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Grace Y. Ingleton

Social activist and health care professional Grace Y. Ingleton was born on September 14, 1936, in Panama, Republic of Panama, In 1955, Ingleton migrated to Brooklyn, NY, and graduated from Prospect Heights high School. Later, she would attend Lincoln School for Nursing and receive a Nursing Diploma. Ingleton also earned B.S. and M.A. degrees in nursing from Long Island University. After graduating as a registered nurse, she joined the staff of Brooklyn Jewish Hospital.

Ingleton’s career in long term care began at Midway Nursing Home in 1973, where she has been the director of nursing services and administration for more than thirty years. Serving in this position, Ingleton has obtained several grants to prepare and present seminars and workshops on a variety of issues specific to the long term care industry and has consulted with many major health care organizations. She is also an adjunct nursing professor at the college and university level, lecturing at Medgar Evers College up to 2005. Ingleton is presently a nursing consultant to the Nursing Department at Parker Jewish Institute, part of Long Island Hospital.

Ingleton has been honored by several organizations including The Dedicators, Inc., the Caribbean Chamber of Commerce and Industry, Inc.; Imani Literary Reading Group, Inc.; Savacou Fine Art Gallery; Celebration of Black Artist; The Black Nurses Day Community Services Award for her community service and professional activities.

Grace Ingleton is married to Edward I. Ingleton, who live in Brooklyn, New York.

Grace Ingleton was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on August 1, 2012.

Accession Number

A2012.163

Sex

Female

Interview Date

8/1/2012

Last Name

Ingleton

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Y.

Schools

Justo Arosemena Elementary

Liceo de Senoritas

La Boca Occupational High School

Prospect Heights High School

Lincoln School for Nursing

Long Island University

First Name

Grace

Birth City, State, Country

Panama City

HM ID

ING04

Favorite Season

Fall

Favorite Vacation Destination

New Zealand

Favorite Quote

Remember To Do Something Nice To Someone Else, It Will Make You Feel Better.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Birth Date

9/14/1936

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New York

Country

Panama

Favorite Food

Cottage Cheese, Fruit

Short Description

Community activist and healthcare executive Grace Y. Ingleton (1936 - ) served as the director of nursing at numerous long term care facilities in the New York City area, including the Midway Nursing Home and the Center for Nursing and Rehabilitation. She was also a professor of nursing.

Employment

Brooklyn Jewish Hospital

Midway Nursing Home

Parker Jewish Institute*

Medgar Evers College

Provident Clinial Society Neighborhood Health Center

The Dedicators

Haym Salomon Home for Nursing and Rehabilitation

Center for Nursing and Rehabilitation

Long Island University

Queensborough Community College

Heart to Art, Inc.

Imani Literary Group, Inc.

Favorite Color

Purple

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Grace Y. Ingleton's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Grace Y. Ingleton lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Grace Y. Ingleton describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Grace Y. Ingleton talks about her maternal grandparents' migration to Panama

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Grace Y. Ingleton talks about the West Indian community in Panama and the United States

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Grace Y. Ingleton describes her mother's life in Panama

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Grace Y. Ingleton describes the discrimination against West Indians in the Panama Canal Zone, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Grace Y. Ingleton describes the discrimination against West Indians in the Panama Canal Zone, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Grace Y. Ingleton describes her father's family background

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Grace Y. Ingleton talks about her paternal grandparents' migration to the Panama Canal Zone

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Grace Y. Ingleton describes her father's education and career

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Grace Y. Ingleton describes her parents' personalities and who she takes after

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Grace Y. Ingleton talks about her upbringing

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Grace Y. Ingleton describes the sights, sounds and smells of her childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Grace Y. Ingleton remembers the Escuela Justo Arosemana in Panama City, Panama

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Grace Y. Ingleton remembers learning to speak Spanish in Panama

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Grace Y. Ingleton remembers an influential teacher

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Grace Y. Ingleton describes her experiences of World War II in the Panama Canal Zone

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Grace Y. Ingleton remembers the Liceo de Senoritas in Panama City, Panama

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Grace Y. Ingleton describes her decision to attend high school in New York City

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Grace Y. Ingleton describes her exposure to American culture in Panama

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Grace Y. Ingleton remembers her transition to Prospect Heights High School in Brooklyn, New York

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Grace Y. Ingleton recalls adapting to the winters in New York City

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Grace Y. Ingleton describes her experiences at Prospect Heights High School

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Grace Y. Ingleton remembers applying to nursing schools in New York City

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Grace Y. Ingleton remembers the Lincoln School for Nurses in the Bronx, New York

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Grace Y. Ingleton recalls meeting her husband

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Grace Y. Ingleton describes the founding of The Dedicators, Inc., pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Grace Y. Ingleton describes the founding of The Dedicators, Inc., pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Grace Y. Ingleton talks about the Panamanian chapter of The Dedicators, Inc.

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Grace Y. Ingleton recalls studying at Long Island University while working at the Brooklyn Jewish Hospital

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Grace Y. Ingleton remembers joining the staff of the Midway Nursing Home in Queens, New York

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Grace Y. Ingleton remembers her leadership of the Midway Nursing Home in Queens, New York

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Grace Y. Ingleton recalls the racial tensions during her tenure at the Midway Nursing Home

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Grace Y. Ingleton describes her career after leaving the Midway Nursing Home

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Grace Y. Ingleton describes her work as a healthcare educator and consultant

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Grace Y. Ingleton talks about the rewards of nursing administration

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Grace Y. Ingleton describes Heart to Art, Inc.

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Grace Y. Ingleton remembers the influence of Lawrence Dorsey

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Grace Y. Ingleton recalls her introduction to in the black arts community

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Grace Y. Ingleton talks about her art donation to the Links Foundation, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Grace Y. Ingleton talks about her art donation to the Links Foundation, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Grace Y. Ingleton reflects upon her interest in art

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Grace Y. Ingleton talks about the Imani Literary Group, Inc.

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Grace Y. Ingleton describes the philanthropy of the Imani Literary Group, Inc.

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Grace Y. Ingleton reflects upon the importance of community engagement

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Grace Y. Ingleton describes her hopes and concerns for the African American Community

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Grace Y. Ingleton reflects upon her life

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Grace Y. Ingleton describes her international travels

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Grace Y. Ingleton reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Grace Y. Ingleton describes how she would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

1$5

DAStory

7$1

DATitle
Grace Y. Ingleton describes the discrimination against West Indians in the Panama Canal Zone, pt. 1
Grace Y. Ingleton remembers her leadership of the Midway Nursing Home in Queens, New York
Transcript
I think you were telling me before we started that the Panama, the school system in Panama put a ceiling on where, how far you could go?$$Yes.$$So--$$On the canal zone's area, and the canal zone [Panama Canal Zone] was administered by the America- U.S. government, okay, and they had schools for West Indians, in particular, that went no further than the eighth grade. It wasn't until many years later that they started a high school and that had to be probably in the, the late '40s [1940s], that they started high school.$$So, let me get this straight. If you were a, some other nationality, you weren't a West Indian, you could get a higher education at the expense of the state?$$No you could not.$$You could not?$$No, because basically the workers were Hispanic or Caribbean, and Caribbean primarily, and you had Hispanics but they rarely worked for the canal zone and that's why there's always that, that, that discussion that the canal [Panama Canal] was built by West Indians. They don't get credit for it but there are a number of research, research has been done and shown that this is where the building of the canal came from, truly, West Indians, and those are the ones that came primarily from the West Indies that lived there and raised their families and their only job was to build a canal. So the education, as I said, they brought people with them, women in particular, that educated, trained, initially. I, I know that I learned my ABCs and my multiplication tables. I could, if you woke me up in the middle of the night, I said twelve times twelve is how much and I'd say 144 but I knew that when I was about three or four years old because I used to sit on the stairs, looking into an apartment, a little room, to a room that Mrs. Carrington [ph.] held classes for the children of the people in the community and she would have the front row is for those children that are from maybe kindergarten to third grade and then from fourth grade to eighth grade, you had another, another group that she trained or they went off then to the elementary school and later, much later, just before I came to this country in 1953, they, I guess at '53 [1953], yeah, '53 [1953], they, I went to the junior high school [La Boca Junior High School, La Boca, Panama] to complete my eighth grade and at that time they had then put, initiated, the high school that went from nine to twelve.$$Okay, but when your mother [Edith Pond Brown] was growing up--$$My mother--$$--she could only, she was allowed going to eighth grade--$$--she only could go to eighth grade, eighth grade--$$--but what you're saying is--$$--and my aunts.$$--is that her education was supplemented by the teachers that they brought over from--$$Exactly, yes.$$--home, from Montserrat?$$From Montserrat and from Trinidad and from Jamaica and Jamaica in particular, and Barbados. Barbados had people I recognized that were really quite bright, educated themselves but, or learned from the English, but they were really very well informed. If you had a Barbadian teacher, you were very proud.$Nineteen seventy-three [1973], at Midway Nursing Home [Maspeth, New York] now. You're the director--$$Yes.$$--of nursing services and administration and you were there for more than twenty-five years?$$No, no, no no--$$No? Okay.$$--I was there for ten years.$$Ten, okay, (laughter) we've got that wrong.$$Yeah, ten years, um-hm.$$Ten years, all right, that's a big difference. So, well tell us about that experience.$$It was an interesting experience because as I said, when Earline [Earline Ross] recommended me it was a new facility, it was a facility that was put into a community called Maspeth [Queens, New York] which was made up of people, Lithuanians and, and so on, Slavic areas and they, this community existed in a place called Maspeth, M-A-S-P-E-T-H, and the arrangement that the owners of the facility, Midway Nursing Home, had to make with them is that they will be willing to hire people from the community to work there, for them to get permission to put this site on, in the neighborhood, well, they shortly did, they got their approval. So when I was hired, I did not know that I had, I had to hire people from the community, solely, and I started doing that and when you came into the facility, and again I always seem to end up indirectly with some sort of racial situations, I, on the first floor was the administration staff. I was the only black person in, in the building, in the position of authority and because of my background, I was able to, the owners of the facility left me in charge of purchasing supplies, of hiring, developing their policy and procedure manuals and it was just a really tough job getting started but it was good, I looked at it as good experience for my future. And so when I started hiring, I was able to get people from the community to work the day shift which was seven to three [o'clock], up, a few to work three to eleven, very few to work eleven to seven was a difficult, a night tour, and, in the process of doing that, and this is way back then, in the '70s [1970s], right, in the process of doing that, I had to hire, no, I could not find people from the community to work nights and I'm having difficulty staffing. So I went to the owners and I said, "Look, I'm going to have to put an ad in the paper, not the local papers only, seeking help and hoping that people will come in, if they meet the criteria, then I'll hire them and I cannot just strictly depend on, because I cannot depend on the neighborhood people," so I did. And then when I started hiring, I had difficulty later on and in no time, the community had a community board meeting and they were raging against the owners and they're hiring people from out of the neighborhood and so, of course, all of this came to me, they said, "What are you doing?" I said, "I'm hiring people. I have to staff the place. I have a health code that I have to follow. I have to provide--." Well, "Why are you hiring those people?" Who are those people? I mean, I'm not conscious of those people. I'm hiring people to work that are willing to work and, and, and the community got together and said that they were not happy because I was hiring people, and I said, well you all define who I'm hiring that's a problem and then I had, they said I had, I was hiring people from Haitia- you know, Haitian people, I was hiring African American people, I was hiring Spanish people, I was hiring some Chinese, I had a few Chinese people, Vietnam, whatever it was, and I said, "Well those are the people that applied and they're qualified. I don't have people from the community coming in to work nights. If you can get me some people from the community that are willing to work the night tour, then I will not have these people and I will follow the guidelines which you all originally agreed to that, people from the community will be given the first choice," and I couldn't get them. And that created some stress between the day shift, the evening shift, and the night tour. So I was constantly, you know, refereeing things through the supervisors, well, to the point that one lady came in one day and she said to me that, it was a horrible story, one of the aides, they had, you know, negative terminologies to call them as they took care of tha- them, as elderly, and this aide was from Brazil, came and said to me, "Mrs. Ingleton [HistoryMaker Grace Y. Ingleton], I don't like to be called names," and so on and so on and this lady, I said, "You're dealing with the elderly, you're dealing with people are confused and maybe they don't know what they're saying but your job is basically to provide care and not to be interacting in a negative way," and so on. She said, "That's fine if you're not delivering the care and having people call you all that they call you." I said, "That goes with the territory of having a job, human behavior, and your point is that you do not react to people the way they are treating you in that manner." Well, a couple of times I had residents that were so hostile from that environment that they spat in the face of one of the, the aides and she unfortunately returned the same negative response. And so, the reason I raised that is because it became quite a, quite a issue in the community and, you know, what the aide had done, not saying what the patient had done, and was back and forth. So I went through that period. I had to terminate the aide and then I thought about it and I said, well, you know, I'm going to give her a long suspension and I'm sure she will resign after that. She never resigned, she came back after nine months that I suspended her for but, but the problem with the situation that became a very hostile one, for me, for a period of time, but I was just determined that if I cannot find people from the community to work, I have to provide jobs to be fair to people that were willing to take the job and do it and I said it's going to be a battle of the wills because I, my goal was always, you bring me staff that were willing to work and I will be willing to hire them. If you cannot do that, then I think we meet halfway and you accept the people that are working, willing to do the work, and it took a while. I mean, I gained an enormous amount of respect from the staff and many of the community people and there are those that never ever accepted the fact that we were not able to staff with the people from the community, not looking at the fact that they were unable to provide the staff. It was a good learning experience for me because it, I mean, it made me a good administrator, I think, better than, than just the paperwork and the ordering and the budget and the policy and procedure, it taught me a lot about human behavior and, and learning when to be flexible and when not to be flexible and learning where to believe, to work by your, by your value system and it brought a lot of issues and value. What does it mean? Do I sacrifice providing quality care for the residents, for those people that are willing to come and do it and learn and provide good care or do I succumb to threats, really, subtle threats and, and verbal threats and so on. They used to look out for my car to come in, there were times that I would have a flat that, no one would know how I got the flat, you know.

Dr. Enrique A. Riggs

Harlem dentist and businessman Dr. Enrique A. Riggs was born on June 3, 1943, in Panama City, Panama, to Winifred and Eric Riggs. Riggs is an active member of several civic organizations and the Army Reserve.

After earning his B.A. in psychology from Central State University in Wilberforce, Ohio, Riggs enlisted in the Army Reserve in 1968, rising to the rank of colonel in the Dental Corps. He earned his master's degree in counseling from the State University of New York at Albany in 1971, and in 1978 he received his degree in clinical dentistry from Howard University. Since 1978, Riggs has been in private practice in Harlem at an office he owns with his wife. Riggs was a co-founder in 1983 of the Small Business Stock Exchange of America, providing growing and emerging companies with expansion capital. He earned an M.B.A. in finance from Iona College in 1997 with a certificate in international business.

Since 1995, Riggs has served as a military academy liaison at the U.S. Military Academy at West Point. He is responsible for recruiting cadets from the New York area and minority cadets from the nation at large. Following the World Trade Center attacks on September 11, 2001, Riggs used his professional expertise to examine dental records and help identify victims at Ground Zero. In 2002, the U.S. Army Dental Command appointed Riggs North Atlantic Region Dental Commander in the U.S. Army Reserve.

Riggs has been active in a number of other civic and professional organizations, including the 100 Black Men, the American Association of Securities Dealers and the American Dental Association. He sits on the Boulé Foundation Board. He and his wife, Dr. Carol Morales, were married in 1983 and have one daughter, Myra Christine. Riggs lives with his family in White Plains, New York.

Accession Number

A2003.216

Sex

Male

Interview Date

9/17/2003 |and| 6/7/2005

Last Name

Riggs

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

A.

Occupation
Schools

Central State University

State University of New York at Albany

Iona College

First Name

Enrique

Birth City, State, Country

Panama City

HM ID

RIG01

Favorite Season

Fall

Favorite Vacation Destination

Caribbean

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Birth Date

6/3/1943

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New York

Country

Panama

Favorite Food

Seafood

Short Description

Dentist Dr. Enrique A. Riggs (1943 - ) co-founded the Small Business Stock Exchange of America in 1983 and has served on its board of directors. Riggs also served as a military academy liaison at the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, and was appointed as the North Atlantic Region Dental Commander in the U.S. Army Reserve.

Employment

State University New York Albany

Hudson Valley Community College

Delete

NYSA-ILA Medical Center

New York State Department of Corrections

Small Business Stock Exchange

Favorite Color

Earth Tones

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Dr. Enrique A. Riggs' interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Dr. Enrique A. Riggs lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Dr. Enrique A. Riggs talks about his mother and how his family came to Panama

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Dr. Enrique A. Riggs describes his mother and various phrases she used

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Dr. Enrique A. Riggs talks about his father and the death of his older brother

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Dr. Enrique A. Riggs talks about his desire to visit Panama

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Dr. Enrique A. Riggs recalls his earliest childhood memories of Panama

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Dr. Enrique A. Riggs recalls moving to New York, New York

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Dr. Enrique A. Riggs describes his move to Harlem, New York and ethnic divides in the area

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Dr. Enrique A. Riggs recalls the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Dr. Enrique A. Riggs talks about learning to cook and adjusting to America as a child

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Dr. Enrique A. Riggs recalls his childhood in New York, New York

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Dr. Enrique A. Riggs talks about his family's musical abilities and how he became interested in drumming

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Dr. Enrique A. Riggs talks about taking up the drums

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Dr. Enrique A. Riggs describes the schools he attended as a child

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Dr. Enrique A. Riggs talks about jazz musicians he admired as a junior high schooler

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Dr. Enrique A. Riggs describes how he was exposed to jazz as a child and his involvement in the Minisink Warriors

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Dr. Enrique A. Riggs describes growing up near musicians Jimmy Cobb and Ben Riley

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Dr. Enrique A. Riggs talks about his love for playing the drums

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Dr. Enrique A. Riggs reflects upon how well-regarded jazz musicians found their sound

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Dr. Enrique A. Riggs talks about running track as a youth

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Dr. Enrique A. Riggs describes his interests as a youth inside and out of school

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Dr. Enrique A. Riggs talks about his parents' support for his decisions

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Dr. Enrique A. Riggs talks about his family's expectations and his involvement with the Order of the Arrow as a Boy Scout

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Dr. Enrique A. Riggs talks about his path to higher education

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Dr. Enrique A. Riggs recalls what led him to attend Central State University in Wilberforce, Ohio

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Dr. Enrique A. Riggs talks about the history of Central State University in Wilberforce, Ohio and his time as a student there

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Dr. Enrique A. Riggs talks about his decision to major in psychology

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Dr. Enrique A. Riggs talks about Dr. Charles Wesley, president of Central State University in Wilberforce, Ohio

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Dr. Enrique A. Riggs talks about social unrest at Central State University during the 1960s

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Dr. Enrique A. Riggs talks about the musical tradition at Central State University in Wilberforce, Ohio, pt.1

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Slating of Dr. Enrique A. Riggs' interview, session two

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Dr. Enrique A. Riggs recalls being drafted into both the NFL and the U.S. Army in 1968

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Dr. Enrique A. Riggs talks about playing for the Green Bay Packers as a reserve player

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Dr. Enrique A. Riggs talks about black players for the Green Bay Packers

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Dr. Enrique A. Riggs recalls being drafted into the U.S. Army

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Dr. Enrique A. Riggs talks about earning his M.A. degree and working for Educational Opportunities Program

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Dr. Enrique A. Riggs talks about a doll test project he worked on in the early 1960s

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Dr. Enrique A. Riggs describes how he ended up studying dentistry, pt.1

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Dr. Enrique A. Riggs describes how he ended up studying dentistry, pt.2

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Dr. Enrique A. Riggs describes his experience at Howard University College of Dentistry in Washington, D.C., pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Dr. Enrique A. Riggs describes his experience at Howard University College of Dentistry in Washington, D.C., pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Dr. Enrique A. Riggs talks about the musical tradition at Central State University in Wilberforce, Ohio, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Dr. Enrique A. Riggs talks about the musical tradition at Central State University in Wilberforce, Ohio, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Dr. Enrique A. Riggs talks about opening the Small Business Stock Exchange of America, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Dr. Enrique A. Riggs talks about opening the Small Business Stock Exchange of America, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Dr. Enrique A. Riggs talks about his dental practice

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Dr. Enrique A. Riggs talks about his dental residencies with Dr. Marcus Moore and at Sydenham Hospital in New York, New York

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Dr. Enrique A. Riggs talks about an endeavor into opening a teaching hospital in the Bahamas

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Dr. Enrique A. Riggs talks about returning to school in 1995 to pursue an M.B.A. degree

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Dr. Enrique A. Riggs talks about his dental training and that of black dentists during World War II

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Dr. Enrique A. Riggs talks about race issues in dentistry

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Dr. Enrique A. Riggs talks about practicing forensic dentistry following September 11th

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Dr. Enrique A. Riggs talks about going to Mississippi during the 1960s and the importance of historical understanding

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Dr. Enrique A. Riggs talks about trying to block funding-cuts for Central State University

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Dr. Enrique A. Riggs recalls presenting a threat analysis for on an oil company during business school

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Dr. Enrique A. Riggs laments the state of contemporary education

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Dr. Enrique A. Riggs describes his experience in the U.S. military during the Gulf War

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Dr. Enrique A. Riggs talks about being stationed at Fort Bragg, North Carolina and being a recruiter for West Point in New York

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Dr. Enrique A. Riggs describes how he recruited minorities to the U.S. Military Academy at West Point in West Point, New York

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Dr. Enrique A. Riggs reflects upon his experience in the military

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Dr. Enrique A. Riggs talks about organizations in which he has taken part

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Dr. Enrique A. Riggs reflects upon his life

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Dr. Enrique A. Riggs explains why he agreed to be interviewed for The HistoryMakers

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Dr. Enrique A. Riggs reflects upon the importance of history

Tape: 7 Story: 9 - Dr. Enrique A. Riggs describes his hopes and concerns for the black community

Tape: 7 Story: 10 - Dr. Enrique A. Riggs reflects upon his legacy and words from HistoryMaker Ossie Davis

DASession

2$2

DATape

4$5

DAStory

10$7

DATitle
Dr. Enrique A. Riggs describes his experience at Howard University College of Dentistry in Washington, D.C., pt. 1
Dr. Enrique A. Riggs talks about his dental residencies with Dr. Marcus Moore and at Sydenham Hospital in New York, New York
Transcript
Howard [University College of Dentistry, Washington, D.C.], and what was that experience like, Howard University 1970, in the '70s [1970s] up until '78 [1978] when you completed it?$$Stressful, but wonderful, wonderful. I would not have wanted to do it any other way.$$Who were some of your instructors and some of the influential people on campus in, in the '70s [1970s]?$$As far as dental school was concerned, there were a number of, of instructors and professors that we had in dental school that, that made an impact. Certainly, Dr. Henry, Joe Henry [Joseph L. Henry] who was our dean, I'm sorry he was presi, he was the dean of the dental school. He was one person who made an impact. Well, a lot of them, Dr. [James] Stanback, who was a professor and chairman of the oral surgery department. In fact, the entire oral surgery department was a superb group of individuals. There was a gentleman who I was very close to over the years, a Dr. Hancock, Victor Hancock who was a Tuskegee Airmen who just recently, recently passed about a month ago, month and a half ago. Victor was chairman of American Express, Kenneth Chenault's father-in-law. Victor, Victor was a very, very unique man. Dr. Marcus Moore, he wasn't a professor, but he was a doctor who I started working with when I first got out of dental school. In fact, this was a gentleman that, that my wife and I purchased his practice when I retired. He has now since passed on. He was a major force and my, my first father-in-law also was a, was a dentist, that's Dr. Alfred Proctter [ph.] out of Norfolk, Virginia.$So let's talk about developing the practice. How, how did you go about doing that? I mean you're a young man, you're straight out of Howard's dental school [Howard University College of Dentistry, Washington, D.C.], you buy the practice and what's the day-to-day life--?$$Well, that didn't happen automatically. You come out of dental school and, and one of the things that you want to do, if at all possible, is to secure a post-graduate training program. Then we didn't have that many post-graduate training programs in dentistry. The difference between getting post-graduate dental training and post-graduate medical training is that every physician that finishes medical school has his name on a residency somewhere in this country. It may be his or her first choice; it might not be his or her first choice, but they have their name on a residency program somewhere in his country. It's sort of the next step. In dentistry, there not that many residency programs around. We're getting better, it's growing, but these residency programs are so highly coveted and so highly competitive and very, very difficult to get. So, my first year out of school I worked with Dr. Moore in the office and looking around for other opportunities because you can walk into an office and see patients lined up wall to wall every day. It wasn't like that. It's not like that today. So, oftentimes you found yourself sitting around twirling your thumbs looking at the four walls. Part of that is that a lot of our patients now are not staying uptown, they're going downtown. They're going elsewhere were we don't go because we can't go for whatever reasons. But, you just happen to mention it's ironic that you, you don't have a black dentist, you didn't know many. Well, that's the story that a lot of people are beginning to talk about now. They're saying I never had a black, a black doctor before. You know one of the patients that I had is during my residency program--I did get a residency program--Sydenham Hospital [New York, New York] on 125th Street which just really broke my heart. I was on emergency service one day and a woman came in she was obviously upwards of eighty. She came in on emergency basis and she had a, denture work being done there at the hospital. She came in and she had a complaint that whenever she drank hot tea that her teeth just kept moving and I just thought gee that didn't sound unusual, that's sounded a little, a little unusual. So, I asked her more questions and, heat sort of oriented questions, when you eat hot food do the teeth move around, you know tell me more. She said well anytime she eats or when she drinks hot tea the teeth just seems to move. So, I said okay well let me just take a look at, at your denture. I had took out the denture, and you know what she was wearing, she was wearing what we call a trial denture. This is a denture that we set in wax before it's sent to the lab to be fabricated. Someone let this woman go out with a trial denture, the teeth sat in wax as the competed denture. And the thing that broke my heart about it was that she said to me, she kept staring and I wondered if there was something wrong and I said well, I can't recall her name now, I said is there a problem. She says no, she said you make me so proud I've never had a black doctor before, but she was upwards of eighty years old. That broke my heart. So, we deal with some of that. But, you know, you get through it and so these are the kinds of things that, that had another dimension to your life and you try to make it better, you try to change things, if you can. So, overall, the dental practice is one of the most positive things in my life. I enjoy it. My wife's [HM Carol Morales] a dentist. She does a lot of the general work--she's a HistoryMaker as well, and I now come in and I do the difficult surgical procedures and that's what I really enjoy; I enjoy that.

Jacoby Dickens

An innovative and successful entrepreneur, Jacoby Dickens was born in Panama City, Florida, in 1931. Though Jacoby's father had to leave school at an early age to work on the family farm, he emphasized the importance of education. Early in his childhood, Dickens' family moved to Chicago's South Side, where he attended school.

After graduation from Wendell Phillips High School, Dickens went into business as a real estate developer in the same South Side neighborhoods where he was raised. There he was able to purchase, renovate and lease apartment buildings in key areas of the city during the peak of the Northern Migration. At the height of this enterprise, Dickens managed more than 100 apartments. By the time he sold his real estate holdings in 1971, Dickens had acquired enough capital to purchase several bowling alleys in Chicago. While running two bowling alleys, Dickens was invited to join the board of Seaway National Bank, one of the largest African American-owned financial institutions in the country. Dickens joined Seaway National in 1979 as vice chairman and became chairman in 1983.

As chairman, Dickens created firm ties between Seaway and its surrounding community. Dickens believes the bank shares responsibility for the financial health of the community, an urban neighborhood of moderate and low-income residents. As such, the institution has tailored itself to fit the economic circumstances of its surrounding neighborhoods, promoting the growth of new businesses through loans, outreach and community development programs.

Dickens has distinguished himself as much for his philanthropic efforts as for his entrepreneurial successes. In addition to the community outreach programs developed through Seaway, Dickens has designed a loan and scholarship program at DePaul University named in his honor. As a director of Chicago State University, Dickens has donated more than $1 million to the institution. On December 7, 1995, the Chicago State University Physical Education and Athletics Building was renamed the Jacoby D. Dickens Physical Education and Athletics Center in honor of the esteemed benefactor.

Jacoby Dickens passed away on April 14, 2013.

Accession Number

A1999.004

Sex

Male

Archival Photo 1
Interview Date

12/15/1999 |and| 7/29/2002

Last Name

Dickens

Maker Category
Organizations
Schools

Wendell Phillips Academy High School

Archival Photo 2
First Name

Jacoby

Birth City, State, Country

Panama City

HM ID

DIC01

Favorite Season

January, February in Florida

State

Florida

Favorite Vacation Destination

Fisher Island, Florida

Favorite Quote

If it is worth doing, it is worth doing on time.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Illinois

Birth Date

6/19/1931

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Chicago

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Fish, Sweet Potatoes

Death Date

4/14/2013

Short Description

Bank chairman and entrepreneur Jacoby Dickens (1931 - 2013 ) went into business as a real estate developer on Chicago's South Side upon graduating high school. By 1971 Dickens was able to purchase two bowling alleys and was later asked to join the board of directors at Seaway National Bank. Dickens used his position at the bank to stabilize the financial health of moderate and low-income residents.

Employment

Seaway National Bank

Favorite Color

Dark Blue

DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Jacoby Dickens Interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Jacoby Dickens's Favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Jacoby Dickens characterizes his childhood home in the Florida panhandle

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Jacoby Dickens remembers his father and grandmother

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Jacoby Dickens describes growing up with five sisters

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Jacoby Dickens recalls an inspiring grade school teacher

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Jacoby Dickens recalls his family's advice that blacks "had to be twice as good" to succeed

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Jacoby Dickens discusses the role of church, school and black business in his segregated childhood community

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Jacoby Dickens describes his ancestors' life as sharecroppers

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Jacoby Dickens compares his strong family bonds with families today

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Jacoby Dickens describes his initial reactions to his new home, Chicago, Ill.

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Jacoby Dickens remembers his jobs as a teenager

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Jacoby Dickens remembers Chicago's Wendell Phillips High School in the 1940s

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Jacoby Dickens describes his adolescence in Chicago in the late 1940s

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Jacoby Dickens's thirty year pursuit of education

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Jacoby Dickens discusses his real estate and bowling alley investments

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Jacoby Dickens begins to save and invest after a lesson from his father

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Jacoby Dickens discusses his entrepreneurship

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Jacoby Dickens considers Chicago's history of successful black businesses

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Jacoby Dickens buys into Seaway National Bank (Chicago, Ill.)

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Jacoby Dickens describes his early work ethic

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Jacoby Dickens makes a profit in the real estate industry

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Jacoby Dickens discusses his bowling enterprises in the late 1960s-1970s

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Jacoby Dickens appreciates business mentors

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Jacoby Dickens recalls when he learned he was a millionaire

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Jacoby Dickens builds a relationship with Seaway National Bank

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Jacoby Dickens discusses discrimination in commercial loans

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Jacoby Dickens considers the diversity of his business investments

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Jacoby Dickens talks about the success and community contribution of Seaway National Bank in Chicago

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Jacoby Dickens describes a partnership between Seaway National Bank [Chicago, Ill.] and the local black community

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Jacoby Dickens discusses banking and business in black neighborhoods

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Jacoby Dickens reflects on the Civil Rights Movement, affirmative action and education

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Jacoby Dickens contributes to Chicago State University [Chicago, Ill.]

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Jacoby Dickens discusses his investment in two television stations

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Jacoby Dickens discusses his pursuit of an investment in a riverboat casino

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Jacoby Dickens calls young black people to entrepreneurship

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Jacoby Dickens discusses the benefits of mentorship

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Jacoby Dickens considers the role of the church in black lives

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Jacoby Dickens discusses political participation, term limits, ethics and Harold Washington

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Jacoby Dickens praises entrepreneur George Johnson

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Jacoby Dickens describes businessman Dempsey J. Travis

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Jacoby Dickens talks about his legacy and his foundation

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Photo - Jacoby Dickens poses with Lucille after completing basic training

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Photo - Jacoby Dickens poses at six years old

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Photo - Jacoby Dickens poses with army buddies and geisha in Japan

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Photo - Jacoby Dickens greets the former President of Ghana, Jerry John Rawlings

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Photo - Jacoby Dickens poses with WGN's [Chicago] Merri Dee

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Photo - Jacoby Dickens washes his first automobile

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Photo - Jacoby Dickens poses with friends at a golf benefit

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Photo - Jacoby Dickens poses with daughter and grand-daughter ay Skyway Bowl

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Photo - Jacoby Dickens poses with Dr. James Buckner at Chicago State University

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - Photo - Jacoby Dickens poses with Mayor Harold Washington and Dr. Julianne Blewitt

Tape: 6 Story: 11 - Photo - Jacoby Dickens makes a speech at an Operation PUSH event

Tape: 6 Story: 12 - Photo - Jacoby Dickens meets with Governor Jim Edgar [Illinois]

Tape: 6 Story: 13 - Photo - Jacoby Dickens receives an award from the Luster Foundation at their annual fundraising dinner

Tape: 6 Story: 14 - Photo - Jacoby Dickens poses with Olympic track star Willye White

Tape: 6 Story: 15 - Photo - Jacoby Dickens poses with former Governor Jim Edgar [Illinois]

Tape: 6 Story: 16 - Photo - Jacoby Dickens poses with Roland Burris, former Attorney General and Comptroller for the state of Illinois

Tape: 6 Story: 17 - Photo - Jacoby Dickens poses at a fundraising event for Chicago State University's athletic program

Tape: 6 Story: 18 - Photo - Jacoby Dickens talks with Leon Robinson, bus company owner, at a fundraising dinner

Tape: 6 Story: 19 - Photo - Jacoby Dickens gives a speech on black business ownership at Operation PUSH

Tape: 6 Story: 20 - Photo - Jacoby Dickens shakes hands with President Bill Clinton in Chicago [Ill.]

Tape: 6 Story: 21 - Photo - Jacoby Dickens poses with Mrs. Luster of Luster Products at a foundation dinner

Tape: 6 Story: 22 - Photo - Jacoby Dickens meets Mrs. Bacon and President of Roosevelt University, Ted Gross

Tape: 6 Story: 23 - Photo - Private Jacoby Dickens (U.S. Army) poses in 1952

Tape: 6 Story: 24 - Photo - Jacoby Dickens meets with members of the Chicago State Foundation

Tape: 6 Story: 25 - Photo - Jacoby Dickens toasts President of Ghana, Jerry John Rawlings

Tape: 6 Story: 26 - Photo - Jacoby Dickens greets President of Chicago State University, President George Ayers

Tape: 6 Story: 27 - Photo - Jacoby Dickens meets with Bishop Louis Henry Ford at the All Saints School opening [Lexington, Miss.]

Tape: 6 Story: 28 - Photo - Jacoby Dickens poses with the President of Chicago State University, William Ayers, and Mayor Eugene Sawyer [Chicago. Ill.]

Tape: 6 Story: 29 - Photo - Jacoby Dickens greets a Chicago State University basketball player and Independence Bank president, Al Boutte.

Tape: 6 Story: 30 - Photo - Jacoby Dickens poses with Vice President Al Gore and Wanda Wright at a northside Chicago [Ill.] fundraiser

Tape: 6 Story: 31 - Photo - Jacoby Dickens gives an address at the Luster Products Black Heritage Foundation benefit

Tape: 6 Story: 32 - Photo - Jacoby Dickens poses in front of Seaway National Bank [Chicago, Ill.]

Tape: 6 Story: 33 - Photo - Jacoby Dickens poses at the 1998 Columbian Ball fundraiser

Tape: 6 Story: 34 - Photo - Jacoby Dickens poses with family at McClendon family reunion

Tape: 6 Story: 35 - Photo - Jacoby Dickens poses with Senator Carol Moseley-Braun and Merri Dee, television personality

Tape: 6 Story: 36 - Photo - Jacoby Dickens and wife, Veranda, pose with Velma and John Wilson at an Urban League fundraiser