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  • National Academy of Television Arts and Sciences

    Television trade organization founded in 1955 to promote creative leadership in the television arts and sciences. The academy recognizes programming excellence with the Emmy Award. With its national headquarters in New York, the organization has local chapters around the country.
  • National Aeronautics and Space Administration

    President Dwight D. Eisenhower established the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in 1958, partially in response to the Soviet Union's launch of the first artificial satellite. NASA grew out of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA), which had been researching flight technology for more than forty years. NASA's mission is to pioneer the future in space exploration, scientific discovery and aeronautics research.
  • National Air and Space Museum

    One of the nineteen Smithsonian museums, it contains the largest collection of air and spacecraft in the world. Among its most famous artifacts are the original Wright brothers’ flyer, Charles Lindbergh's Spirit of St. Louis and the Apollo 11 command module. It is located in Washington, D.C.
  • National Association for the Advancement of Colored People

    The nation’s largest civil rights organization, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) was founded in 1909 following the Niagara Movement by W.E.B. Du Bois, Ida B. Wells and a group of concerned whites committed to social justice. The NAACP has been instrumental in exposing and removing political, social, educational and economic barriers created by racial discrimination. Much of the organization’s success has occurred in the legal arena with cases such as Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka whose 1954 Supreme Court decision followed a long effort by the NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund, Inc. to end school desegregation.
  • National Association of Black Journalists

    A trade organization for black journalists, founded in 1975. The National Association of Black Journalists (NABJ) seeks to strengthen ties between black journalists and draw attention to African Americans concerns within the industry. The organization recognizes outstanding achievement in the field with numerous awards and oversees various educational recruitment programs.
  • National Association of Negro Musicians, Inc.

    The National Association of Negro Musicians, Inc. (NANM) was founded in 1919 and held its first convention that same year in Chicago. It is the oldest organization dedicated to the preservation, encouragement and advocacy of all genres of the music of African Americans in the world. It has, likewise, sought to develop higher professional standards of all music through lectures, conferences and conventions. Since its inception, it has provided encouragement and support for thousands of African American musicians, many who have become widely respected figures in music and have contributed significantly to American music culture and history.
  • National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum

    A museum honoring and recognizing baseball’s greatest in Cooperstown, New York, where Abner Doubleday is said to have invented the game. Players are eligible for the hall of fame in their fifth season of retirement, and are nominated and elected by the Baseball Writers' Association of America. The National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum also serves as a national baseball archive, library and research center.
  • National Basketball Association

    Professional basketball league formed in the United States in 1949 by the merger of two rival organizations, the National Basketball League and the Basketball Association of America.
  • National Black Caucus of State Legislators

    The primary mission of the National Black Caucus of State Legislators is to develop, conduct and promote educational, research and training programs designed to enhance the effectiveness of its members as they consider legislation and issues of public policy which impact, either directly or indirectly, upon the general welfare of African American constituents within their respective jurisdictions.
  • National Black Programmers Coalition

    Formerly the Young Black Programmers Coalition (YBPC), the NBPC is a national trade organization comprised of leading professionals from the communications, radio, leisure and music industries. Formed in response to mainstream radio’s inability to serve the needs of African American communities, the NBPC is dedicated to the preservation of the legacy of Black Radio.
  • National Black Writers Conference

    Organized by novelist John Oliver Killens, the National Black Writers Conference (NBWC) began with one-day writers conferences held at Fisk University and Howard University in the 1960s. In addition to scholars, professional writers and literary critics, the NBWC invites the general public to participate in forums concerning issues and trends in African American literature. Keynote speakers have included Maya Angelou (1986), Gwendolyn Brooks (1988) and Amiri Baraka (1996).
  • National Coalition of 100 Black Women, Inc.

    Formed as the Coalition of 100 Black Women in New York City in the early 1970s. The coalition seeks to enhance career opportunities and facilitate educational opportunities for African American women.
  • National Collegiate Athletic Association

    A voluntary organization with over 1,200 member colleges and universities. It sets rules and policies for athletic recruitment, scholarship and competition. It also organizes the annual NCAA college basketball tournament.
  • National Conference For Community and Justice

    A human relations organization founded in 1927 as the National Conference of Christians and Jews. Prompted by the growth of the Ku Klux Klan and other racist and xenophobic groups in the 1920s, such luminaries as Jane Addams, Benjamin N. Cardozo and future U. S. Supreme Court Justice Charles Evans Hughes came together to form an organization dedicated to fighting bias, bigotry and racism in America.
  • National Conference of State Legislators

    National bipartisan organization founded in 1975. The organization serves as a resource for legislators nationwide, providing research, consulting services and seminars for its members.
  • National Endowment for the Arts

    An independent governmental agency established by the U.S. Congress in 1965. The mission of the National Endowment for the Arts is to serve the public good by nurturing human creativity, supporting community spirit and fostering appreciation of the excellence and diversity of our nation's artistic accomplishments. The organization is the largest source of nonprofit arts funding in the nation. It has financially supported such legends as Miles Davis, Dizzy Gillespie and Sarah Vaughan.
  • National Science Foundation

    The National Science Foundation funds research and education in science and engineering. It does this through grants, contracts and cooperative agreements to more than two thousand colleges, universities and other research and/or education institutions in all parts of the United States. The foundation accounts for about 24 percent of federal support to academic institutions for basic research.
  • National Urban League

    Founded in New York City in 1910, the National Urban League is the nation's oldest and largest community-based movement devoted to empowering African Americans to enter the economic and social mainstream. The organization works to improve education, help adults attain self-sufficiency and improve civil rights.
  • Negro Leagues

    Until 1947, when Jackie Robinson made history with the Brooklyn Dodgers, African American baseball players were not allowed to play in the major leagues. During this half-century of racist segregation, blacks played in the so-called Negro Leagues, where an entire sports universe flourished in the shadow of the all-white baseball leagues. Sports historians unanimously agree that the Negro Leagues featured talent on par with their major league counterparts. Today many of the stars of the Negro Leagues have become household names, such as Satchel Paige, Josh Gibson and Cool Papa Bell. Upon his death at the age 103, Ted “Double Duty” Radcliffe was the oldest living Negro League player.
  • Negro Newsfront

    First broadcast in 1948 by Chicago-born Oscar Brown Jr., the Negro Newsfront concerned itself with issues of particular relevance to the African American community. Aired in the city’s South Side Bronzeville neighborhood, the program gained significant popularity with America’s largest majority who were politically, socially and economically marginalized. The radio program featured stories often considered too progressive for station owners and was often kicked off the air.
  • New Hampshire

    The ninth state to ratify the U.S. Constitution. Predominately an anti-slavery state, New Hampshire was a strong supporter of the North in the Civil War and was known as a progressive state during the Civil Rights Movement.
  • New Jersey

    New Jersey became the third state to ratify the U.S. Constitution in 1787. New Jersey was the last of the northern states to abolish slavery, doing so in 1804. Newark, the largest city in the state, is home to a large African American community.
  • New York Black Yankees

    Founded in 1931 by Bill "Bojangles" Robinson and James Semler as the Harlem Black Bombers. The team played in the Negro Leagues until 1948. Notable players include Satchel Paige, Ted "Double Duty" Radcliffe, and Willie Wells.
  • New York City

    The largest city in the United States and one of the most famous centers for commerce and culture, the world over. Founded by the Dutch on land purchased from Native Americans, the city was originally named New Amsterdam. Conquered by the British in 1664, it was renamed New York. During the colonial period, New York was a major center of trade and a hotbed of revolutionary activity during the Revolutionary War. It served as the nation’s first capitol before the federal government moved to Washington, D.C. in 1800. In 1897, the Charter of Greater New York consolidated the five boroughs - Manhattan, Brooklyn, Queens, Staten Island and The Bronx - into one city. New York was the great portal of immigration during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Millions of new Americans passed the Statue of Liberty and through Ellis Island on their way to becoming citizens. Nicknamed the Big Apple by jazz musicians in the 1930s, it is home to the country’s major financial institutions and Wall Street.
  • New York City Mission Society

    Founded in 1812, the NYCMS was founded to provide hope to the masses of immigrants pouring into New York City in a time of rampant disease, poverty and overcrowding. Over the years, the Mission Society adapted to changing times, providing the first summer camp for African American children in the 1920s and began leadership training seminars in the 1950s. For almost 200 years, the NYCMS has been providing community service to citizens of New York and inspiring them.
  • New York State

    The eleventh state to ratify the Constitution, New York was originally a Dutch colony. Large portions of western New York remained uncolonized until the 1770s, when escaped slaves began moving through on their way to Canada. New York City, the largest city in the United States, serves as a bustling hub of commerce and culture, and has been home to many important African American movements.
  • Newton, Huey

    Revolutionary and co-founder of the Black Panther Party in 1966, Huey Newton was born in 1942 in Monroe, Louisiana. In 1967, Newton was charged with killing a police officer in Oakland, California. Following the overturning of his conviction in 1968, Newton later escaped less serious charges and fled to Cuba in 1973. After returning in 1977, Newton earned a Ph.D. in 1980. He was shot and killed in 1989.
  • Nigeria

    Officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria, this West African country is located on the Gulf of Guinea. Nigeria is home to more than 250 ethnic groups, including the Hausa, Yoruba and Igbo peoples. Colonized by European traders in the 17th and 18th centuries, Nigeria was eventually claimed by the British, who consolidated the northern and southern sections into one colony in 1914. Since attaining independence in 1960, Nigeria has had several military and civilian governments. Lagos, the largest city, was replaced by Abuja as the nation’s capital on December 12, 1991.
  • Nixon, Richard

    The 37th President of the United States. Nixon served from 1969 until his resignation in 1974. His presidency saw the end of the Vietnam war and an easing of Cold War tensions.
  • North Carolina

    The twelfth state to ratify the U.S. Constitution, North Carolina seceded from the Union on May 20, 1861. The state contributed more men and materials to the Civil War than any other in the Confederacy, and as a result was devestated by losses. In 1960, the sit-in movement was launched in Greensboro, North Carolina, and a few months later SNCC was formed at Shaw University.
  • N’Digo

    An African American weekly publication, based in Chicago and founded by Hermene Hartman. Described as a ‘magapaper,’ N’Digo provides coverage of issues of particular relevance to Chicago’s African American community. From an initial bi-monthly circulation of 50,000, N’Digo has grown to enjoy a weekly readership of over 500,000.