Medicine as anchor tenant and partner. This partnership led to the creation of BioSquare, Boston's premiere biotechnology business park. In 2016, Hart as a member of the Los Angeles Biosciences Coalition developed a plan to expand the biotechnology industry cluster in LA County similar to Hart's work in inner city Boston.

In addition, Hart wrote and produced children’s books and documentary films including the 1987 PBS documentary film Flyers: In Search of a Dream based on the history of his maternal great uncle, James Banning, who was one of the nation's first African American aviators. His children's book Flying Free: America's First Black Aviators was named a 1992 Notable Children's Trade Book in Social Studies. He also appeared in documentaries about early African American aviators Black Aviators: Flying Free and Black Wings. He authored, Early African American Aviators, and along with his wife, created and produced Dark Passages a documentary about the Atlantic slave trade. The Harts also wrote, produced and directed the three-hour nationally syndicated radio documentary Ray Charles: The Music Lives On.

In 1990, Hart and his wife moved to Los Angeles and joined West Angeles Church of God in Christ. In 1995, Hart joined the West Angeles Church building committee whose charge was to plan and construct the 5,000-seat West Angeles Cathedral in South Los Angeles. In 1996, he was named project manager for the Cathedral project which was dedicated in April 2001.

Hart and his wife, Tanya Hart, have one daughter, Ayanna Hart Beebe

Philip Hart was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on August 19, 2017.

Accession Number

A2017.159

Sex

Male

Interview Date

8/19/2017

Last Name

Hart

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Occupation
Schools

Gilpin Montessori School

East High School

Columbine Elementary School

McAuliffe International School

Colorado College

University of Colorado Boulder

Michigan State University

First Name

Philip

Birth City, State, Country

Denver

HM ID

HAR51

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Colorado

Favorite Vacation Destination

Martha's Vineyard

Favorite Quote

God Is Good All The Time.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

California

Birth Date

7/12/1944

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Los Angeles

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Barbecue (Ribs)

Short Description

Civil leader and professor Philip Hart (1944 - ) taught at the University of Massachusetts, Boston College of Public and Community Service and authored fourteen books.

Employment

U.S. Postal Service

Office of Economic Opportunity

University of Massachusetts Boston

Greater Lansing Urban League

Center for Urban Affairs

Joint Community-University Center for Inner City Change

Federation of Boston Community Schools

Favorite Color

Red And White

DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Philip Hart describes his father's family background, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Philip Hart remembers the musicians who frequented Al Hart's Barbeque in Salina, Kansas

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Philip Hart remembers visiting his paternal relatives in Wildersville, Tennessee

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Philip Hart describes his father's family background, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Philip Hart describes his parents' education and professions

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Philip Hart describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Philip Hart talks about his parents' experiences at the University of Kansas in Lawrence, Kansas

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Philip Hart describes his parents' move to Denver, Colorado

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Philip Hart recalls his experiences in the integrated Denver Public Schools

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Philip Hart talks about segregation in Denver, Colorado

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Philip Hart describes his father's career at the Denver Housing Authority

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Philip Hart remembers George L. Brown and Sonny Liston

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Philip Hart remembers his classmates at East High School in Denver, Colorado

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Philip Hart describes his elementary school experiences in Denver, Colorado

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Philip Hart describes his early interest in athletics

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Philip Hart remembers his teachers in the Denver Public Schools

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Philip Hart talks about his early athletic career

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Philip Hart describes his family life in Denver, Colorado

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Philip Hart remembers his parents' discipline

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Philip Hart describes his basketball career at Colorado College in Colorado Springs, Colorado

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Philip Hart recalls his position at the Office of Economic Opportunity

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Philip Hart describes his involvement in civil rights activities

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Philip Hart talks about his interracial relationships

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Philip Hart talks about his student activism at Michigan State University in East Lansing, Michigan

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Philip Hart recalls his U.S. military deferment from the Vietnam War

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Philip Hart describes his graduate thesis on decision making

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Philip Hart describes his decision to move to Boston, Massachusetts

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Philip Hart talks about his role at the Federation of Boston Community Schools

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Philip Hart describes his early experiences as an administrator

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Philip Hart talks about his teaching career at the University of Massachusetts Boston

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Philip Hart remembers building a facility for the Digital Equipment Corporation in Boston, Massachusetts

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Philip Hart recalls developing the BioSquare center in Boston, Massachusetts

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Philip Hart talks about his article, 'Planning for a Racially Diverse America'

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Philip Hart talks about the redevelopment of urban communities of color

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Philip Hart describes his role in the biotechnology industry

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Philip Hart recalls his early research on African American aviators

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Philip Hart describes his research on the history of African American aviators

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Philip Hart talks about William J. Powell

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Philip Hart talks about the Bessie Coleman Aero Club and James Banning

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Philip Hart talks about his daughter

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Philip Hart describes his brothers' careers

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Philip Hart describes his plans for the future

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Philip Hart talks about the West Angeles Church of God in Christ in Los Angeles, California, pt. 1

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Philip Hart talks about the West Angeles Church of God in Christ in Los Angeles, California, pt. 2

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Philip Hart talks about his mother's career in the Denver Public Schools

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Philip Hart recalls his family's musical activities

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Philip Hart reflects upon his parents' legacy

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Philip Hart reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Philip Hart reflects upon his life

Robert F. Smith

Investment chief executive Robert Frederick Smith was born on December 1, 1962 in Denver, Colorado to educators Dr. William Robert Smith and Dr. Sylvia Myrna Smith. Smith attended Carson Elementary School and Gove Jr. High School in Denver. He then graduated from Denver East High School in 1981 and Cornell University with his B.S. degree in chemical engineering in 1986. He worked as an engineer for Air Products and Chemicals, The Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company and Kraft General Foods. Smith was the principal inventor on two United States and two European patents. Smith received his M.B.A. degree with a concentration in finance and marketing from Columbia Business School in 1994.

After business school, Smith joined Goldman Sachs in mergers and acquisitions department in New York and then moved to San Francisco in 1997 to initiate Goldman Sachs’ merger and acquisition efforts there. As co-head of Enterprise Systems and Storage, he oversaw $50 billion in merger and acquisition activity with the following companies: Apple, Microsoft, Texas Instruments, eBay and Yahoo. Smith left Goldman Sachs in 2000 to found his own company, Vista Equity Partners LLC. In 2015, the HEC-Dow Jones Private Equity Performance Ranking named Vista Equity Partners LLC as one of the industry’s top performers.

Smith was a member of the Leadership Circle for the Martin Luther King, Jr. Memorial and an active supporter of the organization Children’s Opportunities for Music Participation. He was also Chairman of the Board of the Robert F. Kennedy Center, a member of the Cornell Engineering College Council, a trustee at Columbia Business School, trustee of the Boys and Girls Clubs in San Francisco, and a board member of Carnegie Hall. Smith also received honorary doctorates from American University and Huston-Tillotson University.

Smith received the Reginald F. Lewis Achievement Award, the Ripple of Hope Award from the Robert F. Kennedy Center for Justice and Human Rights, the Humanitarian of the Year Award from the Robert Toigo Foundation, the Award of Excellence from the National Association of Investment Companies, and the Columbia University BBSA Distinguished Alumni Award. Smith, a well known philanthropist, donated $30 million to the National Museum of African American History and Culture and $50 million to Cornell University.

Smith and his wife, Hope Dworaczyk, have one son, Hendrix Robert Smith, and he has three children, Zoe Suzanne Smith, Eliana Frederick Smith and Maximos Robert Smith, from a prior marriage.

Robert F. Smith was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on August 10, 2015.

Accession Number

A2015.002

Sex

Male

Interview Date

8/10/2015

Last Name

Smith

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Frederick

Schools

Carson Elementary School

Gove Junior High School

East High School

Cornell University

Columbia University

First Name

Robert

Birth City, State, Country

Denver

HM ID

SMI32

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Colorado

Favorite Vacation Destination

Home in Colorado

Favorite Quote

You Are Enough As You Are, Discover The Joys Of Figuring Things Out, Love Is What Matters

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Texas

Birth Date

12/1/1962

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Austin

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Gumbo, Peach Cobbler, Mexican Food

Short Description

Investment chief executive Robert F. Smith (1962 - ) was the founder, chairman, and chief executive officer of Vista Equity Partners LLC, and founder of Project Realize.

Employment

Air Products and Chemicals

The Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company

Kraft General Foods

Goldman, Sachs & Co.

Vista Equity Partners, LLC

Fund II Foundation

Project Realize

Favorite Color

Purple

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Robert F. Smith's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Robert F. Smith lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Robert F. Smith talks about his paternal family ancestry

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Robert F. Smith talks about his father's childhood in Lincoln Hills, Colorado, the first resort community founded by African Americans in 1922

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Robert F. Smith describes his mother

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Robert F. Smith talks about his maternal family ancestry

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Robert F. Smith describes his parents' belief in uplifting the African American community through education

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Robert F. Smith describes his mother's upbringing in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Robert F. Smith talks about his father's experience growing up in Denver, Colorado

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Robert F. Smith describes how his parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Robert F. Smith talks briefly about his older brother

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Robert F. Smith describes a number of his earliest childhood memories

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Robert F. Smith remembers becoming aware of racism

Tape: 1 Story: 14 - Robert F. Smith describes the sights, sounds, and smells of his neighborhood in East Denver, Colorado, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Robert F. Smith talks about his and his brother's golf ball business

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Robert F. Smith remembers the Civil Rights Movement and murder of his uncle

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Robert F. Smith describes the sights, sounds and smells of his neighborhood in East Denver, Colorado pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Robert F. Smith describes his personality as a child

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Robert F. Smith explains what influenced his interest in business and talks about his childhood entrepreneurial ventures

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Robert F. Smith describes his older brother

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Robert F. Smith explains how he got an internship at Bell Labs Development Company

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Robert F. Smith describes his experience as an intern at Bell Labs

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Robert F. Smith explains how his time at Bell Labs inspired the idea of having a software and technology-based business of his own

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Robert Smith describes his experience at Harrington Kindergarten and being bused to Carson Elementary School

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Robert F. Smith describes his experience at Carson Elementary School, Columbine Elementary School, and University Park Elementary School

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Robert F. Smith talks about his experience at Gove Junior High School in Denver, Colorado

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Robert F. Smith talks about the student body demographic and racist microaggressions in middle and high school

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Robert F. Smith describes his childhood summers

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Robert F. Smith talks about socioeconomic inequalities between Denver's black and white demographics

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Robert F. Smith talks about the Minority Introduction to Engineering program for high school students at Cornell University

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Robert F. Smith talks about the college application process and choosing Cornell University in Ithaca, New York

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Robert F. Smith talks about the Committee on Special education Projects [COSEP] pre-freshman program at Cornell University

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Robert F. Smith talks about pledging Alpha Phi Alpha

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Robert F. Smith talks about black Greek life at Cornell University in Ithaca, New York

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Robert F. Smith talks about his experience in the engineering school at Cornell University in Ithaca, New York

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Robert F. Smith talks about winning the Procter and Gamble Technical Excellence Award and interning at the Rocky Flats plant

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Robert F. Smith describes the chemical engineering curriculum at Cornell University in Ithaca, New York

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Robert F. Smith talks about graduating from Cornell University and working for Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Robert F. Smith describes his experience in the Squadron program at Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Robert F. Smith talks about his tenure at Air Products and Chemicals Inc. developing food packaging and preservation products

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Robert F. Smith talks about mechanical engineering, product development, and his patented inventions at Goodyear and Kraft General Foods

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Robert F. Smith talks about developing microprocessor controlled coffee brewing equipment

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Robert F. Smith talks about his tenure at Kraft General Foods

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - Robert F. Smith talks briefly about the death of his father

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Robert F. Smith talks about getting into the J.D. MBA program at Columbia University in New York, New York

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Robert F. Smith describes meeting John Utendahl and transitioning into investment banking

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Robert F. Smith explains why he went to Goldman Sachs Group, Inc.

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Robert F. Smith talks about developing the "real-life training program" for the mergers and acquisitions department at Goldman Sachs

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Robert F. Smith talks briefly about working at Kraft General Foods between semesters of graduate school

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Robert F. Smith lists figures in the mergers and acquisitions department at Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. in the 1990s

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Robert F. Smith describes working on hostile takeover deals

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Robert F. Smith describes the role emotional intelligence plays in the investment banking

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Robert F. Smith lists the African American partners at Goldman Sachs in the 1990s

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Robert F. Smith talks about his relationship with Gene Sykes and developing an M&A department in technology for Goldman Sachs in San Francisco, California

Tape: 5 Story: 11 - Robert F. Smith talks about creating the first Goldman Sachs mergers and acquisitions department in technology in San Francisco, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 12 - Robert F. Smith talks briefly about research analyst and HistoryMaker Charles Phillips

Tape: 5 Story: 13 - Robert F. Smith talks about creating the first Goldman Sachs mergers and acquisitions department in technology in San Francisco, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Robert F. Smith describes the competitive environment at Goldman Sachs Group, Inc.

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Robert F. Smith describes his introduction to Universal Computer Systems

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Robert F. Smith describes advising Universal Computer Systems and founding his investment firm, Vista Equity Partners, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Robert F. Smith describes advising Universal Computer Systems and founding his investment firm, Vista Equity Partners, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Robert F. Smith explains how Vista Equity Partners survived the market crash

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Robert F. Smith talks about profit potential in the enterprise software market

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Robert F. Smith describes the Vista Equity Partners client selection process

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Robert F. Smith talks about racial and ethnic diversity in investment banking and at Vista Equity Partners

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Robert F. Smith talks about Vista Equity's first fund

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Robert F. Smith describes the pay structure for partners at Vista Equity Partners

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Robert F. Smith describes the Vista Equity Partners business model

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Robert F. Smith revisits mistakes he made in Vista Equity's first decade

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Robert F. Smith talks about aggregating Ventyx and MDSI to build the world's largest independent utility software company

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Robert F. Smith talks about Vista Equity's investment in Aspect Call Center Software Solutions

Tape: 7 Story: 9 - Robert F. Smith talks about the use of learning management systems in hiring processes, and investing in learning management systems software

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Robert F. Smith talks about his client Sunquest, an enterprise software company in hospital lab systems

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Robert F. Smith talks about the 2012 Misys and Turaz merger

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Robert F. Smith talks about the protection of Vista Equity's intellectual property and standard operating procedures

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - Robert F. Smith talks about innovation in the enterprise software market

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - Robert F. Smith explains surviving the economic crashes in 2008 and 2009

Tape: 8 Story: 6 - Robert F. Smith talks about competitors in the enterprise software market

Tape: 8 Story: 7 - Robert F. Smith describes his plan to establish permanent capital for Vista Equity Partners to grow the company

Tape: 8 Story: 8 - Robert F. Smith talks about using data processing aptitude testing to evaluate potential hires

Tape: 8 Story: 9 - Robert F. Smith talks about raising money from state pension funds for Vista Equity Partners

Tape: 8 Story: 10 - Robert F. Smith talks about purchasing and expanding the Lincoln Hills resort community in Colorado, and community programming at the property, pt.1

Tape: 9 Story: 1 - Robert F. Smith describes the history of the Lincoln Hills African-American resort community in Colorado

Tape: 9 Story: 2 - Robert F. Smith talks about purchasing and expanding the Lincoln Hills resort community in Colorado, and community programming at the property, pt. 2

Tape: 9 Story: 3 - Robert F. Smith talks about his family

Tape: 9 Story: 4 - Robert F. Smith explains free-market philanthropy and talks about his free consulting business, Project Realize

Tape: 9 Story: 5 - Robert F. Smith talks about race relations in contemporary American society

Tape: 9 Story: 6 - Robert F. Smith considers his legacy

Tape: 9 Story: 7 - Robert F. Smith considers the legacy of his generation and contemporary human rights issues

Tape: 9 Story: 8 - Robert F. Smith considers his hopes and concerns for the future African American demographic

DASession

1$1

DATape

1$7

DAStory

14$7

DATitle
Robert F. Smith describes the sights, sounds, and smells of his neighborhood in East Denver, Colorado, pt. 1
Robert F. Smith talks about aggregating Ventyx and MDSI to build the world's largest independent utility software company
Transcript
So can you, can we go back to that, that neighborhood? Now, you lived there how long?$$Until I pretty much graduated from high school [Denver East High School, Denver, Colorado].$$Okay, okay, so you--so can you describe the neighborhood? You've talked about some--(simultaneous)--$$Sure.$$--sights, but can you--I'd like to know even the sights--I wanna know about the neighborhood, but I also want to know the sights, smells and sounds that remind you of growing up?$$Sure, I lived, we lived on the corner of 26th and Cook [Denver, Colorado]. And it was across the street from City Park Golf Course, which is why all my friends play golf, I think (laughter). And that's why I started one of my first businesses collecting and selling golf balls because they'd hit them into our yard, and I'd polish them up and go back out there and resell them back to the golfers, and, you know, make a good, good living that way as a young boy. I lived across the street from Gary Rose [ph.] who was one of our, you know, state representatives, and next door to George Brown [ph.] who was the first black Lieutenant Governor in the State of Colorado. We had a Pullman porter who lived in our neighborhood, you know, Mr. Moore [ph.]. Then, Miss Buzby [ph.] lived down the street from us. I'm not quite sure what she did now that I'm thinking about it. But then, we had a couple who were dentists, and another family who was a contractor. My best friend, his dad was a, you know, a general contractor. We had a real estate agent, you know, a guy ran, owned his own real estate company, Dave Smith who was a big real estate company in the area. So it was, it was a true middle-class, American neighborhood that was, you know, 98 percent African American growing up. Our neighborhood was filled with lots of kids, like all neighborhoods were then. And, you know, you kinda had little block, block-by-block type loyalties, but as you grew up and you had the ability to go and meet more kids, you figured out they're pretty much like you and then you have races in the streets which was always a lot of fun. And you'd get together, and you'd have a football game over on the golf course in the evening, and, you know, it'd be twelve on twelve as substitutes. I mean it was that many kids (laughter) running around, which was actually pretty neat. And then the sights and sounds. Growing up in Colorado, it was always, you know, hey, it's a beautiful state, and you get, you know, decent and, you know, variable weather. So, you know, sometimes in October you'd have a two-foot snowstorm or in May, you'd have a three-foot snowstorm. Or sometimes in December, the sky would be blue, and it's 78 degrees. And that was one of the joys of being here. One thing about Colorado, it's always had blue skies. You get the snow, but then it'd clear up. And so it was a very happy, feeling place. You got a lot of sunshine. You had an opportunity to go out and, you know, we would ride our bikes during the summers all day. You know, you'd get on the bike. You would leave in the morning, and pack a sandwich, and, you know, and, and go. And, you know, I'm surprised our parents let us do that. I don't know if they knew we were doing that. We'd just get on bikes and just ride, and, you know, just you had to be home before the street lights were on, right. We had neighborhood stores, and I remember there was one store, he used to crack me up, Mr. McGee [ph.]. He'd make the best hamburgers, but he'd go down and he'd sell golf balls and earn some money and you'd go down to his store, and his hamburgers were like $0.50 cents. And you'd go in and say, "All right, Mr. McGee, I'd like a hamburger.". And, you know, you sit down at the counter, and then he'd give you--he'd say, it's $0.50 cents. You give him $0.50 cents, and he'd give you a dime. Then you had to go to the store, which was down the block, and go get a quarter pound of meat (laughter) hamburger. And then you'd bring it back to him. (Laughter) And then he'd make a hamburger for you, right. (Laughter) And, and you'd sit there and watch him cook that up. So that was actually a lot of, that was kind of funny. It's one of the stories I tell my kids. That was a guy who really understood "just-in-time inventory" management systems for sure.$I wanna talk about some of your most significant deals.$$Okay, I think one of the most significant, Aspect's [Aspect Software, Inc.] one, is an interesting one. Ventyx [Energy, LLC] is an interesting one. There's a bunch of 'em, but I, you know, in terms of--you know, one of the reasons I like Ventyx, it tells a very interesting narrative. Ventyx, we ultimately sold to ABB [Group], made about five times our money on it.$$So, you bought it at what?$$No, so that's why it's interesting.$$Okay.$$So the first piece of that was a company called MBSI which was a publicly-traded company in Toronto [Canada] on the Toronto Stock Exchange, actually based in Western Canada. And it basically was software that's used in the utility systems business. So you know when the power pole goes down, somebody has to say, well, what guys on what trucks have the right materials to go get to that power pole and fix it. Okay, so it's a services type business, but software. We bought that company, okay, took it private for $46 million. And then there was a publicly-traded company in the U.S. called (NDES?). (NDES?) actually had a different sort (unclear) when it's long, you call it, you know, long cycle and short cycle. Short cycle is stuff that happens in a day. Long cycle is, you know, the, you know, your cable guy, you know, you book it three days later. He's gonna come between the hours of noon and four o'clock. I'm not responsible if he came at five o'clocl, but, you know (laughter), that sort of stuff. But also, in terms of maintenance and for utilities, okay. So maintenance and so if you have a utility, you got generating assets. You now have to perform maintenance on 'em. Sometimes you gotta change out the pump or the capacitor or whatever. Well, how do you actually have those--there has to be systems. You gotta lock this out first, turn this left, do this before you do this, and then you have to go backward in order to get it back up and running. Well, that works, you know, any time you're doing maintenance, you should have those sort of steps for safety reasons and doing it right. So they had that kind of software. So we merged those two. Then we added another couple of, one piece out of Siemens [AG], and another couple of add-on acquisitions. So over the course of four years, basically, we put five companies together, okay. Now, why this is significant because doing that we actually aggregated and built the largest independent utility software company in the world. And we took a company that was basically break even, losing money to doing, you know, 25 [percent] going to 40 [percent], going to 50 percent EBITDA [earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization] margins. And it was run by, so that one of our first deals was a company called SourceNet [Solutions], and the two founders and principals of that business, once we sold that company, we made 2.6 times our money, we had then run Ventyx. Over that four-year period of time, created a business that we then sold to ABB for $1.2 billion. It made basically a billion dollars in profit. Those two principals--this is why this is interesting, Vince Burkett who was a CEO back at SourceNet, became the CEO there, and Bret Bolin, who was the CFO at SourceNet became CFO there. Vince is now a operating partner at Vista and Bret has managed five companies for us and now is on the board of the sixth and will likely come back as an operating partner later. That's an excellent story. And it's not just the story of how we put these businesses together but also invested in these managers, and also built this VCG engine below to help, you know, do the construction, but also out of that we have about six managers who came out of their tutelage who now run other companies of ours. That's how that market, or that's how our model works. And that's how we get leverage in our model. So while not our highest returning deal at five times cash-on-cash, not a bad one, top in the world, okay, it demonstrates what Vista's about, operational improvement, excellence in execution, development of talent, high returns and an expansion of our network.

Alysia Tate

Journalist Alysia Diane Tate was born on August 7, 1972 in Denver, Colorado. Her mother, Tamra Tate, was a journalist; her father, George Tate, a counselor, professor and former minister. Tate grew up in Denver, Colorado where she attended Park Hill Elementary School, Smiley Middle School, and East High School. In 1994, she graduated from Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois with her B.S. degree in journalism.

Upon graduation, Tate was hired as a reporter for the Daily Herald in Chicago, Illinois. Then, in 1998, she moved to The Chicago Reporter, where she worked as a reporter before being promoted to senior editor. In 2001, Tate was appointed editor and publisher of The Chicago Reporter, where she led the editorial, fundraising and marketing efforts of the publication. From 2008 to 2011, she served as chief operating officer of the Community Renewal Society, a faith-based, social justice organization that publishes two independent magazines, including The Chicago Reporter. In 2013, Tate was hired as a policy advisor and speechwriter for Illinois Attorney General Lisa Madigan. In addition, she has worked as a project and communications consultant, whose clients have included the Chicago Community Trust, the Lloyd A. Fry Foundation and the University of Illinois at Chicago’s College of Education.

Tate has been active in a number of civic organizations, including the Chicago Network, Leadership Greater Chicago, and Re-evaluation Counseling, an international, volunteer-based peer counseling and social change organization. She served on the board of DePaul University’s Institute for Business and Professional Ethics, and has served on the advisory board of Illinois Issues, a public affairs magazine published by the Center for State Policy and Leadership at the University of Illinois at Springfield. Tate also served on the Local School Council of the William H. Ray Elementary School in Chicago’s Hyde Park neighborhood.

Tate has received recognition for her work including the Clarion Award from the National Association for Women in Communications; the Unity Award in Media from Lincoln University; and the Award of Excellence from the Chicago Association of Black Journalists. She was listed as one of Ebony magazine’s leaders to watch in 2008; was a Leadership Greater Chicago fellow in 2004; and was included in the 2002 “40 Under 40” listing in Crain’s Chicago Business. Tate also served as an Edgar Fellow in 2014, joining a bi-partisan group of emerging leaders exploring policy issues affecting the state of Illinois

Alysia Tate was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on October 21, 2014.

Accession Number

A2014.252

Sex

Female

Interview Date

10/21/2014 |and| 6/10/2018

Last Name

Tate

Maker Category
Marital Status

Divorced

Middle Name

Diane

Occupation
Schools

Park Hill Elementary School

McAuliffe International School

East High School

Northwestern University

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Alysia

Birth City, State, Country

Denver

HM ID

TAT03

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Colorado

Favorite Vacation Destination

Somewhere Warm

Favorite Quote

It Is What It Is.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Illinois

Birth Date

8/7/1972

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Chicago

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Chocolate

Short Description

Journalist Alysia Tate (1972 - ) was the editor and publisher of The Chicago Reporter. She also served as a policy advisor and speechwriter for Illinois Attorney General Lisa Madigan.

Employment

Office of the Illinois Attorney General

Community Renewal Society

The Chicago Reporter (a program of CBS)

The Chicago Reporter

Favorite Color

Teal

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Alysia Tate's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Alysia Tate lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Alysia Tate describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Alysia Tate describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Alysia Tate talks about her father's education

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Alysia Tate describes how her parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Alysia Tate talks about her parents' activism

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Alysia Tate talks about her parents' relationship

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Alysia Tate talks about her father's decision to leave the church

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Alysia Tate describes her parents' personalities and who she takes after, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Alysia Tate describes her parents' personalities and who she takes after, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Alysia Tate describes her earliest childhood memory

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Alysia Tate remembers spending time with her father

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Alysia Tate describes the Park Hill neighborhood of Denver, Colorado

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Alysia Tate describes her early educational experiences

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Alysia Tate talks about the development of her racial identity

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Alysia Tate talks about her influential teachers

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Alysia Tate remembers her extracurricular activities

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Alysia Tate talks about her experiences at East High School in Denver, Colorado

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Alysia Tate recalls her decision to attend Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Alysia Tate describes the racial cliques at East High School in Denver, Colorado

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Alysia Tate talks about Malcolm X's impact on her life

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Alysia Tate describes the African American student community at Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Alysia Tate remembers the black faculty at Northwestern University

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Alysia Tate talks about the racial politics at Northwestern University

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Alysia Tate talks about her experiences in a white sorority at Northwestern University

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Alysia Tate talks about her political activism at Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Alysia Tate remembers resigning from the Gamma Phi Beta Sorority

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Alysia Tate talks about the development of her feminism

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Alysia Tate talks about the problem of sexual assault at Northwestern University

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Alysia Tate remembers being targeted in an investigation at Northwestern University

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Alysia Tate talks about the discrimination against black women

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Alysia Tate remembers the O.J. Simpson trial

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Alysia Tate remembers changing her major from theater to journalism

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Alysia Tate remembers her internship at The Boston Globe

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Alysia Tate remember joining the staff of the Daily Herald

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Alysia Tate remembers accepting a position at the Chicago Reporter

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Alysia Tate remembers the World Conference Against Racism in Durban, South Africa

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Alysia Tate remembers Barack Obama's political career in Illinois

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Alysia Tate talks about her introduction into city politics in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Alysia Tate talks about reporting on the murder of Ryan Harris

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Alysia Tate reflects upon the need for mental health reparations

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Alysia Tate talks about housing discrimination in Chicago, Illinois

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$5

DAStory

9$2

DATitle
Alysia Tate talks about her political activism at Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois
Alysia Tate remembers the World Conference Against Racism in Durban, South Africa
Transcript
This is what I call my militant phase (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) So, this is a transition--I know when we first started talking about college, you said that you felt that you had to choose an allegiance--$$Yes.$$--and you volunteered to choose the black side of the coin because that's the way the political straddle and everything was set up at Northwestern [Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois] and it was a good time to just go and make that transition.$$Yeah.$$But, it seems it's becoming--it's a more gradual change than just--you didn't just change when you got there, right?$$No, no. It was definitely--it was a number of factors. I mean, it was also, you know, being in Chicago [Illinois]. Well, I mean, I'm in Evanston [Illinois], but I'm, you know, surrounded by the City of Chicago. For the first time, I'm really getting close to my, my sister [Karen Tate Warner] who grew up on the South Side of Chicago and still lives at 84th [Street] and Michigan [Avenue].$$So, had you met her before?$$I had met her before. Now, we're fifteen years apart.$$Okay.$$So, she used to come to Denver [Colorado] to visit our dad when I was little and she was a teenager, but then she had her first child at age twenty. So, you know, I was in kindergarten when she had her first child. But, I, I remember, you know, visits with her from time to time, but we had never really been able to get close. So, now we're getting close, I'm taking the train, the Purple Line south until it turns into the Red Line south all the way to the South Side, and you know what happens when you see--you know, when you ride the CTA [Chicago Transit Authority] from the north to the south of Chicago, it just gets black and black and blacker until it's completely black. So, I'm--so I'm--this is the first time I'm in a city like this. This is the first time I'm in a metropolitan area with this kind of numbers of black people, with this kind of history of black leadership, you know, with Har- you know, the, the legacy of Harold Washington. So, it's--so, it's all of that, too, is happening while I'm at the school. I, I get involved in Re-evaluation Counseling, which is a peer counseling social change organization I'm still very involved with. But, but that organization is so much about challenging oppression and providing spaces and places for us to undo the effects of oppression, so I, I get connected through that through a group called Students Together Against Racial Tension, START, on campus. So, so I'm--you know, it's kind of--all these things build on each other. And, and yet, my family had no idea what to do with me. I mean, my white family had no idea what to do (laughter) with me 'cause I was--suddenly, I was angry and I was--you know, remember X--the X caps, the Malcolm X caps. You know, I had my Malcolm X stuff and like--they're like, "Who is this person? Like, what happened to her?" (Laughter) You know? So, but it was important for me to get to explore all of that and test that out and learn about that. And so I remember--you know, we had a march, the black students on campus after Rodney King. We just all dressed in black and we marched to the bursar's office and I don't know if we raised our fists in the air or if we just turned our back on the administration; I'm not sure what we did, but we were just, you know, showing our, our solidarity with Rodney King. It may have been after all of the unrest in Los Angeles [California] that we did that. I remember participating in anti-apartheid marches, you know, through Evanston and, you know, being someone involved in that--in that movement. So, all of this, this--these were just things I had never been exposed to before. And some of it was I was just at that age where you can start doing these kinds of things, but it was also the place I was in and the time--the time that I was in.$I want to ask about two things before we get you started at The Reporter [The Chicago Reporter].$$Okay.$$One is the conference in Durban, South Africa.$$Yeah, 2001?$$Yeah, the United Nations World Conference against Racism [World Conference against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance], which is a--how did you get involved in that and what happened there?$$That was through Re-evaluation Counseling. I mentioned the peer counseling social change organization I got involved with in college, that organization, we set up a project called United to End Racism and actually registered for that conference as an NGO [non-governmental organization] and sent a delegation of, of folks from our organization. So, so, Re-evaluation Counseling, RC, is a--pretty much a volunteer based group that has folks involved in--I think now we're--there are people in eighty some countries in the world, so it's an international, very grassroots kind of organization. But, from time to time, we've used this structure of United to End Racism to bring people together to share these tools and this information we have about how to heal from the effects of racism and other oppressions. So, it was a really amazing delegation of people from all over the world, different ages, different backgrounds, all kinds of things, and we did a whole series of different workshops, again, on, you know, recovering from the damage done by racism, for, for all these different groups. We even had workshops for white people on, you know, recovering from the damage done by racism 'cause we, we really put our thinking forward really around three different ways that racism affects people. I mean, one is the actual, you know--we don't believe in reverse racism and I personally don't believe in this thing called reverse racism, but I believe that, you know, there is an economic and--yeah, an economic exploitation of people, people of color around the world that's justified in the name of racism, that's one thing. Then, I believe, you know, there--that we as people of color internalize all of that and turn it against each other and ourselves, i.e., you know, black men killing each other in Chicago [Illinois]. And lastly, though, I think the humanity of white people is deeply, deeply affected by racism if you're taught to be an oppressor, if you're taught to perpetuate this horrible thing. If you're taught to believe its lies, that's deeply injurious to you as a human being and you have to actually tackle it on all those fronts for it to work. You can't do this like white people are evil thing or, you know, whatever. So, we did workshops--we did a series of workshops on all those different kind of flavors of racism with young people, with women, with, I don't know, Jews, gentiles, you know, how racism intersects with anti-Semitism. Anti-Semitism was a huge issue at that conference, honestly. Anti-Semitism is used as a wedge issue always to, to grab our attention and get us focused on blaming a group of people, usually Jews, rather than working together to deal with issues, and it was very obvious at that conference how that was playing out. Anyway, so that was an amazing experience. It was amazing to be there. It was amazing to be part of it. It was amazing to see so many thousands of people around the world who really believe that not only must we end racism, but we can by working together that we can actually undo this, that it does not have to be a reality of life forever in perpetuity. So, that was--that was really incredible. It was very unfortunate that 9/11 [September 11, 2001] happened a week or two after that conference, and so the gains from that conference just got kind of, you know, swept under the rug and then we were into 9/11 and justif- using that to justify all kinds of horrible racist policies, you know, at home and abroad. But, that experience, being in Durban, again, was another thing that sort of shaped me in terms of my commitment to tackling racism and speaking out and being visible around it, you know, using The Reporter as a vehicle to do that and using my personal life as a vehicle to do that. You know, I began to really focus on a lot of efforts on building a local community of folks involved with Re-evaluation Counseling who were committed to that work. We've--and we've done really amazing work in, in building a community of people here in Chicago doing that together, a really multiracial, you know, mixed class, mixed generational group of people doing that. So, that conference really gave me a lot of hope and inspiration I think to really know that it was okay to dedicate a lot of my life to this work.

Allan Golston

Foundation executive Allan C. Golston was born in Denver, Colorado in 1967. His father was a mailman; his mother a nurse. Golston’s motivation early in life stemmed from his parents’ work ethic. Golston received his B.S. degree in accounting from the University of Colorado, and later his M.B.A. degree from Seattle University.

Upon graduation from the University of Colorado in 1989, Golston joined KPMG Peat Marwick as a senior auditor. In 1991, he moved to MIS, Inc., as director of business analysis and product development. Golston also taught as an adjunct professor at the Community College of Denver, and, in 1993, returned to his alma mater, joining the University of Colorado Hospital as its director of finance and controller. After four years at the University's hospital, Golston moved to Seattle, Washington, where he became director of finance for Swedish Health Services, the largest health provider in the Pacific Northwest.

In 2000, Golston was approached by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and joined the organization as its chief financial and administrative officer. He went on to serve as a member of the senior executive team for foundation strategy; and, for nine months in 2006, served as the interim executive director of the foundation’s Global Health division. In October of 2006, Golston was named president of the United States Program for the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

Golston has sat on a number of boards, including Stryker Corporation, the University of Washington Medicine, Seattle University, Charter School Growth Fund, MOM Brands, Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI), New Futures, the Artist Trust, Make-A-Wish Foundation of Alaska and Washington, Philanthropy Northwest, and the Public Library of Science. He has served as a resource council member for both the Rainier Scholars program and the Robert Woods Johnson Commission to Build a Healthier America, on the advisory committee for the Northwest African American Museum in Seattle, and on the Resource Council for the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture in Washington, D.C. In addition, Golston was a member of the 2011 class of Henry Crown Fellows at the Aspen Institute and was named to Puget Sound Business Journal’s 40 Under 40 in 2003.

Allan Golston was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on October 3, 2014.

Accession Number

A2014.242

Sex

Male

Interview Date

10/3/2014 |and| 11/24/2014

Last Name

Golston

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Charles

Schools

Stedman Elementary School

Washington Park Elementary

Montclair Elementary School

Kunsmiller Middle School

Place Middle School

George Washington High School

University of Colorado Boulder

Seattle University

First Name

Allan

Birth City, State, Country

Denver

HM ID

GOL03

State

Colorado

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Washington

Birth Date

1/7/1967

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Seattle

Country

United States

Short Description

Foundation executive Allan Golston (1967 - ) was president of the United States Program for the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

Employment

Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation

Swedish Health System

University of Colorado Hospital

MIS, Inc.

KPMG

Community College of Denver

The Honorable Patsy Jo Hilliard

Mayor Patsy Jo Hilliard was born on August 20, 1937 in Denver, Colorado. Her father, Elmer Dudley Morrison II, was a chair car attendant, while her mother, Jessie Morrison, was a model. In 1955, Hilliard graduated from Manual High School in Denver, which she attended with her future husband, Asa Hilliard, III. She took classes at Los Angeles State College and worked as a playground supervisor for the Los Angeles public schools in 1956. Hilliard received her B.A. degree in interdisciplinary social sciences from San Francisco State University in 1976. In 2008, Sojourner-Douglass College in Baltimore, Maryland presented her with an honorary doctorate of humane letters.

Hilliard has a decades-long career working in schools. From 1956 to 1961, she was a summer playground supervisor for the Denver Public School System. In 1964, Hilliard taught first grade at Bright Functions School in Monrovia, Liberia. While in Liberia, she also served as volunteer coordinator for the organization American Women in Liberia. In 1975, Hilliard became the first African American and the first woman board member of the South San Francisco Unified School District, a position she filled until 1980. Hilliard made history again in 1993 when she was elected mayor of East Point, Georgia. She was both the first woman and the first African American ever elected to that position. Hilliard remained mayor until 2006, longer than any other East Point mayor. In 2007, Hilliard hosted a television talk show entitled “In the Know with Patsy Jo.” She now serves as CEO of Waset Educational Production Company, which she founded in collaboration with her husband, and leads educational tours to Egypt with the organization Ancient African Study Tours.

Throughout her career, Hilliard has worked with many organizations, including the East Point Business Association, the Fulton County School District’s Superintendents Advisory Board, the Atlanta Airport Rotary Club, the Atlanta High Museum of Art, and the DeYoung Museum of Art. She has served on the Executive Board for the Atlanta chapter of the NAACP, and has served as President for the Atlanta chapter of Links, Inc. and the Atlanta Alumnae Chapter of Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Inc. Hilliard has received dozens of awards, including the Drum Major for Justice Award from the SCLC, the Torch Award from the Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, and a Public Service Award from Alpha Kappa Alpha. In addition to being counted one of the 100 Most Influential Black Women for six years, she has been inducted into the Atlanta Business League Women’s Hall of Fame.

Hilliard has four children and is the widow of famous historian and EducationMaker Asa G. Hilliard III.

Patsy Jo Hilliard was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on July 15, 2010.

Accession Number

A2010.085

Sex

Female

Interview Date

7/15/2010

Last Name

Hilliard

Marital Status

Widow

Middle Name

Jo

Schools

Whittier ECE-8 School

Cole Junior High School

Manual High School

San Francisco State University

Colorado State University

California State University, Los Angeles

First Name

Patsy

Birth City, State, Country

Denver

HM ID

HIL13

Favorite Season

All Seasons

State

Colorado

Favorite Vacation Destination

Africa, Ghana, Liberia

Favorite Quote

Be True To Thyself.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Birth Date

8/20/1937

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Atlanta

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Chicken, Ice Cream

Short Description

Education administrator and mayor The Honorable Patsy Jo Hilliard (1937 - ) was the first African American and the first female mayor of East Point, Georgia. She served on the Executive Board of the Atlanta NAACP and as President of the Atlanta chapters of The Links, Inc. and Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Inc.

Employment

Denver Public Schools

Los Angeles Public Schools

Bright Functions School

South San Francisco Unified School District

City of East Point, Georgia

Favorite Color

Red

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of The Honorable Patsy Jo Hilliard's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - The Honorable Patsy Jo Hilliard lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - The Honorable Patsy Jo Hilliard describes her father's family background, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - The Honorable Patsy Jo Hilliard describes her father's family background, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - The Honorable Patsy Jo Hilliard remembers her paternal grandmother and step-grandfather

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - The Honorable Patsy Jo Hilliard describes her paternal grandfather and step-grandmother

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - The Honorable Patsy Jo Hilliard talks about her paternal grandparents

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - The Honorable Patsy Jo Hilliard describes her father's personality

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - The Honorable Patsy Jo Hilliard describes her mother

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - The Honorable Patsy Jo Hilliard describes her mother's personality and profession, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - The Honorable Patsy Jo Hilliard describes her mother's personality and profession, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - The Honorable Patsy Jo Hilliard talks about playing bridge

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - The Honorable Patsy Jo Hilliard remembers her mother's charm school in Denver, Colorado

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - The Honorable Patsy Jo Hilliard describes her mother's family background

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - The Honorable Patsy Jo Hilliard describes her earliest childhood memories

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - The Honorable Patsy Jo Hilliard talks about her early religious experiences

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - The Honorable Patsy Jo Hilliard describes her experiences at Whittier Elementary School in Denver, Colorado

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - The Honorable Patsy Jo Hilliard remembers Cole Junior High School in Denver, Colorado

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - The Honorable Patsy Jo Hilliard describes her neighborhood in Denver, Colorado

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - The Honorable Patsy Jo Hilliard talks about integration in Denver, Colorado

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - The Honorable Patsy Jo Hilliard remembers the death of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - The Honorable Patsy Jo Hilliard recalls her classmates and teachers at Manual High School in Denver, Colorado

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - The Honorable Patsy Jo Hilliard talks about her extracurricular activities

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - The Honorable Patsy Jo Hilliard describes her college and professional aspirations

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - The Honorable Patsy Jo Hilliard recalls meeting her husband, Asa Hilliard, III

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - The Honorable Patsy Jo Hilliard describes her experiences at Los Angeles State College of Applied Arts and Sciences

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - The Honorable Patsy Jo Hilliard recalls her introduction to Denver's city politics

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - The Honorable Patsy Jo Hilliard describes her husband's teaching career and research

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - The Honorable Patsy Jo Hilliard recalls her family life in San Francisco, California

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - The Honorable Patsy Jo Hilliard describes her experiences in Liberia

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - The Honorable Patsy Jo Hilliard talks about her civic involvement in Liberia

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - The Honorable Patsy Jo Hilliard recalls founding the Liberian chapter of Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Inc.

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - The Honorable Patsy Jo Hilliard describes her election to the South San Francisco Unified School District board

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - The Honorable Patsy Jo Hilliard talks about her involvement with The Links, Incorporated

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - The Honorable Patsy Jo Hilliard describes her civic activities upon moving to Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - The Honorable Patsy Jo Hilliard recalls her mayoral campaign in East Point, Georgia

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - The Honorable Patsy Jo Hilliard remembers her accomplishments as mayor of East Point, Georgia, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - The Honorable Patsy Jo Hilliard remembers her accomplishments as mayor of East Point, Georgia, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - The Honorable Patsy Jo Hilliard talks about the development of the Camp Creek Marketplace in East Point, Georgia

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - The Honorable Patsy Jo Hilliard remembers her travels with the U.S. Conference of Mayors, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - The Honorable Patsy Jo Hilliard remembers her travels with the U.S. Conference of Mayors, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - The Honorable Patsy Jo Hilliard talks about her work with the National Conference of Black Mayors

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - The Honorable Patsy Jo Hilliard recalls her trips to Egypt

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - The Honorable Patsy Jo Hilliard talks about her radio show, 'In the Know with Patsy Jo'

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - The Honorable Patsy Jo Hilliard remembers her husband's death

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - The Honorable Patsy Jo Hilliard reflects upon her life

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - The Honorable Patsy Jo Hilliard shares her advice for future generations

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - The Honorable Patsy Jo Hilliard talks about her involvement with the NAACP

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - The Honorable Patsy Jo Hilliard narrates her photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$5

DAStory

6$5

DATitle
The Honorable Patsy Jo Hilliard talks about her civic involvement in Liberia
The Honorable Patsy Jo Hilliard remembers her accomplishments as mayor of East Point, Georgia, pt. 1
Transcript
While you're there, you become a part of the American Women in Liberia. What is that that organization does (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) (Laughter) I had to laugh about that. I just did it because they asked me to. But I thought you know why do we need American Women in Liberia? But what happened--I would go to these parties and people would say, "Well, when I was in London [England], we used to do so and so." "When I was in Paris [France], we did so and so." So their whole idea is that there's nothing to do in Liberia. I mean you know there's nothing. These people don't know what they're doing and we can't help out at all. So I thought okay. And that's why I joined the American Women in Liberia 'cause I thought this is what I can add, this whole volunteer thing. So I went to several agencies in Monrovia [Liberia]. And I said, "There's a possibility that you'll get a volunteer," I said, "because you know there are a lot of Americans who are here with their husbands, and they're here for like one or two years. And they're professional. So they wanna do something to enhance their profession, and they want it to be stimulating, and at the same time to help you. So what is it that we can do in your agency that will be helpful to you?" And I wanted to make sure it was their choice because I also found that many of us will go into a situation and say this is what we're going to do whether they want you to do it or not. And I had observed that. So I had lists of things of what agencies wanted us to do. So then I made up the list and I took it back to the organization and so they agreed that we'd circulate this list. So then I was happy to go to cocktail parties and I'd hear that conversation, I'd say, "Well here, it's something right here. Why don't you check on--let me know what you wanna do and I'll get in touch with them." That was really rewarding to me because I didn't have many people complaining about what there was not--what they were not able to do in Liberia. 'Cause I think one of the first things I did is work at a hospital. And I was filling mayonnaise jars with St. Joseph baby aspirins. Now you know I mean I'm sure that's necessary, but surely there's something else I can do that, you know and that's kind--so we changed that whole thing, and I think it was really good and many of the people in Liberia were very happy for that.$$Now--how, how many years did you stay in Liberia?$$Six years, just before I came home, I became a member of the Eastern Star [Order of the Eastern Star]. And that was exciting because I--well I, yeah I was able to go to--they have a temple there. I was in the Queen Esther Chapter [Queen Esther Chapter No. 1] of Eastern Star, and so the temple in Liberia we actually met in. And I think it's been destroyed now you know because of the war [Liberian Civil War]. But it just happened that Mrs. Tubman [Antoinette Tubman] was in our same chapter. And so I had a couple of opportunities to actually go to the mansion and speak with her personally, and that was just a thrill. I tell you it was a thrill of a lifetime.$$Tell me who Mrs. Tubman is.$$She was the wife of President W.V.S. Tubman [William Tubman], who was the president of the country when we got there. He passed away I think in 1970, either '70 [1970] or '71 [1971], but he had been president for some time. And you know they often talk about, you know, how African government should be. But it was in a sen- it was not a totalitarian government, but he had a way with his paramount chiefs. If there was a dispute, he would get together with all the chiefs and they'd settle it. Now how, how they did it, they did it. But it may not be our way, but it was their way. And we need to be respectful of the way other people do things and not insist that they do it our way 'cause it doesn't always work. And I think we're learning that now with some of the confrontations that we're in presently. But it was, it was--I went back for the inauguration two or three years ago with the first president [first female president], Ellen [Ellen Johnson Sirleaf], and that was exciting because I remember President Sirleaf used to come to our house a lot and say what should be happening in Liberia. And she and my husband [HistoryMaker Asa Hilliard, III] would have these long conversations. So when I got a chance to see her when I went back for the inauguration, I said, "Okay, remember all those things that you said? Okay it's your turn to do it." 'Course it's, you know, certainly not that easy and it's difficult as a woman to do things. And she's had to really kind of make some changes in the government. And I think they're having a hard time accepting a female. But I just love that country. We're--I'm an honorary Liberian.$And what were some of the things that you accomplished your first term [as mayor of East Point, Georgia]?$$Well I feel good about, one thing is the library [East Point Branch, East Point, Georgia]. Because we've always had a library, it sits right behind city hall [East Point City Hall, East Point, Georgia], but it really did not have the kind of books that we needed. And we didn't have like where you can go in and read the newspaper or read Ebony magazine or something. It didn't represent the community as it had changed. And so I found out when I first moved here that the county put a library in every city. There were six, six cities in Fulton County [Georgia]. And the, the--and so but on the headlines of the newspaper it said, "East Point says no to Fulton County library." And I could never understand that. So one of the first things I did is meet with the county manager. We had a meeting at my office. And I said, "What can we do to get a library here?" So we started that process. And you know I had some people who didn't want it--but--and that just shows you how people work together because there was a minister, Reverend Fordsman [ph.] at an A.M.E. [African Methodist Episcopal] church came to my office one day and had a big pack of flyers because we had to get people to vote. See what I, what I did is I said let the citizens decide then, you know if we can't decide among ourselves, let's vote. We put--let everybody vote. So then we had to let people know about it. And so you know I had no money, the city didn't have money for this. And he brought this big box of flyers. Then I--there's another man who had an organization of young people in the projects. And I--he had this big bus. And I said, "Reverend, if you'll please bring some of the parents to the board meeting, the board of trustees meeting at the library." 'Cause see they had a board of trustees, both those members were wives of former council members. Nobody even really knew about the meetings, you know they just gonna have their little--and decide what was gone happen with the library. So of course I knew when the meeting was. I said, "I want you to take the people and make a presentation." And they said they, they were so surprised (laughter) when those people got off the bus and went in. So I mean that just shows you, you know if there's some direction, people are willing to do. You know they're willing to do. I mean that's--that was just so gratifying to me. And so we got out the vote and I mean like three to one, people wanted a library. And so they built the library. And we have a--they built a new library. So we were even able to keep the old building, and we have a brand new library. Then the other thing I was able to do is we have a clinic, Grady clinic [East Point Grady Health Center, East Point, Georgia], which--now that's the first time I ever--myself saw people picketing because there was some people who did not want the clinic. They didn't want it there and they were actually walking around the city hall. And I thought what is going on? But you know for some reason or another they didn't want the clinic. And I knew that clinics were now coming to communities rather than you having to go downtown or try to find 'em, and we needed it. So we built it, and it's there. And it just makes me--every time I see it (laughter), I'm happy it's there.

The Honorable Allegra "Happy" Haynes

Allegra Rene “Happy” Haynes was born on March 4, 1953, in Denver, Colorado. Haynes graduated from Denver's East High School in 1971. She received her B.A. degree in political science (with honors) from Barnard College at Columbia University in New York in 1975. Later in life, Haynes returned to school and received her M.A. degree in public affairs from the University of Colorado in 2002. She also attended Leadership Denver, the Denver Community Leadership Forum, the Rocky Mountain Program, and the State and Local Program at Harvard University’s Kennedy School of Government.

Haynes began her tenure with the City of Denver as an aide to former Councilman Bill Roberts in 1979. From 1983 to 1990, Haynes worked as an administrative aide to the former Mayor of Denver, Federico Peña, the city’s first Latino mayor. Haynes served on the Denver City Council from 1990 to 2003 and as council president from 1998 to 2000. She was Denver Mayor John Hickenlooper's liaison to the city council from 2003 to 2005 and she played a key role in the development of Denver International Airport. In October of 2005, Haynes retired from the City of Denver after twenty-six years to join the new superintendent of Denver Public Schools, Michael Bennet, as his assistant for community partnerships. Governor Bill Ritter appointed Haynes to the Colorado Commission on Higher Education in September of 2008.

Haynes resides in the Park Hill neighborhood of Denver. She is single, an avid jazz enthusiast, and enjoys science fiction and gardening. She regularly participates in numerous sports and outdoor activities.

Accession Number

A2008.130

Sex

Female

Interview Date

11/7/2008

Last Name

Haynes

Middle Name

"Happy"

Schools

East High School

Park Hill Elementary School

Barrett Elementary School

Gove Middle School

Barnard College

University of Denver Strum College of Law

University of Colorado Denver

First Name

Allegra

Birth City, State, Country

Denver

HM ID

HAY09

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Colorado

Favorite Vacation Destination

Mexico

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Colorado

Birth Date

3/4/1953

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Denver

Country

United States

Favorite Food

None

Short Description

Academic administrator and city council member The Honorable Allegra "Happy" Haynes (1953 - ) served on the Denver City Council from 1990 to 2003, and as council president from 1998 to 2000. In 2005, she became assistant for community partnerships to the superintendent of Denver Public Schools. Governor Bill Ritter appointed Haynes to the Colorado Commission on Higher Education in September of 2008.

Employment

Young Men's Christian Association

Citizens Advocate office

Denver City Council District 11

Office of the Mayor - City of Denver

Denver City Council

Denver Public Schools

Colorado Parks and Wildlife

Colorado Commission on Higher Education

Favorite Color

Red

Timing Pairs
0,0:462,9:1001,17:1848,32:2156,37:3465,53:4774,71:5082,76:5390,81:6776,126:7238,134:9625,167:9933,172:10549,232:10857,237:16562,261:19046,291:20978,307:38975,589:39315,594:39910,602:40590,608:52442,715:52786,720:54936,749:66546,928:67148,936:68008,957:68524,964:69212,973:69986,984:79287,1043:80156,1055:81262,1071:81578,1076:82605,1095:83553,1104:83869,1113:84343,1121:84975,1131:88451,1183:89636,1198:108188,1394:116422,1464:116862,1470:117566,1480:127820,1590:164935,2067:166105,2086:195000,2376:195445,2382:196068,2390:208146,2541:210382,2579:212274,2616:222480,2704:226800,2736:228560,2786:231280,2829:232560,2857:238400,2971:239040,2981:239520,2988:250341,3092:251445,3109:252342,3140:252687,3146:253929,3173:254412,3182:256482,3267:259794,3313:260070,3318:260622,3341:261657,3361:262278,3372:262554,3377:264486,3435:264762,3440:265038,3445:266556,3482:266901,3488:267660,3501:268350,3517:292760,3784:293390,3796:297890,3875:301130,3922:301490,3927:301940,3933:302930,3949:305540,3986:314734,4077:326550,4210:331620,4304:333600,4311$0,0:225,4:14175,284:14850,294:25482,414:29034,474:39912,761:46350,805:46630,811:46910,816:47960,836:55240,987:57130,1018:70408,1241:85192,1420:96455,1541:97355,1556:107105,1759:107780,1773:123055,2001:140336,2270:141628,2296:166686,2626:171052,2680:171866,2693:175705,2705:178783,2771:182036,2814:182648,2824:197255,3025:197935,3033:204970,3101:205620,3109
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of The Honorable Allegra "Happy" Haynes' interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - The Honorable Allegra "Happy" Haynes lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - The Honorable Allegra "Happy" Haynes describes her mother's family background, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - The Honorable Allegra "Happy" Haynes describes her mother's family background, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - The Honorable Allegra "Happy" Haynes describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - The Honorable Allegra "Happy" Haynes remembers her paternal grandmother's family

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - The Honorable Allegra "Happy" Haynes describes how her parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - The Honorable Allegra "Happy" Haynes describes her earliest childhood memories

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - The Honorable Allegra "Happy" Haynes talks about her Hispanic heritage

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - The Honorable Allegra "Happy" Haynes describes her religious upbringing

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - The Honorable Allegra "Happy" Haynes lists her siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - The Honorable Allegra "Happy" Haynes lists her childhood homes

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - The Honorable Allegra "Happy" Haynes describes the sights, sounds and smells of her childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - The Honorable Allegra "Happy" Haynes remembers her neighborhood friends in Denver, Colorado

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - The Honorable Allegra "Happy" Haynes remembers integrating the Sportland YMCA in Denver, Colorado

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - The Honorable Allegra "Happy" Haynes describes Denver's City Park neighborhood

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - The Honorable Allegra "Happy" Haynes recalls her experiences at Barrett Elementary School

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - The Honorable Allegra "Happy" Haynes remembers her elementary school teacher

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - The Honorable Allegra "Happy" Haynes describes her extracurricular activities

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - The Honorable Allegra "Happy" Haynes describes her experiences at Aaron Gove Junior High School

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - The Honorable Allegra "Happy" Haynes recalls her teachers at Aaron Gove Junior High School

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - The Honorable Allegra "Happy" Haynes remembers the Civil Rights Movement in Denver, Colorado

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - The Honorable Allegra "Happy" Haynes talks about her involvement with the Catholic Church

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - The Honorable Allegra "Happy" Haynes describes her role in student government at Aaron Gove Junior High School

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - The Honorable Allegra "Happy" Haynes describes her protests at Denver's East High School

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - The Honorable Allegra "Happy" Haynes remembers her mentors at East High School

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - The Honorable Allegra "Happy" Haynes talks about the racial climate in Denver, Colorado

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - The Honorable Allegra "Happy" Haynes describes her disinterest in athletics

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - The Honorable Allegra "Happy" Haynes describes her experiences as a debutante

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - The Honorable Allegra "Happy" Haynes remembers her Outward Bound trip to Baja California, Mexico

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - The Honorable Allegra "Happy" Haynes recalls working at The Denver Post

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - The Honorable Allegra "Happy" Haynes describes her aspiration to become a teacher

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - The Honorable Allegra "Happy" Haynes recalls her desire to attend an all-girls college

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - The Honorable Allegra "Happy" Haynes describes her decision to attend Barnard College in New York City

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - The Honorable Allegra "Happy" Haynes remembers her high school trip to Europe

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - The Honorable Allegra "Happy" Haynes talks about founding an impromptu freedom school in Denver, Colorado

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - The Honorable Allegra "Happy" Haynes recalls her experiences in New York City

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - The Honorable Allegra "Happy" Haynes talks about her early interest in politics

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - The Honorable Allegra "Happy" Haynes describes her decision to become a lawyer

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - The Honorable Allegra "Happy" Haynes remembers Barnard College's admission counselor, R. Christine Royer

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - The Honorable Allegra "Happy" Haynes describes her early work within Denver City Council

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - The Honorable Allegra "Happy" Haynes describes her role as an aide in the Denver City Council office

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - The Honorable Allegra "Happy" Haynes talks about her position with Mayor Federico Pena's administration

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - The Honorable Allegra "Happy" Haynes describes the accomplishments of Mayor Federico Pena's administration

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - The Honorable Allegra "Happy" Haynes describes her decision to run for Denver City Council

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - The Honorable Allegra "Happy" Haynes remembers running for Denver City Council

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - The Honorable Allegra "Happy" Haynes talks about Denver's African American and Hispanic mayors

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - The Honorable Allegra "Happy" Haynes describes the development of the Denver International Airport

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - The Honorable Allegra "Happy" Haynes talks about initiating a tax for children's programming

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - The Honorable Allegra "Happy" Haynes describes her role on the welfare reform board

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - The Honorable Allegra "Happy" Haynes remembers her accomplishments on the Denver City Council

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - The Honorable Allegra "Happy" Haynes talks about her international travels

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - The Honorable Allegra "Happy" Haynes recalls her decision to leave law school

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - The Honorable Allegra "Happy" Haynes talks about working with Denver Mayor John Hickenlooper

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - The Honorable Allegra "Happy" Haynes describes her role in Denver Public School's Community Partnerships

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - The Honorable Allegra "Happy" Haynes talks about her appointments to state boards

Tape: 6 Story: 11 - The Honorable Allegra "Happy" Haynes remembers the 2008 Democratic National Convention

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - The Honorable Allegra "Happy" Haynes talks about President Barack Obama's presidency

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - The Honorable Allegra "Happy" Haynes reflects upon her life

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - The Honorable Allegra "Happy" Haynes describes her interest in jazz music

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - The Honorable Allegra "Happy" Haynes talks about her organizational board affiliations

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - The Honorable Allegra "Happy" Haynes reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - The Honorable Allegra "Happy" Haynes describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - The Honorable Allegra "Happy" Haynes shares her advice for future generations

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - The Honorable Allegra "Happy" Haynes narrates her photographs

DASession

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DATape

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DAStory

6$5

DATitle
The Honorable Allegra "Happy" Haynes describes her protests at Denver's East High School
The Honorable Allegra "Happy" Haynes remembers her accomplishments on the Denver City Council
Transcript
You were getting ready to enter high school, and you said you attended East High School [Denver, Colorado]?$$Um-hm.$$Okay, so tell me about the transition from junior high school [Aaron Gove Junior High School, Denver, Colorado] to high school.$$Oh, I was just anxious you know to, to go to high school and very excited about going to East, I mean you know growing up in our neighborhood that was, you know that was a big dream. And you know it just had a great reputation, and of course all of the older students, you know kids who lived in the neighborhood had gone to East and so I was very excited about going there. And I knew there were a lot of active, you know, students at East and so I, you know I became very involved in you know student activism you know, you know as soon as I, as soon as I got there as a, as a sophomore. You know it was part of the times when student, student activists, activism and on camp- on college campuses and on high school campuses around the country, and East was no exception. East was, you know, an interesting school you know very integrated, and in fact had been for quite a number of years, one of the few you know naturally integrated schools in the country and really you know prided itself on the diversity of the student body. But, you know we were at the cusp of the, you know the, of the Black Student Movement in my first year at East High School. And so I got involved in a lot of things you know. I think my first couple of months in school I became involved with a bunch of seniors in an initiative to change our dress code, because girls had to wear you know dresses still to school and we wanted to be able to wear pants, and so, so we you know mounted a campaign and you know did petitions and you know went to the administration, to the principal [Robert Colwell]. We, we actually succeeded after a month or two of this campaign to get the dress code changed at, at East. You know, but my poor mother [Anna Garcia Haynes] she was just like you know here we are your first two months of school couldn't you just, you know, do your homework and do your work, do you have to you know cause trouble so soon. But, you know those were the times and I became also involved that very first semester in forming the Black Student Alliance with a number of other friends, turned out to be mostly seniors, but you know we were still dealing with the after effects of the assassination of Dr. King [Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.] and the fact that you know that the, the school was the community. You know the, you know the schools had really you know tried to suppress you know the feelings and the concerns and you know what, you know what was on students' minds. And I, I think that just stirred, you know, the activism all the more. I mean I think that's why, you know, people came to you know the reality of you know we're, we're gonna have to, you know these issues are gonna have to be raised more if, if, if there's a lesson here we've gotta pay more attention and more has to happen, you know, to acknowledge the, you know, the contributions of people in the, you know in the black community. And you know we began to think of you know how little, you know here we were in these schools and you know we weren't even, you know they didn't want us to talk about you know the one person hero that we really did know well. And we, you know began to realize you know we don't know much about the rest of these you know the other folks in our culture, in our history, and, and so you know we, we pushed for having Afro American history, which you know wasn't being taught in public schools in, in Denver [Colorado] at that time. And so we organized our Black Student Alliance and then we, you know we made some demands on the school on a number of things, but including you know the fact that we wanted Afro American history and you know we wanted--we had, we had some black teachers in the school, again playing a very similar role you know, you know looking out for all of us, not only looking out for us, but making sure that we were doing what we were supposed to be doing, you know we were there to get an education, that we would do well, and so there were and it was tumultuous times at East, while I, I was there in the midst of a lot of things.$Was that the second, 'cause you said three initiatives, and I'm sorry I just asked you, but was that one of them (simultaneous)?$$(Simultaneous) There were a couple, you know I also sponsored a, an initiative to introduce a living wage. A living wage ordinance was something that was occurring across this country, and the idea of having, you know, a minimum wage in our, our city that was different than you know other places in the state it was, you know it was, you know considered an anti-business you know sort of move. You know I had a very good relationship with the business community and you know worked very collaboratively with them on the airport [Denver International Airport, Denver, Colorado] and you know, you know economic development over the years. But, I felt strongly that, you know, just, just because you know we would be the only city and you know it would put us at a disadvantage to, to suggest that you know we shouldn't do what was right, what we thought was right in providing a wage that people could actually, you know, raise a family and pay their rent and put food on the table was, you know, something I believed strongly in and so you know that was sort of another, one of the against the odds initiatives that I was in- involved in and you know I didn't succeed early on, but you know as I said later on, you know, we were able, you know it became a broader issue, more people in the community became engaged and you know I, I think as more people, you know, realized the significance of it you know. So, sometimes your first time around you don't succeed, but you know--$$Or you plant the seed (simultaneous).$$--(simultaneous) you pave, you plant the seed and again the same thing is true of the smoking ban. I, you know sponsored the legislation to create a smoking ban, very controversial and you know couldn't get the su- you know support of the, you know the--it was tough, you know, having, the mayor [HistoryMaker Wellington Webb] eventually did, you know, support it, but you know people, you know it was considered again an anti-business, the sky will fall, and you know everybody will leave Denver [Colorado] and you know, you know, but you know I, I thought it was important as a pub, you know that public health you know should trump all of those things and that you know there was, you know citizens shouldn't be forced to trade off you know the health and that the, you know the evidence was clearly there about the effects of secondhand smoke and, you know we had to be guided by what data, you know with the, with the facts you know had told us. And, and so again you know that was, it failed at the local level, but it, it, I succeeded in getting the support of all the local people who said we agree with you on the health issues and we will, if we can do it statewide where it won't have an economic disadvantage for Denver we would and so they, true to their word, they did support you know a statewide initiative and we eventually now have a statewide smoking ban. I like to think that it was the result of my early Quixote [Don Quixote] like efforts.

The Honorable Elbra Wedgeworth

Former Denver City Councilwoman Elbra Mae Wedgeworth was born on January 23, 1956 in Denver, Colorado to Castella Price and Walter Wedgeworth, Sr. She grew up the youngest of six children in public housing in the Curtis Park neighborhood of Denver and attended high school at Manual High School. She received her B.A. degree in sociology/anthropology from the University of Redlands near Los Angeles in 1978.

Wedgeworth began her career in public service in 1989 as a City Council Senior
Analyst, which ignited her interest in politics. From 1994 through 1996, she was the Clerk and Recorder for the City and County of Denver. She served in Mayor Wellington Webb’s administration as a member of the Denver Election Commission, the board of county commissioners. Wedgeworth was the Director of Community Relations and Philanthropic Affairs at the Denver Health and Hospital Authority from 1996 through 1999. In 1999, Wedgeworth was elected to a seat on the Denver City Council representing District 8. She served as City Council President Pro Tempore from July 2001 to July 2002 and as Denver City Council President from July 2003 to July 2005. In 2007, she resigned from her seat on the Denver City Council and accepted the position of as the Chief Government and Community Relations Officer for Denver Health, Colorado’s primary health services institution. In addition, Wedgeworth as the President and Chair of the Board for the Denver 2008 Convention Host Committee, she was responsible for bringing the Democratic National Convention to Denver in August of 2008.

The Denver Business Journal selected Wedgeworth as one of the eight outstanding Women in Business in 2001. She also holds the distinction of being the only person in recent memory to have worked for all three branches of city government in Denver: the city council, the Auditor's Office, and the Mayor's Office.

Wedgeworth was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on November 5, 2008.

Accession Number

A2008.123

Sex

Female

Interview Date

11/5/2008

Last Name

Wedgeworth

Maker Category
Occupation
Organizations
Schools

Manual High School

Gilpin Montessori School

Columbine Elementary School

Cole Junior High School

University of Redlands

First Name

Elbra

Birth City, State, Country

Denver

HM ID

WED01

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Colorado

Favorite Vacation Destination

Las Vegas, Nevada

Favorite Quote

It Is Our Light Not Our Darkness That Most Frightens Us. So, You Have To Go To The Light.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Colorado

Birth Date

1/23/1956

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Denver

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Casserole (Tuna)

Short Description

City council member The Honorable Elbra Wedgeworth (1956 - ) served as Denver City Council President Pro Tempore, City Council President and chief government and community-relations officer for Denver Health, Colorado’s primary health services institution.

Employment

Quality Inns International, Inc.

Cosmopolitan Hotel

Denver City Council

Denver Health

Favorite Color

Brown

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of The Honorable Elbra Wedgeworth's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - The Honorable Elbra Wedgeworth lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - The Honorable Elbra Wedgeworth describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - The Honorable Elbra Wedgeworth remembers her paternal grandmother

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - The Honorable Elbra Wedgeworth describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - The Honorable Elbra Wedgeworth talks about how her parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - The Honorable Elbra Wedgeworth remembers her maternal aunts

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - The Honorable Elbra Wedgeworth lists her siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - The Honorable Elbra Wedgeworth recalls growing up in a housing project in Denver, Colorado

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - The Honorable Elbra Wedgeworth describes her community in Denver, Colorado

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - The Honorable Elbra Wedgeworth describes the sights, sounds and smells of her childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - The Honorable Elbra Wedgeworth remembers Gilpin Elementary School in Denver, Colorado

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - The Honorable Elbra Wedgeworth describes her early personality

Tape: 1 Story: 14 - The Honorable Elbra Wedgeworth remembers her teachers at Cole Junior High School in Denver, Colorado

Tape: 1 Story: 15 - The Honorable Elbra Wedgeworth describes her childhood activities

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - The Honorable Elbra Wedgeworth remembers the activities of the Black Panther Party in Denver, Colorado

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - The Honorable Elbra Wedgeworth recalls the assassination of Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - The Honorable Elbra Wedgeworth describes her experience as a debutante

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - The Honorable Elbra Wedgeworth remembers her high school prom

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - The Honorable Elbra Wedgeworth recalls her college aspirations

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - The Honorable Elbra Wedgeworth describes her first impression of the University of Redlands in Redlands, California

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - The Honorable Elbra Wedgeworth talks about her experiences at the University of Redlands

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - The Honorable Elbra Wedgeworth describes her early career

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - The Honorable Elbra Wedgeworth talks about the government of the City of Denver, Colorado

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - The Honorable Elbra Wedgeworth remembers Denver Mayor Wellington Webb

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - The Honorable Elbra Wedgeworth describes her role in Wellington Webb's mayoral campaign

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - The Honorable Elbra Wedgeworth recalls her early work with the Denver City Council

Tape: 2 Story: 13 - The Honorable Elbra Wedgeworth remembers working for the Denver Health Foundation

Tape: 2 Story: 14 - The Honorable Elbra Wedgeworth recalls her campaign for the Denver City Council

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - The Honorable Elbra Wedgeworth recalls her start as a member of the Denver City Council

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - The Honorable Elbra Wedgeworth describes her achievements at the Denver City Council

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - The Honorable Elbra Wedgeworth recalls her election as president of the Denver City Council

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - The Honorable Elbra Wedgeworth remembers traveling to South Africa

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - The Honorable Elbra Wedgeworth recalls her transition to the private sector

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - The Honorable Elbra Wedgeworth recalls the campaign to host the 2008 Democratic National Convention in Denver, Colorado

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - The Honorable Elbra Wedgeworth remembers securing the bid to host the 2008 Democratic National Convention

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - The Honorable Elbra Wedgeworth describes the 2008 Democratic National Convention

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - The Honorable Elbra Wedgeworth talks about the notable residents of Denver, Colorado

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - The Honorable Elbra Wedgeworth talks about her role in the 2008 Democratic National Convention

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - The Honorable Elbra Wedgeworth talks about her plans for the future

Tape: 3 Story: 12 - The Honorable Elbra Wedgeworth describes her plans for Denver Health

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - The Honorable Elbra Wedgeworth describes her hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - The Honorable Elbra Wedgeworth shares a message to future generations

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - The Honorable Elbra Wedgeworth reflects upon her life

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - The Honorable Elbra Wedgeworth reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - The Honorable Elbra Wedgeworth describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - The Honorable Elbra Wedgeworth talks about the importance of preserving African American history

DASession

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DATape

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DAStory

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DATitle
The Honorable Elbra Wedgeworth remembers the activities of the Black Panther Party in Denver, Colorado
The Honorable Elbra Wedgeworth recalls the campaign to host the 2008 Democratic National Convention in Denver, Colorado
Transcript
We were talking about, about your move to, you know, to the home (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) The, the Cole neighborhood [Denver, Colorado].$$--home, right. And this was during the '60s [1960s]. And can you talk about the climate, you know, civil rights, the Black Panthers [Black Panther Party]? What was going on in Denver [Colorado] at that time?$$It was really an interesting time because in the '60s [1960s], you know, the, the black community was just in one pretty much section of town. And I remember vividly when I was in junior high school [Cole Junior High School; Cole Arts and Science Academy, Denver, Colorado] and the Black Panthers came and took over our school. And I, I can't remember the circumstances behind that, but they took over our school. They basically told all the students to go home. And so I go home, and I'm knocking on the door. You know, my mom's [Castella Price Wedgeworth] like, "What are you doing here?" I said, "The Black Panthers just took over the school." My mother closed the door--got her purse, closed the door, and took me back to school (laughter). And said, "My, you know, my daughter is here to get an education. I don't know what's going on with you people in here, but she's staying here." And so it was so--Lauren Watson, I mean, it, it was a time that my parents kind of struggled with, 'cause they just didn't understand that. 'Cause in their time, you know, you just didn't, you know, it was a different world. And my brothers [Timothy Wedgeworth, Danny Wedgeworth, Clifford Wedgeworth, and Walter Wedgeworth, Jr.] and my sister [Debra Wedgeworth Kelly] were into black power. And you know, I remember when my sister and I wanted to get a fro, my mom didn't want us to have one. And you know, we basc- my parents had to go out of town for like two weeks, and we ended up staying with my grandmother [Armonia Wedgeworth Whiting] and wearing a fro the whole time. And by the time they got back, you know, we just kept them, you know. But my parents really didn't understand that, you know, the Stokely Carmichael [Kwame Ture], you know, all--they were just--it was just foreign to them. But, and we didn't really have a lot of African Americans in political leadership either, so we didn't have a lot of people speaking for our, for our community until later in the '70s [1970s] and the '80s [1980s].$$Now, the schools were--so you entered into schools that were integrated.$$Yeah, but predominantly African American at that point.$$Okay.$$Yeah.$$And busing, what about busing? Was there any (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Busing--$$--busing at that time.$$--busing didn't really occur in Denver until the mid-'70s [1970s]. And so, you know, the people that you went to junior--to elementary school, high--junior high and high school with, you know, you just went to school with these folks, you know, 'cause they were from the same community, same surrounding neighborhoods. And so, the folks you knew in elementary school, the same folks you knew in high school, and that was it.$$Okay. Now, in--you say your, your parents, were they involved at all in civil rights?$$They weren't involved in any of that. I mean they just--I think that it's mainly because they just didn't understand it. And they were like, well, you know, they'd grew up so hard and were, you know, and treated so badly throughout, you know, those early years, they, they just like, no, you know, it's trouble, you know, kind of thing to them.$But also time--also during that time, remember I was involved with the convention, the Democratic National Convention [2008 Democratic National Convention, Denver, Colorado], to bring it here.$$Okay, so tell me about that.$$Well (laughter)--$$How did you get involved (laughter)?$$Well--$$Let's start there. Let's start there. How did you get involved?$$Well, I'd been thinking about the Democratic Convention for a while. Denver [Colorado] had submitted bids before in 2000--2004, I think. But we didn't have the infrastructure at the time. We didn't have the hotel rooms. We didn't have the convention center hotel--Convention Center [Colorado Convention Center, Denver, Colorado]. Pepsi Center [Denver, Colorado] had just been built around, you know, ten, twelve years ago. I really started thinking about this in the fall of 2005, 'cause I thought, okay, we've got a new convention center hotel; we've got the Convention Center; we have all the infrastructure now. It would be the hundredth anniversary since the last political convention was held in the Rocky Mountain West, which was in 1908 in Denver. I thought, you know, this synergy just, is too much to pass up. So I just took it upon myself, and I went to this reception. Governor Howard Dean was elected the chair of the party at that time. And I went to this reception where he was going to be at. And something just made me raise my hand and say you know, "We've hosted World Youth Day, Summit of the Eight [23rd G8 Summit], the All-Star games [2005 NBA All-Star Game]. You know, if we can host the pope, you know, I think we can do this, you know. What do you think?" And he was like, "Well, the, the bid process starts in January '06 [2006]. If Denver is interested, they should apply." And you know, 'cause usually these bids come from the mayor's office or the governor's office, whatever. And I just decided, me and some of my friends, that we're gonna do this. And we went to the mayor, asked him to submit an intent letter. And when I first approached him about it--think about it--he had only been in office for two years.$$This was mayor--$$Mayor Hickenlooper [John Hickenlooper]. And I'm the council president. And I go to him and say, "I want to be the--bring the largest convention in the history of the city to Denver." And when I first approached him, he literally said you know, "You're sleeping; you need to wake up," (laughter). Well, you know, as a woman--you know, no offense to your, your, your videotographer [sic. videographer] here, but when guys tell you that you couldn't or you shouldn't, you know, it makes you more determined as a woman to do it anyway. And so I was like, look, you know, we've built this infrastructure. We can pull it off. I know we can raise the money. We, we, we need to do this. And so he consented. And so we were one of thirty-five cities to submit an intent letter that we were interested to the DNC [Democratic National Committee]. And out of those thirty-five letters--thirty-five cities, eleven were asked to submit actual bid packages. And so we put together, you know, a group of volunteers, businesspeople, people from the visitor's bureau, and we put together this bid package. And it was like sixteen hundred pages and weighed like fifteen pounds. It was like this big. And this is a strictly volunteer effort. I mean, I'm a full-time councilperson and doing all this stuff. But I was so convinced that we were doing this for the right reasons and that we can do it, 'cause we felt that the pathway to the presidency was through the Rocky Mountains, 'cause we were changing politically, and we thought we could do this. And we were raising some money, and some people literally thought I was nuts (laughter). They thought you have lost it. There's no way, that, that people are gonna think we're too small; we're not gonna be able to do it. And so, we went from eleven cities to three: Denver, Minneapolis/St. Paul [Minnesota], and New York [New York]. And then it went to two, because Minneapolis/St. Paul was picked by the RNC, the Republican National Committee. So, here me, I'm the councilperson, council president, versus the mayor of New York [Michael Bloomberg]. You know, he's a billionaire too on top of everything else. They're given six political conventions in a hundred years. This will be our second, right. But you know, it's that light I keep on telling you about. We just kept on going. We just like, we don't care what anybody says; we don't care what the mayor says (laughter); we're just gonna do it anyway.$$Did the mayor give you any support (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Oh yeah.$$--once you got the bid--$$Oh, he did, he did. But I tease him about it now, 'cause at first he, he literally thought it would not happen, you know. And I'm like, I'm gonna prove to you that it will. But he came with us on our bid visits and stuff, so he was very supportive. But you know, he was kind of like thinking I'm not sure where this is gonna go, you know, but she's council president too, so, I mean, what am I gonna do? So--

Opalanga D. Pugh

Professional storyteller Opalanga D. Pugh was born on October 31, 1952, in Denver, Colorado, to Mary Edmonson and John Harris. She also grew up in Denver. In 1975, Pugh received her B.S. degree in communication studies from the University of Wisconsin. Her senior year, as an undergraduate student, she studied at the Imo University of Lagos in Nigeria. Her more extensive informal education includes studying under the instruction of traditional griots in the Gambia, and workshops with African dance choreographer Baba Chuck Davis; African shamans Malidoma and Sobonfu Some; futurist Jean Houston; and motivational speaker Les Brown. Pugh has immersed herself and her work in the realm of communication—including (but not limited to) public relations, group facilitation, mental health, and outdoor education.

Pugh spent an extensive amount of time working, traveling and studying in nine West African countries including the Gambia and Nigeria. While she was there, her studies served as primary sources of learning African oral tradition. Since 1986, she has been a professional storyteller. In addition to that, she has done various keynote addresses as well as facilitated workshops and programs. To date, Pugh has made presentations at thousands of schools in thirty-seven states across the country and over 500 corporations and nonprofit organizations. Her work has taken her across the world. She has shared and collected stories, and hosted events and ceremonies in the United States, Canada, Europe, West Africa, and the Caribbean.

In 1995, Denver’s Westword Magazine named Pugh “Best Storyteller.” She also received the Mayor’s Award for Excellence in the Arts that year. The following year, she was featured as an “African American Living Legend” by NBC-TV. She has been featured in the following publications and media outlets: Women Who Run with the Wolves, The Wall Street Journal, Christian Science Monitor, and on Black Entertainment Television (BET). Pugh was awarded the Urban Spectrum Newspaper “One Who Makes A Difference” Award. She also received the Ambassador of Peace Award from The Conflict Center in Denver.

Other accomplishments include her work with the international relief organization, CARE, to coordinate and present components of their global conference for over 60 country directors surrounding the theme of gender equity and diversity. Pugh was also instrumental in assisting the grieving Columbine High School staff and students through ‘story intervention’ after the tragic shooting in 1999.

Opalanga D. Pugh was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on November 3, 2008.

Ms. Pugh passed away on June 5, 2010.

Accession Number

A2008.120

Sex

Female

Interview Date

11/3/2008

Last Name

Pugh

Maker Category
Middle Name

Donna Jessie

Schools

East High School

Ebert Elementary School

University of Colorado Boulder

University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

University of Lagos

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Opalanga

Birth City, State, Country

Denver

HM ID

PUG02

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Colorado

Favorite Vacation Destination

Caribbean

Favorite Quote

Stories Are Not Just Meant To Make Us Smile. Our Very Lives Depend On It.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Colorado

Birth Date

10/31/1952

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Denver

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Lentils (Curried)

Death Date

6/5/2010

Short Description

Professional storyteller Opalanga D. Pugh (1952 - 2010 ) was a scholar of African oral traditions who facilitated ceremonies and workshops across the United States, Canada, West Africa and the Caribbean.

Employment

Trans-Alaska Pipeline System

Salvation Army-Booth Memorial Home

Adams County Library

Second World Black and African Festival of Arts and Culture

Favorite Color

Purple

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Opalanga D. Pugh's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Opalanga D. Pugh lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Opalanga D. Pugh describes her mother's upbringing and education

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Opalanga D. Pugh talks about her mother's creativity

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Opalanga D. Pugh describes her maternal grandmother's personality, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Opalanga D. Pugh remembers her maternal great-grandmother

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Opalanga D. Pugh describes her maternal grandmother's personality, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Opalanga D. Pugh talks about her mother's experiences in the medical field

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Opalanga D. Pugh describes her maternal great-grandmother's appearance

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Opalnaga D. Pugh describes her likeness to her maternal family members

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Opalanga D. Pugh talks about her paternal family background

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Opalanga D. Pugh talks about her stepfather's parents

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Opalanga D. Pugh recalls her step-grandfather's experiences in the segregated South

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Opalanga D. Pugh describes her step-grandmother

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Opalanga D. Pugh remembers her stepfather's career

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Opalanga D. Pugh talks about her brothers

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Opalanga D. Pugh describes her earliest childhood memory

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Opalanga D. Pugh remembers Ebert Elementary School in Denver, Colorado

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Opalanga D. Pugh describes her early personality

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Opalanga D. Pugh talks about her childhood in Denver, Colorado

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Opalanga D. Pugh describes the sights, sounds and smells of her childhood, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Opalanga D. Pugh describes the sights, sounds and smells of her childhood, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Opalanga D. Pugh remembers her early religious experiences

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Opalanga D. Pugh recalls the integration of the Denver Public Schools

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Opalanga D. Pugh talks about her involvement in the Black Power movement

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Opalanga D. Pugh remembers a Black Power march in Denver, Colorado

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Opalanga D. Pugh remembers her parents' response to the Black Power march

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Opalanga D. Pugh describes her community in Denver, Colorado

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Opalanga D. Pugh remembers the start of her adolescence

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Opalanga D. Pugh recalls her campaign for student council secretary

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Opalanga D. Pugh describes her early aspirations, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Opalanga D. Pugh remembers her junior high school math teacher

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Opalanga D. Pugh describes her early aspirations, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Opalanga D. Pugh remembers her time at the Colorado Outward Bound School

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Opalanga D. Pugh remembers matriculating at the University of Colorado Boulder

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Opalanga D. Pugh remembers living in Dayton, Ohio

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Opalanga D. Pugh recalls her decision to study abroad in Nigeria

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Opalanga D. Pugh remembers her arrival in Lagos, Nigeria

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Opalanga D. Pugh recalls her educational experiences at the University of Lagos in Nigeria

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - Opalanga D. Pugh remembers Nigerians' misconceptions about African American women

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Opalanga D. Pugh talks about her Yoruba naming ceremony

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Opalanga D. Pugh describes the Yoruba language

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Opalanga D. Pugh remembers her experiences in Lagos, Nigeria

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Opalanga D. Pugh recalls her departure from Lagos, Nigeria

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Opalanga D. Pugh describes her move to Fairbanks, Alaska

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Opalanga D. Pugh recalls working on the Trans Alaska Pipeline System

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Opalanga D. Pugh remembers meeting Eldridge Cleaver

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Opalanga D. Pugh describes her work at Salvation Army Booth Memorial Home in Anchorage, Alaska

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Opalanga D. Pugh reflects upon her time in Anchorage, Alaska

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Opalanga D. Pugh remembers her introduction to professional storytelling

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Opalanga D. Pugh talks about the mass shooting at Columbine High School in Columbine, Colorado

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Opalanga D. Pugh shares a parable about gratitude

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Opalanga D. Pugh talks about fable singing

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Opalanga D. Pugh talks about facilitating broom jumping ceremonies

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Opalanga D. Pugh talks about officiating end of life ceremonies

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Opalanga D. Pugh describes her ceremonial instruments

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Opalanga D. Pugh talks about the importance of godparents

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - Opalanga D. Pugh talks about mentoring her nephew

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Opalanga D. Pugh talks about roots and wings ceremonies

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Opalanga D. Pugh reflects upon her career as a storyteller

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Opalanga D. Pugh talks about her experience with cancer, pt. 1

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Opalanga D. Pugh talks about her experience with cancer, pt. 2

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Opalanga D. Pugh talks about her interest in sharing her life story

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Opalanga D. Pugh reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Opalanga D. Pugh describes her advice to future generations

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Opalanga D. Pugh plays the mbira

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Opalanga D. Pugh narrates her photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$6

DAStory

6$2

DATitle
Opalanga D. Pugh remembers a Black Power march in Denver, Colorado
Opalanga D. Pugh remembers her introduction to professional storytelling
Transcript
But I remember the day that Martin Luther King [Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.] was assassinated and I was a junior in high school. And, and it was a sad day. And I remember, you know, we had this school assembly in East High School [Denver, Colorado] and they had called us all into assembly and I remember the principal, Mr. Colwell [Robert Colwell]. He, he called us all in and, and you know, people were just crying, it was such a blow. And he was saying that Dr. Martin Luther King wanted us to be peaceful, that he was about nonviolence, and you know, that we should keep our focus and you know, 'cause riots was breaking off, you know, Watts [Los Angeles, California] was burning and you know, it was all across the country. It was like (makes sound) just jumping off. And then I remember this brother named Michael Dehue [ph.] he was from Oakland, California, he was in the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense [Black Panther Party], and also another brother named Lauren Watson who was a local person here. He's another person that should be interviewed on this HistoryMakers [The HistoryMakers]. So they came in, they had their black leather jackets, had their black tams, and then they just like rolled up into the high school, you know right on through the auditorium, up on the stage and took the microphone from the principal. Talking about, "All power to the people." And we're like (gesture), "Power!" You know he said, "Power to the people," we said, "Power!" He said, "They have killed our black shining king. The dream is dead." He said, "Why are you sitting here? You should be back in your community." And then there's like that moment of silence, you know, people was just like deciding on what to do. It's like--. And then I could hear (claps hands) boom, it was like one of the seats--hit the back of the chair 'cause somebody had got up, then another one, and then another one and another one, and people started getting up, you know. And I got up and we were going down the hallway and we were trying to head to this community. Manual High School [Denver, Colorado] is like one block from where I live right now. That was--you know, this is the heart of the black community where I'm at. East High School is like--was on the edge of black and white 'cause we had integrated. So we were making a, a trail down here to go to Five Points [Denver, Colorado] back into the center of the black community. But on the way out, there was--then you could feel that anger coming up, you know, and then black kids was like beating white kids head. I mean I remember this one white girl was in a--that's when they had phone booths that, you know, you could close the door and--I remember this guy just like kicked the door open, just pulled her out, ho, ho, I was like oh my--then I remember I stopped him, like, "No this is not--I don't think Martin wanted this," you know. And they were just running across--it was just pandemonium, running across the football field. And so then we finally gathered in the park and then formed a parade down to, to Manual. And again, the music was such a part of our, our movement and this is awesome, again back to music is medicine. I mean that's how our, our slave ancestors I think made it through dark nights would be able to call those songs that could warm the soul. And so we were doing all these revolutionary songs: (singing), "Revolution has come. Off the pig! It's time to pick up your gun. Off the pig! No more pigs in our community. Off the pigs! What we need is black unity." And you know, we were singing and chanting, you know, and coming down to Manual. But when we got to Manual, which is an all-black school, their principal had like locked the doors, I mean put the chain lock on the doors and they were up in the second floor and they were waving down at us. We're like, "Come out, come out," you know, but they wouldn't--they wouldn't come out. So we just kept going down to Five Points and we were singing, you know, the revolutionary songs and you know, once in a while they throw in 'We Shall Overcome,' you know, that, that--. And what were some of the other songs that they were signing? (Singing), "Power to the people, power to the people." You always do call and response. (Singing), "Stone people's power, stone people's power, power to the people, power to the people, said power, power. Free Huey Newton [Huey P. Newton]," so we'd just go run through all the political prisoners.$Nineteen eighty [1980], I came back, again my [maternal] grandma [Jessie Howard] got sick and that was interesting 'cause I really had a job in Puerto Rico, but I stopped in Denver [Colorado] to check on my grandma and she just had an appointment to go to the doctor and they end up taking her to the hospital and then ultimately she went to a nursing home. She never came back to her house from that doctor's appointment. And I decided to stay in Denver. And from--so from 1980 I've pretty much been here as my base. I worked at Adams County public library as a media, public, public affairs person. So I was still, still writing and press releases and in charge of the audiovisual collections for Adams County public library. And it was a thirty hour job. So I began to pick up storytelling on the side, you know. But I was also producing storytelling hours working with the children's librarians. Producing storytelling hours for cable television, also producing adult public affairs programming. That I won an award for a program I did on literacy in Colorado. And I interviewed Famous Amos [Wally Amos], the cookie magnate, who was the spokesman for Literacy Volunteers of America. And so that--that was very meaningful. So that was another form of storytelling, but it was through video, through the movement. And but I was beginning to pick up so much work storytelling that I had like thirty hours of storytelling and thirty hours at Adams County public library which like was a sixty hour week. So I knew I had to make a decision. And so when I decided to go I started saving my money and you know, getting my dental work done 'cause I was getting ready to break camp. And, and it was 1983 in March where there's a National Storytelling Conference held here in Denver. And at the end of the conference they have a place, you know, for a story swap, or new people to bring their story forward. And I brought Sojourner Truth. And she was probably the first historical character who came through me. Excuse me. And I say through me because she was six foot tall and so am I. And I just kind of feel her speaking in my ear. And I came forward and I did the speech called Ain't I a Woman? And it was a speech that she, she gave at a Women's Rights Convention in Akron, Ohio in 1855 [sic. 1851]. And they were afraid for her to speak because they thought that the women's--the issue of women's rights be con- be confused with colored folk's rights. But she just took the stage anyway. And she said, "Well children, why there so much racket? It seems to me there's something out of kilter. Now I think between the white women in the North and, and the women in the South all working for our rights, the white man be in a heck of a fix pretty soon." So she went on to, to speak her truth, you know. And it was so well received that--at this conference there were a lot of librarians and teachers and they became probably my first line of support to invite me into the schools, do school assemblies, to be in the library programs. And so it's beg- it's just kind of developed from there, you know. I've joined the National Association of Black Storytellers. I was at their first gathering and we're celebrating twenty-five years now. Nineteen eighty-six [1986], you know, I've been telling as full time storytelling as an independent way of making my life and my livelihood since 1986. You know, paying my car, and paying my mortgage and so it's, it's been a journey. It's been quite a journey.

The Honorable Norman Rice

Norman Blann Rice, born on May 4, 1943 in Denver, Colorado, was the 49th mayor of Seattle, Washington. Rice was Seattle’s first and only African American mayor. Rice is the youngest son of Irene Hazel Johnson (1913-1993) and Otha Patrick Rice (1916-1993). Rice’s father worked as a porter on the railroads and for the United States Postal Service. He was also the owner and operator of Rice’s Tap Room and Oven in Denver. Rice’s mother was a caterer and a bank clerk. Rice’s parents divorced when he was a teenager. His grandmother, Reverend Susie Whitman (1895-1989), Assistant Pastor at Seattle’s First A.M.E. Church, was one of the first western women ministers in the African Methodist Episcopal Church. After graduating from Denver’s Manual High School in 1961, Rice attended the University of Colorado at Boulder. Distressed by the segregated housing and meal facilities and frustrated by the work load, he dropped out in his second year and went to work. Between 1963 and 1969, Rice held jobs as a hospital orderly, a meter reader and an engineer’s assistant. Rice arrived in Seattle in 1969 and restarted his education at Highline Community College and received his A.A. degree in 1970. Then, he attended the University of Washington through the Economic Opportunity Program (EOP). By 1972, Rice had earned his B.A. degree in communications and in 1974 his M.A. degree in public administration at the University of Washington.

Before entering city government, Rice worked as a reporter at KOMO-TV News and KIXI Radio, served as Assistant Director of the Seattle Urban League, was Executive Assistant and Director of Government Services for the Puget Sound Council of Governments and was employed as the Manager of Corporate Contributions and Social Policy at Rainier National Bank. Rice was first elected to the Seattle City Council in 1978 and reelected in 1979, 1983 and 1987, serving eleven years in all. Rice served as Mayor of Seattle from 1990 to 1997. Because of his warm personality and easy smile, he was affectionately known as “Mayor Nice.” From 1995 to 1996, Mayor Rice served as president of the U.S. Conference of Mayors, an association of more than a thousand of America’s largest cities.

After nineteen years of public service in Seattle city government, Rice served as president of the Federal Home Loan Bank of Seattle from 1998 to 2004. Rice was also Vice Chairman of Capital Access, LLC. Rice returned to academia in 2007 as a visiting professor at the Evans School of Public Affairs at the University of Washington, where he is to lead a series of public seminars on Civic Engagement for the 21st Century.

Rice married Constance Williams on February 15, 1973. They have one adult son, Mian Rice, and one grandchild, Sekoy Elliott Rice.

Rice was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on October 24, 2007.

Accession Number

A2007.300

Sex

Male

Interview Date

10/24/2007

Last Name

Rice

Maker Category
Occupation
Schools

Manual High School

University of Washington

Daniel J. Evans School of Public Policy and Governance at the University of Washington

Wyman Elementary School

Morey Middle School

University of Colorado Boulder

First Name

Norman

Birth City, State, Country

Denver

HM ID

RIC15

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Colorado

Favorite Vacation Destination

Hawaii

Favorite Quote

The Best Is Yet To Come.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Washington

Birth Date

5/4/1943

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Seattle

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Beans (Red), Rice

Short Description

Mayor The Honorable Norman Rice (1943 - ) was the first African American elected as the mayor of Seattle, Washington. Rice also served eleven years on the Seattle City Council and as a visiting professor at the University of Washington.

Employment

Denver General Hospital

Public Service Company of Colorado

International Business Machines (IBM)

KIXI Radio

J.C. Penney Company

KOMO-TV

Urban League of Metropolitan Seattle

KCTS-TV

Puget Sound Council of Governments

Rainier National Bank

Seattle City Council

Seattle Office of the Mayor

Daniel J. Evans School of Public Policy and Governance at the University of Washington

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of The Honorable Norman Rice's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - The Honorable Norman Rice lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - The Honorable Norman Rice describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - The Honorable Norman Rice remembers his maternal grandmother

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - The Honorable Norman Rice recalls the entrepreneurial spirit of the black community in Denver, Colorado

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - The Honorable Norman Rice describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - The Honorable Norman Rice talks about his parents' restaurant

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - The Honorable Norman Rice describes his parents' personalities

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - The Honorable Norman Rice describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - The Honorable Norman Rice recalls his home life

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - The Honorable Norman Rice describes his neighborhood in Denver, Colorado

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - The Honorable Norman Rice describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - The Honorable Norman Rice recalls his early interests

Tape: 1 Story: 14 - The Honorable Norman Rice remembers the influence of religion

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - The Honorable Norman Rice describes the importance of storytelling

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - The Honorable Norman Rice recalls the television programs of his childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - The Honorable Norman Rice remembers Wyman Elementary School in Denver, Colorado

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - The Honorable Norman Rice recalls his early interest in politics

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - The Honorable Norman Rice describes Morey Junior High School in Denver, Colorado

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - The Honorable Norman Rice remembers Manual High School in Denver, Colorado

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - The Honorable Norman Rice remembers his parents' divorce

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - The Honorable Norman Rice describes his experiences at Manual High School

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - The Honorable Norman Rice recalls the aftermath of his parents' divorce

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - The Honorable Norman Rice recalls his experiences at the University of Colorado Boulder

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - The Honorable Norman Rice recalls working at the Denver General Hospital in Denver, Colorado

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - The Honorable Norman Rice remembers a patient at the Denver General Hospital in Denver, Colorado

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - The Honorable Norman Rice recalls working for the Public Service Company of Colorado

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - The Honorable Norman Rice recalls working as an engineer's assistant at IBM

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - The Honorable Norman Rice reflects upon the death of Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - The Honorable Norman Rice remembers University of Washington in Seattle, Washington

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - The Honorable Norman Rice recalls his internship at KIXI Radio in Seattle, Washington

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - The Honorable Norman Rice recalls working as a news editor at KOMO-TV in Seattle, Washington

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - The Honorable Norman Rice describes his studies at the University of Washington's Graduate School of Public Affairs

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - The Honorable Norman Rice recalls becoming assistant director of the Urban League of Metropolitan Seattle

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - The Honorable Norman Rice remembers meeting his wife

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - The Honorable Norman Rice describes the civil rights issues in Seattle, Washington

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - The Honorable Norman Rice recalls the protests at the University of Washington in Seattle, Washington

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - The Honorable Norman Rice remembers the Black Panther Party in Seattle, Washington

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - The Honorable Norman Rice recalls his study for the Urban League of Metropolitan Seattle

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - The Honorable Norman Rice describes the 'Thursday Forum' on KCTS-TV in Seattle, Washington

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - The Honorable Norman Rice recalls his role at the Puget Sound Council of Governments

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - The Honorable Norman Rice recalls his decision to run for the Seattle City Council

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - The Honorable Norman Rice describes his campaign for the Seattle City Council

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - The Honorable Norman Rice remembers his unsuccessful political campaigns

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - The Honorable Norman Rice recalls his election as the mayor of Seattle, Washington

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - The Honorable Norman Rice talks about mandatory busing in Seattle, Washington

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - The Honorable Norman Rice recalls the support for his mayoral campaign in Seattle, Washington

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - The Honorable Norman Rice recalls the Rainbow Coalition's support for his mayoral campaign

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - The Honorable Norman Rice talks about his appeal to voters

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - The Honorable Norman Rice remembers his educational summit

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - The Honorable Norman Rice reflects upon his civic career

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - The Honorable Norman Rice reflects upon his educational achievements as mayor of Seattle, Washington

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - The Honorable Norman Rice narrates his photographs

DASession

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DATape

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DAStory

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DATitle
The Honorable Norman Rice recalls working as a news editor at KOMO-TV in Seattle, Washington
The Honorable Norman Rice remembers his educational summit
Transcript
I stayed out of work for about a quarter, which actually helped me 'cause it kept me on track with school [University of Washington, Seattle, Washington]. And then, I got a job at KOMO-TV [Seattle, Washington] writing news and editing film for the eleven o'clock news, and also keeping track of the film library, taking the news and, and documenting it. Had some amazing days when it used to have tape--makes you go look for tape--I, I mean, film, rather--and you go look for a roll to use, and the film would emulsify, you know what I mean, it just, oh, it was fun. But, anyway, I worked there, had a very interesting time to, uh, and learning experience also. The most profound time was when, at the time, there were a lot of the black contractors, and the whole issue was getting high about hiring blacks on construction type sites. And I remember once the--I looked at a show. I was editing the film, and they were showing the white contractors fighting black contractors, and I kept saying, "That's not the story." I kept saying, "Why don't you go down to the union hall and say, 'Why aren't you hiring African American, you know, workers?'" And the guy, who was writing the story said, "That's not the story." And it was kind of at that point, I realized that, you know, I don't think I'll be a reporter because that's what the editor is going to tell me, you know, that when the truth of what you want to get to as a reporter, may not ever manifest itself in, in a news story. And the news story's always going to be for this moment and this time.$$The sensational aspect (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Yep, and unless you're in control, as the editor or you're--own the station, you're not going to make change. And I realized that if I was going to come into that station, I would either--gonna be spending all my time arguing with my colleagues for why they aren't telling the truth, or I need to do something else.$You were talking about the educational summit, then, the--now how, how soon after you were elected [mayor of Seattle, Washington] that you (unclear) (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) The--we assembled, we, the summit came about--I, I took, like office in, how we say, '90 [1990], January '90 [1990]. The summit took place in April of '90 [1990]. We planned for, on a wonderful day in April, we assembled some two thousand people. What we did is we asked them to state for us, if you could look five years beyond today, what kind of, what would be a positive educational system? And we took those values that they used. We hooked up thirty-six sites with computers, inputted all their information into a single computer, calibrated that, and collated that, and came back the next day with, here's what we think you said. And then, we got validation that people agreed that's what they said. And then, we developed action plans where we got people involved on task forces to come up with three recommendations to achieve those goals. So, it was interactive, it was dynamic, it was a process that said, we asked you to tell us what you want. We came back and said, showed you that we had listened. And then, we asked you to come back, and be involved in the solution, rather than walking away. And that really set the tone for my administration on everything I did. And so, that was the civic engagement and the openness of the Rice [HistoryMaker Norman Rice] administration. And I think, made us so successful, so that by the time, I ran for reelection, I think I got elected with 60 something, plus percent.

David Holliman

Entrepreneur David Holliman was born on September 13, 1929 in Denver, Colorado.
Holliman became one of the first African Americans to gain long term employment with Continental Airlines where he helped to organize an African American maintenance workers organization. During his childhood, his father, Ernest William Holliman, was a Pullman porter and his mother, Adele Banks, died when he was two years old. His father moved the family from Pueblo, Colorado to Denver in the early 1940s where he attended Denver Public Schools receiving his diploma from East High School in 1948. That same year, he enlisted into the United States Coast Guard where he spent four years. In 1952, Holliman was discharged from active duty and spent another three years in the Army Reserves.

Holliman began his professional career as a small business owner. He owned a small janitorial business that offered cleaning services to office buildings in Denver. In 1966, he joined Continental Airlines in the maintenance department becoming one of the first African Americans to gain long term employment. There, he fought the biased policies that existed towards the African American workers and won his battle with a lawyer. Holliman later served as president of United Maintenance Incorporated and vice president of Queen City Services, Incorporated. In 1986, he retired from Continental Airlines.

Holliman has received mayoral appointments to the Denver City and County Board of Appeals and to the Mayor’s Black Advisory Committee. He also served as the president of the Barrett Elementary School’s Parent and Teacher Association. In 1990, he completed his studies at Regis College in Denver, Colorado where he received his B.S. degree in administration, business, and economics. Holliman has received the prestigious honor of being the Imperial Potentate of the Ancient Egyptian Arabic Order, Nobles of the Mystic Shrine and Jurisdiction.

Holliman resided in Denver with his wife and family.

Holliman passed away on June 30, 2017.

Accession Number

A2006.084

Sex

Male

Interview Date

4/22/2006

Last Name

Holliman

Maker Category
Occupation
Schools

East High School

Morey Middle School

Columbian Elementary School

Regis University

First Name

David

Birth City, State, Country

Denver

HM ID

HOL06

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Colorado

Favorite Vacation Destination

Las Vegas, Nevada;
Caribbean

Favorite Quote

Bless You Lord For Another Day.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Colorado

Birth Date

9/13/1929

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Denver

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Soul Food

Death Date

6/30/2017

Short Description

Corporate executive David Holliman (1929 - 2017 ) became one of the first African Americans hired long term with Continental Airlines, where he helped to organize an African American maintenance workers organization. He later served as president of United Maintenance Incorporated and vice president of Queen City Services, Incorporated.

Employment

Continental Airlines

United Maintenance, Incorporated

Queen City Services

U.S. Coast Guard

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of David Holliman's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - David Holliman lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - David Holliman talks about his mother

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - David Holliman describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - David Holliman describes his chores on his paternal grandparents' farm

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - David Holliman describes his childhood community in Pueblo, Colorado

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - David Holliman recalls attending Bethlehem Baptist Church in Pueblo, Colorado

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - David Holliman recalls attending Columbian Elementary School in Pueblo

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - David Holliman recalls holiday celebrations from his childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - David Holliman remembers listening to radio shows as a child

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - David Holliman describes his chores at home

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - David Holliman describes his father's career as a Pullman porter

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - David Holliman remembers attending junior high school in Denver, Colorado

Tape: 1 Story: 14 - David Holliman recalls Denver's Five Point neighborhood

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - David Holliman recalls attending East High School in Denver, Colorado

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - David Holliman recalls celebrating Black History Week in Denver

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - David Holliman describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - David Holliman talks about racial discrimination in Pueblo and Denver

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - David Holliman remembers being drafted to the U.S. Coast Guard

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - David Holliman recalls the absence of discrimination in the U.S. Coast Guard

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - David Holliman describes his participation in the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - David Holliman recalls becoming a Prince Hall Freemason

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - David Holliman describes the civic work of Prince Hall Freemasonry

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - David Holliman remembers discovering who his parents were

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - David Holliman describes his family's migration to Colorado

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - David Holliman describes his career path

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - David Holliman talks about his participation in the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - David Holliman recalls a controversial grooming rule at Continental Airlines, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - David Holliman describes the significance of African American men's mustaches

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - David Holliman recalls a controversial grooming rule at Continental Airlines, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - David Holliman remembers favoritism in the airline industry

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - David Holliman explains his position on civil rights and nonviolence

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - David Holliman describes his position in the Masons

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - David Holliman recalls Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr. and Ralph Abernathy

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - David Holliman recalls serving on Denver's City and County Board of Appeals

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - David Holliman recalls the Mayor's Black Advisory Committee in Denver

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - David Holliman describes the role of the Colorado Black Round Table

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - David Holliman describes his community in Denver, Colorado

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - David Holliman talks about his family

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - David Holliman describes his work with Denver's gangs, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - David Holliman describes his work with Denver's gangs, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - David Holliman describes how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - David Holliman reflects upon his contribution to The HistoryMakers project

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - David Holliman remembers attending college at fifty years old

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - David Holliman reflects upon his life, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 12 - David Holliman reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 4 Story: 13 - David Holliman reflects upon his life, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - David Holliman narrates his photographs

DASession

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DATitle
David Holliman recalls a controversial grooming rule at Continental Airlines, pt. 1
David Holliman recalls the Mayor's Black Advisory Committee in Denver
Transcript
So tell me what happens in '66 [1966] with Continental Airlines and there's a an issue with African American men and facial hair and--?$$We had a, we had a, we had a supervisor that was a, that was a--was a directive to that came down from the corporate level, saying that all people must be clean shaven. And so at that time you know you, you get someone who, who gets this brain (unclear) that says, okay where everybody's gonna be clean shaven. And so and, and I guess you, you people had beards and mustaches and this sort of thing, to the point where as that, that it, it they had, they had abused it. And so when they came down with it when that directive came down naturally it affected us as an Afro American. Because a lot of our manhood is based on our, you know, our mustaches and wasn't too much--we didn't wear beards, but our mustaches, was, was a type you know that's how we were characterized during those, during those days. So when it came down the directive came down and so you know we kind of went to this supervisor said, "Look that's okay for you, but there's a history behind the, the Afro American and the black man and his mustache. And so what when you, you do that to us I said what we would like for you to do is to consider us if, if we if we if we're too much in abuse to let us trim it up. But you can't put us on the same category as you as, as the white Caucasian because it's different. We don't wear side burns, we don't wear a beard and, and we when we will be willing if, if even that does to shave our side burn and, and not wear a beards. The mustaches you--." And so he he couldn't understand. "So I gotta, I gotta, a directive that I've gotta follow." "But see your directive does not completely give the true picture. See you're dealing with, with the descendants of, of an individual that that's gone through years of conflict our--from generation, to generation." I couldn't get him to, we couldn't get him to listen. So we the, the skycaps at that time the ones we, we went and obtained an attorney. And the attorney said, "Well you, you got a point there. I'm, I'm going to pursue this, I'll be glad to take the case, but you're gonna have to cut them off. Because see you will be in direct violation and, and they can get you for insubordination." We, we did, we cut them off. And so I got up that morning my youngest daughter [Lisa Holliman], I guess the youngster daughter, well both of the kids I guess the youngest. She had to be maybe four or five years old, so that morning I got up and shaved my mustache she wasn't up yet, so I went to work and come back home. And I was clean across here and it goes to show you how it affected her, she said "You're not my daddy," see. Because, you left here you know I, I don't know you like this. So that more or less inspired us that much more. Eventually down the road we won the case.$$Right. Don't jump ahead 'cause this is an interesting story. So I, I mean I just want the steps of it. So you come back home and you're clean shaven (simultaneous)?$$(Simultaneous) Right.$$Your daughter says I don't know you.$$Yeah.$$You're not my dad.$$Cried, cried.$$How did that make you feel?$$Heartbreaking I'll, I'll never forget it. And more determined to make sure that this thing gets clean, cleared away. The next day next couple of days it, it she was like that for about a week. And then after about a week she got over it.$Now was the mayor's [HistoryMaker Wellington Webb], was the Board of Appeals different from the Mayor's Black Advisory Committee?$$Yes, different that was another, that was a, that was another board that, that we had, we had, the mayor's board of commission, that, that was made up of three different types of nationalities we had the Asian, we had the Hispanic, you had the black and you had the Indian [Native American]. And each one of the--these were, were commission, their purpose was to get, he, to give him feedback of what was going on in the, individual committees. And worked as a, as a resource team to him to make sure that the city [Denver, Colorado] ran smooth. That we didn't have any uprising or this sort of thing, to let him know what the status was.$$Can you remember some of the things that you reported to him, back to him that at the advisory commission that seen as an issue that he, that should be addressed, that should be taken to him?$$At that particular time it was pretty much an ongoing thing. If, if he didn't have a concern of a question which, which I can't actually remember that he did. Because we, we such as controlled group to these, two council people that we had. This advisory board more or less what feed to them, he would just have a periodic meeting maybe once every three or four months just to sit down and, and you know pose any questions or answers that we had, and we didn't have any too much. It just depend on what at that particular time and I and I can't remember any. But it was be in the basis of, were going to an immigration situation now as far at the kids are concerned and what would be the status of the output at that time. I think the state, this Clayton College [Clayton College for Boys, Denver, Colorado] that I was telling you about was an issue at that, (unclear) to determine what we, what he was going do with that.$$What was the Clayton College?$$You remember I was telling you about the Clayton, the Clayton College where that the, that there was a covenant and agreement that there will no kids and and--$$So you worked with him that was an issued that came about when you were on that commission?$$It was at the point where as, they were going to determine, they were, --we, we you know they we wanted to get a closure of it. It, it wasn't be because see the, the work had already been established and set what they were going to do. It was just a matter of what progress where we make, and, and it might have been done then I don't, I don't remember.$$But just the people on the tape catches up the Clayton (unclear) was when the covenant Clayton had a covenant saying there will be no black students in this school.$$Right, right.$$So what was your, the commissions advice to the mayor about handling this covenant.$$We didn't deal with that, this, this the covenant and everything was going he I think at this particular time we would just, I we would talk about you see the, the see the agreement and covenant had already been broken. So the kids could attend there, now I think that were the fact of what we, what we were gonna do the--with the property since the kids had opened up. And it, and it came, came to play that the YMCA [Young Men's Christian Association] would use the gym fac- use different facilities over there, for their, for their--and we, we would give an update on how that was going, and how that was progressing.