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Kinshasha Holman Conwill

Museum director Kinshasha Holman Conwill was born on April 11, 1951 in Atlanta, Georgia to Moses Carol Holman and Mariella Ukina Ama Holman. She graduated from Mount Holyoke College in South Hadley, Massachusetts as a National Achievement Scholar, and received her B.F.A degree from Howard University in Washington, D.C. in 1973, and her M.B.A. degree from the University of California, Los Angeles in Los Angeles, California in 1980.

In Los Angeles, Conwill worked as an arts educator and activities coordinator for the Frank Lloyd Wright Hollyhock House for several years. In 1980, Conwill became the deputy director of the Studio Museum in Harlem, and served in that position for eleven years. Conwill then became senior policy advisor for the Museums and Community Initiative of the American Association of Museums, and also served as the director for the New York City Creative Communities Leveraging Investments in Creativity program. She was exhibit coordinator for the Museum of the American Indian in New York City. Conwill also worked as project director for the New York City Creative Communities program of LINC (Leveraging Investments in Creativity), project director and managing editor for Culture Counts: Strategies for a More Vibrant Cultural Life for New York City (New York Foundation for the Arts), and project manager for Creative Downtown: The Role of Culture in Rebuilding Lower Manhattan (New York City Arts Coalition). In 2005, Conwill was appointed as deputy director of the Smithsonian’s National Museum of African American History and Culture in Washington D.C. In this role, Conwill engaged in fundraising campaigns, expanded the museum’s collections, developed exhibits and programming, and supervised the museum’s publishing activities.

Conwill has also published two books; Ain’t Nothing Like the Real Thing: How the Apollo Theater Shaped American Entertainment co-authored by Richard Carlin, and Dream A World Anew: The African American Experience and the Shaping of America with the National Museum of African American History and Culture.

Conwill served as a board member for numerous organizations, including the Provisions Library in Washington D.C., the Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts, the Municipal Art Society of New York, and the Rockefeller Foundation. She has also served on the management panel for the Pew Center for Arts and Heritage, and as an advisor for the Harvard University Program for Art Museum Directors.

Kinshasha Holman Conwill was interviewed by TheHistoryMakers on November 2, 2017.

Accession Number

A2017.198

Sex

Female

Interview Date

11/2/2017

Last Name

Conwill

Maker Category
Middle Name

Holman

Occupation
Organizations
First Name

Kinshasha

Birth City, State, Country

Atlanta

HM ID

CON07

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Georgia

Favorite Vacation Destination

New York City

Favorite Quote

Every Goodbye Ain't Gone

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

4/11/1951

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Favorite Food

Broccoli

Short Description

Museum director Kinshasha Holman Conwill (1951 - ) was the director of the Studio Museum in Harlem, and the National Museum of African American History and Culture in Washington, D.C.

Favorite Color

Today It's Yellow

The Honorable Glenda Hatchett

Judge Glenda Hatchett was born on May 31, 1951 in Atlanta, Georgia to Clemmie Barnes and Paul Lawrence Hatchett. In 1969, Hatchett graduated from Charles Lincoln Harper High School, a segregated school in Atlanta’s Collier Heights. She received her B.A. degree in political science from Mount Holyoke College in South Hadley, Massachusetts in 1973, and went on to obtain her J.D. degree from Emory University School of Law in Atlanta in 1977.

After completing a federal clerkship in the United States District Court in the Northern District of Georgia, Hatchett worked in the legal department at Delta Air Lines, Inc. As a senior attorney, she represented the company in labor and anti-trust cases, and participated in merger negotiations. She was then promoted to manager of Delta’s public relations department, handling global crisis management and media relations for the U.S., Europe and Asia. In 1991, upon her appointment to the Fulton County Juvenile Court, Hatchett became the first African American chief judge of a state court. In collaboration with the Atlanta Bar Association and Alston & Bird, Hatchett helped found the Truancy Intervention Project, an early intervention program for truant children. In 1998, Hatchett resigned from the Fulton County Juvenile Court to spend time with her two children before accepting an offer from Sony Pictures Television to have her own television show, Judge HatchettJudge Hatchett ran between 2000 and 2008. In 2014, Hatchett created her own national law firm, The Hatchett Firm, focused on wrongful death, catastrophic injury, medical malpractice, product liability, class action, premises liability and social security cases. Concerned about police brutality against African American men, Hatchett announced that she would represent Philando Castile’s family in 2016.

While filming Judge Hatchett, Hatchett released her first self-help book, Say What You Mean and Mean What You Say!: Saving Your Child from a Troubled World. She released her second book, Dare to Take Charge: How to Live Your Life on Purpose, in 2012. In addition to her civic contributions, Hatchett received numerous awards, including the Roscoe Pound Award, the National Council on Crime and Delinquency’s highest recognition, and the NAACP Thurgood Marshall Award. The Girl Scouts of the United States of America named Hatchett one of its 10 National Women of Distinction. She also served on multiple boards, including the National Football League’s Atlanta Falcons’ Board of Advisors.

Judge Glenda Hatchett was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on October 5, 2016.

Accession Number

A2016.043

Sex

Female

Interview Date

10/5/2016

Last Name

Hatchett

Maker Category
Occupation
Schools

Anderson Park Elementary School

Charles Lincoln Harper High School

Mount Holyoke College

Emory University School of Law

First Name

Glenda

Birth City, State, Country

Atlanta

HM ID

HAT02

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Georgia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Beaches

Favorite Quote

Great Day.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Birth Date

5/31/1951

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Atlanta

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Salmon

Short Description

Judge Glenda Hatchett (1951 - ) became the first African American chief judge of a state court when she was appointed to the Fulton County Juvenile Court in 1991. She was featured in her own television show, Judge Hatchett, and in 2014, founded the national law firm, The Hatchett Firm.

Employment

Emory University School of Law

United States District Court - Northern District of Georgia

Delta Air Lines, Inc.

Fulton County Juvenile Court

Columbia/Tri-Star Television

11Alive Atlanta

The Hatchett Firm

Entertainment Studios, Inc.

Favorite Color

Red

Timing Pairs
0,0:2470,43:3510,52:8418,98:8828,104:11534,173:11944,179:17684,328:22358,412:25228,454:27278,533:27606,538:28344,549:42800,692:43175,698:43925,710:44375,738:44900,746:45425,755:45800,762:51350,885:51725,891:57722,922:58578,932:72510,1197:75310,1248:82440,1329:93594,1619:93906,1624:99924,1680:100536,1688:101352,1697:104310,1734:107194,1784:107642,1792:107898,1797:115960,1902:118288,1954:122920,1987:124900,2020:129374,2059:129938,2066:133980,2178:134732,2187:136142,2212:145352,2298:152790,2356:155487,2397:156231,2406:156696,2433:172880,2673:173500,2678:179701,2757:181622,2782:183543,2811:193690,2919:194509,2930:195692,2952:196056,2957:197694,2986:212552,3191:213532,3214:214610,3230:215002,3236:215492,3242:217942,3303:226254,3416:229037,3456:236590,3610$0,0:10328,167:10760,172:11840,185:18524,285:19035,294:19400,300:23804,330:36986,586:37688,596:55450,827:58650,891:60950,932:65856,967:69591,1035:72745,1099:73824,1116:75069,1138:75650,1147:76978,1168:94203,1321:99543,1528:112776,1701:121244,1869:138520,2109:140896,2164:141226,2169:167772,2561:168784,2600:189495,2793:189870,2799:190395,2808:197970,2962:202380,2976:208770,3098:217398,3182:221646,3213:238272,3461:244400,3506:252940,3687:253500,3708:258460,3788:264860,3968:270770,4039
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of The Honorable Glenda Hatchett's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - The Honorable Glenda Hatchett lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - The Honorable Glenda Hatchett describes her mother's family background, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - The Honorable Glenda Hatchett describes her mother's family background, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - The Honorable Glenda Hatchett talks about her maternal grandmother

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - The Honorable Glenda Hatchett describes her mother's education

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - The Honorable Glenda Hatchett describes her father's family background, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - The Honorable Glenda Hatchett describes her father's family background, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - The Honorable Glenda Hatchett remembers her father's career

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - The Honorable Glenda Hatchett talks about her father's experiences at Clark College in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - The Honorable Glenda Hatchett describes how her parents met

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - The Honorable Glenda Hatchett describes her parents' personalities and who she takes after

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - The Honorable Glenda Hatchett describes her experiences at Anderson Park Elementary School in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - The Honorable Glenda Hatchett reflects upon her father's lessons about racial discrimination

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - The Honorable Glenda Hatchett describes her early experiences of religion

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - The Honorable Glenda Hatchett remembers her mentors at Anderson Park Elementary School in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - The Honorable Glenda Hatchett talks about her extracurricular activities

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - The Honorable Glenda Hatchett describes her experiences of segregation in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - The Honorable Glenda Hatchett describes her experiences at Charles Lincoln Harper High School in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - The Honorable Glenda Hatchett remembers leading a walkout at Charles Lincoln Harper High School

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - The Honorable Glenda Hatchett talks about her achievements during high school

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - The Honorable Glenda Hatchett talks about her community in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - The Honorable Glenda Hatchett recalls her summer program at Phillips Exeter Academy

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - The Honorable Glenda Hatchett describes her decision to attend Mount Holyoke College in South Hadley, Massachusetts

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - The Honorable Glenda Hatchett remembers her freshman roommate at Mount Holyoke College

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - The Honorable Glenda Hatchett remembers the assassination of Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - The Honorable Glenda Hatchett recalls the integration of the University of Georgia

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - The Honorable Glenda Hatchett describes her experiences at Mount Holyoke College

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - The Honorable Glenda Hatchett talks about her social life at Mouth Holyoke College

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - The Honorable Glenda Hatchett remembers her professors at Mount Holyoke College

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - The Honorable Glenda Hatchett remembers studying under Max Roach

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$2

DAStory

5$5

DATitle
The Honorable Glenda Hatchett recalls the integration of the University of Georgia
The Honorable Glenda Hatchett reflects upon her father's lessons about racial discrimination
Transcript
And I must add an important piece to this. Hamilton Holmes was my next door neighbor, who was the first black student, he and [HistoryMaker] Charlayne Hunter-Gault, the two first black students to integrate the University of Georgia [Athens, Georgia].$$Yes.$$So--$$Right, right.$$--I had gone through all of that with--Hamp was like my big brother, you know, much, much older, but still my, you know, somebody I looked up to and just deeply admired. And because I had younger brothers [Paul Hatchett, Jr. and Kolen Hatchett], it was like having all these older brothers right next door, 'cause there were like four Holmes brothers, Hamp being the oldest, and loved him to the bone. And I can still remember my father [Paul Hatchett, Sr.] rushing into the house, because literally we lived in a cul-de-sac, and they're the only two houses in the cul-de-sac. If you're facing our house, their house was to the left. And our house was kind of on an, a more of an incline, the, the, the way that, to main--the, the, the let--what do you call it?$$Trajectory of the land?$$Yeah, get (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Or the terrain?$$Terrain, the terrain of the land was kind of, it sloped down, so our house sat higher, and our house was a split level. Their house was, the main level was all on one level. So we could see the street that fed into our neighborhood [Collier Heights, Atlanta, Georgia]. So, really, there was two, there were only two streets that came into our neighborhood. It's a very small neighborhood, a cul-de-sac on one end, which is one where we lived, and a cul-de-sac at the other end, and then the main street that was parallel to our street was--I could see from my parents' bedroom window. My father ran in and said, "Clemmie [Clemmie Barnes Hatchett], they're sending them home," right. And my mother said, "You know, stay here," dah, dah, dah, dah, dah. She rushed over to see about Mrs. Holmes [Isabella Holmes]. The men in our community stood vigil, they did, because at that point you didn't know who to trust on the, trust on the police force [Atlanta Police Department] and all of that. You just didn't know how they were gonna be protected. And I remember looking out of the front bedroom window when they pulled up with Charlayne and Hamp. And the men held coats to make a tent to get them in the house, right. And just the tension, and my father told me to go and stand in their bedroom, my parents' bedroom window, so I had a clear shot of the cars coming down, "Oh no," and to let him know if I saw cars that--'cause you know, everybody knew everybody in the neighborhood--that I didn't, that I, that I didn't recognize. That's how tense that situation was. Years later, I guess two years ago now, it was my honor, I mean special privilege, to be invited by the University of Georgia to do the Holmes-Hunter Lecture series, that I did the lecture. And I stood up, and I had to get my composure, because for me it was very personal, deeply personal to have lived through that as a kid and watching, watching that happen, and understanding the courage that it took not just for Hamp and Charlayne but for the families and you know, and for the neighbors and just the, the love and support of, you know, we're here, and they did. They, you know, the community just was a very small neighborhood all stood by him, you know, very proud of him. And then, of course, he went on to be the first black to, to finish Emory medical school [Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia], you know. And just, I was heartbroken when he died. He died much too early, much too soon.$My father [Paul Hatchett, Sr.] said, "She's right. Colored children don't get new books." Well, I didn't understand that. And he said to me, "So I want you to go into your room and get your box of crayons," I had a little red table with two red chairs. And he said, "I want you to sit down and write your own story." I didn't get that at six, oh, but baby, I got it now, because my father in his wisdom knew that he and my mother [Clemmie Barnes Hatchett] couldn't fix a society where colored children were not treated equally like they should have been and that even though there were decisions coming down from the [U.S.] Supreme Court that clearly hadn't made it down to my little elementary school [Anderson Park Elementary School] in Atlanta, Georgia, and this is what happened. He said, "Write your own story." I've used that story in motivational speeches all over the country to say that he didn't let me linger at the pity party about what I didn't have. He told me to go on and write my story. And so what I do is I use that story to say that in my father's wisdom, although they couldn't protect me from, from this society and what was happening to colored children and colored people in that area, he couldn't fix the society, but he could fix me. And that is the lesson that he poured into me, that I had to write my own story. And again, I didn't get it in first grade.$$Now, now--$$But I so--$$--I'm, I'm thinking that you had books in, at home, I would guess (unclear) (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Oh, I had books at home which is how I knew how to read. You know, I, I, I--my parents taught me to read before I went to school, so I had books at home.$$Yeah--$$You know--$$--that, that seemed like a major community issue to be brought to the City of Atlanta. I mean, (unclear)--$$They didn't (simultaneous)--$$--(simultaneous) schools, they didn't have any books--$$They didn't care. And my parents paid the same amount of taxes as the white children's parents, but that is how things operated, you know, when I was, when I was young. And so it, it was, it was a issue, but you know, the school board is all white; the mayor is all white; the city council [Atlanta City Council] is all white, you know. I mean, there was--it wasn't until there got to be more momentum in the Civil Rights Movement that these things became--you know, but I had horrible, horrible facilities and, and, and, and you know, just thrown out stuff.$$Yeah.$$The school building wasn't so horrible, but the fa- you know, but we had to work with. But the lesson was: when you hit hard places, when you hit hard places in your life, and there are gonna be torn pages in life's book, whether it's racism or sexism or ageism, or whatever-ism, you know, poverty, whatever it is, that's when you have to write your own story, that's when you have to dig deep and not continue to function as a victim, but how do you figure out how you're gonna be victorious. And that is a valuable gift that my father gave me. And in honor of him, when I was a commencement speaker--what year was that? I'll have to think of that in a minute--at Clark Atlanta University [Atlanta, Georgia], I told that class that story because I said that that was such a special gift from my father, because see, I was told I could do anything. I did not grow up believing that being a little colored girl in the Deep South was a curse, 'cause my daddy told me; my mama told--you know, I heard positive reinforcement from my teachers and people at church [Providence Missionary Baptist Church, Atlanta, Georgia] and my neighbors, and you know, and so I grew up believing that, that I could do anything, you know. And that is the message that I think that people have to hear from my dad's story, my dad's gift, my life lesson, is that we have to write our own stories--$$Sure. Did (simultaneous)--$$--(simultaneous) and why I'm so honored to be interviewed by HistoryMakers [The HistoryMakers], because you're preserving--$$Well, it's--the honor is ours (laughter).$$--our stories.

Carolyn Young

Civic leader Carolyn Young was born on September 14, 1944 in Atlanta, Georgia to Dorothy Wilmont Harden and George McClain, Sr. Young graduated from Price High School in 1962, and went on to receive her B.S. degree in sociology and elementary education from Atlanta's Clark College in 1966. After teaching at Wesley Elementary School for several years, Young received her M.A. degree in elementary education from Georgia State University in 1971.

Upon graduating from Georgia State University, Young became a teacher at East Lake Elementary School in Atlanta, where she helped to desegregate the faculty. She taught kindergarten through seventh grade but primarily focused her attention on fifth grade students. She went on to teach at E. Rivers Elementary School, where she also served as a Sunday school superintendent at Union Baptist Church. Young married U.S. Ambassador Andrew Young in Capetown, South Africa in 1996, and retired from teaching. She worked as the protocol contact for foreign dignitaries at GoodWorks International, a transnational business management consulting firm founded by her husband in 1996. There, she coordinated logistics, travel, and events around the world. Young served as vice chair of the Andrew J. Young Foundation and as the executive director of Andrew Young Presents, the Young Foundation’s Emmy award-winning, nationally syndicated documentary series highlighting Africa, the Civil Rights Movement and other social issues.

Young received many honors for her dedication to elementary school teaching, including the Atlanta Area II Teacher of the Year award. Young was a recipient of the Southern Bell Black History Calendar “Teacher of Excellence” Award, the Georgia Teachers Incentive Award for Intermediate Grades. Young also served on the board of directors for numerous organizations including the United Negro College Fund, the Andrew & Walter Young YMCA, Atlanta Area Technical College, WestCare, the Andrew Young School of Public Policy at Georgia State University, and Clark Atlanta University. She was honored by the Southern Christian Leadership Conference Women, and was the recipient of the Mankind Assisting Students Kindle Educational Dreams Award, the Outstanding United Negro College Fund Volunteer Award, and the Lady Who Leads Award.

Carolyn Young was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on October 2, 2016.

Accession Number

A2016.047

Sex

Female

Interview Date

10/4/2016

Last Name

Young

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Occupation
Schools

Slater Elementary School

Price Middle School

Clark Atlanta University

Georgia State University

First Name

Carolyn

Birth City, State, Country

Atlanta

HM ID

YOU07

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Georgia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Cape Town

Favorite Quote

Now, Abided Faith, Hope And Love, But The Greatest Of These Is Love.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Birth Date

9/14/1944

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Atlanta

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Hot Dog

Short Description

Civic leader Carolyn Young (1944 - ), wife of former Ambassador Andrew Young, served as the vice chairperson of the Andrew J. Young Foundation. She also taught in the Atlanta Public Schools for over thirty years.

Employment

Wesley Elementary School

East Lake Elementary School

GoodWorks International Consultant Firm

E. Rivers Elementary School

Goldsmith Elementary School

Andrew J. Young Foundation

Favorite Color

Ivory

Timing Pairs
0,0:15187,277:16186,287:16630,292:23176,344:29522,451:30521,541:42200,612:55704,705:59818,793:65021,856:65626,1135:72326,1177:78532,1307:86592,1420:87758,1479:97460,1610:97935,1616:102115,1693:102495,1698:104680,1731:116390,1954:118005,1994:118685,2007:119110,2013:120045,2033:127210,2124:127760,2130:136944,2311:144540,2400:146390,2413:153766,2509:158901,2600:159454,2633:165745,2697:176664,2854:177144,2860:178776,2904:179256,2910:180216,2922:180984,2931:207430,3268$0,0:2106,103:5508,170:6075,179:6885,191:10840,214:37257,605:41412,640:41958,650:47438,842:48212,852:48814,861:49588,876:62402,1064:63470,1085:64182,1094:65161,1112:65784,1120:66763,1186:74814,1259:78873,1324:79566,1332:81348,1365:82041,1373:82833,1382:85951,1398:93465,1519:96930,1566:100290,1574:104498,1657:105366,1665:106234,1673:113135,1822:113870,1830:116576,1857:121322,1902:122678,1921:123808,1936:124599,1948:130592,2031:131243,2039:133196,2075:141370,2175:142198,2186:148084,2278:153364,2331:154288,2339:156664,2369:162636,2473:164904,2505:165336,2510:171168,2598:178098,2655:180394,2703:180804,2713:184494,2800:190570,2863:191235,2871:195434,2950:197783,2971:200393,3015:202307,3055:210280,3150:211270,3185:212980,3215:213520,3288:219930,3355:233030,3527:236410,3573
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Carolyn Young's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Carolyn Young lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Carolyn Young describes her mother's family background, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Carolyn Young talks about never meeting her father

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Carolyn Young describes her brother

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Carolyn Young reflects upon her struggles

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Carolyn Young talks about the impact of her father's absence on her family

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Carolyn Young describes her home life

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Carolyn Young describes her mother and grandmother's personalities

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Carolyn Young remembers her early education

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Carolyn Young describes her experiences of bullying

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Carolyn Young describes her mother's family background, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Carolyn Young talks about her family's financial status

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Carolyn Young recalls her childhood aspirations

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Carolyn Young describes her experiences at Luther Judson Price High School in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Carolyn Young describes her talent for singing

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Carolyn Young talks about her deductive reasoning skills

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Carolyn Young recalls developing an illness during college

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Carolyn Young describes her experiences at Clark College in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Carolyn Young talks about her family's experiences during the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Carolyn Young remembers her early teaching experiences

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Carolyn Young talks about her attire as a teacher

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Carolyn Young remembers her first husband

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Carolyn Young describes how she was treated by her white colleagues

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Carolyn Young recalls how she was treated by her African American colleagues

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Carolyn Young describes her teaching career in the Atlanta Public Schools

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Carolyn Young recalls attending Georgia State University in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Carolyn Young talks about her approach to black history education, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Carolyn Young talks about her approach to black history education, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Carolyn Young recalls meeting Andrew Young's son

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Carolyn Young describes her initial relationship with the Young family

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Carolyn Young remembers her friend, Elizabeth Knox Blackwell

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Carolyn Young recalls the death of her friend, Elizabeth Knox Blackwell

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Carolyn Young recalls comforting Andrew Young after the death of his wife

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Carolyn Young remembers dating Andrew Young

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Carolyn Young remembers her engagement to Andrew Young

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Carolyn Young describes her wedding

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Carolyn Young recalls the initial response to her marriage to Andrew Young

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Carolyn Young talks about her first impressions of South Africa

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Carolyn Young shares a story from Andrew Young's travels in South Africa

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Carolyn Young talks about the wealth gap in South Africa

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Carolyn Young describes her return from South Africa

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Carolyn Young talks about her family

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Carolyn Young talks about her husband's transnational consulting firm

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Carolyn Young talks about her husband's documentaries

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Carolyn Young describes the Carolyn Young Mentor Walk

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Carolyn Young talks about her mentorship and board memberships

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Carolyn Young talks about her husband's colleagues

Tape: 5 Story: 11 - Carolyn Young reflects upon her legacy and how she would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$5

DAStory

8$8

DATitle
Carolyn Young talks about her approach to black history education, pt. 2
Carolyn Young describes the Carolyn Young Mentor Walk
Transcript
I said, "You find out what you can do that nobody else can do." I said, "You don't have to follow in--if your dad," I had doctors and lawyers and everything else children in there. Their pare- their maids would drive up there in Mercedes [Mercedes-Benz]. I said, "But, find something that somebody needs or this society is going to want and nobody else has done it." And, they, they started thinking. So, when they did their projects, they would always think outside of the box and stuff. So, we did a lot of that. And, and we talked about how people helped--I said, "Let me tell you something." I said, when I would get (unclear), 'Eyes on the Prize' and show them a piece of it, said, "What you have to realize, this movement was not just a black movement." I said, we were talking about the Civil Rights Movement then. It was very foremost on their mind. I said, "You hear about Martin Luther King [Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.]. You hear about [HistoryMaker] Andrew Young. You hear about Ralph David Abernathy [Ralph Abernathy], Joe Lowery [HistoryMaker Reverend Dr. Joseph Lowery]." I said, "But, there were white people." I say, a lady by the--the first tombstone that Miss Lowery [HistoryMaker Evelyn Gibson Lowery] and I put up on Highway, I think 48 [sic. U.S. Route 80] off Selma [Alabama], was Viola Alousso [sic. Viola Liuzzo]. She had four children [sic.] and her husband was in the union [International Brotherhood of Teamsters] and I think they were in Michigan--$$Right, from Detroit [Michigan].$$Detroit. And, they--she was sitting looking at TV how they were beating these people and putting firehoses. She asked her husband, she left her children, came down to Selma. And, driving one evening in the highway, she had a black man in the car. That was against the law. You couldn't have a black man in the car with a white lady. And, I said, "They killed her. She gave her life." I said, "So, don't think that you hear them. You might not hear about those, those people. But, those people the three boys, Andrew [Andrew Goodman], Matthew [sic. Michael Schwerner], and, the three boys that were killed.$$Schwerner.$$Schwerner and Chaney [James Chaney].$$And Goodman.$$And, Goodman. I said, "They gave their lives." I said, "When you saw that march, what made that march go across the Edmund Pettus Bridge [Selma, Alabama], there was as many white, pastors, and people, and stars, as anybody else." So, I said, "We can't live divided." I said, "We have to come together." So, we never taught separatism, we always taught togetherness, and so the parents really liked that. They really liked that. See, we teach, a lot of times we'd teach in isolation and you can't do that. Not one culture, not one race do anything by themselves. It was a combination. So, I used to tell 'em, I said, "This is, Black History Month's designated to us. But, our black history and American history are all in one."$$Okay. Okay, so, you, in 1982 Andrew Young is elected mayor, succeeds Maynard Jackson. And, you're teaching in Buckhead [Atlanta, Georgia]. You start that same, that (simultaneous)--?$$(Simultaneous) Yeah. I'm teaching at E. Rivers [E. Rivers Elementary School, Atlanta, Georgia]. I taught there until 1997.$What else does [HistoryMaker] Andrew Young--now, there's a Carolyn Young Walk too right?$$Yeah, it's a Carolyn McClain Young Mentor Walk [sic. Carolyn Young Mentor Walk] which we started six years ago. And, I was talking to some friends who are of East Indian descent and they were saying, "We want to put a mentor walk in your name." And, I said, "Oh, I don't know about having anything in my name." I said, "My husband is the famous one." They say, "No, but you've done a lot and you don't want anything for it." I said, "Well, I don't do anything to get anything for it. I do it because it's the right thing to do." But, I shared with them when I was at Clark [Clark College; Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta, Georgia], I used go down to go M. Agnes Jones [M. Agnes Jones Elementary School, Atlanta, Georgia] my sophomore year and volunteer with the students on my free time. And, then at the end of the period I would take, and with some of the teacher, take one class and bring 'em to the college campus so they could see college. And, I said, "You know, a lot of these students would never see a college campus. They don't know college is a friendly place. They don't know the fun that the kids have." So, they said, "Well, that's the more reason we're gonna develop this mentor walk." And, so, we first invited schools to come and we paired up college students with them. The first two mentor walks was at M. Agnes--was Agnes Scott College [Decatur, Georgia], an all girl white college. Then, we went to, after we left Agnes Scott College, we went to Georgia Tech [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia] for one term. We went to Georgia State [Georgia State University, Atlanta, Georgia] for one time, and to do the mentor walk. The kids were bused in. It was on a Saturday and we do reading with the younger kids. We have a session where the, we have volunteers from the corporate community that come in and talk to the parents. We had a session for high school kids on self-concept and on talking about careers. And, it was really, really grown. And, the last two years we've had it at Atlanta Technical College [Atlanta, Georgia] because we want kids to see everybody. You don't have to go to a regular college. You can--technical college, I'm on that board as well. And, they do 98 percent graduation and 98 percent job placement. They have the Allied Health Building. They have the beauty part of it, where you do hair. Where you, where you do nails. They have the, now they have a place where you can do the aeronautics, work on airplanes and different things, and the mechanical part. They have so many components. And, then they have a program where the high school students if they're doing real well, they can come over there their senior year and take at least two to three courses which we count for college credit. And, a lot of them will leave early. So, it's just a wonderful thing that we've started. Like, we start on October the 28th visiting school, reading, giving children books, because now children are so technology savvy and they don't read anymore. They--but to hold a book in their hand and see all the beautiful illustrations. You have to start when they're very young and then it will go on. You can't start, you know, even though we include the middle school and high school. And, we have different tracks for them. The little kids we wanna put books in their hands, and tell stories, and get them interested, and do puppetry art, and do different things. But, it has gone very well.

Kathleen Bertrand

Jazz singer and nonprofit executive Kathleen Bertrand was born on October 17, 1951 in Atlanta, Georgia to Nan Jackson and William Jackson. Bertrand graduated from Henry W. Grady High School in 1969, and earned her B.S. degree in English from Spelman College in 1973.

From 1974 to 1978, Bertrand worked as Spelman College's director of alumni affairs. In 1983, Bertrand became a membership account executive for the Atlanta Convention & Visitors Bureau (ACVB), a private, non-profit organization. Later, she became the organization’s advertising and membership manager before becoming ACVB’s vice president of membership and community affairs in 1990. In this position, Bertrand launched a number of projects in Atlanta, including: Diversity in the Hospitality Industry Summit, the Hospitality Student Summit and ACVB’s Diversity Marketing Advisory Council. She also developed Atlanta Heritage, an annual visitor’s guide targeted at African American tourists. Bertrand became senior vice president of community and government affairs at ACVB; and in 2007, founded Hospitality Industry Professionals, a networking organization for those of diverse hospitality backgrounds.

An accomplished singer, Bertrand performed at the 1992, 1994 and 1996 Olympic Games. In 1999, she independently released her first jazz album, All of Me. Then, in 2002, she penned the national theme song, “What They See is What They’ll Be” for the 100 Black Men of America, Inc. That same year, Bertrand recorded her second album, No Regrets, which was released by Gold Circle Records, followed by her third album, Reasons for the Season. In 2006, she recorded her fourth album, New Standards. Then, in 2009, Bertrand co-founded the BronzeLens Film Festival of Atlanta. BronzeLens was a founding partner of Ava DuVernay’s African American Film Festival Releasing Movement. Bertrand released her fifth album, Katharsis, in 2011. Bertrand has opened for a number of performers, including: Tony Bennett, Ray Charles, Rachelle Ferrell and Roy Ayers. Additionally, she performed the National Anthem for several of Atlanta’s professional sports teams, as well as for former Presidents Bill Clinton and George W. Bush.

Bertrand served on the Grady Hospitality Academy Industry Advisory Board, the MACOC Education Committee, the Advisory Board for North Atlanta High School Hospitality Program, the Tourism and Hospitality Advisory Committee of Atlanta Technical College, the Black Women’s Film Network, and the Atlanta Community Food Bank. She was recognized as the Atlanta Business Chronicle’s Top Hospitality Industry Leader, one of Atlanta’s Top 100 Black Women of Influence by the Atlanta Business League, and as the Most Influential African Americans in the Meetings & Tourism Industry by Black Meetings & Tourism Magazine.

Bertrand and her husband, Andre Bertrand, have four children: Ikechi, Amichi, Chioma, and Chinela.

Kathleen Bertrand was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on October 3, 2016.

Accession Number

A2016.048

Sex

Female

Interview Date

10/3/2016

Last Name

Bertrand

Maker Category
Marital Status

Divorced

Middle Name

Jackson

Schools

Our Lady of Lourdes Catholic School

Henry W. Grady High School

Spelman College

First Name

Kathleen

Birth City, State, Country

Atlanta

HM ID

BER05

Favorite Season

Autumn

State

Georgia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Martha's Vineyard

Favorite Quote

Do Unto Others As You Would Have Others Do Unto You.$

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Birth Date

10/17/1951

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Atlanta

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Pizza

Short Description

Jazz singer and nonprofit executive Kathleen Bertrand (1952 - ) worked at the Atlanta Convention & Visitors Bureau for thirty-two years. She also released five jazz albums, and penned the national theme song for the 100 Black Men of America, Inc.

Employment

Atlanta Convention & Visitors Bureau

Various Jobs

Roy Ayers

Spelman College

Favorite Color

Purple

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Kathleen Bertrand's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Kathleen Bertrand lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Kathleen Bertrand describes her mother's family background, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Kathleen Bertrand describes her mother's family background, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Kathleen Bertrand talks about her mother's education

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Kathleen Bertrand describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Kathleen Bertrand talks about her father's career

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Kathleen Bertrand recalls her parents' brief separation

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Kathleen Bertrand lists her siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Kathleen Bertrand describes her parents' personalities and who she takes after

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Kathleen Bertrand describes her earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Kathleen Bertrand talks about her religious upbringing

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Kathleen Bertrand recalls her early influences

Tape: 1 Story: 14 - Kathleen Bertrand remembers competing in the Superteen contest

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Kathleen Bertrand describes her music education at Our Lady of Lourdes Catholic School in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Kathleen Bertrand recalls her experiences on public transit in Atlanta, Georgia, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Kathleen Bertrand recalls her experiences on public transit in Atlanta, Georgia, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Kathleen Bertrand describes her experiences of discrimination at Henry W. Grady High School in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Kathleen Bertrand remembers her aspiration to attend college

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Kathleen Bertrand describes her college counselor at William H. Grady High School in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Kathleen Bertrand talks about the impact of Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.'s assassination

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Kathleen Bertrand remembers winning the Superteen singing contest

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Kathleen Bertrand remembers turning down a recording contract with Capital Records

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Kathleen Bertrand describes her early aspirations for her career

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Kathleen Bertrand recalls deejaying on WAUC Radio

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Kathleen Bertrand remembers recording commercial jingles

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Kathleen Bertrand remembers learning photography

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Kathleen Bertrand recalls being elected Miss Maroon and White at Spelman College

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Kathleen Bertrand talks about moving to Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Kathleen Bertrand recalls her first winter in Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Kathleen Bertrand remembers her roles at the alumnae office of Spelman College

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Kathleen Bertrand describes the impact of Maynard Jackson's mayoralty on Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Kathleen Bertrand talks about the history of Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Kathleen Bertrand describes her work as the director of alumnae affairs at Spelman College

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Kathleen Bertrand talks about her marriage to Andre Bertrand

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Kathleen Bertrand remembers joining Roy Ayers' band

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Kathleen Bertrand remembers touring with Roy Ayers

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Kathleen Bertrand talks about her voice

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Kathleen Bertrand describes the meanings of her children's names

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Kathleen Bertrand remembers her decision to leave Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Kathleen Bertrand recalls living in the U.S. Virgin Islands

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Kathleen Bertrand recalls joining the Atlanta Convention and Visitor's Bureau

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Kathleen Bertrand describes her first position at the Atlanta Convention and Visitors Bureau

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Kathleen Bertrand recalls her promotion to advertising manager at the Atlanta Convention and Visitors Bureau

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Kathleen Bertrand talks about the national perception of Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Kathleen Bertrand remembers the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Kathleen Bertrand recalls organizing the Diversity in the Hospitality Industry Summit

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Kathleen Bertrand talks about her student outreach programs

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Kathleen Bertrand recalls the creation of the Atlanta Heritage guide

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Kathleen Bertrand remembers her performances for the Olympics, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Kathleen Bertrand remembers her performances for the Olympics, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Kathleen Bertrand recalls the Centennial Olympic Park bombing in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Kathleen Bertrand describes the highlights of the 1996 Summer Olympic Games in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Kathleen Bertrand talks about the Olympic facilities in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Kathleen Bertrand remembers releasing her first album, 'All of Me'

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Kathleen Bertrand talks about her second album, 'No Regrets'

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Kathleen Bertrand describes her Christmas album, 'Reasons for the Season'

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Kathleen Bertrand talks about financing her records

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Kathleen Bertrand recalls founding Hospitality Industry Professionals

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Kathleen Bertrand remembers organizing the BronzeLens Film Festival

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Kathleen Bertrand describes the changes to the BronzeLens Film Festival

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Kathleen Bertrand describes the release of her fifth album, 'Katharsis'

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Kathleen Bertrand talks about the inspiration for her song, 'Date Night'

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Kathleen Bertrand recalls writing 'What They See Is What They'll Be'

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Kathleen Bertrand remembers performing with Roy Ayers at the Atlanta Jazz Festival

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Kathleen Bertrand reflects upon her career at the Atlanta Convention and Visitors Bureau

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Kathleen Bertrand recalls performing in Four Women: A Tribute to Nina Simone

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Kathleen Bertrand talks about her use of social media

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Kathleen Bertrand describes her upcoming projects

Tape: 7 Story: 9 - Kathleen Bertrand talks about her family

Tape: 7 Story: 10 - Kathleen Bertrand describes her concerns for the African American community, pt. 1

Tape: 7 Story: 11 - Kathleen Bertrand describes her concerns for the African American community, pt. 2

Tape: 7 Story: 12 - Kathleen Bertrand reflects upon her legacy

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$5

DAStory

5$7

DATitle
Kathleen Bertrand remembers touring with Roy Ayers
Kathleen Bertrand recalls the creation of the Atlanta Heritage guide
Transcript
So you get married in 1980, and you're performing with [HistoryMaker] Roy Ayers sometimes, right? 'Cause your--$$So I performed with Roy before I got married.$$Yeah.$$So when I--$$So you (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) That's why I said, when I came off the road I was no longer with Roy, when I came off the road. So that's why I was kind of opened to this new experience here of this guy from the islands and he's from, Andre's [Andre Bertrand] from St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands. Although, he was born in Savannah [Georgia] but grew up in St. Thomas. So I was off the road by then. But the road taught me a lot. I felt that I could handle it because I had done all of my traveling with Spelman [Spelman College, Atlanta, Georgia] so that part I had down, I had down better--it was one woman and thirteen guys between the crew and the band and every- and roadies and everything else. There were thirteen of them, of us that would travel. What I didn't have down was being able to take care of myself for long periods of time, so I was sick like the first month and a half, two months. I was literally performing with an inflamed throat or tonsillitis or whatever the case might be. And we had a break in April of that year and I went to Puerto Rico. Didn't know a soul, I just needed to be where there was sun, just needed to be where there was sun. And I went to Puerto Rico and came back, and I was well. Do you know, brand new me. And I felt good, it was like the first time I really felt like I was hearing myself at that time. And then Roy taught me something that I carried into my corporate life for many years, still do, that people pay to come and see a show and that's what they want to see. They don't want to know that you broke your heel, they don't want to know that your luggage didn't arrive on time, they don't want to know that your dress ripped. None of that's important because they came to see the show that they paid their money for, that you're supposed to give them. So what that meant was attitude, everything has to be on top for the show. And we got to that because one of the roadies hadn't taped down the cords from the mic back to the amplifiers, speakers. And, so I came on stage, you know, here is my big entrance and I tripped 'cause I tripped on the cord that wasn't taped down. And, so I was really ticked for the first, you know song or two. And he looked over and saw me and I wasn't smiling and, so we went into this one song, you know, he likes to hit on this cowbell (gesture), and he, you know, leaned over to me and said, "Can I talk to you for a minute?" And we turned our backs to the audience, but he's hitting on the cowbell and we're dancing. And he says, "What's wrong with you?" And I explained what was wrong with me. And he says, "Well, you know, nobody cares. I really don't, and you need to get it together so when you turn around, you need to be smiling," (singing), "because when you're smiling the whole world smiles with you." I promise you, this is the drum playing something totally different, but this is what he's singing. And, so by the time I turn around and life is grand and glorious again, you know. But I kept that lesson for a lifetime, you know. I used to tell my staffers, I said, "Nobody cares if the kid pooped on you before you got to work or you spilled milk in the car, whatever, somebody cut you off. Not my issue because when we have a meeting at nine [o'clock], however, and there's a client here, or a member company has come to visit us then we've got to be in the moment right that minute." And it was good training because many times when I was in my corporate job, I would have at that point dropped four kids off at one--for a year and a half at two different schools. And I've still got to be at an eight o'clock meeting where there's a room full of people waiting to see me because I'm the first speaker for my program. So I would literally walk in the front door, drop my briefcase behind the desk with the receptionist, deep breathe and then you go in and, what'd Bob Fosse say (snaps fingers), "Show time?" And that was it. And that was that--Roy's lesson that was still resonating. It's show time. People paid, or they're here for a (gesture) specific thing, you need to give it to 'em. They don't want stories about how your kid, you know, threw Fruit Loops all over the car and stuff like that. That's not part of the moment. So just that was my Roy Ayers lesson that I learned on the road, and it was a good one, it was a good one (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) Okay, I--$The Atlanta Heritage guide that you mentioned came out of a need to have a publication that talked about Atlanta [Georgia] as a destination for African Americans. There was so much history here, so much rich culture here, but it was not being covered in the general publications that promoted Atlanta. And, so it literally started as a typewritten sheet in my desk because the National Dental Association, the president of which was a friend of mine was in Atlanta one summer--I wanna say maybe '88 [1988], '89 [1989], and he came to me--or '90 [1990], and said, "Well, you know, do you have a, a--something that gives people an idea of what's in the African American community and restaurants and things like that?" And I said, "Well, I have this typewritten list that I've compiled myself." Because I kept a list of all of the black restaurants and shops and--just because people would ask that information and I wanted to have it. And I gave that to him, and he copied that for the National Dental Association that summer. And, so then I went to the CEO and I said, "This is embarrassing. Atlanta, Atlanta, home of Martin Luther King [Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.], Maynard Jackson, Andy Young [HistoryMaker Andrew Young], should never be a place that has a typewritten sheet that promotes its African American community."$$Yeah, now this is the point you got the--this major airport [Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport, Atlanta, Georgia], largest in the U.S. Dr. King, the Dr. King museum.$$The Center for (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) The King Center [Martin Luther King Jr. Center for Nonviolent Social Change, Atlanta, Georgia].$$Center, King Center, um-hm.$$These are international attractions, people coming from all over the world.$$Exactly.$$When you go over there, you'll see all kinds of people there.$$Exactly, exactly.$$And they come here so I mean--$$Exactly.$$--so it makes sense.$$You would've agreed, huh?$$Yeah.$$Yes, yes, and, so, and he agreed. He understood, he got it. And, so the--remember I used to be advertising manager. (Cough) Excuse me. So we formed this partnership with the Atlanta Business Chronicle and out of that came a publishing company called Atcomm, A-T-C-O-M-M. And the Atlanta Heritage guide was published through Atcomm Publishing [Atlanta, Georgia], and we published for twenty-five years.

Alvia Wardlaw

Art historian and curator Alvia J. Wardlaw was born on November 5, 1947 to Virginia Cage and Alvin Wardlaw. She was raised in Houston, Texas and graduated from Jack Yates High School in 1965. Wardlaw earned her B.A. degree in art history from Wellesley College in 1969, and her M.A. degree in art history from New York University in 1986. In 1996, she became the first African American to receive a Ph.D. degree in art history from the University of Texas at Austin.

From 1972 to 1974, Wardlaw worked as a curatorial assistant at the Museum of Fine Arts in Houston (MFAH). In 1974, she was promoted to associate curator of primitive art and education and was also hired as an adjunct professor at Texas Southern University, where she went on to serve as assistant and associate professor of art history. From 1973 to 1989, Wardlaw curated a number of exhibitions at various institutions, including African Tribal Art (1973); Roy DeCarava: Photographs (1975); Ceremonies and Visions: The Art of John Biggers (1980); Homecoming: African American Family History in Georgia (1982); John Biggers: Bridges (1986); and the 1989 watershed exhibition Black Art Ancestral Legacy: The African Impulse in African American Art for the Dallas Museum of Art. She subsequently served as an adjunct curator of African American art at the Dallas Museum, and, in 1995, was named curator of modern and contemporary art for the MFAH. Wardlaw went on to organize The Art of John Biggers: View from the Upper Room (1995); The Quilts of Gee’s Bend (2002); Something All Our Own: The Grant Hill Collection of African American Art (2003); and Notes from a Child’s Odyssey: The Art of Kermit Oliver (2005). Wardlaw also became director/curator of the University Museum at Texas Southern University, and continued to work as curator of modern and contemporary art at the MFAH until 2009, when she retired from her position.

Wardlaw has received numerous honors and awards. She was a Fulbright Fellow in West Africa in 1984, won a Fulbright Award for study in Tanzania, East Africa in 1997, was a Senior Fellow for the 2001 American Leadership Forum, and was inducted into the Texas Women's Hall of Fame in 1994. She also received the Award of Merit from the University of Texas at Austin and the Ethos Founders Award from Wellesley College, was recognized as an African American Living Legend by African American News and Issues, and was named Texas Southern University’s Research Scholar of the Year in 2009. In addition, Black Art Ancestral Legacy was named Best Exhibition of 1990 by D Magazine, and The Quilts of Gee’s Bend received the International Association of Art Critics Award in 2003.

Wardlaw has served on the Advisory Boards of the National Black Arts Festival and Hampton University, as well as the Scholarly Advisory Committee of the Smithsonian National Museum of African-American History and Culture. She was also a co-founder of the National Alliance of African and African American Art Support groups in 1998.

Wardlaw lives in Houston, Texas.

Alvia Wardlaw was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on May 7, 2014.

Accession Number

A2014.155

Sex

Female

Interview Date

5/7/2014 |and| 12/3/2016

Last Name

Wardlaw

Maker Category
Middle Name

J.

Schools

Jack Yates High School

Wellesley College

New York University

University of Texas at Austin

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Alvia

Birth City, State, Country

Atlanta

HM ID

WAR18

Favorite Season

Winter

State

Georgia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Any where near water, Tanzania

Favorite Quote

Peace, love and adventures every day.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Texas

Birth Date

11/5/1947

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Houston

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Ethiopian

Short Description

Art history professor and curator Alvia Wardlaw (1947 - ) is professor of art history and director/curator of the University Museum at Texas Southern University. She served as the curator of modern and contemporary art for the Museum of Fine Arts, Houston from 1995 to 2009, and has curated the award-winning exhibits, Black Art Ancestral Legacy: The African Impulse in African American Art and The Quilts of Gee’s Bend.

Employment

Museum of Fine Arts in Houston

Texas Southern University

Dallas Museum of Art

University Museum at Texas Southern University

Favorite Color

No, that changes from orange to blue

Richard Hope

Educator and sociologist Richard Oliver Hope was born on April 1, 1939 in Atlanta, Georgia. He graduated from Pearl High School in Nashville, Tennessee and received his B.A. degree from Morehouse College in Atlanta, Georgia in 1961. Hope went on to receive his M.A. degree and his Ph.D. degree in sociology from the Maxwell School at Syracuse University in 1964 and 1969, respectively.

Upon graduation, Hope was hired as an assistant professor of sociology at Brooklyn College, where he worked until 1972. He also became a research associate at the metropolitan applied research center in New York. From 1972 to 1974, Hope served as the first director of research and evaluation for the Defense Race Relations Institute (now DEOMI), where he was responsible for the creation, administration, and development of human relations research for early curriculum materials, and analyses of worldwide intergroup relations in the U.S. military. In 1974, Hope was hired as full professor and chair of sociology, as well as director of the National Science Foundation Project at Morgan State University. In 1982, he became chair of sociology and the coordinator of the Liberal Arts Workshop for the Lilly Foundation in Indiana. At that time, he created the Center for International Studies and served as its first director. In 1988, Hope accepted a position at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), where he served as executive director of the Quality Education Project in conjunction with the Carnegie Corporation. In 1990, Hope was hired at Princeton University as full professor of sociology and senior vice president of the Woodrow Wilson National Fellowship Foundation (WWNFF). While at the WWNFF, Hope developed the Public Policy Partnership Program in South Africa and the Pickering Foreign Affairs Fellowship Program. He also directed the Public Policy and International Affairs Fellowships, the Mellon-Mays Undergraduate Fellows Dissertation and Travel/Research Grants, and the Career Enhancement Fellowship. Hope was then named president of the 1971 DEOMI Foundation, Inc.

Hope has served on several public policy boards. He was a member of the board of directors of the National Urban League and Princeton University’s Center on African American Studies. Hope has also been elected to the Council on Foreign Relations and has served as an advisory panel member of The Brookings Institution.

Hope published numerous articles and books, including Racial Strife in the United States Military: Toward the Elimination of Discrimination, African-Americans and the Doctoral Experience: Implications for Policy, and Educating a New Majority: Transforming America's Educational System for Diversity. He has been the recipient for many awards for his work as well. Hope is the recipient of the Mellon-Mays Achievement Award for Leadership, the Gandhi-King-Ikeda International Peace Award, and the Martin Luther King, Jr. Award for Leadership in the Advancement of Minorities in International and Diplomatic Service.

Hope and his wife, Alice Anderson, live in Chicago, Illinois. They have two children: Leah and Richard, Jr.

Richard Hope was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on March 18, 2014 and July 16, 2017.

Accession Number

A2014.016

Sex

Male

Interview Date

3/18/2014 |and| 07/16/2017

Last Name

Hope

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Oliver

Occupation
Schools

Pearl-Cohn Entertainment Magnet High School

Morehouse College

Syracuse University

First Name

Richard

Birth City, State, Country

Atlanta

HM ID

HOP04

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Georgia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Palm Springs

Favorite Quote

I have a dream

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Illinois

Birth Date

4/1/1939

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Chicago

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Fried Chicken

Short Description

Educator and sociologist Richard Hope (1939 - ) , president of the 1971 DEOMI Foundation, Inc., has served as a professor of sociology at Princeton University and senior vice president of the Woodrow Wilson National Fellowship Foundation.

Employment

Brooklyn College

Metropolitan Applied Research Center

Defense Race Relations Institute (DEOMI)

Morgan State University

Lilly Foundation

Center for International Studies

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Princeton University

1971 DEOMI Foundation, Inc.

Favorite Color

Blue

Sonya Ross

Journalist Sonya Ross was born in 1962 in Atlanta, Georgia. She attended C.L. Harper High School, and received her B.A. degree in journalism and mass communications from the University of Georgia in 1984. Ross went on to attend Georgia State University from 1985 to 1987.

In 1985, Ross was hired as a library clerk at The Atlanta Journal-Constitution. She worked there until 1986, when she accepted a position as an intern for Associated Press in the Greater Atlanta area. Ross was then hired as a general assignment reporter at Associated Press in 1987, and was promoted to a legislative reporter in 1989. She was promoted again in 1992, and transferred from Georgia to Washington, D.C., where she worked as an urban affairs reporter until 1995. Ross then joined the Associated Press’ White House press corps and traveled with Presidents Bill Clinton and George Bush, as well as Secretary of State Colin Powell to thirty-nine countries. During the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, she was the print pool reporter who accompanied President Bush on Air Force One.

In 2002, Ross was named Washington, D.C.’s world services editor for the Associated Press, where she helped direct coverage of the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq and the worldwide campaign against terrorism. In 2004, Ross was appointed news editor for the Associated Press’ regional reporters in Washington, D.C., and, in 2010, she was named the organization’s first-ever race and ethnicity editor in order to capture the changing face of race and ethnicity in the United States.

Sonya Ross was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on December 4, 2013.

Accession Number

A2013.309

Sex

Female

Interview Date

12/4/2013

Last Name

Ross

Maker Category
Marital Status

Single

Occupation
Schools

Charles Lincoln Harper High School

University of Georgia

Georgia State University

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Sonya

Birth City, State, Country

Atlanta

HM ID

ROS06

Favorite Season

Winter

State

Georgia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Lake Tahoe, Utah

Favorite Quote

Let Go And Let God.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

7/11/1962

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

United States

Favorite Food

None

Short Description

Journalist Sonya Ross (1962 - ) has worked for the Associated Press for over twenty-five years, and became the organization’s first-ever race and ethnicity editor in 2010.

Employment

Associated Press (AP)

Urban Affairs Reporter

Delete

Atlanta Journal-Constitution

Favorite Color

Green

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Sonya Ross's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Sonya Ross lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Sonya Ross describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Sonya Ross talks about her mother's family history after the Civil War

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Sonya Ross describes her mother's childhood and work as a beautician in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Sonya Ross describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Sonya Ross talks about her father, Harold Ross

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Sonya Ross describes how her parents met and how she takes after them

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Sonya Ross talks about her mother's previous husband, photographer Harmon Perry

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Sonya Ross describes her siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Sonya Ross recalls her earliest memories of childhood in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Sonya Ross describes the sights, sounds, and smells of growing up in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Sonya Ross talks about her years at G.A. Towns Elementary School in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Sonya Ross remembers her favorite grade school teachers

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Sonya Ross recalls Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.'s assassination in 1963

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Sonya Ross talks about how she first started reading the newspaper

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Sonya Ross talks about her relationship with her father, Harold Ross

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Sonya Ross describes the personalities of black Atlanta, Georgia in the 1970s

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Sonya Ross talks about the Portuguese ethnic background she shares with HistoryMaker Jasmine Guy

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Sonya Ross recalls developing an interest in journalism and science at C.L. Harper High School in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Sonya Ross describes her decision to attend the University of Georgia in Athens, Georgia.

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Sonya Ross describes her academic experience at the University of Georgia, and the people she met there

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Sonya Ross describes her decision to change her academic concentration from biology to journalism

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Sonya Ross describes working with Yolanda King and Martin Luther King, Sr. at the King Center in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Sonya Ross talks about dropping out of the University of Georgia and enrolling in Georgia State University

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Sonya Ross recalls how she got into the Associated Press internship program

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Sonya Ross talks about the Associated Press news writing test

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Sonya Ross talks about receiving her first permanent job offer from AP

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Sonya Ross describes working for AP as a general assignment reporter in Atlanta

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Sonya Ross talks about becoming an Atlanta legislative reporter after Maynard Jackson's 1989 mayoral campaign

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Sonya Ross describes the 1990 Georgia gubernatorial race when Zell Miller defeated HistoryMaker Andrew Young

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Sonya Ross recalls covering the Bill Clinton campaign at the time of the Gennifer Flowers scandal

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Sonya Ross recalls covering 1992 Atlanta riots triggered by the Rodney King verdict

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Sonya Ross describes President Bill Clinton

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Sonya Ross reflects upon scandals in the early 1990s involving Lani Guinier, Benjamin F. Chavis, Jr., Minister Louis Farrakhan, and HUD Secretary Henry Cisneros

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Sonya Ross talks about her mentor, HistoryMaker DeWayne Wickham

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Sonya Ross describes the political climate in Washington, D.C. during Bill Clinton's first term

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Sonya Ross talks about how she became the first black woman to cover the White House for the Associated Press in 1995

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Sonya Ross recalls covering Bill Clinton's 1996 reelection campaign

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Sonya Ross recalls meeting Rosa Parks in Royal Oak, Michigan on Bill Clinton's 1996 campaign trail

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Sonya Ross talks about Bill Clinton's presidential campaign and the 1996 Democratic National Convention in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Sonya Ross describes her 1997 trip to Africa with Hillary Clinton

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Sonya Ross reflects upon the Monica Lewinsky scandal and the changing role of news media

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Sonya Ross reflects upon journalistic ethics and reporting on HistoryMaker Jesse L. Jackson's out-of-wedlock child

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Sonya Ross talks about covering the 2000 presidential election between George W. Bush and Al Gore

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Sonya Ross describes the differences in the White House between the Bill Clinton and George W. Bush administrations

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Sonya Ross recalls traveling to Sarasota, Florida with President George W. Bush during the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, pt. 1

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Sonya Ross recalls traveling to Sarasota, Florida with President George W. Bush during the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, pt. 2

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Sonya Ross recalls traveling to Sarasota, Florida with President George W. Bush during the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, pt. 3

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Sonya Ross talks about the changes in diplomacy and national security procedures that emerged after the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Sonya Ross talks about her decision to leave her post as Associated Press White House correspondent and become an editor

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Sonya Ross describes her job as Washington, D.C. regional news editor for the Associated Press

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Sonya Ross talks about being a mentor to young black journalists

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Sonya Ross describes her role as Race and Ethnicity Editor at the Associated Press beginning in 2010

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - Sonya Ross talks about the changing demographics of American news consumers

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - Sonya Ross describes some of her successful initiatives as Associated Press Race and Ethnicity Editor

Tape: 8 Story: 6 - Sonya Ross talks about her future career plans and possibly writing a book

Tape: 8 Story: 7 - Sonya Ross describes her hopes and concerns for the black community

Tape: 9 Story: 1 - Sonya Ross reflects upon her professional legacy

Tape: 9 Story: 2 - Sonya Ross talks about how she would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

5$7

DAStory

2$3

DATitle
Sonya Ross recalls covering 1992 Atlanta riots triggered by the Rodney King verdict
Sonya Ross recalls traveling to Sarasota, Florida with President George W. Bush during the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, pt. 2
Transcript
Now so during this period of time from my notes here, you basically transfer from Georgia to Washington [D.C.], right?$$Yes, yes.$$Okay.$$I did the legislature for three years, I think. And I had started to get a--started to get a little maxed out on it, where I felt I had topped out in terms of what I was getting out of it. And I was starting to feel yeah, I can--I think I--I, I don't think I wanna hang around for another term of this, like next year. I, I wanna grow into something else. And that--I noticed a vacancy was posted for an arts reporter actually--arts and humanities like the museums, the Smithsonian [Institution], etc., here in Washington. So I applied for that. And I hadn't ever really expressed a desire to leave the [Associated Press Atlanta, Georgia] bureau at that point. I had been there for five years and had carved out a pretty good niche for myself. But I knew in order to grow as a journalist, at some point you have to migrate to a different media market. And this one seemed to have all the elements of what I wanted to do in terms of politics and national reporting. So I applied for the first vacancy I saw in Washington. And I was in the system. And this is the spring of '92 [1992], and the Rodney King verdict came down, and the, the riots popped off. So AP was hunting around, you know, saying hmm, "Who are we gonna send to the riots? How are we gonna cover these riots?" And in the midst of that, a little, small riot happened in Atlanta at the Atlanta University Center, where the students got rowdy. I was working a night shift and the CNN Center, where AP's bureau was a that the time, was put on lockdown. What happened is some students decided to march from the Atlanta University Center over to city hall, where they were gonna talk to the mayor about something. And it, it got out of hand, and some folks got arrested. And then they made their way back to campus. And I think this--the--a police car got flipped over and burned, and they, they looted the bookstore. So it got pretty wild over there. And CNN Center was locked down, and I was not locked down because I was working a night shift and it hadn't started yet. So they called me and said, "Hey, you know you're the only reporter we got out there, right. We need you to go over to the hospital and look for casualties; and we need you to go to these different places." I went to the hospital, Grady [Memorial] Hospital, which normal is a beehive (laughter), you know. But it didn't have anything out of its ordinary load. And they seemed to be a little adrift in terms of what they were asking me to do. So I said, "Tell you what, I'll go over to the AIDS Center." So I went over to the AIDS Center and got there in the midst of the rioting and was in the middle of the street. They had--I had a company issued cell phone, circa 1992, so it was about this big.$$With a rubber antenna on it?$$Yeah, the big one, you know.$$Right.$$So I was just in the middle of the street, street reporting. And they got the kids to try to calm the kids down. The cops tossed some tear gas. So it ended up being a weird scene, and, and ended up handling this riot. So I never got to the other riot. But I came in--I remember coming in. I had been--at that point, I had maybe been out there for about--I don't know--ten hours or so. And I came floatin' into the bureau really late that night tear-gassy and (laughter)--from being in this, this protest. And the bureau chief told me: "Oh yeah, Jonathan Wolman, the bureau chief in Washington, called and they wanna fly you up for an interview." I mean, literally I found this out on the same day I got tear-gassed at (unclear) cover the riots. So I said okay. They arranged a flight, and I think maybe three days later I flew up here to Washington for an interview with Jon Wolman, then the bureau chief. And I toured the bureau; it wasn't this location. We were at 2021 K Street at the time. And he talked to me not about the job I had applied for. They gave that one to someone else. But he wanted to talk to me about a new position on urban affairs that he wanted to create I guess in response to what had just happened with the riots, that he felt it was time to go back to reporting on cities and what happens in them. And I already had this track record of reporting along this vein from Atlanta. So he offered me a position to come here to do that. I mean, he didn't do all this in a day. I mean, this is the way it evolved. So as of June of 1992, I came here to Washington.$$Okay.$$And to do the urban affairs beat.$It was gonna be fairly light lifting that morning [September 11, 2001]. So we left the hotel, maybe eight? And took the motorcade over to Emma [E.] Booker Elementary School [Sarasota, Florida]. And as were driving up, my cell phone rang, and it was Scott. And he said, "Hey, a plane has hit the World Trade Center [New York, New York]." And I said, "What kind of plane?" He says, "I don't know; it's just on the CNN crawler, and I'm gonna try to find some stuff out." I said, "Okay, I'll ask around here." I thought twin-engine Cessna--like what idiot smacked a twin-engine Cessna into the side of that building? Did they not see that--called our desk here in Washington [D.C.] to try to get some details, and they didn't have any more either, just scant information. So I said I'd try to find whoever I could get in [President George W.] Bush's party to see if they'd been told anything. And by this time we'd arrived at the school. And, and none of his aids lingered to talk to the press or spin us in any kind of way like they normally would. They--everybody just jetted off for the school, so I didn't get to ask anybody anything. And as we got there, there were a few members of the traveling press who were non-pool who had gone to the school in advance to pre-position. And they came out to meet us and said, "A jet hit the trade"--I said, "A jet hit the Trade Cen--?" "Yeah, and on pur--," and, and one was like, "On purpose; that looked deliberate; it didn't look accidental to me." And right at that time, we began to get the word that a second plane had hit. So this is in the 8:30 A.M.--9:00 A.M. window--we're trying--and, and they took the pool, those of us who were in the pool, over to the second-grade classroom where we were supposed to watch the president do a reading lesson with the class and the teacher. So we were holding there in that room and discussing among ourselves who can we find to try to get to--get anything on this stuff that's happening. And we're waiting and waiting, and, and Bush hadn't come out. And I think he was supposed to be in that room at around 8:30--8:30--8:40, somewhere according to the schedule. So he finally came in and took a seat with the teacher. And he looked disturbed like he had something on his mind, and--but he was going along with the lesson. So we decided to wait until the lesson's over, and we'll ask him about this thing. And, at about 9:05, Andy Card [White House Chief of Staff Andrew Card] came through the side door the president had entered the room in. And he's in the middle of watching this teacher do the reading drill with the kids, and they're reciting their little part, and Andy Card whispered to the president, and that's when he told the president that a second plane had hit the World Trade Center. And I, I saw Bush's face just whiten, and he lost his concentration on what he was doing with the kids. And you could tell he was sitting there saying, "If I panic, these cameras are gonna film it; I don't wanna scare these kids." You know when you can see someone measuring how to respond to something? And I was standing there and said okay, I noted the time off the classroom clock--this is when this happened. And Jay Carney and I were in the pool together. He was working for Time magazine, and I told Jay, I think Andy--I said the president's face tells us that, that he just--his president's face just told us everything we, we wanna know. So we didn't get to--we tried to yell a question at him, and he cut us off and said I'm, I'm about to give some remarks in the--in the auditorium. So we go to the main area. I think it was the school library where they had parents and teachers and--there to hear the president's education speech; and instead they hear the president's announcement that we had been hit by a terrorist attack. And so that was the first time I had heard anything significant beyond this plane and who in the world would do this. And when he said terrorist attack, I said, "Oh my God, this not the [Alfred P.] Murrah [Federal] Building [Oklahoma City, Oklahoma]"; you know, this is not domestic terrorism. I kind of felt like this is global and bad. And he also announced we were going back to Washington, so there was no time to think. You know, we had to scramble. And we were totin' all our stuff anyway, because we were headed back on the last leg. And because it had been a short trip, for me it was just a carry-on type bag. So I just--I had to haul my, my suitcase, my laptop, my big straw purse, you know, haul it, like really run. They had us run to the motorcade and zip across town to the airport to leave.

Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr.

Rhythm and Blues Singer Merald “Bubba” Knight, Jr. was born on September 4, 1942, in Atlanta, Georgia. Knight’s mother, Elizabeth Woods-Knight, was a nurse’s aide, and his father, Merald Knight, Sr., was a restaurant supervisor. Knight’s parents were also singers in the Wings Over Jordan gospel choir. In 1952, at the young age of ten, he and his sisters, Gladys and Brenda, and cousins William and Elenor, formed the musical group the Pips. Knight would go on to graduate from Samuel Archer High School in Atlanta in 1960.

Performing as a singer, Knight and the Pips, along with new members Edward Patten and Langston George, began touring with Jackie Wilson and Sam Cooke in the late 1950s as an opening act. In 1961, the Pips produced their first R & B Top-20 hit with a version of Johnny Otis’s Every Beat of My Heart. Then, in 1966, the Pips signed to Motown’s subsidiary, Soul records. The group released their major hit single, I Heard It Through the Grapevine in 1967. Hits that followed included 1968’s The Nitty Gritty, 1969’s Friendship Train, 1970’s If I Were Your Woman, 1971’s I Don’t Want To Do Wrong, and the 1973 Grammy Award-winning Neither One of Us (Wants to Be the First to Say Goodbye). In 1973, the Pips left Motown and signed with Buddah records. Their first album with Buddah was Imagination, which would become their best-selling album. Imagination included the 1974 Grammy-winning song Midnight Train to Georgia. Gladys Knight and the Pips continued to produce hits until 1989, when Gladys decided to leave the group.

Knight has received many awards and honors while involved with Gladys Knight and the Pips. The group has been honored with four Grammy Awards and seven American Music Awards. In 1989, the Pips were inducted into the Georgia Music Hall of Fame, and in 1996, the group was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. The Pips received the Lifetime Achievement Award from the Rhythm and Blues Foundation in 1998. In 2001, they were inducted into the Vocal Group Hall of Fame, and, in 2006, the Pips were inducted into the Apollo Theater's Hall of Fame in New York.

Knight is married to Kathleen C. A. Knight, and they live in Henderson, Nevada.

Bubba Knight was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on August 28, 2013.

Accession Number

A2013.244

Sex

Male

Interview Date

8/28/2013 |and| 11/20/2013

Last Name

Knight

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Woodrow

Occupation
Schools

Samuel Archer High School

Las Vegas School of Real Estate

University of Nevada, Las Vegas

English Avenue Elementary School

Henry McNeal Turner High School

First Name

Merald

Birth City, State, Country

Atlanta

HM ID

KNI02

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Georgia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Las Vegas, Nevada

Favorite Quote

You've Gotta Wanna.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Nevada

Birth Date

9/4/1942

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Las Vegas

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Pasta

Short Description

R & B singer Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. (1942 - ) was a performer and founding member of Gladys Knight and the Pips.

Favorite Color

Earth Tones

DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr.'s interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. shares his childhood memories of his father

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. recalls his childhood memories of his grandmother

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. talks about his mother and her family background

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. talks about how his parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. talks about his siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. talks about his older sister, Brenda Knight

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. talks about the places he lived during his childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. describes the sights, sounds, and smells of his childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. talks about his sister Gladys' performance on Ted Mack's "Original Amateur Hour"

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. talks about his school and the support his sister, Gladys Knight, received from his teacher's sister, Ruth Hall Hodges

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. shares his memories of his family singing

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. talks about listening to his sister's performance on "The Original Amateur Hour" and the formation of "The Pips"

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. talks about forming "The Pips" and the prize his sister, Gladys Knight, received for winning "The Original Amateur Hour"

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. talks about The Pips' first performance and winning a weekend engagement at the Royal Peacock in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. recalls naming the group "The Pips" in honor of his cousin, James "Pip" Woods

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. describes performing at the Royal Peacock in Atlanta, Georgia when he was around eleven years old

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. talks about his neighborhood in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. recalls The Pips' first performance and taking lessons from Maurice King in Detroit, Michigan

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. recalls working with Maurice King and The Pips' first recording in 1958

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. describes the changing lineup of The Pips in 1959

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. recalls the solos that each member of The Pips sang in their original lineup

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. talks about some of the songs The Pips performed and the groups that inspired them

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. recalls recording Johnny Otis' "Every Beat of My Heart" in 1961

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. describes signing with Fury Records and recording a second version of "Every Beat of My Heart"

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. recalls the success of "Every Beat of My Heart" and Glady's Knight's departure from the group

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. describes performing at the Apollo Theater in New York City, New York

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. describes the popularity of the Pips after their performance at the Apollo Theater in New York City, New York

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. talks about Gladys Knight's departure from the Pips

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. describes recording "Darling" after Gladys Knight's departure from the Pips

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. talks about Gladys Knight's solo recording of "Come See About Me"

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. describes the reunion of Gladys Knight and the Pips and recording "Giving Up"

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. describes preparing for Gladys Knight and the Pips' second concert at the Apollo Theater in New York City, New York

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. talks about working with Charles "Cholly" Atkins and Charles "Honi" Coles

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. describes how Gladys Knight and the Pips decided to sign with Motown Records

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. recalls negotiating their contract with Motown Records

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. talks about the environment at Motown Records when they signed

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. describes his frustrations with Motown Records

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. describes recording "I Heard It Through the Grapevine" and its success

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. talks about their financial situation at Motown Records

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. talks about leaving Motown Records, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. talks about leaving Motown Records, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Second slating of Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr.'s interview

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. describes performing with Moms Mabley at the Apollo Theater in New York City, New York

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. talks about the Jewel Box Revue and gay performers in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. describes his experience working with choreographer Charles "Cholly" Atkins

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. describes the Pips' early manager, Marguerite Mays

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. describes his experience with Bobby Robinson and Fats Lewis at Fury Records

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. talks about meeting Marshall Sehorn and Bobby Robinson of Fury Records and performing for the first time at the Apollo Theater

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. talks about not getting paid royalties for his early records

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. describes meeting Floyd Lieberman and Sid Seidenberg while recording with Maxx Records, pt. 1

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. describes meeting Floyd Lieberman and Sid Seidenberg while recording with Maxx Records, pt. 2

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. describes leaving Maxx Records to record for Motown Records in 1966

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. describes how Floyd Lieberman and Sid Seidenberg protected their business interests

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. describes his experience with Motown Records prior to working with Norman Whitfield

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. talks about their booking agencies and performing at the Copacabana in New York City, New York

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. talks about rehearsing with Charlie "Cholly" Atkins at Motown Records

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. describes his relationship with Charles "Cholly" Atkins

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. talks about Charles "Cholly" Atkins' experience at Motown Records, pt. 1

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. talks about Charles "Cholly" Atkins' experience at Motown Records, pt. 2

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. recalls when Paul Williams created the "Temptation Walk

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. describes his business role within Gladys Knight and the Pips

Tape: 8 Story: 6 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. describes leaving Motown Records for Buddah Records in 1973

Tape: 8 Story: 7 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. talks about other artists who left Motown Records

Tape: 8 Story: 8 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. describes the group's decision to sign with Buddah Records in 1973

Tape: 8 Story: 9 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. recalls Motown Records' move to California in 1972

Tape: 8 Story: 10 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. recalls discovering the Jackson Five while performing at the Regal Theater in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 9 Story: 1 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. describes working with Norman Whitfield and the hit songs he recorded at Motown Records

Tape: 9 Story: 2 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. recalls recording "I Heard It Through The Grapevine" with Motown Records in 1967

Tape: 9 Story: 3 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. recalls receiving constructive criticism from HistoryMakers Berry Gordy and Smokey Robinson

Tape: 9 Story: 4 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. describes appearing on the first syndicated episode of Soul Train in 1971

Tape: 9 Story: 5 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. recalls the songs that Gladys Knight and the Pips recorded for Motown Records

Tape: 9 Story: 6 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. describes how Motown Records and Fury Records managed songwriting credit and ownership

Tape: 9 Story: 7 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. describes recording "Where Peaceful Waters Flow" for Buddah Records and working with Jim Weatherly

Tape: 9 Story: 8 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. describes recording "Midnight Train to Georgia" in 1973

Tape: 10 Story: 1 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. recalls the producers and artists at Buddah Records

Tape: 10 Story: 2 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. talks about his experience at Buddah Records

Tape: 10 Story: 3 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. talks about his managers and producers at Buddah Records

Tape: 10 Story: 4 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. describes winning two Grammy Awards in 1974

Tape: 10 Story: 5 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. talks about the "Gladys Knight and the Pips Show" on NBC

Tape: 10 Story: 6 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. talks about Sid Seidenberg and the group's international success after 1974

Tape: 10 Story: 7 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. talks about the group's lawyer, Irwin Spiegel Osher

Tape: 10 Story: 8 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. describes the financial conflicts between Gladys Knight and the Pips and their second breakup in 1978

Tape: 10 Story: 9 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. describes Gladys Knight's solo career and the reunion of Gladys Knight and the Pips at Columbia Records in 1980

Tape: 10 Story: 10 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. describes his experience recording for Columbia Records

Tape: 11 Story: 1 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. talks about working with Sam Dees at Columbia Records

Tape: 11 Story: 2 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. talks about recording "Hero", commonly known as "Wind Beneath My Wings", for Columbia Records, pt. 1

Tape: 11 Story: 3 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. talks about recording "Hero", commonly known as "Wind Beneath My Wings", for Columbia Records, pt. 2

Tape: 11 Story: 4 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. describes leaving Columbia Records and signing with MCA Records, pt. 1

Tape: 11 Story: 5 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. describes leaving Columbia Records and signing with MCA Records, pt. 2

Tape: 11 Story: 6 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. describes the third time that Gladys Knight and the Pips broke up in 1989

Tape: 11 Story: 7 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. describes his experience ending the group while at a high point in their career

Tape: 11 Story: 8 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. reflects on the success of Gladys Knight and the Pips, pt. 1

Tape: 12 Story: 1 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. reflects on the success of Gladys Knight and the Pips, pt. 2

Tape: 12 Story: 2 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. reflects on his goals after Gladys Knight and the Pips broke up and his marriage to Kathleen Knight

Tape: 12 Story: 3 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. describes how he met his wife, Kathleen Knight

Tape: 12 Story: 4 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. describes his first marriage to Kathleen Knight

Tape: 12 Story: 5 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. describes his divorce from Kathleen Knight, pt. 1

Tape: 12 Story: 6 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. describes moving to Los Angeles and getting his real estate license after divorcing Kathleen Knight

Tape: 12 Story: 7 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. describes reuniting with his ex-wife, Kathleen Knight, after fifteen years

Tape: 12 Story: 8 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. describes his second marriage proposal and wedding to Kathleen Knight

Tape: 13 Story: 1 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. describes his parents, pt. 1

Tape: 13 Story: 2 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. describes his parents, pt. 2

Tape: 13 Story: 3 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. describes moving his extended family into a compound in Las Vegas, Nevada

Tape: 13 Story: 4 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. talks about introducing humor into his live performances

Tape: 13 Story: 5 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. recalls performing with his sister, Gladys Knight, at the White House

Tape: 13 Story: 6 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. describes performing with his sister, Gladys Knight, on her solo tours

Tape: 13 Story: 7 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. talks about the importance of family

Tape: 13 Story: 8 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. describes the musical directors who worked with him and his sister

Tape: 13 Story: 9 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. shares a story about his fellow Pip, Edward Patten

Tape: 13 Story: 10 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. shares a story about his fellow Pip, William Guest

Tape: 13 Story: 11 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. talks about the loyalty of the Pips and the integrity of the Pips name

Tape: 14 Story: 1 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. recalls being offered a chance for the Pips to sing backup to James Brown

Tape: 14 Story: 2 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. talks about the career of HistoryMaker B.B. King

Tape: 14 Story: 3 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. talks about his favorite venues in Las Vegas, Nevada and performing in "Smokey Joe's Cafe"

Tape: 14 Story: 4 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. describes his experience performing in "Smokey Joe's Cafe", pt. 1

Tape: 14 Story: 5 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. describes his experience performing in "Smokey Joe's Cafe", pt. 2

Tape: 14 Story: 6 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. recalls recording "If I Could Bring Back Yesterday"

Tape: 14 Story: 7 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. describes his plans for the future

Tape: 14 Story: 8 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. shares his thoughts on the music industry today

Tape: 14 Story: 9 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. shares his opinion about casual use of the "N" word

Tape: 15 Story: 1 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. reflects on the contributions of African Americans to American music

Tape: 15 Story: 2 - Merald "Bubba" Knight, Jr. reflects upon his legacy

Sekazi Mtingwa

Research physicist and physics professor Sekazi K. Mtingwa was born on October 20, 1949 in Atlanta, Georgia. After receiving his B.S. degrees in physics and pure mathematics (Phi Beta Kappa) from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in 1971, Mtingwa enrolled at Princeton University and graduated from there with his M.A. and Ph.D. degrees in theoretical high energy physics in 1976. Mtingwa was awarded doctoral fellowships from the National Fellowships Fund and the Ford Foundation. Upon graduation, he was awarded post-doctoral fellowships and research assistantships at the University of Rochester, the University of Maryland at College Park, and Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab).

In 1981, Mtingwa joined Fermilab as a research physicist where he, along with James Bjorken, developed a theory of particle beam dynamics, “intrabeam scattering,” which standardized the performance limitations on a wide class of modern accelerators. Mtingwa also played an important role in the design and construction of two of the Antiproton Source accelerator systems at Fermilab that were used in the discovery of the top quark and other particles. During 1988-1991, Mtingwa joined the staff of Argonne National Laboratory where he performed research on a futuristic accelerator concept called wakefield acceleration. In 1991, Mtingwa joined the faculty at North Carolina A & T State University as Chair and Professor of physics. Mtingwa was named J. Ernest Wilkins, Jr. Distinguished Professor of Physics at Morgan State University in 1997 and then returned to North Carolina A & T State University in 1999. He served as the Martin Luther King, Jr. Visiting Professor of Physics at MIT from 2001 to 2003. He joined the faculty at Harvard University in 2003, where he served as Visiting Professor of Physics for two years. Returning to MIT in 2006, Mtingwa was named Lead Physics Lecturer in the Concourse Program in the Office of the Dean for Undergraduate Education. He was also appointed as the Faculty Director of Academic Programs in the Office of Minority Education. In 2011, he became Principal Partner of Triangle Science, Education & Economic Development, LLC and he was appointed Senior Physics Consultant at Brookhaven National Laboratory.

In addition to his research activities, Mtingwa is involved in a number of national and international initiatives. He is a founder of the African Laser Centre (ALC) and was the principal author of the Strategy and Business Plan upon which the ALC is based. In 1977, Mtingwa was a co-founder of the National Society of Black Physicists (NSBP) and served as NSBP President from 1992 to 1994.

Mtingwa has been recognized by national and international organizations for his contributions to science. In 1996, he received the Outstanding Service Award for Contributions to the African American Physics Community from the National Society of Black Physicists. The National Council of Ghanaian Associations honored Mtingwa with the Science Education Award in 2007 for advancing science education among African peoples. Mtingwa was inducted into the African American Biographies Hall of Fame in 1994, and he was elected as a Fellow of the American Physical Society in 2008.

Sekazi Mtingwa is married to W. Estella Johnson; they have two daughters.

Research physicist and physics professor Sekazi K. Mtingwa was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on May 6, 2013.

Accession Number

A2013.076

Sex

Male

Interview Date

5/6/2013

Last Name

Mtingwa

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Kauze

Occupation
Schools

Princeton University

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Henry McNeal Turner High School

Alonzo F. Herndon Elementary

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Sekazi

Birth City, State, Country

Atlanta

HM ID

MTI01

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Georgia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Cape Town, South Africa

Favorite Quote

Stay yourself.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

North Carolina

Birth Date

10/20/1949

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Hillsborough

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Sea Bass (Mediterranean)

Short Description

Nuclear physicist Sekazi Mtingwa (1949 - ) contributed to the design and construction of the accelerator systems used in the discovery of the top quark at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. Mtingwa is a founder of the National Society of Black Physicists and the National Society of Hispanic Physicists, and he has made significant contributions to STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) education.

Employment

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Harvard University

North Carolina A&T State University

Morgan State University

Argonne National Laboratory

Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory

University of Rochester

University of Maryland, College Park

Favorite Color

Salmon

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Sekazi Mtingwa's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Sekazi Mtingwa lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Sekazi Mtingwa describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Sekazi Mtingwa talks about his siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Sekazi Mtingwa talks about his mother

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Sekazi Mtingwa describes his father's side of the family

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Sekazi Mtingwa talks about his stepfather

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Sekazi Mtingwa describes his parents' personalities and who he takes after

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Sekazi Mtingwa describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Sekazi Mtingwa talks about his neighborhood

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Sekazi Mtingwa describes the sights, sounds, and smells of his childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Sekazi Mtingwa talks about his schools

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Sekazi Mtingwa describes when he first decided to become a physicist

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Sekazi Mtingwa talks about his high school extracurricular activities

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Sekazi Mtingwa talks about his high school mentors

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Sekazi Mtingwa talks about transitioning from high school to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Sekazi Mtingwa talks about the formation of the black student union at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Sekazi Mtingwa talks about the black student union at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Sekazi Mtingwa talks about why he chose physics as his field

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Sekazi Mtingwa talks about his mentors at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Princeton University

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Sekazi Mtingwa talks about Alexander Pushkin pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Sekazi Mtingwa talks about Alexander Pushkin pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Sekazi Mtingwa talks about his time at Princeton University

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Sekazi Mtingwa describes his doctoral dissertation

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Sekazi Mtingwa talks about changing his name

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Sekazi Mtingwa describes assisting in the establishment of a university in Tanzania

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Sekazi Mtingwa describes what he did after receiving his doctoral degree from Princeton University

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Sekazi Mtingwa talks about his work at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Sekazi Mtingwa explains the Higgs boson, dark matter, and dark energy

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Sekazi Mtingwa describes his involvement in the Harold Washington Campaign

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Sekazi Mtingwa describes why he joined the group at Argonne National Laboratory

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Sekazi Mtingwa talks about being featured in several magazines

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Sekazi Mtingwa describes his involvement in various African organizations

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Sekazi Mtingwa describes his physics research as an exchange scholar in the Soviet Union

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Sekazi Mtingwa talks about racial prejudice in the field of physics

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Sekazi Mtingwa talks about the International Linear Collider

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Sekazi Mtingwa describes his time as the Chair of the Physics Department at North Carolina A & T University

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Sekazi Mtingwa describes his involvement in the African Laser Centre

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Sekazi Mtingwa describes how the Massachusetts Institute of Technology has changed since he was a student

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Sekazi Mtingwa talks about visiting Russia for a nuclear waste disposal examination

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Sekazi Mtingwa reflects on his awards and recognitions

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Sekazi Mtingwa describes his study 'Readiness of the U.S. Nuclear Workforce for Twenty-first Century Problems'

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Sekazi Mtingwa talks about his involvement in President Barack Obama's campaigns

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Sekazi Mtingwa talks about being the chair of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Study

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Sekazi Mtingwa describes his visit to Tanzania

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Sekazi Mtingwa describes his involvement with organization that provide access to scientific instruments

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Sekazi Mtingwa describes his involvement in the African Physical Society

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Sekazi Mtingwa talks about his work on textbooks

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Sekazi Mtingwa describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Sekazi Mtingwa reflects on his legacy

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Sekazi Mtingwa reflects on his life

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Sekazi Mtingwa talks about his family

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Sekazi Mtingwa talks about how he would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$6

DAStory

1$5

DATitle
Sekazi Mtingwa talks about the black student union at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Sekazi Mtingwa describes his study 'Readiness of the U.S. Nuclear Workforce for Twenty-first Century Problems'
Transcript
Tell us about the beginnings of the black student union at MIT [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts]?$$Okay. So we had a group, maybe about ten students, who would get together informally to meet. And you have to understand that the context of that period, with the Vietnam War, protests going on all over the place, you know, the Black Liberation Movement was in full swing. So, some of us, you know, were a part of that type of way of thinking, and we wanted to try to move MIT ahead. So we formed around 1968, probably the fall of '68 [1968]. The first co-chairs were Shirley Jackson, and I think The HistoryMakers did an interview of her. She's now president of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute [Troy, New York]. And James Turner, who was a graduate student--in fact, at that time, they were both graduate students. Shirley was three years ahead of me. So my sophomore year, she was a first-year graduate student. James Turner, I think he must have been about a third or fourth-year graduate student in physics; they were both in physics. And James Turner actually most--he went on to become a top official at the Department of Energy, and most recently, I think, he's been at the Department of Commerce. But he had quite a career at the top levels of federal government. But, yeah, we basically met and we decided, "Hey let's just do this." And so we formed. And we tried to--one of the biggest initiatives was to get more black students into MIT. So we worked hard on that. And so, at the end of my sophomore year going into the junior year, that entering class went from the typical five-ish to fifty-three. And so the numbers have been big ever since. And, in fact, to this day MIT, again, admits only out of a thousand, eleven hundred students; about 20 percent of those are African Americans; and another 20 percent or so are Latino-Americans. So that we've (simultaneous)--$$(Unclear)--$$--come a long ways. Yeah. But it's interesting. One of the interesting things that helped the African American presence is the students who are immigrants or who are children of African Caribbean immigrants, because that's one thing that you note from the names when you meet many of the students. So that has really helped us intellectually. The black community in this country intellectually has been tremendously enhanced by immigrant students. They come here with a parent wanting a better life for their children, and so they come with that, you know, "Go to college, get your degree," and all that. And you can see the pay off. I don't think we could hit 20 percent of the students, African American students, if we didn't have the immigrants.$$They have a good observation.$$Yeah. It's a great thing. I tend to be a Pan-African, is to me, whether you're from the Caribbean, the continental of the U.S., we're all African peoples.$$Is this something you learned at home or something that you--$$No. I got so much at home, but just as I developed as a graduate student--really as a graduate student, I really became, you know, convinced that, you know, we're all the same. And then having traveled to Africa, you know, so many times. I think that the way people colonize, it's just--it's very similar to--the stories you hear are very similar to the stories of people like me out of Jim Crow South.$$Okay. Just in a different location.$$Just in a different location.$$Similar situations.$$Similar situations, yeah. Yeah.$$And--now. All right. So, the BSU [black student union] really made some gains (unclear).$$Oh, yeah. Definitely. Definitely.$$And I know it still exists actually.$$It still exists. It still exists.$$Shot a picture of it when I was there (simultaneous) (unclear)--$$Oh, you did? All right. That was great.$$--I was walking down the hallway and I saw it. And I said, "Oh, this is the famous BSU at MIT." And I thought--I shot it on my phone (simultaneous) (unclear)--$$Oh, really. Okay.$$--as to--yeah.$$(unclear), you know, it's still alive and well.$$Yeah. Yeah. So many of the people we met were a part--$$It was a part of that, yes.$Now, you were on the Nuc-- the 'Readiness of the U.S. Nuclear Workforce.'$$Okay, yeah. So that was a study I did because I'm--we have a real problem with training, you know, the next generation of nuclear scientists and engineers. And at one point, the Department of Energy, DOE, was cutting back funding the university programs, so I was concerned. You know, if you start cutting back, who is going to operate? Who's going to design the next generation of nuclear reactors if the people are not being educated? So we did this study, and we pointed out to them, you know, how many people are graduating, how much money is going into the university programs. And this report turned out to be extremely important in convincing DOE to turn its attitude around toward university education. And so since this report, their 20 percent of the nuclear fuel--Research and Development Budget--nuclear fuel cycle, Research and Development Budget is going to universities. So, I mean, that's like a big flip from not wanting to give in until now, 20 percent of your funding is going to universities. And that's important. Most of the money goes to the National Laboratories to work on the big problems of nuclear waste storage and so forth. But you need to have university professors and students working on new ideas. You know, turn them loose and let them dream and pursue blue-sky research, because you don't know what major revolution they may start up; what major breakthrough. And so that was the point of that whole story, to try to get more money going to universities to promote students and new ideas.

Reverend Dr. Arthur Rocker, Sr.

Civil rights activist Reverend Dr. Arthur "Art" Rocker, Sr. was born on June 22, 1955 in Atlanta, Georgia to Samuel William Rocker, Sr. and Reba Craft-Rocker. From the age of seven until eighteen years of age, Rocker was raised and mentored by Reverend Dr. William Holmes Borders, pastor of Wheat Street Baptist Church in Atlanta, Georgia. At the age of sixteen, Rocker became the president of the youth chapter of the Democratic Party Club. After graduating from L.J. Price High School in 1963, Rocker enlisted in the U.S. Army and served for three years. Rocker then attended the Massey Business College earning his Associate’s degree. He then went on to attend Carver Bible Institute in 1969 and was ordained as a minister and evangelized by Reverend Dr. William Holmes Borders. He also served as assistant Pastor of his father’s church, the late Reverend Samuel William Rocker, Sr. After enrolling at Albany State University, Rocker became the chief organizer of the Shirley Chisholm Campaign under the leadership of Lonnie King, Executive Director for the Atlanta NAACP. Rocker majored in accounting at ASU, and went on to receive his Series 63, 7 and 24 investment banking licenses from the Investment Training Institute in Atlanta, Georgia. He is one of the founders of the National Association of Security Professionals in Atlanta, along with Mayor Maynard Jackson.

From 1994 to 2008, Rocker worked several jobs, but was primarily active in community organizing. Mentored by the late Dr. Benjamin Mays, former president of Morehouse College, he worked under the leadership of Dr. Warren Cochrane, General Secretary of the Butler Street YMCA in Atlanta, Georgia and Reverend Hosea Williams, President of Atlanta SCLC. He served as a consultant for the National Presidential Election Campaign, and co-chairman of National Presidential Campaign. Prior to his appointment as senior vice president of Governmental Affairs at LHS EV in 2008, Rocker worked briefly as a real estate agent at the Grand Bahamas Developments in the Grand Bahamas Islands. Additionally, Rocker served as an investment banker at Stuart-James Investments, Portfolio Management Consultants and Rocker Securities, Inc. In 2008, Rocker began his tenure as the Chairman of Southern Christian Leadership Conference for the entire state of Florida. In the wake of the 2010 British Petroleum Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico, Rocker founded Operation People for Peace, Inc., an organization which serves on the United Nations (UN) Council in the area of Civic and Society. In 2015, Rocker was appointed Presiding Bishop of University of Bethesda Biblical Institute of North America.

Rocker also played a central role in local and national community organizing and politics throughout his career. He served as vice chairman of City of Atlanta transition team for Mayor Maynard Jackson, and the transition team for Governor Charles Christ of Florida. In recognition of his service, Rocker received numerous awards including The Good Brother Award from National Congress of Black Women, Inc., the Chairman’s Award from the Asian American Hotel Owners Association, the Business Award from the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, and the Outstanding Business Award from the Atlanta Jewish Center. Additionally, Rocker has been named Senior Fellow of the James Madison Institute. Rocker has received honorary degrees from Faith Bible College in Milton, Florida and A.P. Clay Bible College in New Orleans, Louisiana. Rocker is the father of three children and is married to Jessica Donahue-Rocker. He resides in the Gulf Coast region in Florida.

Arthur M. Rocker, Sr. was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on October 26, 2012.

Accession Number

A2012.201

Sex

Male

Interview Date

10/26/2012

Last Name

Rocker

Maker Category
Marital Status

Widowed

Schools

Morehouse College

Price Middle School

Massey College of Business & Technology

Carver Bible College

Albany State University

Faith Bible College

A.P. Clay Christian College

Georgia Institute of Real Estate

Investment Training Institute

James Madison Institute

Yonge Street Elementary School

First Name

Arthur

Birth City, State, Country

Atlanta

HM ID

ROC01

Favorite Season

All Seasons

State

Georgia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Anywhere

Favorite Quote

Thank You, God.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Florida

Birth Date

6/22/1955

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Pensacola

Country

United States

Favorite Food

None

Short Description

Civil rights activist Reverend Dr. Arthur Rocker, Sr. (1955 - ) was the founder and chairman of Operation People for Peace, Inc.

Employment

Grand Bahama Development

Rocker Chemical Co.

Stuart-James Investments

Portfolio Mgt. Consultants

Operation People for Peace

White Rocker Baptist Church

Congresswoman Cynthia McKinney

Office of State Representative Billy McKinney

Favorite Color

All Colors

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Reverend Dr. Arthur Rocker, Sr.'s interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Reverend Dr. Arthur Rocker, Sr. lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Reverend Dr. Arthur Rocker, Sr. describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Reverend Dr. Arthur Rocker, Sr. describes the racial violence in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Reverend Dr. Arthur Rocker, Sr. describes his mother's upbringing

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Reverend Dr. Arthur Rocker, Sr. talks about the sundown towns near Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Reverend Dr. Arthur Rocker, Sr. describes his maternal uncles' migration to Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Reverend Dr. Arthur Rocker, Sr. describes his father's family background, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Reverend Dr. Arthur Rocker, Sr. describes his father's family background, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Reverend Dr. Arthur Rocker, Sr. talks about his father's education

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Reverend Dr. Arthur Rocker, Sr. describes his father's occupation

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Reverend Dr. Arthur Rocker, Sr. recalls his family's home on Georgia Avenue, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Reverend Dr. Arthur Rocker, Sr. describes how his parents met

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Reverend Dr. Arthur Rocker, Sr. lists his siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Reverend Dr. Arthur Rocker, Sr. recalls his family's home on Georgia Avenue, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Reverend Dr. Arthur Rocker, Sr. remembers finding chickens for his mother

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Reverend Dr. Arthur Rocker, Sr. remembers Yonge Street Elementary School in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Reverend Dr. Arthur Rocker, Sr. recalls his route to school

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Reverend Dr. Arthur Rocker, Sr. remembers moving to the Thomasville Heights section of Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Reverend Dr. Arthur Rocker, Sr. describes the smells of his childhood

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Reverend Dr. Arthur Rocker, Sr. describes his relationship with his siblings, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Reverend Dr. Arthur Rocker, Sr. remembers the Zion Hill Baptist Church in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Reverend Dr. Arthur Rocker, Sr. talks about race relations in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Reverend Dr. Arthur Rocker, Sr. describes his relationship with his siblings, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Reverend Dr. Arthur Rocker, Sr. recalls his misconceptions about Jewish people

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Reverend Dr. Arthur Rocker, Sr. remembers his favorite elementary school teachers

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Reverend Dr. Arthur Rocker, Sr. remembers living with William Holmes Borders

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Reverend Dr. Arthur Rocker, Sr. describes William Holmes Borders' relationships with other ministers in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Reverend Dr. Arthur Rocker, Sr. recalls William Holmes Borders' visitors, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Reverend Dr. Arthur Rocker, Sr. recalls William Holmes Borders' move to Hunter Street

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Reverend Dr. Arthur Rocker, Sr. recalls William Holmes Borders' departure from the Morehouse College School of Religion

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Reverend Dr. Arthur Rocker, Sr. remembers Joseph H. Jackson

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Reverend Dr. Arthur Rocker, Sr. recalls Coretta Scott King's circumstances after her husband's assassination

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Reverend Dr. Arthur Rocker, Sr. talks about the establishment of the Wheat Street Federal Credit Union

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Reverend Dr. Arthur Rocker, Sr. recalls attending meetings with William Holmes Borders

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Reverend Dr. Arthur Rocker, Sr. describes the rivalry between Martin Luther King, Sr. and William Holmes Borders

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Reverend Dr. Arthur Rocker, Sr. remembers Julia Pate Borders' friendships

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Reverend Dr. Arthur Rocker, Sr. recalls William Holmes Borders' visitors, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Reverend Dr. Arthur Rocker, Sr. remembers working for Benjamin Mays

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - Reverend Dr. Arthur Rocker, Sr. recalls his early interest in art

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Reverend Dr. Arthur Rocker, Sr. recalls his fundraising efforts for Luther Judson Price High School

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Reverend Dr. Arthur Rocker, Sr. remembers living at William Holmes Borders' house

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Reverend Dr. Arthur Rocker, Sr. recalls his brother's membership in the Nation of Islam

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Reverend Dr. Arthur Rocker, Sr. recalls his decision to join the U.S. Army

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Reverend Dr. Arthur Rocker, Sr. talks about the civil rights activities of 1963

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Reverend Dr. Arthur Rocker, Sr. recalls his refusal to serve in the Vietnam War

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Reverend Dr. Arthur Rocker, Sr. describes his small loan business in the U.S. Army

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Reverend Dr. Arthur Rocker, Sr. remembers his interactions with the Central Intelligence Agency

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Reverend Dr. Arthur Rocker, Sr. remembers his return to Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Reverend Dr. Arthur Rocker, Sr. talks about the impact of the Vietnam War

Tape: 5 Story: 11 - Reverend Dr. Arthur Rocker, Sr. recalls his decision to further his education

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Reverend Dr. Arthur Rocker, Sr. recalls visiting Julia Pate Borders on her deathbed

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Reverend Dr. Arthur Rocker, Sr. remembers his expulsion from Morehouse College

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Reverend Dr. Arthur Rocker, Sr. talks about his brothers' occupations

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Reverend Dr. Arthur Rocker, Sr. recalls Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.'s assassination, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Reverend Dr. Arthur Rocker, Sr. recalls Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.'s assassination, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Reverend Dr. Arthur Rocker, Sr. remembers Samuel Dewitt Proctor

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Reverend Dr. Arthur Rocker, Sr. describes the split of the National Baptist Convention, USA, Inc.

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Reverend Dr. Arthur Rocker, Sr. remembers Hosea Williams

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Reverend Dr. Arthur Rocker, Sr. talks about William Holmes Borders' friends in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - Reverend Dr. Arthur Rocker, Sr. describes his interest in accounting

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Reverend Dr. Arthur Rocker, Sr. describes how he met his wife

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Reverend Dr. Arthur Rocker, Sr. talks about African Americans that passed as white

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Reverend Dr. Arthur Rocker, Sr. describes the effects of integration

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Reverend Dr. Arthur Rocker, Sr. recalls his conversations with Benjamin Mays

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Reverend Dr. Arthur Rocker, Sr. talks about skin color prejudice

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Reverend Dr. Arthur Rocker, Sr. recalls working for Warren Cochrane

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Reverend Dr. Arthur Rocker, Sr. recalls organizing voters for Shirley Chisholm's presidential campaign

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Reverend Dr. Arthur Rocker, Sr. recalls being asked to leave Albany State College

Tape: 7 Story: 9 - Reverend Dr. Arthur Rocker, Sr. describes the accusations against him at Albany State College

DASession

1$1

DATape

6$7

DAStory

10$6

DATitle
Reverend Dr. Arthur Rocker, Sr. describes his interest in accounting
Reverend Dr. Arthur Rocker, Sr. recalls working for Warren Cochrane
Transcript
Now when you--well what did you focus on when you were at the Massey Business College [Atlanta, Georgia], yeah?$$Business administration, accounting.$$Okay.$$I wanted to make sure that I learned about accounting. It's been a fascinating situation for me. Reason being is because at the church [Wheat Street Baptist Church, Atlanta, Georgia], there was Deacon Ferris [ph.], he was a guy that used to handle all the money for the church. And back behind the curtain, when I say behind the curtain it's not per se behind the curtain, what it was, was a room about half this size, from here to there. Deacon Ferris would be there. And that's where all the money was counted. It was, as you well know we had over five thousand people. It was thousands and thousands of dollars used to be counted there. My brothers worked there, they couldn't go in that room. No one could go in that room but me. Reverend Borders [William Holmes Borders] would sit in the room and he would let me come in the room 'cause I, you know, he would tell me, "Go get my Coca-Cola and meet behind the curtain." And they would sit there and they talk. The only thing that I picked up was the word accounting, accounting, accounting. And I kept talking about accounting and learned that it meant keeping books and what have you, and that's what I wanted to do.$Now we're in the early '70s [1970s] now when you were driving for Benjamin Mays and working for Warren Cochrane?$$Warren Cochrane--$$Yeah.$$--the community foundation. Warren Cochrane came back from New York [New York], he was over the Butler Street YMCA [Atlanta, Georgia]. The Butler Street YMCA was an all-black YMCA. You had black YMCAs that was established in different places. And in New York there was one that was established where there was whites involved. But they brought Warren Cochrane up there to be general secretary because he was strong with the Negro Voters League [Atlanta Negro Voters League]. He was a great organizer. He came up there, [HistoryMaker] Vernon Jordan was up there, Wyatt Tee [HistoryMaker Reverend Dr. Wyatt Tee Walker] was up there, a lot of folks, New York was the mecca of trying to get something done. The, the congressman I think he had died or he could have--something but they was all up in New York doing a number of things. And Warren was such a pioneer here, so he came back to Atlanta [Georgia], when I say, I'm sorry we're here in Detroit [Michigan] but I'm saying Atlanta. We came back to Atlanta, he was able to get money from the Coca-Cola Bottling Company, the Trust Company of Georgia [SunTrust Banks], Life of Georgia [Life Insurance Company of Georgia, Atlanta, Georgia], all of these major places. They put about $5 million in a foundation. He hired me to be his organizer and to literally run the place where he was the executive director. And we had $5 million, the responsibility we had was to go into the black community, give away money to repair homes that they was living in. Some people had moved into homes and after getting into the house, it was a new arena coming in called fair housing. But they was moving into housing but there was something else going on called block bustering [block busting]. Block bustering is when the white community bought up, bought property from white people and put two or three black people in there that didn't have an income, had a lot of children, scare the community and they ran out, and some blacks began to move in and the credit situation was a little lenient because whites was helping each other get out of one place and even the banks, the white banker was helping finance other blacks. But a lot of blacks was getting into these places that did not understand the significance of owning a home. Your hot water heater goes out, you have to cut the grass, you have to buy a lawn mower. Sometimes you have to buy another door, screen door, it was a whole new lesson had to be taught. So what we did, the $5 million would go into the community. We would teach you how to buy a door, what to do with a hot water heater, how you buy another TV, what you do, and we would lend you this money because we did not want a situation to occur the way it was happening that second mortgage companies or pawnshops was buying, getting lien on homes and selling their homes before the people could be in their a year and a half. So the foundation was set up for the purpose of lending money with no interest rate, and my job was to give it away and to find the people who needed the money. And I did that.