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  • California

    Accepted into the United States in 1850 as the thirty-first state. California lies on the West Coast and is bordered by Oregon to the north, Nevada to the east, and Arizona to the south. Presidents Richard Nixon and Ronald Reagan hail from California.
  • Call and Post

    Founded in 1916, the Call and Post is one of the nation’s oldest and most prestigious black news publications. The newspaper gained prominence in the 1930s under the direction of publisher and editor William O. Walker.
  • Calloway, Cab

    Also known as the Hi De Ho Man, Calloway was born in Rochester, New York in 1907. A versatile song and dance man, Calloway became a headline performer and bandleader at the prestigious Cotton Club in New York City following his starring role in the Broadway show Connie’s Hot Chocolates. Calloway's singing, dancing and flamboyant style made him one of the most famous entertainers during the Swing Era.
  • Canada

    Self-governing dominion following the federation of the colonies of Canada, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia in 1867. The country extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west and to the Arctic Ocean in the north. Its southern border with the United States is the longest binational land border.
  • Caribbean

    Region just east of the Gulf of Mexico and south of the United States. Beginning in the 16th century, the Caribbean islands became key sites of colonial conquest. European powers enslaved local indigenous populations and also brought hundreds of thousands of African slaves to the region, forcing them to work on plantations. Many Caribbean islands have since achieved independence, yet the United States and several European countries maintain overseas territories in the region.
  • Carmichael, Stokely

    Leader of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). Carmichael shifted the group's focus from integration to black liberation and promulgated the concept of black power. In the late 1960s, he changed his name to Kwame Ture in honor of the African leaders Kwame Nkrumah and Sekou Toure.
  • Carnegie Hall

    World famous performance hall opened in 1891 in New York City. The building has received federal and city landmark status.
  • Carter, Betty

    Jazz singer, composer and band leader Betty Carter was born Lillie Mae Jones in Flint, Michigan in 1929. An innnovative vocal stylist, versatile improvisor, and recipient of numerous Grammy nominations, she formed her own record label, Bet-Car, and went on to train many younger musicians during a period when traditional jazz was losing its commercial standing. She sang with Lionel Hampton, Dizzy Gillespie, Charlie Parker and many other jazz legends and received the National Medal of Arts in 1997.
  • Carter, Jimmy

    Thirty-ninth president of the United States who served from 1977 to 1981. During his administration, Carter established a national energy policy and pursued arms limitation talks. An escalation of the Cold War marked the end of his presidency.
  • Carter, William S.

    African American Chicago artist, he graduated from the School of the Art Institute and was involved with the Works Progress Administration Federal Art Project along with Charles Wilbert White and others.
  • Carver, George Washington

    A distinguished educator and agricultural researcher, George Washington Carver was born in Diamond, Missouri. Carver learned the dynamics of crop rotation and cross-fertilization on the plantation where he spent his childhood years. Carver developed numerous products from peanut and sweet potato plants, including several plastics, industrial lubricants, and facial creams. As Carver’s discoveries became known to the scientific and farming communities, he became an increasingly renowned symbol of African American success
  • Charles, Ray

    A virtuoso piano player, the blind singer-songwriter achieved stardom with his 1960 record, “Georgia on My Mind.” Charles won twelve Grammy Awards, earned a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame, and was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.
  • Chartered Life Underwriter

    An individual who has attained a high degree of technical competency in the fields of life and health insurance and who is expected to abide by a code of ethics. The American College of Financial Services administers the course and exam work necessary for the designation.
  • Chess Records

    Founded in 1950 by Polish immigrant brothers Leonard and Phil Chess. Muddy Waters, Howlin' Wolf and John Lee Hooker, among many others, all recorded on the Chess label, establishing it as one of the most successful and influential music labels of postwar America and premier purveyor of Chicago blues.
  • Chicago Alliance of African American Photographers

    Organized in 1999 to unify and promote the art of photography through the photojournalistic documentation of African American culture. Founders include Leslie Adkins, Bob Black, Martha Brock-Leftridge, Milbert O. Brown Jr., Terry Harris, Brent Jones and Lee Landry.
  • Chicago Defender

    Founded in 1905 by Robert S. Abbott. The Defender campaigned against white oppression and contributed heavily to the northern migration of more than 1 million African Americans from the Jim Crow South. The newspaper featured prominent writers as regular columnists, including Gwendolyn Brooks and Langston Hughes.
  • Chicago State University

    Public university located on Chicago’s Far South Side. The university is home to the Gwendolyn Brooks Center for Black Literature and Creative Writing.
  • Chicago Symphony Orchestra

    Resident orchestra of the Chicago Symphony Center's Orchestra Hall in Chicago, Illinois. It is regarded as one of the Big Five American orchestras.
  • Chicago Urban League

    Incorporated in 1917, the Chicago Urban League is one of the oldest National Urban League affiliates. It's focus is promoting social and economic advancement for Chicago’s African American residents.
  • Chicago, Illinois

    Incorporated in 1837 on the southern end of Lake Michigan. As an industrial hub, Chicago attracted immigrants from Europe and the American South at the turn of the 20th century. Chicago is home to several major American corporations including the McDonald's Corporation and the Kraft Heinz Company.
  • Chicago’s South Side

    Over fifty neighborhoods south of the Chicago Loop.
  • China

    Communist country in East Asia with the world's largest population. China holds membership in numerous multilateral organizations including the World Trade Organization, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, and the G20.
  • Civil Rights Act of 1964

    Often cited as the most important civil rights legislation since the Reconstruction period, the U.S. Congress enacted this bill in response to mounting public outrage over discriminatory practices in voting, employment, and access to public facilities. President Lyndon B. Johnson signed the bill into law on July 2, 1964.
  • Civil Rights Movement

    A massive effort led by African Americans seeking to abolish racial discrimination in the United States. The 1954-1955 Montgomery Bus Boycott is recognized as the unofficial start of the movement, and the 1963 March on Washington is recognized as a climatic moment. Movement leaders advocated various philosophies, primarily nonviolence, which was enacted through boycotts and sit-ins.
  • Cleveland, Grover

    The only president elected to non-consecutive terms, Cleveland served from 1885 to 1889 and 1893 to 1897. He was a fiscal conservative and pro-business Democrat who opposed high tariffs and subsidies.
  • Clinton, William

    Forty-second president of the United States who served from 1993 to 2001. A Democratic centrist, Clinton presided over the longest period of peacetime economic expansion in U.S. history, signed into law the North American Free Trade Agreement, and passed welfare reform as well as financial deregulation measures.
  • Coltrane, John

    Saxophonist, band leader, and composer. Born in 1926, Coltrane helped pioneer the use of modes in jazz music and played on many artists' recordings, including those of Miles Davis and Thelonious Monk.
  • Columbia College Chicago

    Founded in 1890 as the Columbia School of Oratory, the liberal arts college offers both undergraduate and graduate degree programs. It is located in Chicago's Loop neighborhood.
  • Columbia University

    Ivy League University located in the Morningside Heights neighborhood of New York City. Founded as King’s College in 1754, it is the oldest institution of higher education in the State of New York and the nation’s fifth oldest institution of higher education.
  • Concerto

    A piece for one or more soloists and orchestra with three contrasting movements
  • Congress of Racial Equality

    Founded in 1942 as the Committee of Racial Equality by an interracial group of students from Chicago, Illinois. CORE pioneered the use of nonviolent tactics of civil disobedience to challenge segregation in public accommodations, housing, education and employment. By the 1960s, CORE emerged as one of the leading national civil rights organizations.
  • Congressional Black Caucus

    Formed in 1971 by thirteen African American members of the U.S. House of Representatives. The Congressional Black Caucus works to achieve greater equity for African Americans in the areas of education, healthcare, jobs, economics, justice, retirement, welfare, and foreign policy.
  • Connecticut

    Accepted into the United States in 1788 as the fifth state. Connecticut lies on the East Coast and is bordered by Massachusetts to the north, Rhode Island to the east, and New York to the west.
  • Consul General

    A consular officer of the highest rank, as a person who is stationed at a place of considerable commercial importance or supervises other consuls.
  • Coolidge, Calvin

    Thirtieth president of the United States who served from 1923 to 1929. Coolidge oversaw the economic prosperity following World War I and preceding the Great Depression.
  • Cosmopolitan Chamber of Commerce

    Located in the South Loop neighborhood of Chicago, Illinois, the chamber serves as a network of community members, small businesses and large firms. It seeks to promote economic development and cross-cultural partnerships.
  • Creole

    Term referring either to a person of mixed black and European ancestry or to a native born person. The latter traditionally applied to Louisiana born individuals of full European descent.