## The Honorable Ras Baraka

Political leader Ras Baraka was born on April 9, 1970 in Newark, New Jersey to writer and playwright Amiri Baraka and poet Amina Baraka. He received his B.A. degree in political science from Howard University in 1991; and earned his M.A. degree in education supervision from St. Peter’s University in Jersey City in 1994. In 1992, Baraka served as the editor of In the Tradition: An Anthology of Young Black Writers. In 1998, Baraka was featured on singer Lauryn Hill’s album The Miseducation of Lauryn Hill and in 2003, he performed a collection of poems called Black Girls Learn Love Hard at the Geraldine R. Dodge Poetry Festival. The volume was dedicated to Baraka’s sister, Shani Baraka, who was murdered in 2003. Baraka has participated in the National Political Hip-Hop Convention from its inception in 2004.

Prior to his political career, Baraka worked as an English and history teacher for Newark Public Schools. In 1994, at the age of twenty-four, Baraka ran for mayor of Newark, New Jersey, but was defeated by Sharpe James. Baraka was elected as Council Member At-Large on the Municipal Council of Newark in 2005. From 2007 to 2013, Baraka served as the principal of Central High School in Newark. He was re-elected as a South Ward Council Member in 2010, a position he held until 2014. In July of 2014, Baraka became Newark’s 40th mayor, on a platform of improving the city’s public school system, economic growth, and criminal justice reform. During his tenure, Baraka launched the City’s first police Civilian Complaint Review board and unified the City’s police and fire departments into a single public safety department. In 2017, Baraka initiated the Hire. Buy. Live. Newark plan to stimulate the city’s economic development. Baraka was re-elected for a second mayoral term in 2018.

In 2015, Baraka was named Most Valuable Mayor on The Nation’s Most Valuable Progressives list. He was also featured on Ebony magazine’s Power 100 list. In 2017, Baraka was presented with an honorary degree from Montclair University. He also served on the board of trustees of Newark Trust.

Ras Baraka was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on December 4, 2017.

Accession Number

A2017.213

Sex

Male

Interview Date

12/4/2017

Last Name

Baraka

Maker Category
Occupation
Organizations
Schools

Clinton Place Junior High School

University High School of Humanities

Saint Peter's University

Howard University

First Name

Ras

Birth City, State, Country

Newark

HM ID

BAR16

Favorite Season

My Birthday

State

New Jersey

Favorite Vacation Destination

Martha's Vineyard

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New Jersey

Birth Date

4/9/1969

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Newark

Country

United States

Favorite Food

All Kinds

Short Description

Mayor The Honorable Ras Baraka (1969 - ) was elected mayor of Newark, New Jersey in 2014.

Employment

The Source

Newark Public Schools

City of Newark, New Jersey

Favorite Color

Purple

## Audrey M. Edmonson

Audrey M. Edmonson was born on January 27, 1953 in Miami, Florida. She graduated from Miami Jackson Senior High School in Miami, Florida in 1971. Edmonson earned her A.A. degree in psychology from Miami Dade College in 1991, and her B.A. degree in psychology from Florida International University in 1994. Edmonson received her dual M.S. degree in marriage family therapy and mental health counseling from Barry University in 1997.

In 1997, she was elected as a councilperson to the Village of El Portal City Council in Florida. In 1999, she was elected mayor of the Village of El Portal, Florida and became the city’s second African American mayor. During the same year, Edmonson began working as a trust specialist in the Miami Dade Public School system. Edmonson was re-elected three successive terms and became the municipality's first mayor to be elected by residents rather than by the members of the Village Council. Under her leadership, the Village hired its first Village Manager. In 2005, when she was elected as commissioner for the 3rd District on the Miami-Dade County Commission. She was re-elected three more times and in 2010 and 2016, she was elected to serve as vice chair. In 2018, Edmonson was elected to serve as president of the Miami-Dade County Commission.

In addition to her work as a city commissioner, Edmonson was also involved in many different community organizations. She was a member of the Top Ladies of Distinction, Inc. and the Links, Incorporated. She also helped create the Miami Children’s Initiative in 2006, where she served as a board member. Edmonson served as a board member for the Frost Science Museum, the JMH Citizen’s Advisory Board, and the JMH Nominating Committee. Edmonson was recognized for her community work by South Florida Magazine, which named her one of “South Florida’s 50 Most Powerful Black Professionals.”

Edmonson has two children, Dr. Ebony Nicole Dunn and Louis Ivory Edmonson and three grandchildren.

Audrey M. Edmonson was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on March 10, 2017.

Accession Number

A2017.035

Sex

Female

Interview Date

03/10/2017

Last Name

Edmonson

Maker Category
Occupation
Organizations
Schools

Barry University

Florida International University

Miami Jackson Senior High School

Georgia Jones-Ayers Middle School

Lenora Braynon Smith Elementary School

Liberty City Elementary School

First Name

Audrey

Birth City, State, Country

Miami

HM ID

EDM05

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Florida

Favorite Vacation Destination

Cape Town, South Africa

Favorite Quote

It's Not That You Can't Do Something It's How You Can Get It Done.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Florida

Birth Date

1/27/1953

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Miami

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Snapper

Short Description

Mayor and city commissioner Audrey M. Edmonson (1953 - ) was mayor of the Village of El Portal for six years before serving the Miami Dade Board of Commissioners for twelve years.

Employment

Village of El Portal

AT Services

Eastern Airlines

New Horizons Community Mental Health Center

Favorite Color

Purple

Timing Pairs
0,0:213,78:3834,137:5893,177:6532,187:6887,193:8520,214:8804,219:11980,292:12960,311:13240,316:22200,545:22550,551:27380,704:27940,725:34594,763:41907,923:42404,931:42901,940:56535,1078:57185,1090:58875,1138:64255,1199:64571,1204:65519,1216:65835,1221:66151,1226:69390,1293:73020,1316:73790,1336:77500,1451:77850,1458:78550,1471:78900,1477:80930,1530:82330,1555:83240,1575:83730,1585:84360,1597:95884,1773:96814,1804:108220,1980:113588,2058:117290,2083:118010,2093:125627,2156:125972,2162:127697,2206:128456,2218:129422,2242:129767,2248:147170,2512:148445,2537:149270,2549:150995,2582:151445,2589:159592,2697:165678,2780:166119,2802:166623,2812:168450,2854:171298,2880:174906,2993:177012,3033:177498,3045:178794,3102:186964,3218:188070,3238:188939,3257:189334,3263:189966,3273:198764,3380:199172,3404:205677,3477:206293,3487:206832,3496:215970,3670$0,0:354,9:3599,122:4012,131:6077,183:7729,231:15356,344:16940,356:21358,374:23900,418:34860,601:35400,617:36930,645:37830,657:61458,987:64000,1033:64492,1044:67362,1142:70314,1205:75207,1236:75697,1249:76481,1310:81646,1404:90260,1639:95930,1690:97217,1704:99114,1718:101264,1800:101866,1808:102210,1813:102554,1818:108700,1904:121224,2060:123130,2082:124714,2134:125434,2146:128130,2171:137160,2280:137560,2286:146073,2383:146637,2388:150383,2456:152624,2491:153205,2500:159362,2584:159906,2594:166636,2655:167329,2666:169947,2720:177836,2796:178358,2808:180024,2819:180429,2826:197924,3056:206456,3234:207932,3262:208260,3270:210064,3316:226352,3717:241868,3893:243779,3926:245144,3949:247237,3989:253236,4087:255920,4106:256946,4147:269308,4332:269805,4341:278434,4565:283494,4617:284954,4679:289188,4751:290648,4775:298774,5018:318766,5230:320616,5273:332300,5457 DAStories Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Audrey M. Edmonson's interview Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Audrey M. Edmonson lists her favorites Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Audrey M. Edmonson describes her mother's family background Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Audrey M. Edmonson talks about her mother's family in Nassau, Bahamas Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Audrey M. Edmonson describes her father's family background Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Audrey M. Edmonson talks about her mother's marriages Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Audrey M. Edmonson describes her earliest childhood memory Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Audrey M. Edmonson describes the sights, sounds and smells of her childhood Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Audrey M. Edmonson remembers her early neighborhood of Liberty City in Miami, Florida Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Audrey M. Edmonson talks about attending church and completing chores on the weekends Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Audrey M. Edmonson lists her siblings Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Audrey M. Edmonson remembers transferring between elementary schools in Miami, Florida Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Audrey M. Edmonson recalls moving from Liberty City to a majority white neighborhood Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Audrey M. Edmonson remembers attending Allapattah Junior High School in Miami, Florida Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Audrey M. Edmonson talks about Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Audrey M. Edmonson recalls staging a sit-in to integrate her high school cheerleading team Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Audrey M. Edmonson describes her high school extracurricular activities Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Audrey M. Edmonson recalls becoming one of the first African American flight attendants at Eastern Air Lines Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Audrey M. Edmonson describes the process to become a flight attendant Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Audrey M. Edmonson recalls her experiences with racism as a flight attendant, pt. 1 Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Audrey M. Edmonson recalls her experiences with racism as a flight attendant, pt. 2 Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Audrey M. Edmonson talks about her career at Eastern Air Lines Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Audrey M. Edmonson talks about the social dynamics of being a flight attendant Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Audrey M. Edmonson remembers meeting her former husband, Louis Edmonson Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Audrey M. Edmonson describes her children Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Audrey M. Edmonson talks about the changes in reglations for a flight attendant at Eastern Air Lines Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Audrey M. Edmonson recalls starting her cleaning company, AT Services Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Audrey M. Edmonson talks about adopting her second child, Louis Ivory Edmonson Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Audrey M. Edmonson describes her college education Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Audrey M. Edmonson talks about her first involvement in political campaigns Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Audrey M. Edmonson describes her work with the New Horizons Community Mental Health Center in Miami, Florida DASession 1$1

DATape

2$2 DAStory 3$6

DATitle
Audrey M. Edmonson recalls staging a sit-in to integrate her high school cheerleading team
Audrey M. Edmonson describes the process to become a flight attendant
Transcript
So, you say it was because of Dr. King [Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.] that they weren't allowed to do these things?$$No. It was because of Dr. King that we finally did something about this at Miami Edison High School [Miami Edison Senior High School, Miami, Florida]. We--$$This is after you moved to that school?$$Yeah. Only--I was at Edison for a year.$$Okay.$$Ninth grade.$$Okay.$$I'm in ninth grade now.$$Okay. Got it.$$So, I'm growing up a little bit.$$That's fine.$$(Laughter) So, what we did--$$And, this is the predominately white school--$$Yes.$$--where they're not allowing the girls to--$$Correct.$$--to participate.$$The boys were allowed to play in the sports.$$Okay.$$The girls were allowed to play sports. But, they did not choose any blacks who were--and we had a lot that went out for the cheerleaders and the, the Raiderettes, which are the swingettes or whatever you call them. And, it was another group of girls. So, we, we had to meet, they--how, I don't know how we pulled this off, you know, we were kids. We, it was secretly going out, a meeting was gonna be, and they gave us the address. And, I remember the, the girl's last name was White [ph.]. And, we went over to her home that night, and the word was, "Don't come unless you bring your parents with you." And, I was afraid but I knew I wanted to go to this meeting. So, I finally approached my mom [Florence Smith Downs] and I said, "Mom, they gonna have a meeting at a house tonight" (laughter). I say, "And, they say we can't come unless we bring our parents." And, she asked me, what was it about? And, I told her, you know, that--they didn't put any young ladies on the cheerleader squad, they didn't put any--and she says, "And, you're gonna meet over there about that?" She said, "That can be trouble." And, I said, "I know, but I wanna go. And, I can't go unless you go." She said no more. We got in the car later on that evening and we drove over there and I was shocked. She gave me my permission to do a sit-in. And, we did a sit-in the next day and it took the school by surprise. And, the media was there. So, they placed one, one young lady. They didn't have another, no type of competitive thing. They placed one young lady on the cheerleaders, one on the Raiderettes and one on the, the other group.$$So it worked.$$It worked. And, we sat there on the floor quietly. And, I remember (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) For how long?$$--the, the young lady's father was a doctor, and he's the one that really facilitated everything. And, he told us, no matter what, just sit there, don't open our mouths, and do not use any profane language, don't talk back, just sit there. And, that what we did.$$Do you remember how long you sat there?$$We had to have sat there for at least two hours because I think the superintendent, everybody came at--to the school. So, it was a big thing. It was in the news.$$They couldn't believe you were doing that.$$They couldn't believe we did that.$$Even though these things were happening across the country--$$And, we sat there and we blocked the office door, right in the hallway.$$And, how many of you were there?$$It had to be a good--because, now when we were at the house, it was only about thirty or forty of us. But, somehow when we did the sit-in, it had to have been a good fifty, sixty, I mean, it was triple the amount of us that were at the house.$$And, was everybody black?$$Um-hm, all black. I think the word got around. And, if you were black you came, and you sat.$$Were you afraid?$$No. I enjoyed it. You know, I was young. You know, nothing could happen to me. I was invincible.Was that part of the interview process [for Eastern Air Lines], just your comfort on a plane?$$That could've been because that was discussed. They gave me a test. I took the test. That was, you know, the test I took, I couldn't believe the test, you know, it was, "Would you rather be a bishop or, or a cardinal?" And, you know, I remember things like that on this test that I took. And, I just took the test and then my last interview was before a panel and as they--at the end one of them said, "Audrey [HistoryMaker Audrey M. Edmonson], we think we're gonna take you on." And, back then, the things they did they wouldn't dare to now. Because the first interview I had to walk from one side of the room to the other side. So, they could see me walk. And, they asked me to stoop down. But, I did remember from home ec [home economics], you never bend (laughter). So, I did do it at the knees (laughter). So, I did remember some things.$$So, so it was, because, I mean, the original stewardesses as we, you know, see in movies and everything are (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Skinny.$$--skinny, fashionable--$$They weighed us every time we came in.$$Right. They did?$$Yeah. They had the scale right to the door.$$And, what did you have to (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) And, if you were on probation, you got weighed every trip.$$Why would you be on probation?$$Because you had a six months probationary period when you first started out.$$And, what did you have to weigh (simultaneous)?$$(Simultaneous) They could just let you go for no reason.$$What was the weight requirement?$$When I started, I was 5'7". I had to keep my weight under 126. I could not go over 126 pounds.$$And, were you, was that easy or difficult for you (simultaneous)?$$(Simultaneous) It was difficult. Because when they hired me I was 132 pounds. And, she asked me if I thought I could lose the weight by that very last interview. I wanted that job. I even--I used to even bite my nails. I stopped biting my nails. I lost the weight, and I was about 124 at that last interview.$$Just in the process of the interview. And, this is across what period of time?$$About a three month period.$$So, they needed, you needed to get to the 126 in order for them to hire you?$$Um-hm. I guess they wanted to see how motivated I was. Or, how much motivation I had. And, I had it.$$And, at this time it didn't, it didn't bother you that there were these kinds of requirements?$$No. Well, I didn't know any better. I even had to dye my hair because on my first interview, I think it was my first and second interview, I wore an Afro wig. So, at that time, and you'll see that (laughter), when you look at my pictures, at one point in time I was blonde (laughter). My hair was blonde underneath. So, they had no idea. So, when I came to, I think the second interview, I told her, I says, "Now, my hair is kind of blonde-ish." And, she was surprised 'cause she thought the wig was my hair. She says, "Well, what do you mean, blonde-ish?" And, I kind of did that little number to her. And, she says, "Well, are you willing to dye it black?" (Laughter) And I said, I said, "Yes, I'll dye it." I wanted this job. And, she says, "Now, what if we don't hire you? What if they decide they're not gonna hire you in the next interview?" I says, "Well, that's okay, I'll just dye it back blonde," (laughter). And, she gave a little chuckle and--$$So, for the third interview, you'd lost the weight, dyed you hair (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Third interview, lost the weight, stopped biting my nails, and dyed my hair.$$And, how were you wearing it? 'Cause now, you're not having on an Afro wig, what style are you wearing it?$$Shorter Afro.$$Okay. So, it was--so, they didn't mind the Afro?$$No. They did mind the Afros. Let me tell you what they did. As a matter of fact, in the class that I was in there were, we had three blacks. One was really not in the class, she was in the class ahead of us but she got sick so she finished out in our class. But, there were, we had two blacks in my class that went through. And, they brought us from all over the country. Both of us had Afros. For some reason they kind of liked her Afro. They didn't like mine. So, at the end of the class when they see that they're actually going to graduate you, they sent all of us to the, the beauty parlor. So, I'm sitting up there, I'm telling the girl how I want my hair. She says, "But, that's not what it says on the paper." And, this is, we were the first class that they actually sent to a black salon. They had been sending (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Oh, you're at a black salon, okay.$$--the black girls to the white salons. We were the first. They sent us to Supreme Wig and Beauty Supply [sic. Supreme Wig and Beauty Salon, Miami, Florida]. And, the girl stands there, and she's looking at it (laughter), she says, "Well, this is not what I'm supposed to do." I said, "What do you mean, this is not what you're supposed to be?" She says, "I'm supposed to relax your hair and cut it into a bob." And, that's what she did. She put a relaxer on my head.$$Had you ever had a relaxer?$$Yeah, I did have a relaxer back when I was in high school. I took up cosmetology. So, I played around--that's how I got the blonde hair, just playing around with my hair.$$So, again, you wanted the job. So, you're like--$$Yeah.$$I'll do it.$$I did it.

## The Honorable Willie Logan

Political leader Willie Logan was born on February 16, 1957 in Miami Beach, Florida to Willie Logan, Sr. and Ruth Logan. He graduated from high school in 1975, earned his A.A. degree from Miami-Dade College in Miami, Florida in 1976, and his B.S. degree in accounting from the University of Miami in 1977. He later earned his M.B.A. degree in health care administration from the University of Miami in 1996.

Logan worked in the insurance industry and volunteered for various political campaigns. In 1980, Logan founded the Opa-locka Community Development Corporation and became its president and chief executive officer. He was elected as mayor of Opa-locka, Florida, making him the youngest mayor in the United States at the time. Logan served as mayor of Opa-locka until 1982, when he was elected to the Florida House of Representatives. In 1997, Logan was designated by Democratic Party leadership to be the next House Speaker and became the first African American to hold that position. Logan founded the Logan Consulting Group in 1992. In 2000, Logan ran for United States Senate as an independent candidate but ultimately lost the election. He continued to serve as president and chief executive officer of Opa-locka Community Development Corporation.

In the Florida legislature, Logan chaired numerous committees, including the Criminal Justice Budget Committee and the Committee on Finance and Taxation. He served as House Democratic Leader-elect in 1997. He was also a member of the Appropriations and Rules Committees and was the immediate past chair of the Miami-Dade County Legislative Delegation, the Legislature’s largest delegation.

Logan has been invited as a featured speaker on the subject of community development, including the Future of Places International Conference on Streets as Public Spaces and Drivers of Urban Prosperity in Argentina and the Project for Public Spaces Conference on Public Markets in Spain. He has also published a chapter entitled, “Revitalization & Transforming the Community,” in the book Shifting from Objects to Places. Logan also served on the Child Service Council and the Performing Arts Council in the Miami-Dade area.

Willie Logan was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on March 8, 2017.

Accession Number

A2017.066

Sex

Male

Interview Date

03/08/2017

Last Name

Logan

Maker Category
Occupation
Organizations
Schools

Holy Redeemer Catholic School

Bunche Park Elementary School

North Dade Middle School International Education Magnet

Hialeah-Miami Lakes Senior High School

University of Miami

First Name

Willie

Birth City, State, Country

Miami Beach

HM ID

LOG02

Favorite Season

February in Miami

State

Florida

Favorite Vacation Destination

I love the mountains and sea, urban and rural./New York City

Favorite Quote

Too many to choose from.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Florida

Birth Date

2/16/1957

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Miami

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Mangoes

Short Description

Political leader Willie Logan (1957 - ) served on the Florida House of Representatives from 1982 to 2000 and is the founder, president, and CEO of the Opa-locka Community Development Corporation.

Employment

Florida Office of Insurance Regulation

George Green Insurance Agency

Opa-Locka Community Development Corporation, Inc.

City of Opa-Locka

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:4441,79:7417,244:20396,345:62214,949:79210,1129:90130,1364:136640,2233:155040,2532:156390,2683:156750,2735:174192,2927:191080,3052:212910,3438$0,0:380,8:1216,19:10768,137:18064,311:18748,318:19432,325:24628,952:27040,1018:34660,1168:80298,1639:95891,1740:99401,1801:104266,1833:112890,2008:116760,2087:117324,2093:118546,2119:134549,2243:139081,2570:140111,2582:153820,2803:167394,3033:167902,3044:171077,3083:183718,3239:186413,3315:191030,3381 DAStories Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of The Honorable Willie Logan's interview Tape: 1 Story: 2 - The Honorable Willie Logan lists his favorites Tape: 1 Story: 3 - The Honorable Willie Logan describes his mother's family background Tape: 1 Story: 4 - The Honorable Willie Logan talks about his mother's occupations Tape: 1 Story: 5 - The Honorable Willie Logan talks about his maternal grandfather's military service during World War I Tape: 1 Story: 6 - The Honorable Willie Logan describes his father's family background Tape: 1 Story: 7 - The Honorable Willie Logan describes his father's education Tape: 1 Story: 8 - The Honorable Willie Logan recalls how his parents met Tape: 1 Story: 9 - The Honorable Willie Logan talks about his early experiences with racism Tape: 1 Story: 10 - The Honorable Willie Logan describes his father's profession Tape: 1 Story: 11 - The Honorable Willie Logan remembers his relationship with his father Tape: 1 Story: 12 - The Honorable Willie Logan talks about his mother's decision to move to Jacksonville, Florida Tape: 2 Story: 1 - The Honorable Willie Logan describes his parents' personalities and who he takes after Tape: 2 Story: 2 - The Honorable Willie Logan talks about his early experiences of religion Tape: 2 Story: 3 - The Honorable Willie Logan recalls the racial demographics of Miami-Dade County, Florida Tape: 2 Story: 4 - The Honorable Willie Logan describes his earliest childhood memory Tape: 2 Story: 5 - The Honorable Willie Logan remembers the assassination of President John Fitzgerald Kennedy Tape: 2 Story: 6 - The Honorable Willie Logan recalls his early schooling Tape: 2 Story: 7 - The Honorable Willie Logan recalls his school's use of corporal punishment Tape: 2 Story: 8 - The Honorable Willie Logan describes his mother's views on corporal punishment Tape: 2 Story: 9 - The Honorable Willie Logan remembers school integration in Miami-Dade County, Florida Tape: 3 Story: 1 - The Honorable Willie Logan recalls his experiences with school integration Tape: 3 Story: 2 - The Honorable Willie Logan remembers playing football in his youth Tape: 3 Story: 3 - The Honorable Willie Logan recalls leaving high school early Tape: 3 Story: 4 - The Honorable Willie Logan remembers his decision to attend Miami-Dade Community College in Miami, Florida Tape: 3 Story: 5 - The Honorable Willie Logan remembers his most influential teachers Tape: 3 Story: 6 - The Honorable Willie Logan remembers his college mentors Tape: 3 Story: 7 - The Honorable Willie Logan recalls his decision to attend the University of Miami in Coral Gables, Florida Tape: 3 Story: 8 - The Honorable Willie Logan remembers his extracurricular activities in college Tape: 3 Story: 9 - The Honorable Willie Logan talks about the racial climate at the University of Miami Tape: 3 Story: 10 - The Honorable Willie Logan describes his early interest in accounting Tape: 4 Story: 1 - The Honorable Willie Logan remembers his work experiences in college Tape: 4 Story: 2 - The Honorable Willie Logan recalls working with Florida politician Bill Gunter Tape: 4 Story: 3 - The Honorable Willie Logan remembers working at George Green's insurance company Tape: 4 Story: 4 - The Honorable Willie Logan recalls the integration of the parks in Opa-Locka, Florida Tape: 4 Story: 5 - The Honorable Willie Logan describes the city of Opa-Locka, Florida Tape: 4 Story: 6 - The Honorable Willie Logan talks about Opa-Locka's changing racial demographics Tape: 4 Story: 7 - The Honorable Willie Logan remembers the former mayors of Opa-Locka, Florida Tape: 4 Story: 8 - The Honorable Willie Logan recalls his decision to run for mayor of Opa-Locka, Florida Tape: 4 Story: 9 - The Honorable Willie Logan remembers his mayoral campaign Tape: 5 Story: 1 - The Honorable Willie Logan remembers winning the 1980 Opa-locka mayoral election Tape: 5 Story: 2 - The Honorable Willie Logan describes his mayoral predecessors Tape: 5 Story: 3 - The Honorable Willie Logan remembers the 1980 Mariel boatlift Tape: 5 Story: 4 - The Honorable Willie Logan recalls the change in Opa-locka's Hispanic population Tape: 5 Story: 5 - The Honorable Willie Logan talks about the post-election coverage of Opa-locka Tape: 5 Story: 6 - The Honorable Willie Logan remembers the racial demographics of the Opa-locka City Commission DASession 1$1

DATape

4$5 DAStory 2$1

DATitle
The Honorable Willie Logan recalls working with Florida politician Bill Gunter
The Honorable Willie Logan remembers winning the 1980 Opa-locka mayoral election
Transcript
Did you get a job someplace right, right afterwards?$$I, I did. I got a job working as an accountant. I can't think of the name of the company. I worked for a week. I realized I hated it, I mean literally hated it. The idea that my life will be spent working with numbers in an office not interacting with people, being as mundane as you know making entries into a general ledger and reconciling financial statements and bank statements was tedious and absolutely boring and I felt like I was making no contribution to anything, other than maybe helping someone to understand what their profits and losses were or expenses and revenues were. And, and that wasn't how I wanted to spend my life. So, after the first week I quit without having a second job. And, you know, I, I pursued a couple opportunities, including AT&T [AT&T Inc.] had a management program that a--my college roommate's brother-in-law had just graduated from out of New York [New York] that I got accepted in. But I decided to take a job with an insurance company. No, I decided to take a job with the, the insurance agency at the time and that was Bill Gunter who was the commissioner of edu- commissioner of insurance. And, and what I did not talk about was my involvement in politics when I was at UM.$$Okay.$$And, and how that was a bridge to the second job I got which is the second week after I finished college, as well as a bridge into politics. Michael Abrams [Mike Abrams] who, who was the then chairman of the Democratic Party who had been the former president of the student body at UM was part of the draft Kennedy movement, Edward Kennedy [Edward M. Kennedy] that challenged then Jimmy Carter [President James Earl "Jimmy" Carter, Jr.]--well, he--our first--okay, let me back up. So, he was active in campus and he was active in making sure we had a democratic club at University of Miami [Coral Gables, Florida] and he was active with the local DNC [Democratic National Committee], and that's how I got involved in politics (background noise). And--in local politics and, and got engaged in politics. And I had helped the then candidate for the commissioner of in, insurance. I had worked with his campaign. And when he won that November and I finished college in that December which is how I got the bridge to the job working as a field director in the insurance commissioner's office. And so, I did that right after I quit the job as an accountant and I stayed there for about a year. And I liked that because I got to work outside the office. I got to help people who had complaints who insurance were being nonresponsive or unresponsive or not responding correctly to you know, to look into those cases. And, and it helped people re- you know resolve those matters and so I was a bridge between you know clients and, and businesses enforcing laws of the State of Florida representing a public official, and I liked that job. The only thing I didn't like about it was that I, I really was an entrepreneur by, by nature. And so, the idea of clocking hours, the idea of having you know sort of a set job description that, that you, you know this is what you do every day, even though I liked more of what I was doing, 'cause I thought I was making somewhat of a difference wasn't what I was looking for and the other thing was, is that it didn't use my, what I thought was my strongest skillset which was my quantitative skills.Tell me about the, when you found out you won, what was it like?$$ You know, (pause) I think there were two things that, I think one is that I had won by twelve votes, but there had to be a recount because it was less than 1 percent or whatever the case may be, and absentee ballots hadn't come in yet. So, I didn't really know that night of the election that I had really won. But what I did, what I did realize 'cause it was the top vote become mayor, the second most vote getter become vice mayor. I knew I had got elected to the commission [Opa-locka City Commission] so I knew I had got elected to public office and it was just a question whether I was serving as mayor or vice mayor. I wasn't running for mayor, I was just running for a commission seat. So, in that light there were three seats open. I was the highest tote--vote getter the night of the election. Any worse, I would be the second highest vote getter 'cause there weren't that many absentee ballots out. When I learned that I had won by nine votes when it was all said and done, I, I think there was some euphoria but I can't remember that because what I remember most is getting a call from then mayor, [HistoryMaker] Marion Barry who was the mayor of Washington, D.C. saying, "Congratulations. I hear you're the youngest elected mayor in the country and I would like to invite you to a meeting in the White House, a meeting in Washington with the president and tomorrow, with some mayors to talk about urban policies." All of a sudden I was in a meeting with Jane Byrne and Bradley [Tom Bradley] and Marion Barry and folks who I may or may not had heard from, they're meeting with the president [President James Earl "Jimmy" Carter, Jr.] talking about--$$That's the next day?$$ This is next day talking about urban policy and, and, and here I was working on the draft Kennedy movement to oust this man from getting the Democratic nomination and to be reelected president of the United States. And so, just, just the fact that here I am, got elected as pres- mayor [of Opa-locka, Florida], now in the White House talking about urban policy and I'm working on the opposition of this man's reelection campaign said to me how great America was, that you could have political disagreements and you can be young, that--I mean it, it, it was amazing to me that how close, you know--but I mean realistically I look back on that and say well, what I--you know being in that meeting did that give me any influence? No, other than the fact that when we had the problem with the refugees I did have a card that I could call to Washington saying, "Look, we got thousands of immigrants walking across our street and the county is doing nothing. Help us." You know, but, but I mean realistically no, I had no influence on urban policy at the time, but it, it was--it, it said volumes to me about possibilities, you know. And, and, and, and, and so I thought, I thought it was very meaningful. And so, that's what I remember first about getting elected was just that, that opportunity. I had never been to Washington. I had never to my knowledge ever sat around the table with elected officials, better yet the president and big city mayors talking about urban policy using terms I had no idea what they meant and what they were talking about. And you know, I mean I, I was way out of my league. But--

## The Honorable Edna Jackson

Political official and civic leader Edna Jackson was born on September 18, 1944 in Savannah, Georgia to Henry Reid and Georgia Branch Dillard. She graduated from Alfred E. Beach High School in 1962, and then earned her B.S. degree in sociology in 1968, and her M.Ed. degree in political science education in 1972, both from Savannah State University. Having joined the NAACP Youth Council as a high school student, Jackson became active while at Savannah State, travelling throughout the South for voter registration drives and sit-in demonstrations.

Jackson began her career as a social worker with the Economic Opportunity Authority for Savannah-Chatham County Area, Inc. In 1971, Savannah State University President Prince Jackson, Jr. hired Jackson as the director of the university’s emergency school assistant program. During her time there, she also worked as the director of alumni affairs and coordinator of the Elderhostel Program before her retirement in 2001. Jackson then served as alderman at large on the City Council of Savannah for three terms, and mayor pro tempore of Savannah for two terms. In 2012, Jackson became the first African American woman to be elected as mayor of Savannah, serving for one term.

Jackson was the recipient of the A Working Woman in Need’s Top 10 Working Women of the Year Award. She was also named an Outstanding Alumnus by Savannah State University and one of the 2012 Power Women by GeorgiaTrend magazine.

Jackson also served as the southern regional vice president and national vice president of Savannah State University, as vice chairman of the Chatham County Democratic Executive Committee, as a member of the board of representatives for World Trade Center Savannah, and as a chairperson of the Chatham County Hospital Authority. She was also a member of Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Inc., St. Phillip A.M.E. Church, the U.S. Selective Board, and the Georgia Advisory Committee for the U.S. Global Leadership Coalition. U.S. Congressman John Barrow appointed Jackson to serve on the Military Academy Selection Committee and the Regional Committee of the U.S. Civil Rights Commission. She also served on the Board of Directors for the Savannah Regional Second Harvest Food Bank and on the board of the Equal Opportunity Authority.
Jackson has one son, Kevan Jackson.

Edna Jackson was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on February 8, 2017.

Accession Number

A2017.043

Sex

Female

Interview Date

02/08/2017

Last Name

Jackson

Maker Category
Occupation
Organizations
Schools

Florence Street Elementary School

Beach-Cuyler School

Alfred E. Beach High School

Savannah State University

First Name

Edna

Birth City, State, Country

Savannah

HM ID

JAC38

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Georgia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Africa

Favorite Quote

And This Too Shall Pass.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Birth Date

9/18/1944

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Savannah

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Seafood

Short Description

Political official and civic leader Edna Jackson (1944 - ) served in numerous positions at Savannah State University from 1971 to 2001, before becoming mayor of Savannah in 2012.

Employment

Economic Opportunity Authority for Savannah-Chatham County Area, Inc.

Emergency School Assistance Program

Savannah State University

City of Savannah

Favorite Color

Red

Timing Pairs
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Law Tape: 2 Story: 4 - The Honorable Edna Jackson talks about Cuyler Junior High School in Savnnah, Georgia Tape: 2 Story: 5 - The Honorable Edna Jackson recalls the influence of Doris Pettigrew Little Tape: 2 Story: 6 - The Honorable Edna Jackson talks about her interest in science and math Tape: 2 Story: 7 - The Honorable Edna Jackson remembers her first protests with the NAACP, pt. 1 Tape: 2 Story: 8 - The Honorable Edna Jackson remembers her first protests with the NAACP, pt. 2 Tape: 3 Story: 1 - The Honorable Edna Jackson recalls her involvement in drama and music Tape: 3 Story: 2 - The Honorable Edna Jackson remembers attending NAACP conventions with W.W. Law Tape: 3 Story: 3 - The Honorable Edna Jackson describes her work as an NAACP field coordinator in Florida Tape: 3 Story: 4 - The Honorable Edna Jackson remembers leading a group to the March on Washington Tape: 3 Story: 5 - The Honorable Edna Jackson remembers her friends from her time as an organizer Tape: 3 Story: 6 - The Honorable Edna Jackson talks about the organizers of the March on Washington Tape: 3 Story: 7 - The Honorable Edna Jackson recalls her time as an NAACP field organizer in Alabama Tape: 3 Story: 8 - The Honorable Edna Jackson remembers enrolling at Savannah State College in Savannah, Georgia Tape: 3 Story: 9 - The Honorable Edna Jackson talks about her marriage and son Tape: 3 Story: 10 - The Honorable Edna Jackson describes her start at the Economic Opportunity Authority for Savannah-Chatham County Area, Inc. Tape: 4 Story: 1 - The Honorable Edna Jackson remembers working for the Economic Opportunity Authority for Savannah-Chatham County Area, Inc. Tape: 4 Story: 2 - The Honorable Edna Jackson talks about working in the Emergency School Assistance Program Tape: 4 Story: 3 - The Honorable Edna Jackson talks about the integration of Armstrong State College in Savannah, Georgia Tape: 4 Story: 4 - The Honorable Edna Jackson recalls her roles at Savannah State College in Savannah, Georgia Tape: 4 Story: 5 - The Honorable Edna Jackson talks about her time as chair of the Chatham County Hospital Authority in Savannah, Georgia Tape: 4 Story: 6 - The Honorable Edna Jackson describes her role in the Chatham County Democratic Party Tape: 4 Story: 7 - The Honorable Edna Jackson remembers her first elected office Tape: 4 Story: 8 - The Honorable Edna Jackson talks about Mayor Otis Johnson's town hall meetings Tape: 4 Story: 9 - The Honorable Edna Jackson recalls the challenges at the start of her mayoralty of Savannah, Georgia Tape: 5 Story: 1 - The Honorable Edna Jackson recalls hiring Stephanie Cutter as city manager of Savannah, Georgia Tape: 5 Story: 2 - The Honorable Edna Jackson remembers working with protesters following the shooting of Charles Smith Tape: 5 Story: 3 - The Honorable Edna Jackson talks about losing her reelection campaign, pt. 1 Tape: 5 Story: 4 - The Honorable Edna Jackson talks about losing her reelection campaign, pt. 2 Tape: 5 Story: 5 - The Honorable Edna Jackson remembers her health problems during her mayoral term Tape: 5 Story: 6 - The Honorable Edna Jackson reflects upon her life after her mayoralty Tape: 5 Story: 7 - The Honorable Edna Jackson reflects upon her civic contributions Tape: 6 Story: 1 - The Honorable Edna Jackson talks about her awards and honors Tape: 6 Story: 2 - The Honorable Edna Jackson reflects upon her legacy Tape: 6 Story: 3 - The Honorable Edna Jackson talks about the need for social activism Tape: 6 Story: 4 - The Honorable Edna Jackson narrates her photographs, pt. 1 Tape: 6 Story: 5 - The Honorable Edna Jackson narrates her photographs, pt. 2 DASession 1$1

DATape

3$5 DAStory 3$2

DATitle
The Honorable Edna Jackson describes her work as an NAACP field coordinator in Florida
The Honorable Edna Jackson remembers working with protesters following the shooting of Charles Smith
Transcript
(Simultaneous) See what happened, when I graduated from high school [Alfred E. Beach High School, Savannah, Georgia] it was known that I was going to college [at Savannah State College; Savannah State University, Savannah, Georgia]. Tuition was sixty-five dollars a quarter, and back then you didn't have financial aid and all that kind of stuff like our young people really don't realize. And they should appreciate now. So, my mom [Georgia Branch Dillard] would se- sent my sister's [Margie Reid Williams] and my tuition the first quarter, oh I went to school I didn't, you know, I was having me a good time too. And, but we had, my grandmother [Jackson's maternal grandmother, Sadie Royal Branch] decided she would take in a couple of college students. And my mother had sent the tuition for the second quarter, the winter quarter and my grandmamma went to get the money and there was no money. One of the students had stolen the money for my tuition and my sister's tuition. And they couldn't come up with tuition for me. Didn't bother me, you know. So, by that time Mr. Law [W.W. Law], they, the NAACP [National Association for the Advancement of Colored People] had chosen some young people to work all over the South and I knew, they asked me, I dropped out. And they sent me to North Carolina. This guy Edwards [James Edwards, Jr.] in South Carolina worked--'cause I came up around, with all these guys. Carolyn Quilloin [Carolyn Quilloin Coleman] stayed here in Georgia. But, it was my responsibility to organize civil rights workers across that State of Florida. The field director's office was right down the street from my mama's restaurant, Dillard's Restaurant [ph.]. We had arrived by then, my mother had re- remarried [to Mansfield Dillard] and she'd opened her restaurant. So, my assignment was a city called Live Oak, Florida. And we, my assignment was to go to meet with the ministers and all, remember now I was, I was just turned eighteen years old. That's September, so this was January. And there was another young man from Jacksonville [Florida], Bob, Bob, Bob, Bob, not Bob Saunders [Robert W. Saunders, Sr.] was the field director. Robert, Robert, I can't think of his name it will come. But, he, we met in Live Oak, Florida to get people to teach them how to demonstrate. And you had CORE and you also had the Congr- see, you had the Congress of Racial Equality, another one of the groups there. But ours was teach them how to demonstrate. Send them down there, and we had to set up for the attorneys to be ready to get them out of jail. And the field director, the group out of Jacksonville was working with us and we were able to do that. And I had to teach them non-violence. Left there and went to Pahokee, Florida, to work there. And we had to do several things, the same kinds of things, that's down in what they call the black muck. But, you do the same thing, but it was my work in Tampa [Florida] where we were also demonstrating, when they decided that we were going to go to the March on Washington. So, we had an integrated group of kids in the Youth Council [NAACP Youth Council] in Tampa. So, my boss Bob Saunders said, "Edna [HistoryMaker Edna Jackson]," I said, "Mr. Saunders we want to go to March on Washington." So, he said, "But you know how you gonna get there?" So, we said, "Well y'all can get us some cars and we'll drive." Well, long story short, we had three station wagons. And that's the only time my sister ever participated in demonstrating. Her thing was, "Well when you get yours I'll get mine." By that time she had moved to Tampa, because she graduated. Remember she was a senior, so she had graduated and she moved to Tampa to start, to become a teacher in Head Start down there. So we went to the March on Washington with an integrated group of kids driving station wagons. And here I was, eighteen years old, leading the group. I couldn't drive, you know, I was eighteen, 'cause the insurance would not cover, so we had to have drivers--older people. And a couple of years ago I was telling this story to someone else and we found the white couple, they were brother and sisters, David and David Bob, Boffet [ph.], and, I can't think of his sister and we found the brother and we later the found the, the bro- we found David. He's living in Colorado now. But, the good part about it is that we integrated Florida. And from there, Carolyn by that time was out of college and she was moving about. And we worked, I worked all over Florida and we would come in and out of Georgia as well. But, my assignment specifically at that time was Florida.$Then we had a white officer [David Jannot] to shoot a young man [Charles Smith]. It was on my birthday, two years ago, September 18th. (Background noise) I'm getting ready, we, oh. I'm getting ready to you know, to have city council meeting [of the Savannah City Council]. We get a call in our pre council meeting, "Edna, there has been a shooting in West Savannah [Savannah, Georgia], and a young man's life has been taken." So, West Savannah was Van Johnson's area. So, I said, "Van [Van R. Johnson II] go out there and call me right back." He went out there to look out, he was an alderman. He said, "It's bad." So, I said, "Okay, I said, "you come back and I'm on my way." Stephanie Cutter, the chief of police [Julie Tolbert] and I went out there, three females. You never heard anything about it. When I got out there along with Stephanie and the chief, I wouldn't--I didn't want any policemen around me. I didn't even want to go, want to stand under the railing. I talked to my people. Someone said to me, he said, "Miss," he said, "mayor, you don't need to go out there." I said, "Why not?" I said, "These are my people. This is in the African American neighborhood. If, I can come out of here and ask them to vote for me, then I can stand out here and talk to them." And they listened to me. They did night marches. The, the, the Black Panther Party came in here. Pastor Brown [HistoryMaker Reverend Matthew Southall Brown, Sr.] and I went out there. I don't know if he mentioned it. We've, we were in a meeting, I said, "Pastor Brown I need you." We went out there to sit down to eat some chicken wings and I was ju- we felt, we made a conversation like we didn't know we were doing, who that young man was and he told us. And I said, "Oh I'm [HistoryMaker] Edna Jackson the mayor of Savannah [Georgia], thank you for coming." I said, "And this is Pastor Brown," and we went on and on and we talked. And I said, "Let me tell you everything that has happened and where we're going with this." He said, "Well, we got them coming in from Waynesboro [Georgia]." I said, "Waynesboro." He said, "Yeah, that's my hometown." I said, "Oh my people from Wayne. Do you know So and So and So? My cousin is on the police force," so you know, just to open up the thing. Well, long story short they came in here, that night they had, they were having marches. They weren't, but they wanted to see how they were gonna march. This young man and--decided that he, he used to be a member of the Panther Party in Savannah. And he went down and he used the bullhorn to talk about a man where the grocery store was. This man was Ori- Indian, Indian. "Y'all need to run him out of the thing. Y'all need to do this," I said, "Oh hell no." I was up, back up by the other area. I walked out in the middle of street and when I down they said, "Oh there go the mayor." So, when I was g- halfway, almost halfway, all of a sudden I saw the Panthers do their little turn. And you know how they (gesture) do their thing like that, you know. So, I said to the young man, I said, "Oh, is the, you know, the protest over?" He said, "Mayor we're satisfied you have this in order. We don't act like that. We're leaving your city." No one ever knew that they came through here to be a part of all the disruptions. When they the dec- the people in the neighborhood decided that they were gonna march that, you know, every day, we say, "Okay, just tell me, give me your schedule. We'll make sure that you are protected by the police." They marched--first march they had they had these little kids at the beginning of the line. I pulled the leaders aside I said, "Now let me tell y'all about the art of marching. You never put the babies in the front." "Oh," I said, "So now, if y'all are--." I said, "First thing, y'all need to have them in the march. But, if you make sure you protect them by putting them in the back you have a right to march. But, now the minute y'all throw something through somebody's stuff I'm going to put you in jail." You never heard about it. Savannah State [Savannah State University, Savannah, Georgia] students laid out on the highway 80 [U.S. Route 80]. I was way up in North Georgia and they called me. I was at Georgia Municipal Association meeting. I got in my car, Lonnie [Alonzo Adams, Jr.] was with me. Got in my car and I said, "Tell them I'll meet them at twelve o'clock." Met them and I explained what my life was like. They never did it again. I said, "A fellow student was killed right out there on that street, for collecting scholarship money." I said, "So you need to know why you going, who's gonna get you out of jail? Y'all haven't done any of that." So, that was if you ask me of something that I was proud of, I was proud of that moment. When CNN came in here and said, "How did y'all do it? You are three women." We said, "That's how we did it. We're three women that can feel the pulse of the people. That can work with people. That are--," we do not antagonize people but they know w- they knew we were coming from. And they--so we worked together, that is what happened. It was all over the press. But, most of the time, it wasn't a covered story. Because we didn't have the outbreaks like they had out there, you know, in other areas. ## The Honorable Otis Johnson Political official and civic leader Otis Johnson was born on March 26, 1942 in Savannah, Georgia to Lillian Spencer and Otis S. Johnson, Sr. Johnson attended Paulsen Street Elementary School and Cuyler Street Junior High School in Savannah. He graduated from Alfred E. Beach High School in 1960. Johnson earned his A.A. degree in liberal arts from Armstrong State University in 1964, becoming the university’s first African American graduate. He earned his B.A. degree in history from the University of Georgia in 1967, and his M.S.W. degree in social work from Clark Atlanta University in 1969. Johnson received his Ph.D. degree in social welfare from Brandeis University in 1980. Johnson served in the U.S. Navy Reserve from 1959 to 1965. Johnson worked for the Economic Opportunity Authority for Savannah-Chatham County Area, Inc. and the City of Savannah Model Cities Program before joining the faculty at Savannah State University in 1971. He was responsible for establishing the undergraduate program in social work at the university. Johnson served as the Alderman of District Two on the Savannah City Council from 1983 to 1988. He resigned in 1988 to become the executive director of the Chatham Savannah Youth Futures Authority. In 1998, he returned to Savannah State University as the dean of the College of Liberal Arts and Social Sciences. In the next year, Johnson joined the Savannah-Chatham County Board of Education, serving for four years. He was elected as mayor of Savannah in 2003, becoming the second African American to assume the role. After leaving the mayor’s office in 2012, Johnson became a scholar in residence and professor emeritus at Savannah State University. His autobiography, From ‘N Word’ to Mr. Mayor: Experiencing the American Dream, was published in 2016. In 2001 and 2006, Johnson was featured in Georgia Trend magazine’s list of “Most Influential Georgians.” He was the recipient of Armstrong State University’s Distinguished Alumnus Award in 2005 as well as the Notable Alumnus Award in 2010. Johnson served as chair of the board of trustees of the Mary Reynolds Babcock Foundation and MDC, Inc. He was also a member of the Aspen Institute’s Roundtable on Comprehensive Community Initiatives. Johnson has one daughter, Alexis Williamson. Otis Johnson was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on February 8, 2017. Accession Number A2017.024 Sex Male Interview Date 02/08/2017 Last Name Johnson Maker Category Occupation Organizations Schools Paulsen Street School Beach-Cuyler School Alfred E. Beach High School Savannah State University Georgia Southern University-Armstrong Campus University of Georgia Clark Atlanta University Brandeis University First Name Otis Birth City, State, Country Savannah HM ID JOH51 Favorite Season The warm months, spring/fall State Georgia Favorite Vacation Destination Wherever I haven't been. Africa most often. Favorite Quote Plan your work, work your plan. Power concedes nothing without a demand... Bio Photo Speakers Bureau Region State Georgia Birth Date 3/26/1942 Birth Place Term Speakers Bureau Region City Savannah Country United States Favorite Food Seafood Short Description Political official and civic leader Otis Johnson (1942 - ) served as the Alderman of District 2 on the Savannah City Council from 1982 to 1988, and as Mayor of Savannah from 2003 to 2012. Favorite Color Blue ## The Honorable Willie L. Brown Political leader The Honorable Willie L. Brown, Jr. was born on March 20, 1934 in Mineola, Texas to Minnie Collins Boyd and Willie Lewis Brown, Sr. He graduated from Mineola Colored High School in 1951. In 1955, he received his B.A. degree in political science from San Francisco State University, followed by a J.D. degree in 1958 from the University of California, Hastings College of the Law in San Francisco. During the late 1950s and early 1960s, Brown operated his own general law practice in San Francisco. In 1960, he led a sit-in to protest housing discrimination; and in 1964 he defended political activist Mario Savio, who was arrested for civil disobedience. Brown was elected to the California State Assembly in 1964 on his second run, and he would remain there to represent San Francisco until 1995. In 1969, he was made the Democratic Whip; and in 1980, he was elected Speaker of the Assembly. He also spoke at the 1972 Democratic National Convention in Miami, Florida. After Californians passed a 1990 ballot initiative instituting term limits for state elected officials, Brown was “termed out” of office in 1995. That year, he ran for the office of Mayor of San Francisco and easily defeated incumbent Frank Jordan. He served as mayor from 1996 until 2004, overseeing several development projects and mediating two public transit worker strikes. After retiring from public office in 2004, Brown continued to dedicate his time to community service. In 2008, he established the Willie L. Brown, Jr. Institute on Politics and Public Service, a nonpartisan non-profit organization at San Francisco State University dedicated to training future municipal administrators. Brown has Honorary Doctorate of Law degrees from seventeen institutions, including San Francisco State University, Morehouse College in Atlanta, Georgia, and Wilberforce University in Wilberforce, Ohio; as well as a Doctorate of Science degree from the California College of Podiatric Medicine. He was a Fellow of Crown College at the University of California, Santa Cruz. In 2006, Brown co-hosted a morning radio show with comedian Will Durst, and in 2008 he published his autobiography, Basic Brown: My Life and Our Times. In 1958, Brown married Blanche Vitero, with whom he has three children: Susan, Robin, and Michael. He also has four grandchildren and a daughter, Sydney Brown, by Carolyn Carpeneti. Brown and Vitero separated in 1976 but remain married. Willie L. Brown was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on December 14, 2015. Accession Number A2015.008 Sex Male Interview Date 12/14/2015 |and| 12/19/2015 Last Name Brown Maker Category Marital Status Married Middle Name L. Occupation Schools MacFarland High School San Francisco State University University of California, Hastings College of the Law First Name Willie Birth City, State, Country Mineola HM ID BRO62 State Texas Bio Photo Speakers Bureau Region State California Birth Date 3/20/1934 Birth Place Term Speakers Bureau Region City Bay Area/San Francisco Country United States Short Description Mayor and state assemblyman The Honorable Willie L. Brown (1934 - ) represented San Francisco in the California State Assembly from 1964 to 1995 and served as Mayor of San Francisco from 1996 to 2004. Employment California State Assembly City and County of San Francisco Willie Brown, Jr. Institute on Politics and Public Service Timing Pairs 0,0:5642,159:11861,224:12442,236:12857,242:16924,305:18750,338:19082,343:22236,406:22900,416:23896,434:30928,475:32480,493:34614,519:37330,555:39658,670:41016,687:48358,745:48748,751:49060,756:49450,763:50386,782:51478,804:51946,811:53974,898:54832,916:55612,934:56080,942:58654,988:62518,1003:63174,1012:63912,1022:64240,1027:65880,1051:66782,1063:67848,1078:68750,1092:69242,1099:69570,1143:70718,1166:71374,1175:72112,1189:73916,1211:81168,1290:81776,1300:83904,1348:84664,1359:86716,1385:88008,1409:88996,1427:89376,1433:94904,1497:95586,1511:96020,1520:96702,1533:98066,1559:100060,1568:102210,1599:102762,1606:104234,1624:106350,1654:107270,1666:109202,1683:110490,1699:112238,1733:112882,1741:117147,1757:118016,1771:120939,1830:123625,1868:124494,1883:126864,1910:128444,1934:129076,1944:131762,1985:132078,1990:134527,2043:135001,2050:139162,2088:139900,2101:143672,2160:147550,2182:147870,2187:149150,2206:153070,2295:153470,2301:159960,2374:160440,2381:161240,2393:162280,2406:162840,2415:169480,2520:170200,2532:170760,2540:171880,2565:172600,2577:174680,2617:182328,2668:183252,2681:183924,2690:185856,2714:186276,2720:187788,2747:194004,2909:201258,2962:209559,3094:209867,3099:210329,3107:210637,3112:211561,3130:212254,3141:221654,3265:224104,3302:224888,3312:229004,3411:236090,3480:236696,3487:237908,3498:238716,3511:241140,3552:242049,3562:243059,3574:244069,3586:253262,3678:254198,3695:256304,3739:257708,3762:262542,3816:268590,3924:269010,3930:272874,3981:274470,4004:274890,4010:275394,4017:280004,4038:280906,4051:283120,4083:283858,4104:286482,4142:287220,4152:288532,4172:289106,4181:289598,4188:290418,4202:307289,4384:310607,4456:312108,4498:312819,4508:316790,4556$0,0:4402,80:6390,119:7526,144:10579,199:15075,235:18229,284:18893,323:20968,352:21881,368:22711,379:23707,392:29983,450:31151,472:31516,478:31954,485:32538,496:33633,514:35020,537:36261,558:36991,572:42320,680:47649,798:48014,803:48744,821:54640,839:55315,849:56140,865:56515,871:57565,891:62290,983:64315,1020:65065,1035:65740,1046:66940,1066:67315,1073:68815,1099:69265,1106:69790,1115:70765,1130:75190,1136:75980,1152:76691,1162:77165,1169:78429,1194:79219,1206:80088,1225:80878,1241:81668,1252:84038,1293:84433,1299:86171,1325:87435,1339:88699,1362:93276,1379:93708,1386:93996,1391:94500,1399:94788,1404:95292,1409:98892,1477:99684,1492:100044,1498:104940,1576:105804,1591:109620,1700:112860,1747:113148,1752:114084,1765:122840,1826:124499,1851:124973,1858:125526,1867:126711,1887:127343,1896:127896,1905:128686,1916:130503,1952:132715,1989:134611,2026:135085,2033:135401,2038:136191,2053:138956,2093:140773,2120:141405,2132:142669,2153:143143,2161:143459,2166:149225,2174:150245,2192:151095,2207:156280,2319:157215,2337:163080,2417:167630,2434:169380,2465:169660,2474:171970,2539:176800,2638:177780,2654:178130,2660:183707,2692:184142,2698:188579,2762:192668,2835:193103,2842:193712,2850:194582,2862:195104,2869:196061,2884:196931,2896:200876,2938:208687,3039:209149,3046:210843,3083:211151,3088:225290,3310:225990,3337:226830,3351:227390,3363:228650,3391:230540,3430:233970,3513:235510,3538:236350,3552:236630,3557:237260,3567:237890,3579:240900,3644:241670,3663:246694,3675:247772,3704:248696,3716:252546,3768:252931,3774:254163,3802:258740,3840
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of The Honorable Willie L. Brown's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - The Honorable Willie L. Brown lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - The Honorable Willie L. Brown describes his parents' family backgrounds

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - The Honorable Willie L. Brown talks about his relationship with his mother, Minnie Collins Boyd

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - The Honorable Willie L. Brown describes his respect for his mother

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - The Honorable Willie L. Brown describes his relationship with his father

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - The Honorable Willie L. Brown talks about his experiences at Prairie View Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - The Honorable Willie L. Brown describes his move to San Francisco, California

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - The Honorable Willie L. Brown talks about joining Jones Memorial United Methodist Church in San Francisco, California

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - The Honorable Willie L. Brown remembers Fillmore Street in San Francisco, California

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - The Honorable Willie L. Brown describes his early work experiences in San Francisco, California

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - The Honorable Willie L. Brown recalls attending San Francisco State College in San Francisco, California

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - The Honorable Willie L. Brown recalls appointing Hamilton Boswell as chaplain of the California State Assembly

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - The Honorable Willie L. Brown talks about the history of black political activities in San Francisco, California

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - The Honorable Willie L. Brown reflects upon his support from black churches

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - The Honorable Willie L. Brown recalls enrolling at the University of California, Hastings College of the Law

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - The Honorable Willie L. Brown talks about his early political activities

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - The Honorable Willie L. Brown talks about the beginning of his law career

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - The Honorable Willie L. Brown remembers becoming a criminal defense lawyer

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - The Honorable Willie L. Brown talks about Phillip Burton's political career, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - The Honorable Willie L. Brown talks about Phillip Burton's political career, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - The Honorable Willie L. Brown recalls his first successful campaign

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - The Honorable Willie L. Brown describes his early experiences as a member of the California State Assembly

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - The Honorable Willie L. Brown talks about the 1972 Democratic National Convention

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - The Honorable Willie L. Brown remembers the growth in black leadership in the Democratic Party during the 1970s

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - The Honorable Willie L. Brown describes his unsuccessful run for Speaker of the California State Assembly

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - The Honorable Willie L. Brown describes how he became speaker of the California State Assembly in 1981

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - The Honorable Willie L. Brown describes the position of Speaker of the California State Assembly

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - The Honorable Willie L. Brown describes his approach to the California State Assembly speakership

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - The Honorable Willie L. Brown talks about his contributions as Speaker of the California State Assembly

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - The Honorable Willie L. Brown reflects upon the importance of fairness in politics

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - The Honorable Willie L. Brown recalls the campaign to unseat him by introducing term limits

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - The Honorable Willie L. Brown talks about gaining President Ronald Wilson Reagan's support to oppose term limits

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - The Honorable Willie L. Brown recalls the introduction of term limits in the California State Assembly

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - The Honorable Willie L. Brown talks about the Gang of Five

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - The Honorable Willie L. Brown talks about the events leading to his election as Speaker of the California State Assembly

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - The Honorable Willie L. Brown remembers his involvement in the mayoralty of George Moscone

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - The Honorable Willie L. Brown recalls his reluctance to run for mayor of San Francisco, California

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - The Honorable Willie L. Brown talks his campaign for mayor of San Francisco, California

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - The Honorable Willie L. Brown remembers journalist Herb Caen

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - The Honorable Willie L. Brown recalls transitioning to the role of mayor, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - The Honorable Willie L. Brown recalls transitioning to the role of mayor, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - The Honorable Willie L. Brown talks about his role in initiating AIDS research

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - The Honorable Willie L. Brown recalls his frustrations as mayor of San Francisco, California

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - The Honorable Willie L. Brown talks about renaming a street in honor of Carlton Benjamin Goodlett

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - The Honorable Willie L. Brown reflects upon the impact of his mayoralty for people of color

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - The Honorable Willie L. Brown talks about his contributions to cultural institutions in San Francisco, California

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - The Honorable Willie L. Brown describes his family

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - The Honorable Willie L. Brown describes how a portion of the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge was named in his honor

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - The Honorable Willie L. Brown talks about his fashion interests

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - The Honorable Willie L. Brown talks about the institute and fellowship programs he has sponsored

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - The Honorable Willie L. Brown reflects upon his life

Tape: 7 Story: 9 - The Honorable Willie L. Brown describes his hopes for the African American community

Tape: 7 Story: 10 - The Honorable Willie L. Brown reflects upon his legacy

DASession

1$2 DATape 2$5

DAStory