The Nation’s Largest African American Video Oral History Collection Mobile search icon Mobile close search icon
Advanced Biography Search
Mobile navigation icon Close mobile navigation icon

city

Judi Moore Latta

Producer and educator Judi Moore Latta was born on August 3, 1948 in Tallahassee, Florida to college professors Oscar and LaVerne Moore. In 1966, Latta graduated from Florida A & M University High School as valedictorian. She earned her B.S. degree in English education from Hampton Institute in 1970 and her M.A. degree in English literature from Boston University in 1971. In 1999, Latta received her Ph.D. degree in American Studies from the University of Maryland.

In 1972, Latta was hired as an assistant professor at the University of the District of Columbia, where she taught until 1980. From 1978 to 1979, Latta worked at WETA-TV/FM as a producer for From Jumpstreet: The Story of Black Music. From 1980 to 1988, she served as an independent producer for the Public Radio System and produced dozens of documentaries and other long form reports for National Public Radio. In 1984, Latta joined the faculty at Howard University as an assistant professor in the Department of Radio, Television and Film. Then, in 1988, she was hired as NPR’s first education reporter, where she was responsible for creating the Education beat for NPR’s National Desk. She then served as NPR’s executive producer of special programs and created Latin File, the first radio network Hispanic daily news program. From 1990 to 1992, Latta worked as a reporter and producer for WUSA-TV’s Capital Edition and, in 1992, served as producer of WRC-TV’s documentary special Drugs at Work. She then returned to NPR in 1992 as a senior producer of the twenty-six-part documentary series Wade in the Water: African American Sacred Music Traditions. After receiving her Ph.D. degree from the University of Maryland, and Latta was made full professor and chair of Howard University’s Department of Radio, TV and Film in 2000. In 2002, she became the first woman to serve in the role of interim general manager of Howard University’s WHUT-TV. Latta also served as co-chair of the University’s Certificate Program in Women’s Studies from 2005 to 2011, and as director of WHUR-WORLD from 2006 to 2009. In 2009, she was appointed Howard University’s executive director of communications and marketing, and served in the president’s executive leadership cabinet until 2012.

Latta has received numerous awards and recognition from the Corporation for Public Broadcasting, American Women in Radio and Television, National Education Association, National Association of Black Journalists and National Federation of Community Broadcasters. In 1992, Latta was awarded the George Foster Peabody Award for her production of Wade in the Water: African American Sacred Music Traditions. She is a community volunteer, as well as a member of the Links Inc. (Silver Spring Chapter), the Olive Branch Community Church and the National Council of Negro Women (Potomac Valley Section).

Latta and her husband, Joseph Latta, D.D.S., live in Takoma Park, Maryland. They have two daughters and four grandchildren.

Judi Moore Latta was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on March 21, 2014 and January 31, 2017.

Accession Number

A2014.093

Sex

Female

Interview Date

3/21/2014 |and| 01/31/2017

Last Name

Latta

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Moore

Occupation
Schools

FAMU Developmental Research School

Hampton University

Boston University

University of Maryland

First Name

Judi

Birth City, State, Country

Tallahassee

HM ID

LAT06

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Florida

Favorite Vacation Destination

Any place warm

Favorite Quote

Every act has a consequence

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

8/3/1948

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Any Vegetable

Short Description

Producer and educator Judi Moore Latta (1948 - ) , professor of communications at Howard University, was NPR’s first education reporter and was senior producer of the award-winning documentary series Wade in the Water: African American Sacred Music Traditions. In 2002, she became the first woman to serve as interim general manager of Howard University’s WHUT-TV.

Employment

Howard University

National Public Radio

WUSA-TV

WUDC-FM

WETA-TV/FM

Public Radio System

Favorite Color

Green

Roselyn Williams

Mathematician Roselyn Elaine Williams was born on November 1, 1950 in Tallahassee, Florida. Her father, Robert Williams, was a World War II veteran; her mother, Lucile Wynn, an educator. Born in the Florida A & M University (FAMU) Hospital, Williams grew up in academia and attended the nursery, elementary, and high schools on FAMU’s campus. Williams then enrolled in Spelman College in Atlanta, Georgia where she was mentored by Dr. Etta Falconer, chair of the mathematics department, and Dr. David Blackwell during a summer program at the University of California, Berkeley. She graduated from Spelman College with her B.S. degree in mathematics in 1972. Williams went on to earn her M.S. degree in mathematics from the University of Florida in 1974, and her Ph.D. degree in mathematics from Florida State University in 1988.

In 1974, Williams began her career in higher education as an instructor at Florida A & M University. She taught there for five years and then spent two semesters at Randolph-Macon Woman’s College in Lynchburg, Virginia as an assistant professor of mathematics. After receiving her doctoral degree in 1988, Williams returned to Florida A & M University and was appointed as an associate professor in the mathematics department. In 2007, she was named chairperson of the mathematics department where she served until 2005. From 1990 through 2009, she served on the steering committee of the Sunshine State Scholars, a state-funded project that recognize outstanding high school students in mathematics and science. At Florida A & M University, she served on several campus committees to enhance undergraduate research and assess the performance of students in STEM disciplines.

Williams has coordinated programs to promote STEM education for students at all levels of education, including Alliance for Production of African American PhDs in the Mathematical Sciences (Alliance 1 Alliance 2), the Florida A & M University Interdisciplinary Research Experience for Undergraduates (FAMU-IREU), the Florida A & M University Computer Science, Engineering Technology and Scholarship Program (CSEM Scholars), Research Experiences for Undergraduate Faculty (REUF), and Enhancing Diversity in Graduate Education for Women (EDGE for Women).

Williams served as the treasurer/secretary for the National Association of Mathematicians (NAM), the Mathematical Association of America (MAA), and American Mathematical Society (AMS). She also served on the advisory board of the B. L. Perry Branch of the Leon County Public Library. Williams is a member of the board of the C. K. Steele Scholarship Foundation, Inc., the Bethel Missionary Baptist Church, and Sigma Gamma Rho Sorority, Inc. In 2008, Williams’ engagement for gender equality at the workplace was recognized by a presentation at the “Workshop on Inequality, Growth and Development” at the United Nations Summit in New York City.

Roselyn Williams was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on June 2, 2013.

Accession Number

A2013.172

Sex

Female

Interview Date

6/2/2013

Last Name

Williams

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Elaine

Occupation
Schools

Florida State University

University of Florida

Spelman College

FAMU High School

Search Occupation Category
Speakers Bureau

Yes

Speakers Bureau Availability

Days, Evenings, and Weekends

First Name

Roselyn

Birth City, State, Country

Tallahassee

HM ID

WIL65

Speakers Bureau Preferred Audience

No real preference. Perhaps students interested in science.

Speakers Bureau Honorarium

No

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Florida

Favorite Vacation Destination

Caribbean

Favorite Quote

Mathematics, rightly viewed, possesses not only truth, but supreme beauty--a beauty cold and austere, like that of sculpture, without appeal to any part of our weaker nature, without the gorgeous trappings of painting or music, yet sublimely pure, and capable of a stern perfection such as only the greatest art can show. The true spirit of delight, the exaltation, the sense of being more than man, which is the touchstone of the highest excellence, is to be found in mathematics as surely as in poetry. What is best in mathematics deserves not merely to be learned as a task, but to be assimilated as a part of daily thought, and brought again and again before the mind with ever-renewed encouragement. . . . generations have gradually created an ordered cosmos, where pure thought can dwell as in its natural home, . . . . - Bertrand Russell

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Florida

Birth Date

11/1/1950

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Tallahassee

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Italian Food

Short Description

Mathematician Roselyn Williams (1950 - ) , former treasurer/secretary for the National Association of Mathematicians (NAM), is a professor and former chair of the mathematics department at Florida A & M University where she coordinated numerous programs to promote STEM education, such as Enhancing Diversity in Graduate Education for Women (EDGE for Women).

Employment

Florida A&M University

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:4318,105:6397,131:7090,138:8377,154:9565,168:16542,225:17358,234:18072,242:21336,281:22662,297:31605,385:40578,492:41866,508:42326,514:42878,522:47110,595:47478,600:48306,610:49502,625:50330,635:52998,666:60484,721:61051,729:63643,761:82718,927:83942,939:85064,951:88692,967:89420,977:89966,985:90876,997:96882,1083:97246,1088:98611,1102:101978,1149:102342,1154:103616,1170:104253,1178:108862,1197:110206,1216:111382,1235:112306,1247:114406,1275:114742,1280:115162,1286:115666,1294:116506,1306:117010,1313:117850,1326:118858,1341:119866,1356:120790,1373:123982,1421:128737,1435:129718,1445:130830,1452:131298,1460:131688,1466:133560,1490:134106,1499:134730,1508:135744,1523:136212,1531:136602,1537:137304,1547:138318,1561:139956,1589:141516,1617:141828,1622:142452,1631:144948,1657:145260,1662:152516,1688:156810,1725:157262,1733:158957,1757:159748,1765:161895,1780:166076,1824:173222,1861:176488,1888:180994,1905:181666,1912:182562,1922:186482,1951:188162,1970:191186,2011:196673,2030:197583,2042:198038,2048:198493,2054:201587,2104:202679,2131:203225,2138:203589,2143:206470,2155:207318,2165:209120,2188:210392,2202:211558,2215:216328,2275:219932,2315:230724,2388:231596,2397:237542,2434:242555,2463:246885,2495:247460,2501:252976,2536:254272,2554:254758,2562:256954,2570:260384,2616:261168,2627:261952,2637:262344,2642:262736,2647:263226,2653:268706,2683:269364,2692:275205,2750:279812,2769:280541,2783:281675,2800:286130,2862:286697,2871:291870,2914:292590,2924:292950,2929:293400,2935:295290,2957:295650,2962:301289,3017:301727,3024:302384,3034:305310,3046:305898,3055:307957,3070:308927,3082:309315,3087:310867,3108:311740,3118:317180,3143:317788,3152:325531,3196:325946,3202:331530,3248:332403,3258:333082,3277:334052,3289:335895,3316:336283,3321:339290,3353:340066,3362:345400,3381$0,0:2299,45:9105,173:13975,253:14925,264:18567,289:22390,320:24604,343:25260,352:26162,369:26736,377:44864,557:49616,613:51112,629:51816,638:58235,676:59185,681:61655,716:62130,722:62510,727:66040,744:69640,798:70040,814:73940,856:75140,880:75940,889:100154,1126:100898,1136:102014,1154:104910,1175:107772,1209:112330,1278:141126,1544:141594,1551:143900,1559
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Roselyn Williams' interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Roselyn Williams lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Roselyn Williams describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Roselyn Williams talks about her mother's growing up in Apalachicola, Florida, her mother's education and career in the Leon County schools

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Roselyn Williams describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Roselyn Williams talks about the history of The Rabbit's Foot Minstrel

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Roselyn Williams talks about her paternal grandfather's career as a clarinetist in The Rabbit's Foot Minstrel

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Roselyn Williams talks about how her parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Roselyn Williams describes her parents' personalities and who she takes after

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Roselyn Williams talks about her brother, Ronald Leslie Williams

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Roselyn Williams describes her earliest childhood memory

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Roselyn Williams talks about her childhood neighborhood in Tallahasee, Florida

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Roselyn Williams describes the sights, sounds and smells of growing up in Tallahasee, Florida - part one

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Roselyn Williams talks about Florida A&M University's Children's Theater

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Roselyn Williams talks about the schools in Tallahassee in the 1960s

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Roselyn Williams describes the sights, sounds and smells of growing up - part two

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Roselyn Williams talks about the role of Bethel Missionary Baptist Church, and its minister, Reverend C.K. Steele, in integrating Tallahassee, Florida

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Roselyn Williams describes growing up during segregation in Tallahassee, Florida

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Roselyn Williams talks about integration in Tallahassee in the 1960s, and the resulting effect on African American businesses

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Roselyn Williams talks about attending school on Florida A&M University's campus

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Roselyn Williams talks about her teachers in school

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Roselyn Williams talks about her interests as a young girl, particularly in playing the piano

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Roselyn Williams talks about notable guests who visited her community in Tallahassee, Florida

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Roselyn Williams describes her interest in mathematics in school

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Roselyn Williams talks about receiving an outstanding student award in high school

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Roselyn Williams describes her decision to attend Spelman College for her undergraduate studies

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Roselyn Williams recalls Dr. Martin Luther King's assassination in 1968

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Roselyn Williams describes her experience at Spelman College and talks about her math teachers

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Roselyn Williams talks about her interest in mathematics

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Roselyn Williams talks about a summer math program at University of California, Berkeley, where she met Dr. David Blackwell

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Roselyn Williams describes her graduation ceremony from Spelman College

Tape: 3 Story: 12 - Roselyn Williams talks about being the first African American master's degree student in mathematics at the University of Florida

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Roselyn Williams describes her experience as an instructor of mathematics at Florida A&M University (FAMU) in the 1970s

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Roselyn Williams talks about leaving Florida A&M University to pursue her Ph.D. degree in mathematics at Florida State University

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Roselyn Williams talks about her dissertation on Hopf algebras and the significance of German mathematician, David Hilbert

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Roselyn Williams talks German mathematician, David Hilbert

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Roselyn Williams talks about her dissertation on Hopf algebras, entitled 'Finite Dimensional Hopf algebras'

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Roselyn Williams discusses the applications of mathematical theories

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Roselyn Williams talks about transitioning from research to teaching at Florida A&M University (FAMU)

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Roselyn Williams talks about transitioning from research mathematics to teaching and mentoring undergraduate students at Florida A&M University

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Roselyn Williams talks about directing the 'Mathematical Modeling in the Natural and Social Sciences' program in 1997

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Roselyn Williams describes her work with the Alliance for the Production of African American Ph.D.s in the Mathematical Sciences (Alliance)

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Roselyn Williams discusses her teaching philosophy - part one

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Roselyn Williams discusses her teaching philosophy - part two

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Roselyn Williams talks about her hopes and concerns for graduates from the mathematics program at Florida A&M University

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Roselyn Williams talks about the Enhancing Diversity in Graduate Education for Women program (EDGE) and African American women in academia

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Roselyn Williams talks about prominent African American mathematicians

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Roselyn Williams talks about her involvement with the National Association of Mathematicians (NAM) and the National Science Foundation (NSF)

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Roselyn Williams reflects upon her life and her career's legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Roselyn Williams describes her hopes for the African American community today

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Roselyn Williams describes her concerns for the African American community and her hopes for Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University(FAMU)

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Roselyn Williams talks about her close ties with her students at Florida A&M University (FAMU), and her collaborations with other departments

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Roselyn Williams tells of how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Roselyn Williams describes her photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$3

DAStory

3$12

DATitle
Roselyn Williams talks about her dissertation on Hopf algebras and the significance of German mathematician, David Hilbert
Roselyn Williams talks about being the first African American master's degree student in mathematics at the University of Florida
Transcript
Now who was your Ph.D. advisor [at Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida]?$$My Ph.D. advisor is Professor Warren Nichols; he's a graduate of the University of Chicago [Illinois] and we both--all of his students were studying various aspects of Hopf algebras. He had four students in the area of Hopf algebras.$$And tell us now--tell us the way a layman can understand it and also tell us the way a mathematician can appreciate it. What is Hopf algebras?$$Well, Hopf algebras is an area of algebra named after a mathematician whose last name is Hopf [Heinz Hopf], and it is a set with dual algebraic structures and algebraic structure is a set with binary operations such as addition and multiplication, and so this is fundamental mathemat--algebraic structure. But Hopf algebras is one in which it plays a dual role, okay? It plays a role as a vector field, and then it plays the role as the operators on a vector field so in mathematics terminology, it plays the role of elements as well as functions on elements. Now the application of Hopf algebras--it's an area of pure mathematics. Mathematics is usually thought of in two ways, pure mathematics and applied mathematics. Pure mathematics is the extension of known mathematics because as you are learning more about math or science, it always opens up new questions, and that's how the sciences and the mathematics grow. As the result of solving new problems, new questions arise; some of these questions can be solved with the existing knowledge, but some of these questions also push the boundaries of knowledge and become conjectures that may take anywhere from one to 300 years, or even greater, to solve. So my area of Hopf algebras is in the pure area of study. Now the area of applied mathematics is very similar to pure mathematics; it's only that it is developed with a sense of physical application. For example, solving global issues of energy or environment; these solutions are very quantitative, okay? And so a lot of the mathematics is not designed to solve these problems but are directed, okay, applied to solve these problems. So you're taking pure mathematics which was derived as a result of expanding the knowledge of mathematics; the applied mathematician will try to use this mathematics as well as develop net--new mathematics to understand the molecular system, the economic system, the physical system, the environment, so--so it's difficult to convince anyone that Hopf algebras has any real world applications to--it is the applied mathematician who will be able to take the Hopf algebras, okay, and see that it could be a model for some real world application, to solve some--a model to solve a real world application.$$Okay.$$And I guess a--an example is that in physics, some Brownian motions started off with physics, mathematicians--pure mathematicians tried to generalize it, then applied mathematicians found out that stock markets satisfied the same type of model, and the applied mathematicians ended up making financial derivatives from the mathematics of physics and pure mathematics, and now financial derivatives is a part of economic issues today, global issues. So we sort of think that many of the solutions will be successful sometimes based on the known physics and mathematics, okay? To, to what extent you can solve real world problems precisely or exact.$So you had already been accepted to graduate school at this point?$$I had been accepted into graduate school at the University of California, Berkeley and the University of Florida [Gainesville, Florida]--$$Okay.$$--and I proceeded to the University of California Berkeley and--during the summer, but at the end of that summer, because of the distance from Florida and several factors, I felt that it was in my best interest to return and go to the University of Florida.$$Okay, okay, all right. So University of Florida; now had it been desegregated long when you started?$$No, I was the first African American graduate in the master's program in mathematics and it had not been integrated long, to my knowledge. There were individuals from Tallahassee [Florida] that were in graduate school at that particular time in other areas, but I was, I was the first graduate in their master's program in mathematics so--there were three, three of us African Americans in my particular cohort at the University of Florida.$$Who were the other two, do you remember?$$Let's see, one's name was Roscoe McNealy [ph.], and I think that before he graduated, he was offered a job at the university; he was married with a family, and the other gentleman I can't remember his name but he was also a high school teacher; both of these were people who had careers and were--Roscoe was a veteran. He went to university on a veteran scholarship or--as a result of the veteran. But they were most--they were older than I, and the other gentleman was actually a school teacher.

Ollie Taylor

Elementary school teacher, Ollie M. Taylor was born on September 14, 1937 Tallahassee, Florida to Major and Mary Thompson. She is the oldest of four children: Albert, Douglas and Major, Jr. Taylor attended Bond Jr. High School and graduated from Florida A & M University High School in Tallahassee, Florida in 1956. In 1957, she married Willie J. Taylor and relocated to Chicago, Illinois. Taylor and her husband had their first, Anthony Taylor, in 1958. Their second child Angela Taylor was born three years later, and their youngest, Valerie Taylor, was born in 1963. In 1970, Taylor attended Kennedy King College in Chicago, Illinois where she completed her A.A. degree in 1972. She then transferred to National Louis University in Evanston, Illinois and earned her B.S. degree in education in 1975, and her M.S. degree in education in 1989.

From 1964 to 1969, Taylor began working in clerical positions for Spiegel Inc. in Chicago, Illinois. Then, in 1970, she began her career as an educator at the Chicago Urban Day School in Chicago, where she implemented the Montessori curriculum. In 1975, she joined the Chicago Board of Education and began teaching Head Start early developmental classes for children at Goldblatt Elementary School Chicago. Beginning in 1982, Taylor accepted a position at Melody Elementary School Chicago, where she taught kindergarten for several years. Taylor transferred to Ray Graham Training Center in Chicago.

Taylor received many awards for her outstanding work with students and parents throughout her teaching career. She retired from teaching after more than three decades of service at the age of sixty-six. Taylor resides with her husband, daughter and two of her four grandchildren in Bryan, Texas.

Ollie Taylor was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on 08/13/2012.

Accession Number

A2012.189

Sex

Female

Interview Date

8/13/2012

Last Name

Taylor

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Schools

Bond Elementary School

FAMU Developmental Research School

Kennedy–King College

National Louis University

First Name

Ollie

Birth City, State, Country

Tallahassee

HM ID

TAY11

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Florida

Favorite Vacation Destination

St. Lucia

Favorite Quote

Scoot The Boot.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Texas

Birth Date

9/14/1937

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Bryan/College Station

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Fish

Short Description

Elementary school teacher Ollie Taylor (1937 - ) taught elementary school students for twenty-eight years.

Employment

Spiegel, Inc.

Chicago Board of Education

Favorite Color

Black

Timing Pairs
0,0:6534,257:21192,464:49108,661:52510,793:55434,864:56250,886:58562,946:58834,951:59174,957:59786,968:60398,980:60670,986:60942,995:87300,1151:88035,1160:91970,1220:100614,1349:102660,1363$0,0:1540,46:3780,100:5940,149:8100,193:10100,222:23824,365:24903,397:31543,629:41504,767:41900,772:49550,849:60257,1017:60695,1024:65523,1084:77856,1260:80573,1361:81189,1370:82652,1398:83653,1415:84192,1420:84654,1427:101225,1679:101581,1684:102293,1694:133530,2010:141608,2144:159230,2439:161300,2536:170880,2690
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Ollie Taylor's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Ollie Taylor lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Ollie Taylor describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Ollie Taylor remembers lessons from her maternal family

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Ollie Taylor talks about her mother's career

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Ollie Taylor describes her mother's community in Tallahassee, Florida

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Ollie Taylor describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Ollie Taylor remembers the Bond community near Tallahassee, Florida

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Ollie Taylor talks about her paternal grandfather's career

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Ollie Taylor recalls her paternal grandparents' deaths

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Ollie Taylor describes her father's personality

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Ollie Taylor describes her father's role in the bus boycotts

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Ollie Taylor remembers celebrating Emancipation Day

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Ollie Taylor recalls her father's relationship with her paternal grandfather

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Ollie Taylor describes her father's career during World War II

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Ollie Taylor talks about her parents' relationship

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Ollie Taylor describes her likeness to her father

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Ollie Taylor talks about her racial identity

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Ollie Taylor describes her earliest childhood memory

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Ollie Taylor lists her siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Ollie Taylor describes the sights, sounds and smells of her childhood, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Ollie Taylor describes the sights, sounds and smells of her childhood, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Ollie Taylor describes the sights, sounds and smells of her childhood, pt. 3

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Ollie Taylor recalls the celebrity visitors to Florida Agricultural and Mechanical College for Negroes

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Ollie Taylor remembers Bond Junior High School in Tallahassee, Florida, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Ollie Taylor remembers Bond Junior High School in Tallahassee, Florida, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Ollie Taylor remembers World War II

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Ollie Taylor recalls her social activities

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Ollie Taylor recalls facing discrimination from her black teachers

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Ollie Taylor describes the treatment of black teachers in the South

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Ollie Taylor remembers her early mentors

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Ollie Taylor talks about her early aspirations

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Ollie Taylor recalls an influential teacher at Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University High School

Tape: 3 Story: 12 - Ollie Taylor remembers the music of her youth

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Ollie Taylor talks about the options for social activities in the segregated South

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Ollie Taylor talks about her nomination for Ms. FAMU High

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Ollie Taylor recalls playing sports at the Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University High School

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Ollie Taylor remembers her extracurricular activities

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Ollie Taylor describes her employment as a youth

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Ollie Taylor remembers leaving her hometown of Tallahassee, Florida

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Ollie Taylor remembers meeting her husband

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Ollie Taylor recalls the births of her children

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Ollie Taylor remembers meeting Ora Higgins

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Ollie Taylor talks about the Bridgeport neighborhood of Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - Ollie Taylor remembers the assassination of Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Ollie Taylor recalls the start of the black pride movement

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Ollie Taylor talks about her experiences at Kennedy-King College in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Ollie Taylor recalls her husband's graduation from the Illinois Institute of Technology

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Ollie Taylor describes the start of her career in education

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Ollie Taylor describes her experiences of discrimination during her early teaching career

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Ollie Taylor talks about the politics of the Chicago Public Schools

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Ollie Taylor describes her experiences as a teacher in Chicago Public Schools

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Ollie Taylor talks about her philosophy of teaching

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Ollie Taylor describes the highlights of her teaching career

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Ollie Taylor talks about her challenges as a teacher

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Ollie Taylor remembers Chicago Mayor Harold Washington's administration

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Ollie Taylor talks about volunteering at the eta Creative Arts Foundation

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Ollie Taylor remembers volunteering at her children's schools

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Ollie Taylor talks about her family

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Ollie Taylor reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Ollie Taylor reflects upon her life

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Ollie Taylor describes her hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Ollie Taylor narrates her photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$2

DAStory

12$3

DATitle
Ollie Taylor remembers the music of her youth
Ollie Taylor recalls her father's relationship with her paternal grandfather
Transcript
What kind of music did you like in high school [Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University High School; Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University Developmental Research School, Tallahassee, Florida]?$$It was all kinds. Well, it--we enjoyed blues, would you think--the young kids--blues.$$Like who?$$Well, [HistoryMaker] B. B. King is my favorite.$$Um-hm. Now was he a favorite in high school?$$Yeah. We used to listen. It was--who is this little song that we used to dance off all the time--and I don't remember the name of it--I mean, the person [Hank Ballard] but it was 'Work with Me, Annie.'$$Oh, yeah, I remember that, yeah, right, I remember that.$$Oh, and Johnny Ace, 'The Clock.' Who else, 'cause we used to go the fountain then and dance in the morning, and come to the class smelling like bugs. And the teachers told the man who owned it, that he would have to close it in the morning. We couldn't go over there, it was just right across the street, you know, from the school. And who else did we--$$Was Ray Charles big then?$$Oh, yeah, yeah, yeah, Ray Charles. Let's see who else.$$This is the beginning of what they call rock and roll or, you know, R and B [rhythm and blues], you know, as such I guess right. Sort of the, kind of transitioning from the band music to, you know, more bands--I mean smaller bands.$$But smaller bands.$Now did your dad [Major Thompson, Sr.] finish school himself or--?$$Unh-uh.$$Okay.$$He only went to about sixth or seventh grade.$$Okay.$$But he was really, you know, how it was--long time ago people were gifted, they was smart.$$Right, yeah--so he (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) And sometimes you didn't go, you know.$$Did he work with his--$$He was a self made person, huh?$$Yeah, did, did he work with his father [Hinton Thompson] on the development of those houses or anything?$$(Shakes head) Unh-uh, unh-uh.$$He didn't?$$(Shakes head) Unh-uh.$$What--did they have--way you're sha- shaking your head, they may not of had a close relationship, is that--$$No, they didn't.$$Oh, okay. What happened? Was that--$$I don't remember, I don't, you know, I don't know what happened. I was close--not what you would say--'cause I was a lil' girl. I mean, you know, I had more dealings interactions with my Grandma Fannie [Fannie Holloman Thompson] than I did with Grandpa Hinton. 'Cause they always said that he was really smart also, so--$$Yeah, I think he would if he had all that property.$$Um-hm (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) Yeah.$$Um-hm.$$I mean (unclear) so--but your father and your grandfather had some kind of a falling out or something?$$I don't know. 'Cause my father was headstrong. And I guess he didn't do the--what--he was the youngest. I remember that part, and he didn't do what was--things that family expected him to do so--$$Now did your father come from a big--was there--did he have a lot of brothers and sisters?$$Let me see. Alec, Solomon, Alice, Effie [Effie Thompson Rogers]--$$You can name 'em out loud if you want to.$$Oh!$$'Cause this is for your family on tape, so--$$Oh, okay, it was Alec [Alexander Thompson], Luke [Luke Thompson], Alice [Alice Thompson], Stella [Stella Thompson Collins]. Did I say Solomon [Solomon Thompson], and my father he was the youngest [sic.]. So it was--I remember six of them, I think.$$Six, okay.$$Um-hm.$$All right. And I didn't ask you this but what--did your mother [Mary Davis Thompson] have a big family too or were there--$$She came from--her family--I think it was five.$$That's (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Let's see--$$You can go ahead, name 'em.$$Son [Nelson Davis], Buddy [Randy Davis], my mother (unclear) Rainse, Edith [Edith Davis Brim], Samuel [Samuel Davis III], it was five of them.$$Okay.$$Um-hm.$$And those really aren't big families for those days (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) No.$$It's just--$$Um-hm.$$--pretty ordinary families, but.$$Right.$$Nowadays it might be considered a big family but (laughter)--$$(Laughter) Yeah.$$In those days people were at like ten, twelve kids.$$Kids, um-hm.

Carla Hayden

Library Director and Administrator Carla Hayden was born on August 10, 1952. She received her B.A. degree from Roosevelt University and began work as a library assistant at the Chicago Public Library in 1973. She later received M.A. and Ph.D. degrees from the University of Chicago’s Graduate Library School.

She worked as library service coordinator for the Museum of Science and Industry in Chicago and as a professor at the University of Pittsburgh’s School of Library and Information Science. In 1991, she returned to Chicago where she worked as the Chicago Public Library System’s deputy commissioner and chief librarian. She is also the second African American to become the executive director of the Enoch Pratt Free Library, one of the oldest free libraries in the United States.

Hayden was elected president of the American Library Association in 2003. She succeeded in getting Attorney General John Ashcroft to declassify reports on the Act’s provisions and eventually, through her efforts and the efforts of other civil liberties organizations, the section of the Act that allowed the F.B.I. to demand private individuals’ library records was rescinded.

Hayden has continually championed the cause of civil liberties and freedom of information. She spearheaded the A.L.A.’s efforts to overturn legislation that forced all libraries receiving federal funding to install internet content filters on their computers. Eventually the Supreme Court upheld the right of adult library users to request the filter’s deactivation, though they did not overturn the requirement that the filters be installed. Hayden has worked with the A.L.A. to publicize and uphold the right to deactivate the filter.

She has been honored with the Andrew White Medal by Loyola College, the President’s Medal by Johns Hopkins University, and the Legacy of Literacy Award by the DuBois Circle of Baltimore. Hayden was named one of Ms. Magazine’s 2003 Women of the Year and one of Maryland’s Top 100 Women of Maryland. She is also the first African American to receive the Librarian of the Year Award from Library Journal Magazine. She is a member of the Boards of the Maryland African American Museum Corporation, Goucher College, Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt Institute and Library and Maryland Historical Society.

Accession Number

A2010.082

Sex

Female

Interview Date

7/16/2010

Last Name

Hayden

Maker Category
Middle Name

D.

Occupation
Schools

Roosevelt University

University of Chicago

Ps 96 Joseph C Lanzetta School

St. Edmund's Parochial School

South Shore International College Prep High School

First Name

Carla

Birth City, State, Country

Tallahassee

HM ID

HAY10

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Florida

Favorite Vacation Destination

Paris, France

Favorite Quote

Living Well Is The Best Revenge.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Maryland

Birth Date

8/10/1952

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Baltimore

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Ice Cream (Chocolate)

Short Description

Librarian Carla Hayden (1952 - ) has served numerous library systems and fought for civil liberties and freedom of information. She was appointed the 14th Librarian of Congress in 2016.

Employment

Enoch Pratt Free Library

Chicago Public Library

Museum of Science and Industry

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:4914,138:5915,155:7007,172:8463,201:9282,216:9919,224:15106,298:15834,307:19747,362:20384,371:26936,477:37140,603:37924,612:38316,617:63892,1005:64228,1010:71872,1143:74896,1193:75736,1206:76072,1211:86488,1442:87160,1447:87748,1455:88504,1465:88840,1470:96514,1504:97372,1520:98230,1537:99880,1577:111211,1828:124242,2080:124806,2087:127908,2146:132317,2176:136776,2271:137595,2284:138596,2298:139597,2310:140143,2317:140780,2325:141144,2330:142236,2348:144966,2396:145603,2404:146786,2422:154430,2540:163910,2602:172891,2774:173377,2781:174916,2805:175645,2815:177751,2849:178966,2874:184960,3001:185851,3013:188524,3057:195940,3097:196570,3127:200830,3165$0,0:15968,288:24804,405:26966,458:28000,480:33624,523:34353,533:35082,544:36702,569:43749,664:45045,686:45936,705:46503,716:49419,788:49824,794:51039,816:71934,1147:72891,1162:78981,1281:80982,1315:89920,1393:90460,1402:91090,1410:93340,1462:99770,1524:100170,1529:100770,1537:101370,1544:102070,1552:103470,1571:104370,1584:107270,1628:108470,1644:108870,1655:109970,1668:128540,1882:134575,1992:134915,2002:135340,2013:139165,2089:145622,2138:147426,2178:148574,2192:149148,2201:154314,2271:170110,2442:175006,2526:175390,2531:182181,2597:189344,2716:190191,2729:191115,2753:192039,2764:195658,2827:197044,2849:201250,2874:202960,2900:206020,2934:228510,3321
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Carla Hayden's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Carla Hayden lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Carla Hayden describes her mother's family background, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Carla Hayden describes her mother's family background, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Carla Hayden relates stories from her mother's childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Carla Hayden describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Carla Hayden recalls the stories her paternal grandmother told her about family history

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Carla Hayden talks about her father's upbringing in central Illinois

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Carla Hayden talks about her father's career as a musician

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Carla Hayden talks about how her parents pursued careers in music during the 1950s

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Carla Hayden talks about how her parents' marriage ended after the family moved to New York, New York

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Carla Hayden shares memories of the music scene her father belonged to during her childhood in New York, New York

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Carla Hayden describes her earliest childhood memory

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Carla Hayden describes the sights, sounds and smells of her childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Carla Hayden explains why she chose not to pursue a career in music

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Carla Hayden talks about her childhood interest in reading

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Carla Hayden recalls Margaret Pendergast of Springfield, Illinois, one of her role models as a librarian

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Carla Hayden describes her experiences in grade school in New York, New York and Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Carla Hayden talks about the impact of her parents' divorce

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Carla Hayden talks about the factors that led to her parents' divorce

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Carla Hayden describes her experiences at St. Edmund's School in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Carla Hayden recalls her cultural experiences in Chicago, Illinois during the late 1960s

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Carla Hayden describes the changes in the South Shore neighborhood of Chicago, Illinois during her high school years

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Carla Hayden describes her experiences at South Shore High School in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Carla Hayden talks about why she did not attend her prom at South Shore High School in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Carla Hayden recalls her impression of radical politics in Chicago, Illinois during the late 1960s

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Carla Hayden talks about her aspirations while attending South Shore High School in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Carla Hayden describes her experiences at MacMurray College in Jacksonville, Illinois

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Carla Hayden describes her experiences at Roosevelt University in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Carla Hayden talks about how she decided to become a librarian

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Carla Hayden describes her early career as a librarian in the Chicago Public Library system in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Carla Hayden describes her graduate studies in library science at the University of Chicago in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Carla Hayden talks about her decision to specialize in children's literature

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Carla Hayden recalls her time as a professor at the University of Pittsburgh in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Carla Hayden talks about returning to Chicago, Illinois as the chief librarian of the Chicago Public Library

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Carla Hayden recalls the completion of the Harold Washington Library Center in Chicago, Illinois in 1991

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Carla Hayden talks about her decision to become the director of the Enoch Pratt Free Library in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Carla Hayden recalls the dedication of the Bruce K. Hayden Center for the Performing Arts at Malcolm X College in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Carla Hayden talks about the history of the Enoch Pratt Free Library in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Carla Hayden describes her tenure as director of the Enoch Pratt Free Library in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Carla Hayden talks about how she became president of the American Library Association

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Carla Hayden talks about her opposition to the USA PATRIOT Act as president of the American Library Association

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Carla Hayden talks about the future plans of the Enoch Pratt Free Library in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Carla Hayden offers her perspective on how reading will change in the future

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Carla Hayden reflects upon her life

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Carla Hayden talks about her plans for the future

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Carla Hayden reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Carla Hayden talks about her family's pride in her career

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Carla Hayden offers advice to young people considering a career in library science

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Carla Hayden describes how she would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

5$5

DAStory

7$8

DATitle
Carla Hayden talks about how she became president of the American Library Association
Carla Hayden talks about her opposition to the USA PATRIOT Act as president of the American Library Association
Transcript
Tell me about the American Library Association [ALA] and your involvement in the American Library Association.$$Well, I was elected to be president of the American Library Association. And that's the oldest and the largest organization that is involved with libraries. So it has about sixty-five thousand members, mainly librarians and it represents--it's the voice of public libraries in particular in this country. And I was elected and--to be president, my first elected position. And it (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) This is the first--okay.$$I never ran for anything, school, president, and anything like that.$$How do you get to be the president of the American Library Association?$$You actually have to campaign, and you have to have a platform, and you have to present to the different groups, and you have to do interviews. And you have to actually run for it, and I had an opponent. And I guess that, a little bit of that Chicago [Illinois] rubs off on you. So (laughter), I won by a wide margin, and we--there were no dirty politics though. But it was a clean election, but it was an interesting experience. And it was also interesting because I had, by that time made friends with some political figures in the Baltimore [Maryland] area. And they helped me with the campaign. The other person who helped me with the campaigning came out and did a fundraiser for me, was [HistoryMaker] Tavis Smiley. We had had him here several times for book signings, and he heard that I was running for the American Library Association president. And he actually came out and gave a donation, one of the first donations to my campaign that allowed me to buy T-shirts and buttons to give to the librarians at the conference. You have to really do that kind of electioneering. And that, and I've been grateful for that ever since. And he's been back to the [Enoch] Pratt [Free] Library [Baltimore, Maryland] to do book signings.$$Okay, does he have a connection here locally at all, I mean in terms of (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) No, I don't think there's any direct connection. I think he--what I've found is he can be very supportive of people that are trying to do things. So.$$Okay, now, what was your platform?$$Well, my platform was equity of access, that people of all backgrounds should have as much access to library services as possible. And sometimes we may not realize that in libraries that the policies that we put in place are actually barriers to access. And homeless--if you have a requirement that someone has to show a driver's license to get a library card, that can eliminate a lot of people, or if there has to be a residency thing. You have to show a piece of mail. Well, what about the homeless people. So there're lots of things that we do in libraries sometimes that are actually blocking people from using us freely and that we should look at all of our policies. We should look at the people we hire to make sure that sometimes they reflect the communities that they're working in. So, it was really asking the library community to look at everything we do to make sure that our libraries stay free and open.$After 9/11 [September 11, 2001]--$$Right.$$--[U.S. Department of] Homeland Security came up with some--there's even legislation, right, to (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Yes, the [USA] PATRIOT Act [of 2001].$$PATRIOT Act, right.$$And that, and during my term, that, the PATRIOT Act was enacted, and there was a section--and there still is a Section 215 that related to library records. And while I was president, I had to represent the [American Library] Association [ALA] and take a stand basically saying that we were concerned about that section that allowed the federal government to look at and confiscate library records without the library being able to tell the person who's being investigated that their records were being examined. And, in fact, we couldn't even tell other staff members or our boards that the FBI [Federal Bureau of Investigation] or whatever agency had visited us. We would be put in jail if we revealed that we were even asked for records, much less the names. So (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) These are records of the kind of books you check out or--$$The books, the use of computers. We also and still at this time, are able to, say you sign in for a computer session. There's a way, as everybody knows, that you can track what someone's looking at, what websites they're going to. And we have that information. And so the government, without--and this was another aspect of it that we were concerned about, could go into and get a court, a closed court, and get the warrant for this type of search without showing cause. So they did not have to say we suspect Larry Crowe of this, this and this. They could just say, we want to look at his records. That's all they had to do. So they did not even have to show any proof. And so what bothered, and in a true sense, the librarians who had this covenant of trust with our patrons, is that you may be interested in jihad, just because you're interested in it. You've heard the name. You wanna know more about it. That doesn't mean that you intend to join. So interests and intent are not necessarily equal. And that's what we wanted to protect and make sure that people could still want to find out information about anything without being investigated and not knowing that they were being investigated. And it really escalated to the point that the government was able to just find out, not even particular names of people coming in to a search, but would say, be able to say, we want to see the names of everyone who has ever looked at this. So that's really broadening to it, to the extent that it was unacceptable.$$Okay, so did you achieve any success with (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) We did have some successes in terms of that, and each subsequent passage or reauthorization of the PATRIOT Act, there have been modifications to that section so that there is notification. Librarians will not be jailed if they reveal that the FBI--so each reauthorization, we've been able to effect some modification.$$Now, you, you've actually had to speak with John Ashcroft who was then attorney general (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Right.$$--about these--$$Right, so it--as my grandmother said at the time, "I never thought being a librarian would get you to do this kinda thing." (Laughter) She was very amazed.

Kenny Leon

Theatrical and television director and actor Kenny Leon was born Kenneth Leroy Leon on February 10, 1956, in Tallahassee, Florida, to Annie Ruth and Leroy Leon. The oldest of five siblings, Leon’s family moved to St. Petersburg, Florida, when he was nine years old. At Northeast High School in St. Petersburg, Leon got involved in the federal government’s Upward Bound Program which encouraged him to pursue his dream of becoming a lawyer. In 1978, Leon graduated from Clark College in Atlanta, Georgia, with his B.A. degree in political science. He attended Southwestern University School of Law in Los Angeles for a brief period before returning to Atlanta.

In 1979, Leon returned to Atlanta to try his hand at theater. He soon became a member of the Academy Theater in Atlanta where he worked as an actor and director. Often times, Leon would run outreach programs at prisons and schools; one such play was performed entirely by the homeless. All of the profits from the homeless-cast play were contributed to local homeless shelters. In 1988, after years of touring and directing across the country, Leon was offered a job as associate artistic director at the Alliance Theater in Atlanta. By 1990, he was the senior artistic director and would lead the company for the next ten years. By selecting a wide range of multicultural plays for the theater, Leon increased the minority attendance and the national reputation of the Alliance, and quintupled the endowment.

In 2002, after leaving the Alliance, Leon founded his own theater company in Atlanta, the True Colors Theater Company, which focused on promulgating and preserving Negro-American theatrical classics. Leon has continued to make waves in the theater world outside of Atlanta. In 2004, he directed his first Broadway play, reviving Lorraine Hansberry’s A Raisin in the Sun for which he cast hip hop mogul, Sean Combs in the role of Walter Lee Younger; in 2007, Leon directed a television adaptation of the play. Between 2004 and 2007, Leon directed the world and Broadway premieres of August Wilson’s final two plays, Gem of the Ocean and Radio Golf; he also directed the world premiere of Toni Morrison’s first opera, Margaret Garner. While he continues to ensure the success of True Colors, Leon plans to put together all of August Wilson’s ten plays at the Kennedy Center as a tribute to the deceased playwright.

Leon was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on September 9, 2007.

Accession Number

A2007.250

Sex

Male

Interview Date

9/9/2007

Last Name

Leon

Schools

Northeast High School

Clark Atlanta University

Campbell Park Elementary School

John Hopkins Middle School

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Kenny

Birth City, State, Country

Tallahassee

HM ID

LEO02

Favorite Season

None

State

Florida

Favorite Vacation Destination

South Africa

Favorite Quote

All You Have Is Your Time And Talent. Use Them Wisely.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Birth Date

2/10/1956

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Atlanta

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Chicken

Short Description

Stage director and theater chief executive Kenny Leon (1956 - ) was the artistic director of Atlanta's Alliance Theatre and the founder of the True Colors Theatre Company. Leon's directorial achievements included the Broadway revival of Lorraine Hansberry’s A Raisin in the Sun; productions of an assortment of August Wilson’s plays; and the world premiere of Toni Morrison’s first opera, Margaret Garner.

Employment

Academy Theater

National Endowment for the Arts (NEA)

Alliance Theatre

True Colors Theatre Company

Favorite Color

Blue, Red

Timing Pairs
0,0:624,12:12090,300:13494,333:22620,616:22932,621:36068,781:36752,792:39868,870:51048,1017:67032,1435:67846,1455:68586,1466:76052,1536:79406,1592:80108,1602:82916,1666:85100,1702:94380,1811:94884,1819:109596,2022:111367,2056:117989,2199:127460,2309$0,0:4855,137:5230,143:5980,187:11305,342:11905,351:18055,494:37500,841:37820,846:39420,904:43340,981:43820,989:46780,1056:47180,1062:52680,1089:63000,1300:63640,1309:64280,1319:71560,1499:72520,1514:72920,1520:99210,1845:100029,1925:101289,1950:101667,1957:104502,2020:113251,2169:113566,2175:115204,2222:116149,2246:116842,2255:119173,2331:120748,2371:121504,2399:121945,2420:123457,2505:132726,2596:134872,2642:135168,2647:135538,2653:136870,2675:137166,2680:146530,2823:150490,2875:156134,2956:164964,3104:165424,3110:166160,3119:168350,3128:172610,3315:179994,3460:182266,3503:185887,3595:186242,3601:187378,3619:198311,3764:199919,3825:210530,4041:211975,4063:212315,4068:212910,4076:224590,4280:225550,4295:227070,4337:228590,4392:229310,4403:234590,4526:235150,4535:235790,4549:245283,4624:245850,4636:247875,4681:248280,4687:254538,4759:257322,4797:261642,4849:262890,4864:272820,5012
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Kenny Leon's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Kenny Leon lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Kenny Leon describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Kenny Leon remembers being raised by his maternal grandmother

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Kenny Leon recalls moving to St. Petersburg, Florida

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Kenny Leon describes his grade school experiences in St. Petersburg, Florida

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Kenny Leon describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Kenny Leon remembers celebrating the holidays

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Kenny Leon talks about segregation in St. Petersburg, Florida

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Kenny Leon remembers Macedonia Freewill Baptist Church in St. Petersburg, Florida

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Kenny Leon recalls his early interest in acting

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Kenny Leon talks about the Upward Bound program

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Kenny Leon recalls his decision to attend Clark College in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Kenny Leon recalls the start of his acting career

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Kenny Leon remembers the Civil Rights Movement in St. Petersburg, Florida

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Kenny Leon describes the Southwestern Law School in Los Angeles, California

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Kenny Leon talks about his community theater programs

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Kenny Leon recalls his theater experiences in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Kenny Leon remembers working with the Center Stage Theater in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Kenny Leon recalls working for the Alliance Theatre in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Kenny Leon remembers August Wilson, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Kenny Leon remembers August Wilson, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Kenny Leon talks about his tenure at the Alliance Theatre

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Kenny Leon recalls diversifying Alliance Theatre's staff and programming

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Kenny Leon talks about theatre directors

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Kenny Leon recalls leaving the Alliance Theatre

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Kenny Leon remembers founding the True Colors Theatre Company

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Kenny Leon recalls directing 'A Raisin in the Sun,' pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Kenny Leon recalls directing 'A Raisin in the Sun,' pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Kenny Leon talks about the directors of August Wilson's plays

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Kenny Leon remembers his directorial vision for 'A Raisin in the Sun'

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Kenny Leon recalls directing August Wilson's 'Gem of the Ocean'

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Kenny Leon remembers directing August Wilson's 'Radio Golf'

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Kenny Leon talks about directing 'Margaret Garner'

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Kenny Leon describes the True Colors Theatre Company

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Kenny Leon recalls directing 'The Wiz'

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Kenny Leon talks about his Tony Award nominations

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Kenny Leon describes August Wilson's 'Radio Golf'

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Kenny Leon describes the playwrights he admires

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Kenny Leon describes his concerns for the African American community

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Kenny Leon reflects upon his life

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Kenny Leon reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Kenny Leon describes his plans for the future

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Kenny Leon shares a message to future generations

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$3

DAStory

2$5

DATitle
Kenny Leon recalls the start of his acting career
Kenny Leon remembers founding the True Colors Theatre Company
Transcript
And at that time, I was a political science major and sort of a drama minor, you know what I mean, all of my electives were in theater, but I was preparing to go to law school, because that's when my mom [Annie Wilson Holtzclaw] said, "You're a first generation college student--you're going to be a minister or you're going to be a lawyer, or you're going to do something that they know." And then I went to law school for, you know, for like that long. And when I left, I went to law school in L.A. [Los Angeles, California]--Southwestern University School of Law [Southwestern Law School], and I left there and came back to Florida for a minute. I said, I can't live in Florida, so I came back to Atlanta [Georgia], and when I came back to Atlanta, I had an audition for the Academy of Music and Theater [sic. Academy Theatre], and this guy, Frank Wittow who died last year--he was a great friend of mine, he had this company that would do plays in prisons and in the school system, and I got a job doing that, working improvisationally through theatre to create plays, and then also doing it in legitimate plays, like, you know, 'Richard III' [William Shakespeare] and 'Hamlet' [William Shakespeare]. At the end of that year, he said, "Okay, so you want to come back and work for me for two hundred dollars a week, or do you want to go back to law school?" So, I was like, "Ah, I think I like this." And, at that time, I was also starting to do television commercials, because I looked a certain way at a certain time, and my mother, who was a dietician in Florida--I think she was concerned about, "Is he going to make a living," or whatever, and she was watching television with one of her patients and she said, "That's my son, that's my son." She said, "Oh, he does commercials, oh he can make a million dollars." I was like, really? So, at that point, she said "Okay, I understand, you know, okay, I understand."$$What was your first commercial?$$It was an Aaron [Aaron's, Inc.] rent furniture television commercial, and there was a thing about a man was working so hard that he was not spending any time with his mother. And at the end of the commercial, she would take this, her purse and hit the man in the stomach, and I was the man. And, so it was like a really cute, funny commercial.$I had no idea I was going to start another theater company, but then Riley Temple [HistoryMaker Riley K. Temple], who is the head of the Arena Stage board in D.C. [Washington, D.C.], and Chris Manos [Christopher B. Manos], who is the head of Theater of the Stars in Atlanta [Georgia], they both independently tried to talk me into starting a national black theater company. And I was like, why would I want to do that, I want to--you know. And, at the same time I got my first opportunity to direct 'A Raisin in the Sun' [Lorraine Hansberry] on Broadway with P. Diddy [Sean Combs; P. Diddy] and [HistoryMaker] Phylicia Rashad, so I wanted to do more of that, but you know, the weight of these two men saying, we need a national black theater company--so, I went into the room and said okay, if I had to do a theater company, what would it look like, you know? What would a national black theater look like? And to me, it would look like a theater that was all-inclusive of all people, because I wanted everyone--I didn't want to do a black theater for black people. I wanted to honor black theater, but in the midst of the broader community. So, I was like wow, if I can figure out a way to do that, it would be great. So, what I decided to do was to--at the center of the work, to do African American classics, which those plays--those are the plays that no one's doing. You know, if you're in the Alliance Theatre or the Arena Stage, or the Goodman Theatre [Chicago, Illinois], you're not doing plays by James Baldwin and Les Lee [Leslie Lee], and Zora Neale Hurston. You're not doing that, so I was like, wow, as soon as a black writer dies, that's it, you know. Their work don't get--that's it. So, and if you read James Baldwin or Langston Hughes, you're like, that was some great work. Or if you read Lorraine Hansberry's other work other than 'Raisin in the Sun,' that was some great work. And you got all these new generations of people that will never know these people, and these people were great Americans. So I was like wow, if True Colors [True Colors Theatre Company] can be the company that embrace that work--because if you're these other large regional theaters--you're only going to do the hottest thing that just left New York [New York] or just getting ready to go to New York, because it's about making your money, but you only got one space for diversity, you're only going to do one black play and one Hispanic play, so they couldn't do it. So, I was like, if we did that, that would be something no one else is doing. But, to be different, I don't want to just do all black plays, but then, let's flip that model because the model for most American theater is to do all Anglo-American work at the center. Right? And then they just diversify one or two spots on the edges for other people. So, it's like, I don't know, let's put the classics in the center, and then we'll do three or four plays by everybody else, because I'm not racist, I'm not sexist. And that's when I said that's what I would do if I was running the theater. So, Chris Manos said, "Here's fifty thousand dollars, start it." So, I was like, "Well, you know I'm not going to be able to spend all my time there because I've got to develop myself as a director." He said, "You don't need to, you just need to get it going. You need to be the inspiration, you need to be the vision for it." So, I went around the country and I asked these great people like Zelda Fichandler and all these people, and Zelda ran--you know, she started the regional theater movement--she started the Arena Stage about fifty years ago. So, I talked to all these people--Ben Cameron, and these people said, "Look--," Woodie King [HistoryMaker Woodie King, Jr.], who's a great pioneer of the black theater movement. So I talked to black folks, white folks--I talked to the great [HistoryMaker] Lloyd Richards just before he died, I talked to August Wilson, and they said, "Look, the reason these black--," and at the same time you got to remember black theaters in the last fifteen years were dying, so you had these large theaters that were trying to diversify, and they were getting a lot of funding to do that, but they were only putting in one play, one play. And then you had the black theaters that wasn't getting--they weren't getting enough money, and they were dying. So, now you have a problem in America. You don't have culturally specific theaters and you don't have the large theaters doing enough of the work--that can't do enough of the work. So, it's like wow. So we started this company to do that.$$And the name of the company? True Colors?$$True Colors Theatre, which means, you know, I promised myself to always be in pursuit of truth and clarity, and that's truth and clarity about life, about who we are. So, every play is an effort to shed some light on the truth as we know it. And sometimes that can be in a comedy, sometimes that can be in a musical, sometimes that can be in a drama.

Beverly Daniel Tatum

Educator and clinical psychologist Beverly Christine Daniel Tatum was born on September 27, 1954, in Tallahassee, Florida, to parents Catherine Faith Maxwell and Robert A. Daniel. After completing high school, Tatum received her B.A. degree in psychology from Wesleyan University in 1975. She went on to receive her M.A. degree in clinical psychology from the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, in 1976 and later returned there to receive her Ph.D. in clinical psychology in 1984. In 2000, Tatum received her M.A. degree in religious studies from Hartford Seminary in Hartford, Connecticut.

Tatum began her career in higher education in 1980 as a lecturer in the Department of Black Studies at the University of California at Santa Barbara. During her teaching career, she held professorships in psychology at Westfield State College and Mount Holyoke College. During her tenure at Mount Holyoke College, she was promoted to chair of the Department of Psychology and Education. In 1998, Tatum was appointed as dean of the college and vice president for student affairs. By 2002, she was appointed acting president of Mount Holyoke College before assuming the presidency at Spelman College.

Along with distinguishing herself as a notable educator, Tatum has enjoyed a celebrated career as a clinical psychologist. She worked in independent practice from 1988 to 1998 focusing on individual and group counseling. She specialized in consultation and training related to diversity and multicultural organizational development. Tatum has also written two widely acclaimed books, Assimilation Blues: Black Families in White Communities: Who Succeeds and Why? and ”Why Are All the Black Kids Sitting Together in the Cafeteria?” And Other Conversations About Race, which was named 1998 Multicultural Book of the Year by the National Association of Multicultural Education.

In addition to serving as president of Spelman College, Tatum serves as a member on many boards, including the Board of the Association of American Colleges and Universities in Washington, D.C., and the Woodruff Arts Center Board in Atlanta, Georgia. She is also active in many professional organizations such as the American Psychological Association, American Educational Research Association and the American Association of University Women among others.

Tatum is married to Dr. Travis Tatum and is the mother of two sons, Travis Jonathan and David.

Accession Number

A2006.039

Sex

Female

Interview Date

3/17/2006

Last Name

Tatum

Maker Category
Middle Name

Daniel

Schools

Burnell Laboratory School

Bridgewater Middle School

Bridgewater-Raynham Regional High School

Wesleyan University

University of Michigan

First Name

Beverly

Birth City, State, Country

Tallahassee

HM ID

TAT01

Favorite Season

Fall, Spring

State

Florida

Favorite Vacation Destination

Oceans

Favorite Quote

Breathe Deeply.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Birth Date

9/27/1954

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Atlanta

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Tofu

Short Description

College president and psychology professor Beverly Daniel Tatum (1954 - ) was chair of the Department of Psychology and Education and, later, acting president at Mount Holyoke College, before becoming the president of Spelman College. She has also enjoyed a celebrated career as a clinical psychologist and author.

Employment

University of California Santa Barbara

Westfield State College

Mount Holyoke College

Spelman College

Favorite Color

Pomegranate Red

Timing Pairs
0,0:2940,86:8295,170:12600,186:19212,333:19668,340:24760,430:25216,438:25520,443:25824,448:27344,480:28180,491:28560,497:35810,560:36500,574:42779,703:43331,712:45677,769:46781,791:49472,843:50093,854:52812,990:56170,1013:56660,1022:59250,1071:59530,1087:59880,1093:60370,1102:62190,1138:62750,1147:63030,1152:64850,1203:66880,1246:67160,1252:69120,1315:69890,1330:70170,1335:70450,1340:72480,1384:73880,1419:75140,1442:75910,1458:77730,1491:80880,1594:88988,1685:89708,1716:89996,1721:90644,1733:91220,1742:93812,1814:94100,1819:94676,1828:94964,1833:95612,1845:97124,1880:99068,1933:99644,1942:110748,2112:111672,2128:117348,2311:117612,2316:121374,2383:124080,2443:132950,2501:133450,2507:135150,2529:135950,2538:136750,2547:137650,2559:138550,2569:141350,2599:143850,2642:145450,2682:156020,2757:169876,2990:170380,2998:176140,3138:179524,3210:184045,3224:190195,3338:191545,3374:195145,3446:197995,3519:200470,3568:205850,3586$0,0:7005,134:7503,141:9827,192:10574,237:15886,325:28592,465:38126,576:38454,585:39356,598:43210,666:66887,1045:69077,1080:70099,1106:70391,1111:70975,1120:71559,1129:72289,1141:78786,1285:80830,1329:83020,1379:84042,1400:84480,1408:84918,1415:88790,1429:89231,1441:93137,1539:93515,1546:94460,1565:95027,1576:95783,1590:96035,1595:96413,1603:96728,1609:97988,1637:98240,1642:100130,1702:100508,1710:100760,1715:101831,1744:102335,1754:102587,1759:102902,1765:103343,1777:104540,1800:105170,1811:105611,1880:109076,1951:109454,1958:118058,2091:119444,2112:120368,2126:121138,2137:122601,2180:123063,2187:123679,2196:126297,2242:126913,2252:129916,2302:130224,2307:132229,2320:132544,2326:133426,2343:133804,2350:134182,2357:139115,2427:139490,2433:140090,2442:140915,2456:141215,2461:141890,2472:145551,2517:148316,2626:149264,2642:149738,2649:151002,2671:155821,2743:157717,2787:158349,2796:159929,2826:160640,2838:161035,2844:162062,2864:163563,2887:163958,2893:166249,2941:166802,2949:167513,2961:168303,2981:175042,3032:175538,3041:176034,3050:179196,3114:179506,3121:180002,3131:180374,3138:180746,3146:181242,3156:182296,3185:182854,3195:186760,3231
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Beverly Daniel Tatum's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Beverly Daniel Tatum lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Beverly Daniel Tatum describes her mother

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Beverly Daniel Tatum remembers visiting Danville, Virginia

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Beverly Daniel Tatum describes her father's side of the family, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Beverly Daniel Tatum describes her father's side of the family, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Beverly Daniel Tatum describes her paternal grandparents

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Beverly Daniel Tatum describes the book 'Twenty Families of Color In Massachusetts'

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Beverly Daniel Tatum describes her parents, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Beverly Daniel Tatum describes her parents, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Beverly Daniel Tatum describes her mother's side of the family, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Beverly Daniel Tatum describes her mother's side of the family, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Beverly Daniel Tatum describes her father's side of the family, pt. 3

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Beverly Daniel Tatum describes her earliest childhood memories

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Beverly Daniel Tatum describes her earliest childhood memories and her siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Beverly Daniel Tatum remembers her family's move to Bridgewater, Massachusetts

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Beverly Daniel Tatum recalls growing up in Florida, Pennsylvania and Louisiana

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Beverly Daniel Tatum describes growing up in Bridgewater, Massachusetts

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Beverly Daniel Tatum describes the sights, sounds and smells of growing up

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Beverly Daniel Tatum remembers her neighbors in Bridgewater, Massachusetts, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Beverly Daniel Tatum remembers Bridgewater, Massachusetts

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Beverly Daniel Tatum remembers her neighbors in Bridgewater, Massachusetts, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Beverly Daniel Tatum recalls Bridgewater's Burnell Laboratory School, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Beverly Daniel Tatum recalls Bridgewater's Burnell Laboratory School, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Beverly Daniel Tatum remembers her elementary and junior high school teachers

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Beverly Daniel Tatum describes holidays and her church in Bridgewater, Massachusetts

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Beverly Daniel Tatum remembers her time at Bridgewater Middle School

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Beverly Daniel Tatum recalls her Cape Verdean neighbors

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Beverly Daniel Tatum describes her childhood personality and her time in high school

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Beverly Daniel Tatum recalls Bridgewater-Raynham Regional High School

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Beverly Daniel Tatum remembers choosing Wesleyan University in Middletown, Connecticut

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Beverly Daniel Tatum describes applying to college and her interest in psychology

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Beverly Daniel Tatum recalls choosing Wesleyan University in Middletown, Connecticut

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Beverly Daniel Tatum remembers her instructors at Wesleyan University

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Beverly Daniel Tatum remembers her time at Wesleyan University in Middletown, Connecticut

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Beverly Daniel Tatum recalls developing her sense of black pride in college

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Beverly Daniel Tatum describes her work between college and graduate school

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Beverly Daniel Tatum describes the development of her racial identity, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Beverly Daniel Tatum describes the development of her racial identity, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Beverly Daniel Tatum describes her older brother, Eric Daniel, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Beverly Daniel Tatum describes her older brother, Eric Daniel, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Beverly Daniel Tatum remembers attending the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Beverly Daniel Tatum describes her dissertation advisor, Eric Berman

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Beverly Daniel Tatum remembers completing her dissertation

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Beverly Daniel Tatum describes her research about black families

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Beverly Daniel Tatum recalls teaching a course on racism

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Beverly Daniel Tatum reflects upon her experiences with racism, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Beverly Daniel Tatum reflects upon her experiences with racism, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Beverly Daniel Tatum describes her move from California to Massachusetts

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Beverly Daniel Tatum remembers her career at Westfield State College

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Beverly Daniel Tatum describes her career trajectory in Massachusetts

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Beverly Daniel Tatum recalls joining the Mount Holyoke College faculty

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Beverly Daniel Tatum describes her book 'Why Are All the Black Kids Sitting Together in the Cafeteria?'

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Beverly Daniel Tatum talks about her research on racial identity, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Beverly Daniel Tatum talks about her research on racial identity, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Beverly Daniel Tatum describes her career at Mount Holyoke College

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$5

DAStory

10$7

DATitle
Beverly Daniel Tatum describes the development of her racial identity, pt. 2
Beverly Daniel Tatum recalls teaching a course on racism
Transcript
But when I was at Wesleyan [Wesleyan University, Middletown, Connecticut], I became a resident advisor in the residence halls, and in my--on my residence hall, I had two black girls who also had grown up in predominantly white communities and one of them did it the way I did it in the sense that she came to Wesleyan and she really became part of the black community, and another one didn't. She seemed to be uncomfortable, not able to make that transition, and hung out mostly with other white students and I wondered at the time what made the difference. What made the difference for me, what made the difference between these two girls, and that was really my research question when I went off to graduate school. It was like, what makes the difference? And, I studied that question when I did my doctoral dissertation, and I tried to answer the question in my book, 'Assimilation Blues' ['Assimilation Blues: Black Families in a White Community,' Beverly Daniel Tatum], and in the book I described three kinds of families. I discovered, as part of my research, that there were three kinds of families that I described. One was families that were what I would call race conscious. These were black families living in white communities that, even though they were in a white community, they really worked hard to try to make sure that their kids developed a strong sense of black identity. And maybe they did that by visiting their relatives other places, or sending the kids to a black church, or, you know, maybe joining Jack and Jill [Jack and Jill of America, Inc.], or you know, they did things (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Just immersing themselves in some kind of black environment--$$Trying to find some way to maintain that kind of ongoing connection for their children. And then there were some families that said it was important but didn't really do it, that they were kind of neutral. And then there were families that didn't think it was important, didn't really talk about it, didn't, you know, kind of avoided the whole topic of race, and I called them race-avoidant. If I had to characterize my family, I would call my parents [Catherine Maxwell Daniel and Robert A. Daniel] race neutral.$$Okay.$$You know, they didn't talk a lot about race, they really talked, they talked--or when they did, it was in the spirit of judging people by the content of their character, not by the color of their skin. They were really humanitarians in the sense of I can honestly say I never heard my parents make negative comments about white people or anybody, you know. They were very much guided by the golden rule: treat people the way you want to be treated. That was a clear principle in my household, so I would not give my parents credit for my own desire to establish--to connect with black people because it wasn't necessarily something that they talked a lot about. They didn't say you should do this or you should not do that and, in fact, when I went off to college with my Angela [HistoryMaker Angela Davis] and came home, I went off to college, came home, you know, looking like Angela Davis and talking about power to the people (laughter), you know, my mother thought I had really become kind of anti-white, and she and I had a long conversation about this in my summer after my first year of college, when I said to her, you know, "It's possible to be pro-black without being anti-white," you know. It's not necessarily both--you know, you don't have--I still had white friends, I still saw my high school friends, but clearly my focus had shifted.$So, I got invited to teach a course in the black studies department. The first course I was invited to teach was a course called--was really about black children and education. It was called Education and the Black Child. So, I taught that course and it went pretty well, and then I was asked to teach another one, and the second course I was asked to teach was called Group Exploration of Racism, and I had not ever taught a course like that before, but I, as a psychologist, had facilitated groups, you know, assertiveness training groups, all kinds of groups. And I had done all this reading about coping patterns and responses to racism on the parts of black families and so, anyway, to make a long story short, I thought I could do it and so I, and I needed the money (laughter) so I was offered the opportunity and I took it and I wasn't, I was twenty-five years old, I mean I was still young. Maybe I was twenty-six. I got married when I was twenty-four, going on twenty-four, so maybe I was twenty-six at this time, but I was a new professor and even though I wasn't very experienced, I had a very powerful teaching experience, because at the end of the semester, teaching this course, Group Exploration of Racism, my students said, "This course was the best course we've taken at this university. Everybody should take this course. It should be required." And I just felt like, wow, this is really powerful, and what was it that was making the course such a powerful learning experience? And, what I concluded was it was really about giving young people the permission to talk about a topic that had been a taboo up to that point for them. I mean, it was a very uncommon thing to be able to come together in a racially mixed class and talk about race. Most people hadn't had that experience before.$$Now were there as many whites as there were blacks, or were there--$$Oh, there were more whites, it was mostly white, so it wasn't evenly divided. The University of California at Santa Barbara [University of California, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California] was the least diverse of the University of California campuses at the time that I was there, and that's probably still true. The black student population was about two percent, the Chicano student population was maybe five percent, the Asian population was a little higher perhaps, but it was still largely white campus.$$Well, a lot of times black students will shy away from classes on racism, but in that particular instance, you still had black representation (simultaneous)--?$$(Simultaneous) Yes, I did. I did. So, you know, if their class had maybe thirty students in it, maybe five of the students were black, and that's not a huge number but it is certainly, you know maybe 20 percent of the students would be black, and that, for most of the white students, was a new experience, being in a class with 20 percent of the students being of color, because most of the time, maybe there'd just be one or two. And, but anyway it was a very powerful teaching experience, and as the result of it, I made a personal decision that I wanted to always teach a course on racism. I thought it was an important social duty that I should engage in.

Dr. LaSalle D. Leffall, Jr.

Dr. LaSalle Doheny Leffall, Jr. was born May 22, 1930, in Tallahasee, Florida, but grew up in Quincy, Florida. His parents, Lula Jourdan and LaSalle Leffall, Sr. met at Alabama Teachers College. Leffall graduated from Dr. Wallace S. Stevens High School at age 15 years in 1945. Awarded his B.S. degree summa cum laude from Florida A & M College in 1948, Leffall at age twenty-two earned his M.D. from Howard University College of Medicine. There, Dr. Burke Syphax, Dr. Jack White, Dr. W. Montague Cobb and the celebrated Dr. Charles R. Drew taught him.

Upon earning his M.D., Leffall continued his medical training as intern at Homer G. Phillips Hospital in St. Louis; assistant resident in surgery at Freedman’s Hospital from 1953 to 1954; assistant resident in surgery at D.C. General Hospital from 1954 to 1955; chief resident in surgery at Freedman’s Hospital from 1956 to 1957 and senior fellow in cancer surgery at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Hospital from 1957 to 1959. Beginning his military service at the rank of Captain, M. C., he served as chief of general surgery at the U. S. Army Hospital in Munich, Germany, from 1960 to 1961. Leffall joined Howard’s faculty, in 1962, as an assistant professor and by 1970, he was chairman of the Department of Surgery, a position he held for twenty-five years. He was named the Charles R. Drew Professor in 1992, occupying the first endowed chair in the history of Howard’s Department of Surgery.

Leffall has served as visiting professor at over 200 medical institutions in the U.S. and abroad and authored or coauthored over 130 articles and chapters. He is a diplomate of the American Board of Surgery and a fellow of both the American College of Surgeons and the American College of Gastroenterology. His professional life has been devoted to the study of cancer, especially among African Americans. In 1979, as president of the American Cancer Society, Leffall developed programs and emphasized the importance of this study for the benefit of the African American population and other ethnic groups. Cancers of the head and neck, breast, colorectum and soft part sarcomas are his main areas of interest.

Surgeon, oncologist, medical educator and civic leader, and the recipient of many awards, Leffall has taught over 4,500 medical students and trained at least 250 general surgery residents. In 1995 he was elected president of the American College of Surgeons and in 2002 was named chairman of the President’s Cancer Panel. He and his wife, Ruthie have one grown son, LeSalle, III.

Leffall passed away on May 26, 2019.

Accession Number

A2004.064

Sex

Male

Interview Date

6/7/2004

Last Name

Leffall

Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

D.

Schools

William S. Stevens High School

Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University

Howard University College of Medicine

First Name

La Salle

Birth City, State, Country

Tallahassee

HM ID

LEF02

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Florida

Favorite Vacation Destination

Puerto Rico, Maine

Favorite Quote

Equanimity under duress

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

5/22/1930

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Sole

Death Date

5/26/2019

Short Description

Medical professor, oncologist, and surgeon Dr. LaSalle D. Leffall, Jr. (1930 - ) is the president of the American College of Surgeons and chairs the President's Cancer Panel. Leffall has authored over 150 articles, has taught over 4,500 medical students and trained at least 250 general surgery residents at the Howard University College of Medicine.

Employment

Homer G. Phillips Hospital (St. Louis, Missouri)

Freedmen's Hospital, Howard University

Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center

Howard University College of Medicine

Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences

Georgetown University

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:1848,37:7722,232:8052,238:8316,243:8910,254:11418,320:12276,352:15246,459:15642,467:16104,476:17160,502:17424,507:17820,515:18942,540:19338,550:20526,575:20922,583:27380,593:28660,666:33700,746:35940,779:36260,784:37300,801:39460,852:40020,860:45560,880:48742,929:52834,1036:53082,1041:53578,1051:53950,1059:55314,1088:56244,1108:57794,1145:62240,1177:62905,1188:64660,1201:65080,1209:65920,1229:66400,1244:66880,1253:67660,1273:67900,1278:68140,1283:68440,1289:70304,1305:71032,1324:71760,1343:75904,1453:76520,1465:77024,1481:77584,1493:78088,1508:79656,1560:80104,1569:80496,1577:81280,1595:81504,1600:82344,1620:82904,1631:87700,1649:88276,1661:88596,1667:88980,1675:89556,1686:92340,1726:92960,1740:95130,1786:95626,1797:97734,1847:98044,1853:98478,1862:98850,1869:99594,1884:100338,1905:100958,1917:102322,1947:106176,1972:106995,1995:107373,2002:108003,2013:108381,2020:109011,2031:111405,2082:112098,2098:112413,2104:112917,2116:113358,2124:117443,2147:117778,2154:120726,2253:123741,2320:124076,2326:124880,2345:125349,2354:126555,2396:127694,2425:128096,2432:128498,2439:130709,2500:131178,2508:132317,2531:137070,2538:138695,2585:138955,2590:140190,2612:141035,2630:143310,2681:143830,2692:144090,2697:147446,2718:147950,2729:148454,2739:148734,2745:149126,2755:149574,2764:149966,2772:151646,2803:152934,2811:154950,2860:155678,2877:156070,2885:156294,2890:156518,2895:156854,2902:157638,2919:158086,2928:158478,2936:161294,2958:161806,2967:162254,2975:162958,2987:163278,2993:164750,3025:165198,3033:165454,3038:165838,3045:166606,3060:166990,3067:167758,3082:168270,3091:168718,3099:171342,3116:172174,3133:172878,3145:173198,3151:173774,3161:174030,3166:174414,3173:174670,3178:175054,3185:175374,3191:176014,3202:177806,3241:178126,3247:179278,3277:179790,3286:180238,3294:180942,3307:181198,3312:181582,3319:181902,3325:182734,3340:183118,3347:183886,3362:184398,3371:184846,3379:188022,3391$0,0:1235,30:1755,39:2145,46:8970,195:11310,247:11895,257:12480,268:13000,277:13455,288:13845,296:14105,301:14690,311:15340,326:15795,333:17030,352:17810,364:18135,371:18590,380:19500,395:19825,401:21515,436:22620,469:31565,597:32148,611:32572,620:32890,627:33579,645:35275,688:35540,694:35805,700:36282,711:36653,719:37660,745:38084,754:38561,765:41370,776:43974,819:44842,837:45400,854:45772,861:46578,877:47136,887:48376,911:49120,936:49616,945:50174,956:51042,974:51600,985:52716,1007:53274,1017:53770,1026:56250,1091:56932,1114:57242,1120:57738,1129:58296,1141:58792,1150:59412,1163:59970,1175:64550,1209:64862,1214:65642,1226:66266,1235:66578,1240:67124,1249:68294,1287:69230,1324:69698,1332:70088,1337:72272,1372:72974,1382:74378,1403:75782,1434:76562,1445:80460,1450:80916,1458:81220,1463:81676,1469:82132,1477:82436,1482:83120,1495:85096,1537:85780,1549:87528,1584:88136,1593:88820,1604:92114,1641:92762,1654:93049,1661
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of LaSalle Leffall interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - LaSalle Leffall's favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - LaSalle Leffall describes his mother's background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - LaSalle Leffall describes his father's background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - LaSalle Leffall recounts his early years in Quincy, Florida

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - LaSalle Leffall describes his childhood interests

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - LaSalle Leffall describes his early influences

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - LaSalle Leffall recounts his college years at Florida A&M

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - LaSalle Leffall remembers influential teachers at Florida A & M

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - LaSalle Leffall recalls his admission to medical school

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - LaSalle Leffall recounts his experience at Howard University Medical School

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - LaSalle Leffall describes Dr. W. Montague Cobb, a memorable instuctor at Howard Medical School

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - LaSalle Leffall remembers an influential physician, Dr. Charles Drew

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - LaSalle Leffall remembers Dr. Syphax and Dr. White at Howard University School of Medicine

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - LaSalle Leffall talks about the influence of Dr. Jack White at Howard School of Medicine

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - LaSalle Leffall recalls his medical internship at Homer Phillips Hospital in St. Louis

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - LaSalle Leffall recounts his experience as one of the first black residents at Gallinger Hospital

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - LaSalle Leffall recalls his surgical residency at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, 1957-1959

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - LaSalle Leffall recalls his courtship and marriage and his military service in Germany

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - LaSalle Leffall summarizes his career at Howard from 1962-2004

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - LaSalle Leffall details his work with American Cancer Society including foreign humanitarian and research work

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - LaSalle Leffall discusses cancer and race

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - LaSalle Leffall evaluates new cancer treatments

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - LaSalle Leffall discusses his son

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - LaSalle Leffall discusses his wife's family's five generations of college graduates

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - LaSalle Leffall talks about his presidencies of American Cancer Society and American College of Surgeons

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - LaSalle Leffall expresses his hopes for the future

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - LaSalle Leffall talks about working with the Bush family on cancer-related projects

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - LaSalle Leffall discusses the role of attitude in cancer treatment

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - LaSalle Leffall remembers his parents

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - LaSalle Leffall considers his legacy and the role of a teacher

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - LaSalle Leffall considers healthcare reform

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - LaSalle Leffall reflects on the course of his career

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - LaSalle Leffall shares advice for blacks aspiring to be doctors

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$4

DAStory

4$3

DATitle
LaSalle Leffall describes Dr. W. Montague Cobb, a memorable instuctor at Howard Medical School
LaSalle Leffall talks about his presidencies of American Cancer Society and American College of Surgeons
Transcript
One of your teachers, I know, was W. Montague Cobb, and that's someone who--?$$Absolutely, Dr., Dr. W. Montague Cobb was one of my favorite teachers [at Howard University Medical School, Washington, D.C.]. He was a man I met in my first year because he taught anatomy. And he used to have what we would call "bust out sessions". Now, what does that mean? You'd go into him, and you'd say "bust me out", meaning, ask me any question you want to ask me. I think I know the answer. And, and I liked that kind of challenge. And he liked that. He liked young students who felt so confident that they would walk in and say, "Dr. Cobb, bust me out" (laughter), and that meant, ask me anything you want on anatomy. And we wanted to let him know that we knew the answers. And I just enjoyed him as a teacher. And we used to have something called the cadaver walk. On the final examination, they would ask a hundred and eighty questions, and the cadavers have all been dissected then. All the cadavers are dissected. And they would have labels on some of everything, arteries, veins, muscles, bones, all this. And you had to identify those structures. And I really loved that. And when I was a medical student in my later years and as a surgical resident, I used to come back every year to go over with the freshman, medical and dental students, the cadaver, to prepare them, help prepare them for the cadaver walk. But Dr. Cobb was, I think an outstanding teacher, but in addition to that, I worked with him as assistant editor of the "Journal of the National Medical Association", and even though he was not a practicing physician, he did some of the early work in helping to integrate Gallinger Municipal Hospital, which was the city hospital then, but controlled totally by whites, no blacks on the staff. And Dr. Cobb was one of the major ones who helped integrate that hospital. And so in addition to being an excellent teacher as professor of anatomy, he also helped in--on the social basis, for social justice in medicine, helping to integrate Gallinger Municipal Hospital, which later became D.C. General Hospital.$$Now, he was also a musician too, I believe.$$Oh, he loved to play the fiddle, the vio--I say the fiddle. He loved to play the violin. And when we'd have the medical school smoker, he would come, and he would play the violin. He was a very learned man. I, I learned a lot from Dr. Cobb, having worked with him as assistant editor of "The Journal of the National Medical Association", and then having this interest I had in anatomy, I would go and talk with him. And he was just a first-rate individual and it was a, an honor for me to get to know a man like that.$$Now, maybe we should say something about what "The National Medical Association" is?$$The National Medical Association is an association founded in 1895 by black physicians because they were denied admission to the American Medical Association. And the National Medical Association still exists. And we think it exists because even though blacks can now become members of the American Medical Association, the National Medical Association still addresses some issues that affect black physicians disproportionately. And therefore, we still think there is a role for the National Medical Association, even though black physicians can become members of the American Medical Association.$I think the presidency of the American Cancer Society came first, right?$$It did. I became president of the American Cancer Society in 1978, had a year from 1978 to '79 [1979], and had a lot of wonderful trips. I went all around speaking to the different groups and chapters here, went abroad, many different places, to the Soviet Union, the Peoples Republic of China, Vietnam, Liberia. Then other places, just around--the Dominican Republic, this--speaking for the American Cancer Society. But I am a surgeon. I'm a trained surgeon. And my specialty happens to be cancer. That's why I was active in the American Cancer Society. But I'm also active as a surgeon, and I became the first black president, African American president of the American College of Surgeons. That was in 1995 -'96 [1996]. So I, I was deeply honored by that, and I went around speaking to the different chapters. Your primary role as president of the American College of Surgeons is to go around the country, speak to the different chapters with the fellows who are in the chapters, to find out what their concerns are and bring those concerns back to the national body and see what can be done on a national level to help, help address the problems they tell you about. And that's what I did, but in addition, I went to South Africa. I went to Hong Kong, I went to Canada. I went to different places, and--went to Germany. So I got an honorary fellowship from Canada, from South Africa, from Germany. So that was a, the height of my professional career as a surgeon was to be president of the American College of Surgeons. That was the height of my professional career.

Samuel Floyd

Accomplished musical educator Samuel A. Floyd, Jr., was born in Tallahassee, Florida, on February 1, 1937. Floyd received his B.S. degree from Florida A&M University in 1957 before attending Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, where he received his M.M.E. degree in 1965, and his Ph.D. in 1969.

From 1957 to 1962, Floyd worked as band director for Smith-Brown High School in Arcadia, Florida; he later moved on to his alma mater, Florida A&M University, where he worked as a music instructor and the assistant director of bands until 1964 under the legendary William Foster. Between 1964 and 1978, Floyd taught as an associate professor in the Music Department at SIU, after which he became director of the Institute for Research in Black American Music for Fisk University, where he worked until 1983. After leaving Fisk, Floyd worked at Chicago's Columbia College, where he directed the Center for Black Music Research from 1983 to 1990, and from 1993 to 2002; he also served as academic dean from 1990 to 1993, and as interim vice president of academic affairs and provost from 1999 to 2001. In 2002, Floyd became director emeritus and consultant for the Center for Black Music Research.

Floyd lectured at numerous colleges and universities throughout the United States; served on various committees for Southern Illinois University, Fisk University, and Columbia College; received a multitude of research grants and awards; and participated in many professional and civic organizations. Floyd wrote a variety of articles published in professional journals, and authored and edited books on musical theory and research.

Floyd and his wife, Barbara, lived in Chicago, Illinois. They raised three children: Wanda, Cecilia, and Samuel III.

Floyed passed away on July 11, 2016.

Accession Number

A2003.014

Sex

Male

Archival Photo 1
Interview Date

1/22/2003

Last Name

Floyd

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Organizations
Archival Photo 2
First Name

Samuel

Birth City, State, Country

Tallahassee

HM ID

FLO01

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Florida

Favorite Vacation Destination

St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Illinois

Birth Date

2/1/1937

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Chicago

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Seafood

Death Date

7/11/2016

Short Description

Academic administrator and music museum director Samuel Floyd (1937 - 2016 ) was Director Emeritus and consultant to the Center for Black Music at Columbia College in Chicago, Illinois.

Employment

Smith-Brown High School

Florida A&M University

Southern Illinois University

Institute for Research in Black American Music

Center for Black Music Research

Columbia College

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:3675,94:9975,245:11445,257:12180,265:12705,271:13230,278:13755,284:14175,289:15435,299:15855,304:16380,310:17010,317:17535,323:20685,363:22050,380:31004,407:32516,432:33236,451:33524,456:34244,467:34532,476:34820,481:35468,496:36620,516:36980,522:37916,545:38348,553:42866,585:43254,590:45388,622:46455,640:47522,659:48104,667:48783,675:51693,721:52372,729:53730,747:54118,752:54894,763:56640,787:57513,799:58386,812:64936,853:65856,864:67052,889:69628,932:72204,975:74780,1010:75884,1028:77080,1043:78184,1082:93916,1261:98925,1294:99435,1301:104025,1379:111099,1400:111869,1410:112177,1415:112870,1427:113178,1432:113486,1437:114025,1449:114641,1459:117400,1479:117960,1487:119080,1504:119720,1517:120280,1525:121080,1537:121720,1546:122520,1559:122920,1565:123720,1572:124200,1579:125960,1609:126280,1614:126840,1623:130013,1633$0,0:2277,107:2970,120:11583,258:12474,311:13464,321:14949,335:16335,353:23165,365:23840,375:25250,405:26328,417:27329,433:28022,451:28330,456:29023,468:33951,538:38207,565:38919,575:41324,594:45900,654:48292,682:52972,752:53492,758:65210,839:66210,851:69566,891:70190,900:70736,909:71516,920:72452,935:72998,944:73544,952:73934,960:74402,967:74714,972:77600,1014:78380,1023:79472,1052:80018,1060:80564,1069:81110,1083:81656,1088:82202,1097:82514,1102:83216,1114:86903,1124:88181,1142:89033,1157:89885,1169:92654,1200:93293,1213:93932,1223:97958,1257:98454,1267:99074,1279:102500,1301:102796,1306:103092,1311:103536,1319:103906,1325:104720,1337:105016,1342:105312,1347:105682,1354:106718,1373:107236,1381:107902,1397:108346,1409:108642,1414:110344,1435:110640,1440:111380,1451:112046,1463:121267,1517:123049,1539:123643,1547:124039,1552:124831,1564:133047,1627:133402,1633:133686,1638:134467,1651:136313,1731:136952,1741:138017,1776:138514,1785:139224,1797:139650,1805:141070,1834:141638,1843:142135,1870:143484,1892:144123,1909:144620,1917:151195,1928:151645,1935:152020,1942:152845,1960:153820,1978:154870,1996:159059,2044
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Samuel Floyd interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Samuel Floyd's favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Samuel Floyd remembers his ancestors

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Samuel Floyd talks about his father's life

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Samuel Floyd talks about his mother's background and interests

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Samuel Floyd recalls growing up in Lakeland, Florida

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Samuel Floyd discusses his education and interest in studying music

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Samuel Floyd talks about his musical experiences at Florida A&M University

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Samuel Floyd discusses various musical influences during his youth

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Samuel Floyd recalls a Harlem Renaissance philosophy in Lakeland, Florida

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Samuel Floyd describes the prestige of playing in the Florida A&M University band

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Samuel Floyd remembers the encouraging atmosphere at Florida A&M University

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Samuel Floyd talks about his experiences as a high school band director

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Samuel Floyd discusses the Florida A&M Marching Band's grueling tour schedule

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Samuel Floyd talks about attending graduate school at Southern Illinois University

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Samuel Floyd discusses musical aesthetics

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Samuel Floyd explains the need for an institute for black music research

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Samuel Floyd talks about relocating to Fisk University and his experience there

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Samuel Floyd recalls coming to Columbia College, Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Samuel Floyd discusses the growth of the Center for Black Music Research

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Samuel Floyd states the Center for Black Music Research's mission

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Samuel Floyd talks about translating research findings into public performance

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Samuel Floyd discusses black musicians from the nineteenth century

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Samuel Floyd remembers African American composers

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Samuel Floyd talks about African American involvement in opera music

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Samuel Floyd discusses the career of Joseph Boulogne, Chevalier de Saint-Georges

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Samuel Floyd details the overshadowing power of racism on black composers of the 18th century

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Samuel Floyd discusses Scott Joplin's 'Treemonisha'

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Samuel Floyd remembers his research on U.S. Navy Bandmaster Alton Augustus Adams, part 1

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Samuel Floyd remembers his research on U.S. Navy Bandmaster Alton Augustus Adams, part 2

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Samuel Floyd briefly discusses his research into the first black Navy band

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Samuel Floyd recalls his involvement with the Great Lakes Naval Training Center Band reunion

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Samuel Floyd shares his concerns about losing rare works of music

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Samuel Floyd talks about Columbia College's Center for Black Music Research's collection

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Samuel Floyd places the moral protests over hip-hop music in a historical perspective

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Samuel Floyd discusses the effects of desegregation on the black community

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Samuel Floyd discusses fundraising for the Center for Black Music Research

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Samuel Floyd considers his legacy

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Samuel Floyd talks about his topical interests in writing

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Samuel Floyd talks about the advancement in black music scholarship

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - How Samuel Floyd would like to be remembered

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Photo - Samuel Floyd's mother Theora Floyd, 1965

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Photo - Samuel Floyd's high school graduating class, 1953

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Photo - Samuel Floyd's wife Barbara Jean at work, ca. 1966

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Photo - Samuel Floyd's father with the Fisk University Jubilee Singers, ca. 1940s

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - Photo - Samuel Floyd's father with the Fisk University Jubilee Singers, Mexico, ca. 1940s

Tape: 6 Story: 11 - Photo - Samuel Floyd, 1963

Tape: 6 Story: 12 - Photo - Samuel Floyd with his wife, 1966

Tape: 6 Story: 13 - Photo - Samuel Floyd playing a drum, ca. 1951

Tape: 6 Story: 14 - Photo - Samuel Floyd, 1994-1995

Tape: 6 Story: 15 - Photo - Samuel Floyd's mother, not dated

Tape: 6 Story: 16 - Photo - Samuel Floyd's father, not dated

Tape: 6 Story: 17 - Photo - Samuel Floyd, 1966

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$3

DAStory

2$8

DATitle
Samuel Floyd discusses musical aesthetics
Samuel Floyd talks about translating research findings into public performance
Transcript
I want to backtrack a little bit and have you explain what musical aesthetics are.$$Yeah.$$It might be self evident I mean, you know, explicit in the naming--,$$(simultaneously) Yeah.$$--but just to be exact.$$(simultaneously) Yeah, well, it's, it's about, beliefs about music, about what music is, what moves people about music. It's about music valuation, you know, how do you determine what is music of quality and music of not quality. Why does some music move some and some others and the literature for that whole field goes all the way back to Plato and Plato's beliefs about what music is and how it affects the state, and all of that. And you can come on through history and there are tomes written on this. Another book that I liked very much was a book by Edward Hanslick called 'The Beautiful in Music'. That's, that was written in the nineteenth century. Then there's a book by Edmund Gurney called 'The Power of Sound', where I stole the title for my, my book, 'The Power of Black Music'. John Dewey's work called 'Art Is Experience' [sic, 'Art as Experience'] coming on up to the 1930s. I think that was written in 1934. That's the kind of stuff I was delving into. And, as you know, that's graduate-level stuff. And I--it was, it was wonderful to do. And I've, I've always made use of it since that time. Whatever I write, I make use of that kind of material. But when, when that book came out, I read that book, and I wanted to teach. I wanted to develop courses in black music. So I started looking for material like scores, sheet music, things that she had mentioned in her book were not available.$You said that you [Center for Black Music Research, Columbia College, Chicago, Illinois] take performances based on the research out into the community.$$(Nods for yes).$$Can you give an example of, of some research in the performances that were taken out?$$Well, for example, we find information by well-known composers from the past going all the way back to the sixteenth century in Rome [Italy]. And there was a composer in the Vatican [City] at that time by the name of Vicente Lusitano. Lusitano had been born of slave parents in Portugal and raised in the church in Portugal, composed music for the, for the church. They brought him to Rome to teach, and he taught in the Vatican. He wrote a textbook. We have a copy of it here it now. He wrote books of motets and nobody ever heard of this person. We performed music in two churches in Chicago [Illinois] by him. There was a composer from the nineteenth century that I wrote an article about. Nobody knew this guy. His name was J. W. Postlewaite from St. Louis [Missouri]. I finally tracked this guy down, and the only reason I knew that he was black was because I--in the process of the research, I found his manumission papers. This guy had published music when he was a slave. And I wrote two articles on this guy eventually. It's this kind of thing that we, we play this music, take it out, write program notes for it so people will know about these figures, some important, some not so important. But this certainly involved--important to African Americans who need to know about their heritage. And we, we've been doing this constantly. We, weve taken this music to New York to perform at Alice Tully Hall [Lincoln Center Plaza, New York, New York], Orchestra Hall [Chicago, Illinois]. For the last two years, weve been in residence at the South Shore Cultural Center [Chicago, Illinois] where we perform this music on a, on a regular basis. So that's what I mean by--it's our public face. Its where we can meet people, face-to-face so they can see what we do.

Dr. Virgil Norris

Born in Tallahassee, Florida, Virgil C. Norris has practiced medicine in the Palm Beach area for forty years. He graduated with his B.S. from Hampton Institute in Hampton, Virginia, in 1950. He went on to study medicine at Meharry Medical College in Tennessee and received his M.D. in 1959. Dr. Norris has enjoyed a twenty-seven year career as a surgeon and general practitioner for the Palm Beach community.

Norris was certified by the American Board of Surgery in 1975 and became a fellow at the American College of Surgeons in 1977. He has been in private practice since 1969 and has served on staff at Bethesda Memorial Hospital and Delray Community Hospital. He is a member of Palm Beach County Medical Society, Florida Medical Association, American Medical Association, the National Medical Association and the American College of Surgeons.

Aside from practicing medicine, Norris takes an active role in his community. He has served as president of the Delray Club, Masonic Lodge, Naciremas Club and Omega Psi Phi Fraternity; and as a member of the NAACP, ACLU, Delray Board of Realtors and St. Paul A.M.E. Church. Norris received the First Annual Black Award for Medicine and Health Care in 1989. He and his wife Barbara have six children.

Accession Number

A2002.062

Sex

Male

Interview Date

4/17/2002

Last Name

Norris

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Organizations
Schools

FAMU Developmental Research School

Lincoln High School

Hampton University

Meharry Medical College

First Name

Virgil

Birth City, State, Country

Tallahassee

HM ID

NOR01

Favorite Season

Spring

Sponsor

Knight Foundation

State

Florida

Favorite Vacation Destination

Bahamas

Favorite Quote

Work hard and play hard.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Florida

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Tallahassee

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Cereal

Death Date

10/29/2014

Short Description

Community activist and surgeon Dr. Virgil Norris ( - 2014 ) has been in private practice since 1969 and has served on staff at Bethesda Memorial Hospital and Delray Community Hospital. Norris is a member of Palm Beach County Medical Society, Florida Medical Association, and the American Medical Association. He has served as president of the Delray Club, Masonic Lodge, Naciremas Club and Omega Psi Phi Fraternity.

Employment

Delete

V.A. Lakeside Medical Center

Main Sponsor
Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:1080,23:3420,71:7067,111:12655,169:40188,482:40644,487:44930,511:52040,601:57606,639:83390,934:83746,939:84814,955:89620,1050:108700,1263:120072,1368:120656,1377:125460,1430:133087,1563:135226,1598:136156,1609:138016,1656:149718,1717:150246,1728:156826,1763:157849,1774:169073,1893:169802,1902:170855,1921:172961,1958:173285,1963:174824,1991:181098,2052:181374,2057:181788,2065:184768,2087:185760,2096:191960,2158:199323,2217:212070,2324:213690,2349:222780,2443:223160,2448:224395,2469:225915,2494:226390,2500:234700,2595:240135,2685:244559,2777:244954,2783:245349,2789:258680,2913:260528,2943:274700,3111$0,0:1368,27:1824,34:3268,73:4180,87:7285,119:7870,132:8455,142:8715,147:8975,152:9755,165:11190,180:13010,189:13437,197:13864,205:14657,224:15084,232:19956,273:33050,410:35180,430:38448,465:38994,479:43960,504:44830,562:55936,690:56560,699:56950,705:57730,717:58432,730:58900,739:59524,748:67190,822:68900,863:70250,878:71060,890:71780,901:72230,907:77380,929:78343,940:88690,1006:89378,1015:101180,1211:101820,1221:106462,1284:107065,1296:108204,1324:114010,1404:120999,1516:129330,1610:129855,1619:130380,1627:130980,1636:131655,1647:134360,1674:141745,1795:148747,1925:150124,1956:154822,2043:164005,2156:167210,2212:168560,2226
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Virgil Norris interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Virgil Norris's favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Virgil Norris lists his family members

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Virgil Norris remembers his grandparents

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Virgil Norris remembers his parents

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Virgil Norris recalls growing up as an only child

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Virgil Norris describes the black community in Tallahassee

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Virgil Norris shares his earliest memory

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Virgil Norris recounts his elementary and high school years

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Virgil Norris lists his extracurricular activities

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Virgil Norris remembers the people who influenced him

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Virgil Norris shares childhood memories

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Virgil Norris describes himself as a student

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Virgil Norris recalls his parents' separation

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Virgil Norris recounts his experiences at Hampton University

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Virgil Norris discusses his childhood church activities

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Virgil Norris describes himself as an undergraduate

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Virgil Norris remembers his medical school aspirations

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Virgil Norris recalls his military service

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Virgil Norris recounts his medical school years

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Virgil Norris discusses his medical practice in Del Ray, Florida

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Virgil Norris recalls his early years at Bethesda Hospital

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Virgil Norris describes the impact of the Civil Rights Movement on his community

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Virgil Norris recounts his residency in general surgery

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Virgil Norris illustrates his experiences as a surgeon and general practitioner

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Virgil Norris discusses the problems with HMOs, particularly for African Americans

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Virgil Norris talks about how to educate patients to seek preventative and necessary medical care

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Virgil Norris shares his opinion on how to fight AIDS

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Virgil Norris discusses problems in healthcare for African Americans

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Virgil Norris talks about the opportunities and difficulties for young black doctors

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Virgil Norris considers his legacy

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$3

DAStory

3$6

DATitle
Virgil Norris recounts his residency in general surgery
Virgil Norris talks about how to educate patients to seek preventative and necessary medical care
Transcript
Now, you go to Dayton, Ohio to the VA Center.$$Yeah.$$Okay, talk about that. And what, what takes you there?$$Well, I, I told you I wanted to be a general surgeon, and that my model for that was Matthew Walker. And I don't mind telling you that I, I decided to go to--as you know, the VA [veterans affairs] hospital is a federal hospital. And I picked that in nineteen--I was accepted--I signed a contract in 1964 to go in 1965. I got accepted at several more hospitals, but at that time, the country being where it is, I chose a federal hospital because it would--as I said before, it came under federal law, you know. And I thought that that was the safest place to go, a federal hospital, whether I went to the VA in Dayton, Ohio or whether I went to the VA in the Bronx [New York, New York], you know. I also got accepted at Harlem Hospital and several other hospitals, but as I say, I, in 1964 or '65 [1965], I thought the best place to go was probably a federal hospital.$$And you went there for general surgery?$$Yeah.$$And how was that experience, when you're attempting now to become a surgeon?$$A tremendous learning experience; wide range. It's, this program was sponsored by Ohio State University [Columbus, Ohio] and had a lot of experiences, rotation through a trauma hospital in, in Dayton called, they called it St. E's, but it's St. Elizabeth, rotating through Ohio State University's Children's Hospital, which was a, a tremendous experience.$$And you were there for four years [1965-1969]?$$Yeah.$$And are there any experiences that you still carry--what were the largest influences during that four-year period for you, that you still carry with you, during that time?$$Well, in trauma you have to be able to make a timely and accurate decision. Things have changed a whole lot since I was in training. For example, you have the CT [computed tomography] scans now that can make you, help you make a more accurate diagnosis. And this even happened in Delray. A patient is living today that had a ruptured aneurism that we were able to make a diagnosis of a ruptured cerebral aneurism and get her out of here to Jackson Memorial without a CT scan of her head. But you had to do a lot of thinking and, and things have moved on. But this, just a tremendous experience in taking care of a lot of people with a lot of big problems, and you had to be able to do it on a moment's notice and do it well.$$Now, what was your first, what was your first surgery like? The first time you--?$$Oh, well, you start out with little things like hernias.$$Were there any nerves? Were there any--?$$No, I don't think I was nervous because I had been, I had been helping people a long time. I guess it's like--and then you have, you just change the sides of the table where you're not the assistant, you're the surgeon, you know. So it's, it's kind of, it's a, it's not a perfect analogy, but say rather than--you can bring it back to driving a car. You can sit in the, next to the driver as long as you want to, but in order to drive the car, you have to get in the driver's seat. That's all.$Now, another question I do really want to ask you, as regards to African Americans and their healthcare, in regards to many African Americans feel very apprehensive about going to doctors, seeking medical care, preventative medical care and things of that sort. A, why is that? And B, how do you change it?$$That's a very difficult question. There are a lot of people who are afraid of preventative medical care. Some of it's education, and I guess the biggest part of it is education. For example, people who are hesitate about, or ladies who are hesitant about getting Pap Smears for cervical cancer, hesitant about getting mammograms. Some of them don't want to know. Men who are hesitant about getting the test done to rule out prostate cancer. Now, some of them don't know. Some of them are afraid. But the biggest factor is to overcome it and let them know that they can be helped and their lives can be saved or extended. They can avoid in essence of being sick. Let's say, for example, prostate cancer in a man, if you get it before it, while it's with--confined within the capsule of the gland, the--disease can be eradicated, but once it get out of the gland, it's, you, you decrease your chance of surviving. And there's just men who don't know that they can, this can be diagnosed early, and that's about it. And that's education.$$So you think that's the root cause of African Americans who don't, who have fears of hospitals and--?$$Nah, I'm not sure that's the root cause, but it may be beyond me. But there's, a large percentage of it is education.$$So what is the, what are the roles of African American doctors to change that? What do they have to do to get the healthcare--?$$Educate your patients and educate the community.$$Now, how would you--in exact--how would you go about telling other black doctors to do that?$$Oh, I think they come about it in, in organization and then they have groups that out, and they have health fairs, things of that nature, a few different organizations. Organizations put together the healthcare, you get--and you invite people in, and you go and talk to them and give them, give them presentations. But it's not a one-time thing. It's an ongoing thing.

The Honorable Carrie P. Meek

Former Congresswoman Carrie Meek was born on April 29, 1926, in Tallahassee, Florida. The granddaughter of a slave and the daughter of former sharecroppers, she spent her childhood in segregated Tallahassee. Meek graduated from Florida A&M University in 1946. At this time, African Americans could not attend graduate school in Florida, so Meek traveled north to continue her studies and graduated from the University of Michigan with an M.S. in 1948.

After graduation, Meek was hired as a teacher at Bethune Cookman College in Daytona Beach, Florida, and then at her alma matter, Florida A&M University. Meek moved to Miami in 1961 to serve as special assistant to the vice president of Miami-Dade Community College. The school was desegregated in 1963 and Meek played a central role in pushing for integration. Throughout her years as an educator, Meek was also active in community projects in the Miami area.

Elected as a Florida state representative in 1979, Meek was the first African American female elected to the Florida State Senate in 1982. As a state senator, Meek served on the Education Appropriations Subcommittee. Her efforts in the legislature also led to the construction of thousands of affordable rental housing units.

In 1992, Meek was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives from Florida’s 17th Congressional District. This made her the first black lawmaker elected to represent Florida in Congress since Reconstruction. Upon taking office, Meek faced the task of helping her district recover from Hurricane Andrew’s devastation. Her efforts helped to provide $100 million in federal assistance to rebuild Dade County. Successfully focusing her attention on issues such as economic development, health care, education and housing, Meek led legislation through Congress to improve Dade County’s transit system, airport and seaport; construct a new family and childcare center in North Dade County; and fund advanced aviation training programs at Miami-Dade Community College. Meek has also emerged as a strong advocate for senior citizens and Haitian immigrants.

Meek has received numerous awards and honors. She is the recipient of honorary doctor of laws degrees from the University of Miami, Florida A&M University, Barry University, Florida Atlantic University and Rollins University. Meek was a member of the powerful House Appropriations Committee, in addition to serving on the Subcommittee on Treasury, Postal Service and General Government and the Subcommittee on VA, HUD, and Independent Agencies.

Accession Number

A2001.049

Sex

Female

Archival Photo 1
Interview Date

6/19/2001

Last Name

Meek

Maker Category
Middle Name

P.

Occupation
Organizations
Speakers Bureau

Yes

Archival Photo 2
Speakers Bureau Availability

Any

First Name

Carrie

Birth City, State, Country

Tallahassee

HM ID

MEE01

Speakers Bureau Preferred Audience

Adults and Seniors

Speakers Bureau Honorarium

Yes - $1,000 - $5,000

Favorite Season

Spring

Speaker Bureau Notes

Honorarium Specifics: $2000-5000

Preferred Audience: Adults and Seniors

State

Florida

Favorite Vacation Destination

Key West, Florida

Favorite Quote

Service is the price you pay for occupying your space on earth.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Florida

Birth Date

4/29/1926

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Orlando

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Greens

Short Description

U.S. congresswoman The Honorable Carrie P. Meek (1926 - ) was the first African American elected to represent Florida in the U.S. Congress since Reconstruction. Successfully focusing her attention on issues such as economic development, health care, education and housing, Meek led legislation through Congress to improve Dade County’s transit system, airport and seaport; construct a new family and childcare center in North Dade County; and fund advanced aviation training programs at Miami-Dade Community College.

Employment

Bethune Cookman College

Florida House of Representatives

Florida State Senate

United States House of Representatives

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:2366,40:6461,133:15652,348:21674,371:27178,458:27780,470:29156,492:34816,531:35652,547:37829,557:38559,574:39070,582:39362,587:39800,595:40311,604:42355,640:42866,653:43523,671:43888,677:47994,692:48891,724:49719,739:54135,827:54894,843:55515,857:56826,883:57585,895:58482,915:62214,932:64086,966:68454,1044:68922,1051:74028,1111:74462,1119:76074,1154:76384,1161:78616,1216:79174,1227:82678,1243:82982,1248:84122,1271:84426,1276:85338,1297:86402,1316:88226,1370:88834,1379:89822,1402:90278,1410:90734,1418:91114,1424:91950,1435:92406,1443:93090,1454:98578,1473:101170,1521:102385,1540:103681,1561:104410,1572:105787,1592:106192,1598:110700,1640:111120,1648:117050,1739:117450,1745:118650,1774:119690,1786:120090,1792:120890,1804:123120,1837:126480,1922:127908,1949:129924,1974:132864,2021:133284,2027:137290,2043:137773,2052:141499,2192:149434,2318:149917,2326:150538,2343:151918,2385:152470,2394:156750,2399:158383,2427:160726,2484:162714,2529:163069,2535:163637,2545:165767,2601:166335,2611:166619,2616:173068,2675:173524,2683:173828,2688:176640,2742:177172,2753:177628,2760:178160,2771:185666,2849:186546,2862:188394,2887:189714,2904:196830,2990:197170,2995:201250,3063:202525,3079:205160,3115:205500,3120:206180,3131:210770,3160:212210,3189:213650,3218:215018,3243:219057,3286:223719,3402:226113,3463:226428,3469:226806,3479:230656,3509:231028,3516:232392,3551:237902,3651:240710,3708:244670,3794:245966,3823:246614,3833:248054,3863:254372,3923:254980,3932:256576,3960:260360,3997:264130,4045$0,0:3030,28:5828,46:6836,60:10510,115:11400,129:12735,154:19552,233:19967,239:21710,263:23453,285:23785,290:24532,302:28184,362:28848,377:30591,409:31421,417:31753,422:36292,435:36672,441:39104,485:39408,490:44620,536:47038,579:47974,594:48676,605:51172,640:54682,725:58454,751:60533,804:60918,810:61611,821:61996,827:64154,842:64902,858:65990,898:66262,903:66738,912:67894,930:68642,943:76784,1090:77872,1107:78484,1119:79028,1130:80388,1162:81340,1185:81884,1194:82700,1212:83924,1234:84400,1243:84944,1252:85420,1260:90058,1269:90569,1277:92248,1311:92978,1327:93270,1332:93562,1337:94219,1353:94511,1358:98234,1452:98599,1458:100278,1486:100862,1495:106940,1572:107423,1580:108251,1594:110114,1617:110873,1628:112943,1665:113702,1677:114599,1694:114944,1700:120720,1765:121092,1770:121464,1775:122394,1789:126765,1862:127323,1870:128253,1883:128625,1890:130578,1911:135573,1925:138200,1982:139762,2012:140046,2017:140330,2022:140969,2036:141253,2041:141963,2049:143951,2081:144732,2097:148850,2180:153755,2196:155213,2217:158777,2274:161126,2315:161693,2321:162341,2332:162665,2337:172676,2484:174332,2519:174746,2527:175436,2540:177092,2571:177851,2584:178196,2590:178817,2605:179369,2614:179990,2626:183968,2647:184402,2655:185022,2669:186386,2697:189390,2731:189630,2736:189870,2741:190290,2749:190770,2758:191430,2772:192270,2790:193710,2824:194070,2833:194310,2838:195030,2852:195870,2872:196290,2881:196710,2890:197010,2896:199950,2969:201270,3000:201510,3005:202170,3020:202650,3029:207287,3054:208115,3070:208391,3075:208874,3083:209219,3090:212186,3157:214564,3172:215301,3191:216641,3215:216976,3221:217579,3231:218115,3242:218584,3251:222218,3290:222570,3295:223098,3303:226204,3336:227080,3346:227518,3355:227956,3362:230146,3421:230584,3428:230876,3433:231387,3444:232336,3461:233212,3474:234672,3501:235110,3509:238960,3516:240955,3549:242665,3572:243520,3594:244090,3601:247190,3628:249827,3643:253145,3724:253461,3729:254172,3740:254804,3750:255752,3776:256305,3813:261867,3848:262577,3860:263642,3883:268825,3991:273916,4039:274620,4053:276495,4067:277020,4083:278745,4117:279045,4122:279720,4151:280245,4160:280695,4168:282270,4209:282570,4214:283395,4228:283995,4236:284370,4242:284895,4251:286320,4270:287220,4284:291282,4302:294390,4361:295574,4390:295944,4396:296388,4404:299052,4457:299348,4462:300236,4477:300532,4482:300828,4487:301124,4492:301494,4501:302086,4510:306611,4539:307024,4548:307614,4557:307850,4562:308086,4567:308440,4574:308676,4579:309266,4599:313591,4650:314592,4672:314900,4677:315670,4688:316055,4695:316440,4701:317210,4727:317826,4739:320059,4796:320521,4803:323678,4882:324063,4888:328872,4913:329704,4929:330328,4936:330744,4942:333656,5001:334384,5009:340661,5106:341144,5115:342938,5145:343283,5161:344042,5199:345077,5209:345491,5216:346457,5237:346733,5242:347630,5260:351580,5273:352172,5282:352616,5289:353134,5298:355724,5352:360534,5450:361496,5470:363346,5510:363790,5518:364604,5531:364900,5536:365714,5554:370416,5583:371073,5594:371803,5608:373336,5647:373993,5667:374431,5674:375745,5697:386774,5868:395454,6022:397248,6048:398028,6062:398340,6067:399120,6185:408936,6228:409272,6233:409692,6240:410280,6249:412638,6266:416190,6339:416486,6344:417522,6367:418928,6399:419520,6408:419964,6420:420260,6425:420630,6431:420926,6436:425366,6523:425662,6528:426106,6535:430184,6550:430592,6557:430932,6564:434762,6622:435506,6638:436064,6653:436932,6679:437366,6689:437614,6694:439474,6733:439722,6738:439970,6743:440466,6756:441768,6781:442946,6800:443194,6808:443752,6820:444496,6835:444806,6841:445054,6847:449873,6876:451826,6929:455921,7021:456551,7037:459280,7049:459844,7064:460408,7084:460784,7094:464046,7137:465156,7160:465822,7170:467376,7205:469892,7252:470484,7262:476215,7310:477490,7331:478165,7341:479215,7356:479965,7371:480265,7376:481165,7390:481915,7402:483340,7430:483940,7442:487690,7504:488140,7516:488590,7523:489865,7560:502150,7689:502590,7695:506770,7838:517370,7912:520640,7965:521305,7973:521970,7981:524060,8017:524725,8025:525390,8033:525770,8038:528335,8102:531755,8155:532230,8161:532705,8167:533560,8180:534510,8195:537040,8208:537308,8213:538112,8231:538380,8236:538648,8272:542534,8336:544209,8384:544611,8391:548162,8462:560264,8639:562114,8687:562632,8696:562928,8701:563520,8712:563816,8717:564112,8722:564704,8731:565000,8736:570198,8805:571446,8825:571836,8831:572148,8838:572928,8853:575658,8918:576126,8934:576594,8941:577920,8964:578232,8969:580104,9001:580572,9008:581976,9034:586878,9066:587174,9071:588950,9107:589394,9114:590134,9129:593686,9216:593982,9221:596646,9277:597016,9288:597608,9298:605408,9377:608796,9462:609489,9474:609797,9479:612600,9500:613275,9510:615000,9551:615450,9558:615750,9563:618600,9626:619050,9634:619350,9639:619725,9648:624350,9684
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Carrie Meek interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Carrie Meek's favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Carrie Meek discusses her father's background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Carrie Meek remembers her mother

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Carrie Meek names her siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Carrie Meek contemplates her parents' migration

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Carrie Meek recalls her earliest memories

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Carrie Meek details school life

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Carrie Meek considers her parents' influence on her sense of justice and equality

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Carrie Meek remembers her childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Carrie Meek recalls her childhood career aspirations

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Carrie Meek remembers influential teachers

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Carrie Meek details the pervasive segregation in Florida

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Carrie Meek explains how racism led her to attend the University of Michigan

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Carrie Meek discusses her experience at Florida A&M University

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Carrie Meek describes several influential historically black colleges and universities

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Carrie Meek discusses her post-college pursuits

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Carrie Meek recalls her experience at the University of Michigan

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Carrie Meek describes intra-racial relationships in the University of Michigan's black student population

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Carrie Meek discusses her development as a teacher

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Carrie Meek remembers her mentor, Mary McLeod Bethune

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Carrie Meek recalls Mary McLeod Bethune's influence at Bethune-Cookman college

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Carrie Meek discusses her career move from Bethune-Cookman College to Florida A&M University

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Carrie Meek describes her experience teaching at a community college

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Carrie Meek discusses career, community involvement, and motherhood

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Carrie Meek discusses memorable former students

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Carrie Meek discusses lessons learned from sports participation

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Carrie Meek details the road to winning a seat in the Florida state legislature

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Carrie Meek remembers her political mentor

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Carrie Meek describes the sacrifices she made for her career

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Carrie Meek discusses her career in the Florida state legislature

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Carrie Meek considers her greatest accomplishments in the Florida state legislature

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Carrie Meek discusses the challenges black politicians face

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Carrie Meek discusses her career in the U.S. Congress

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Carrie Meek describes her efforts as a U.S. congresswoman

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Carrie Meek discusses the controversial 2000 U.S. presidential election

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Carrie Meek describes her hopes for the future

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Carrie Meek considers family members' responses to her political success

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Carrie Meek considers her legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Photo - Carrie Meek with Reverend Jesse Jackson during his first presidential campaign, ca. 1984

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Photo - Supporters watch Carrie Meek being sworn into the U.S. Congress, Washington, D.C., ca. 1993

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Photo - Carrie Meek and other members of the Florida Legislative Black Caucus, Tallahassee, Florida

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Photo - Carrie Meek with Congressman Alcee Hastings and President Bill Clinton

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Photo - Carrie Meek with students in Haiti, 1995

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Photo - Carrie Meek with South African president, Nelson Mandela

Tape: 5 Story: 11 - Photo - Carrie Meek at the Florida state legislature, Tallahassee, Florida, 1979

Tape: 5 Story: 12 - Photo - Carrie Meek with actor/activist, Ossie Davis, 2000, Washington, D.C.

Tape: 5 Story: 13 - Photo - Carrie Meek is honored as an outstanding alumna by a girls basketball team, Florida, 1993

Tape: 5 Story: 14 - Photo - Carrie Meek with family members and the speaker of the house at her swearing in, Washington, D.C., 1993

Tape: 5 Story: 15 - Photo - Carrie Meek being sworn into the Florida state senate, Tallahassee, Florida, 1982

Tape: 5 Story: 16 - Photo - Carrie Meek congratulates Haitian president, Jean-Bertrand Aristide, 1994

Tape: 5 Story: 17 - Photo - Carrie Meek campaigning to become a member of the Florida state House of Representatives, Florida, 1979

Tape: 5 Story: 18 - Photo - Carrie Meek with U.S. Senator Robert Graham, Tallahassee, Florida

Tape: 5 Story: 19 - Photo - Carrie Meek with Vice President Al Gore and presidential staff members at a White House picnic, Washington, D.C., 1990s

Tape: 5 Story: 20 - Photo - Carrie Meek with students at the Carrie Meek Head Start Center, Miami, Florida

Tape: 5 Story: 21 - Photo - Carrie Meek and a former senator marching in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 5 Story: 22 - Photo - Carrie Meek with Dade County politicians, Tallahassee, Florida

Tape: 5 Story: 23 - Photo - Carrie Meek with son, Senator Kendrick Meek

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$5

DAStory

4$1

DATitle
Carrie Meek remembers her mentor, Mary McLeod Bethune
Carrie Meek discusses the controversial 2000 U.S. presidential election
Transcript
You were quoted by saying that a lot of Mary McLeod Bethune--a great deal of her rubbed off on you.$$It did.$$But I want you to talk more in detail about your relationship with--.$$(simultaneously) All right.$$Ms. Bethune.$$All right. Mrs. Bethune--the year I came to Bethune-Cookman College [Daytona Beach, Florida] was the year Mrs. Bethune was retiring. And she was still there. And she was ready then to be named the emeritus. So she was the one who gave us our orientation. And she taught us a lot. She was a very proud woman. And she taught us that the day was already here when we would be known for the color of--not for the color of our skin. That's the first time I'd heard that. And for the--but for the content of our character. Since then, that has become a shibboleth. And Mrs. Bethune had a shibboleth that she taught everybody and that was, "Leaning on the everlasting arms." And she was good at it. She related to how Christianity is so important and how you must carry it with you all of your life. And she was a strict disciplinarian. She used to get on me about short dresses, because they were very short dresses. And when I came to Bethune-Cookman, most of the clothes I had, my mother had made them. And they were short. And I was very little, and had very long legs. So she says, "Where're you going in those short dresses." I remember that. And she used to tell us that we would have to do what it took to be great. She talked about how it took to be great. And how she had been an advisor to presidents. And she always had someone great--with great status at Bethune-Cookman. If it weren't John D. Rockefeller, it was Mr. Procter from Procter & Gamble [Corporation]. If it weren't one of those people, it was [Mohandas K.] Gandhi, the Prime Minister of India [Jawaharlal Nehru] or his wife, [sic, daughter] Mrs. [Indira] Gandhi, or some great world figure Mrs. Bethune would have there. And she taught us to try to--and sometimes she used to turn around and say, "My heart goes out to you boys and girls here at Bethune-Cookman." She was very much interested in women. I think Mrs. Bethune was perhaps one of the earliest feminists now that I know what feminists are all about and how she keeps trying to inspire the woman to go further like she did and how she started with five little girls and a dollar and a half and how she parlayed that into a big fine institution like Bethune-Cookman. And how she used to over on Miami Beach and carry the choir over there just to raise money for that college. Ms. Bethune did it all. And she sort of taught us that this is the way you have to do if things don't exist. You have to make them exist. And she used to have all kinds of saying around the school like, "All signs points to God." And, "Enter to learn, depart to serve." And she was one that had all kinds of shibboleths and inspiring mottos around. And Bethune-Cookman was a very poor college during those days. And it was a very small college, but it was church-related. So we really, really--the worship part of education and how it--how leading a good life is so important. And how sticking with the family values is so important. She was teaching that long time ago. Now this was in the '40s [1940s]. And she was teaching this and she was inspiring us to do this. But she was a very strict disciplinarian. If you didn't do the right thing, Mrs. Bethune would fire you. And she let it be known that year that she had left there--that that's what she was there for, to sort of separate the ones who needed to be there and those who didn't need to be there. And she would--her example, you know, just to live by Mary McLeod Bethune's example was something--to have been counselor to presidents. President [Franklin D.] Roosevelt and Mrs. [Eleanor] Roosevelt always used Mrs. Bethune--not used her, but they sought her counsel. And she started the National Council of Negro Women, she started that. Years ago she saw the need to organize black women and she started it.$Nothing in my mind or in my research or in my experience as devastating as the last [2000 Presidential] election. First, it was devastating, number one, because many of my constituents' votes were not counted. Now, they talk a lot about irregularities, but the data is there to show that there was a disparity in the black vote in terms of their being able to count it. And what is an enigma, is why is it that so many precincts in black communities throughout the state of Florida were overlooked, discarded, just weren't counted. Either it was because they had been purged from the roles because of some kind of irregularity again in Tallahassee [Florida] in the elections department. The elections department said it wasn't their fault. They said it was the supervisor of the elections. No one takes credit for these problems. The governor of the state of Florida [Jeb Bush] doesn't--he said he's not responsible. The Secretary of State [Katherine Harris] say she's not responsible. She passes it on down to one of her staff members. He passes it on down to the supervisor of elections to say each one of them is an independent person in their own right. So they can do whatever they want to do. Number two, why is it that the absentee ballots were not handled administratively in such a way it would be fair? That they were allowed in some counties, particularly [U.S. Representative] Corrine Brown's district, they allowed people to break into the sanctity where the absentee ballots are kept. Well you aren't supposed to go in there. But they allowed elected officials and representatives of the Republican Party to go in and change or fill in information which was not on those ballots. So, the 'Miami Herald' [newspaper] came at the end and they made this big, big study and in the end it showed--at least it appeared to them that things that we knew all the time. That the poor voting machines, the inadequate ones were in black communities. They were in black precincts. Number one, what does that say? It goes back to same separate and unequal stuff that I faced in education all my life. Put the poor books in the black schools. Put the worn out machines in the black communities so that all the irregularities can happen there. Where you have whole communities are not counted. Also, make it so that Haitians who are limited in their language--there's no one on the polls to help them. So when they get there, they're turned around 'cause no one understands them. So you gonna to tell me that was not some kind of debacle? All the research has shown that it wasn't anything that was by design. But I'm not dealing with design. What happens is, there were people who were disenfranchised. They were African American people. They were people--poor people who should've had a better chance. They were disabled people who couldn't even get into the polls because of all of the trash and all of the blockages around. There were people on the polls who didn't know what they were doing in black precincts. And in black precincts when someone made a mistake at the polls and you tried to call elections, you couldn't call them. In white communities, they had computers, and these computers went right into the elections department. So no one could ever tell me that things were done in Florida that were abuses. Abuses were done in Florida. And I think they've been goin' on a pretty long time. But because it was a presidential election, and there was so much at stake, that the Ssecretary of State was able to be a member of President [George W.] Bush's election, team. She was a member of his, election committee and so was his brother [Jeb Bush], the governor. And I think they looked the other way when they shouldn't and I will say that until the end. I know that Katherine Harris, and I'm not supposed to call names, but I know that she was not as dutiful as she should've been as Secretary of State. She was not as dutiful as she was about when she should stop the vote. Or when it should not be counted. And also the [U.S.] Supreme Court helped to elect the last president [George W. Bush]. I'll say that as long as I live. Never in the history of this country has a Supreme Court ruled in favor of, of, of a candidate and they did it. And they used--what is it? Part of the law that gave them the chance to use it and they've never used it before. I'm sorry, it slips me--the part of the law that they use to be sure that they made the decision that they did. It was a law that was made way back when blacks were going through their frustration and segregation. It'll come to me but right now--it was one that they use. It's a legal term. I'm sorry. I can't remember it right now. But let me tell you what makes you know that things happen in Florida that should not have happened. It happened in other cities, other states. But Florida was much worse than anyone else. Much worse. Go over in Duval County [Florida]. You go to Daytona Beach [Florida] where students were turned around, where highway patrolmen were blocking the way into the polls. You go into a poll in Miami [Florida] where you're blocked. There's no one there who speaks Creole, so you can't vote because you don't understand. Everyone should have the right to vote. Our fathers, forefathers died for the right to vote. And it's just--I had to stand in line two hours and I'm a congressperson, to vote because I wanted to vote early. My supervisor of elections made it difficult to have someone go to the polls on Thursday and Friday before the election. He tried his very best to discourage it. Said he didn't have enough computers. Yet he had enough. He could've set it up. But he slowed it. And I call it by all deliberate speed. They slowed down the election. In Dade County [Miami-Dade County] they slowed down the count, and wouldn't count it at first. If it had not been for the Florida Supreme Court, they wouldn't have even counted it in Dade County. So it's been the worse abuse known to man, what happened in this past election.$$What do you think is gonna be done to change that? Or to make sure that things like that don't happen again?$$Well Florida has done what I call the first step. It's just in my opinion a cursory step. Because they outlawed--they're gonna give money. They passed an election law. They call it the Election Reform Bill that would give support to counties to buy voting equipment. So they no longer would have those punch card voting machines. But that's just a part of it. That's the fig leaf of phase one. But until they get to the place, they do some voter education, and they take some responsibilities in each county, to be sure that everyone who wants to vote will get a chance or the fact that if they made a false vote the first time, that they can correct it. I mean that's--you couldn't--if you marked it wrong or those chads were--or they were dimpled or they were floating or whatever, and you wanted to correct it, you could not. Because no one wanted you to get a chance to correct it. And it's just, it's just been something that's--it's something that has caused me a lot of trauma because I know how hard it was for us to get a chance to vote. And when we did, it was so flawed and so many irregularities, excusable irregularities which have now been documented by research as being not fair. But it did happen. So because it was an irregularity, we're supposed to move on and forget it. That's what we were told here in the [U.S.] Congress, to move on.$$So what do you think was for blacks in the political system? You know, because to hear this sort of, you know, what you say, you think God, we haven't come very far. If we're still losing elections because of a, you know, of voting box irreg-- I'm, you know, because you--the perception is that we're apathetic out there. You know. And black people--.$$But we're not. We had a sixteen percent increase in the voters in Florida. Sixteen percent more than the last time in Dade County and in Florida. That's a big increase. There were people who voted this time who never voted before. And that was a big frustration. They were not ready to deal with first-time voters. Particular first time voters in black precincts. They were not prepared. They didn't try to get prepared. They did--the people they hired to work on the polls couldn't help you any more than if you were a first-time person on the polls. So to me, they keep saying, "There were irregularities." Of course, you begin to see after so many irregularities--research teaches you that it's by design. Something that's repeated over and over again. So this last election just pulled the cloak off them. They've probably been doing this all the time. Cheating the black vote. Cheating black people out of the vote. But now they aren't gonna get away with that again. No matter what they have done or what they happen to do. It will not happen again. We are assured of that. We're gonna have our own poll watchers. We're gonna have our own people teaching voter education, more so. And we don't need the government to force us to do it. I mean we take pride in our own vote. And government should do it. I mean there should be some reparation for what we lost the last time. There really should. But the reparation now is our gettin' the vote out again. We're gonna come out again and we gonna do it this time. And we're not promising anybody where it'll go. But it'll go to people that push for our causes. And they don't all have to be black. As long as they have our concerns in mind, we will push them.